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Kalsifikasi Proses pembentuk tanah lingkungan kering yang menghasilkan akumulasi kalsium karbonat di lapisan tanah permukaan. Mineral Kalsit terbentuk dari kalsium karbonat. Mineral umum ditemukan di batu gamping. Calcium Carbonate Compound terdiri dari kalsium dan karbonat. Kalsium karbonat memiliki struktur kimia CaCO 3 berikut. Kaldera Depresi melingkar besar di gunung berapi. Gunung berapi Caldera Jenis eksplosif gunung berapi yang menimbulkan depresi melingkar yang besar. Beberapa dari depresi ini bisa berdiameter 40 kilometer. Gunung berapi ini terbentuk saat magma granit basah cepat naik ke permukaan bumi. Caliche Akumulasi kalsium karbonat pada atau di dekat permukaan tanah. Kalori Kuantitas energi. Sama dengan jumlah panas yang dibutuhkan untuk menaikkan 1 gram air murni dari 14,5 menjadi 15,5 derajat Celsius pada tekanan atmosfir standar. Calving Hilangnya massa gletser saat es pecah menjadi badan air yang besar seperti laut atau danau. Periode Geologi Cambrian yang terjadi dari 570 sampai 505 juta tahun yang lalu. Selama periode ini, invertebrata menjadi umum di lautan dan Burgess Shale terbentuk. Ledakan Kambrium Diversifikasi besar bentuk kehidupan multisel di lautan Bumi yang dimulai pada Kambrium sekitar 570 juta tahun yang lalu. Sistem tekanan tinggi Kanada yang berkembang di musim dingin di atas pusat Amerika Utara. Perisai Kanada Batu perisai beku dan metamorf yang sangat tua yang menutupi sebagian besar bagian utara Kanada. Dibuat lebih dari dua sampai tiga miliar tahun yang lalu. Canadian System of Soil Classification Sistem hirarkis yang digunakan di Kanada untuk mengklasifikasikan tanah. Sistem ini memiliki lima tingkatan: order. Kelompok besar Subkelompok Keluarga. Dan seri. Pada tingkat urut, sembilan jenis tanah dikenali: brunisol. Chernozem Cryosol Gleysol. Luvisol organik . Podzol Regosol Dan solonetzic. Canopy Drip Redirection dari proporsi hujan atau salju yang jatuh pada tanaman ke tepi kanopi. Canyon Curam-sisi lembah di mana kedalaman jauh lebih besar dari lebar. Fitur ini merupakan hasil erosi arus. Gerakan Kapiler Gerakan air di sepanjang saluran mikroskopis. Gerakan ini adalah hasil dari dua kekuatan: adhesi dan penyerapan air ke dinding saluran dan kohesi molekul air satu sama lain. Air Kapiler Air yang bergerak secara horisontal dan vertikal di tanah oleh proses aksi kapiler. Air ini tersedia untuk penggunaan tanaman. Karbohidrat Merupakan senyawa organik yang tersusun dari atom karbon, oksigen, dan hidrogen. Beberapa contohnya adalah gula. Pati. Dan selulosa. Senyawa Karbonat terdiri dari satu atom karbon dan tiga atom oksigen. Karbonat memiliki struktur kimia CO 3 berikut. Karbonasi Merupakan bentuk pelapukan kimia dimana ion karbonat dan bikarbonat bereaksi dengan mineral yang mengandung kalsium, magnesium, potassium, dan sodium. Carbon Cycle Storage dan gerakan siklik berupa karbon organik dan anorganik di antara biosfer. litosfer . Hidrosfer. Dan atmosfer. Karbon Dioksida Gas biasa ditemukan di atmosfer. Memiliki kemampuan selektif menyerap radiasi di band longwave. Penyerapan ini menyebabkan efek rumah kaca. Konsentrasi gas ini terus meningkat di atmosfer selama tiga abad terakhir karena pembakaran bahan bakar fosil, penggundulan hutan, dan perubahan penggunaan lahan. Beberapa ilmuwan percaya konsentrasi yang lebih tinggi dari karbon dioksida dan gas rumah kaca lainnya akan menghasilkan peningkatan efek rumah kaca dan pemanasan global. Rumus kimia untuk karbon dioksida adalah CO 2. Karbon Monoksida Gas tanpa warna, tidak berbau, dan hambar yang dihasilkan oleh pembakaran bahan bakar fosil yang tidak lengkap. Rumus kimia untuk karbon monoksida adalah CO Poin Kardinal Empat arah navigasi utama (Utara, Timur, Selatan, dan Barat) ditemukan di kompas atau peta. Carnivore Heterotrophic organisme yang mengkonsumsi hewan hidup atau bagian-bagian dari hewan hidup untuk makanan. Contoh karnivora termasuk singa, cheetah, macan tutul, katak, ular, elang, dan laba-laba. Carinore juga bisa disebut konsumen sekunder atau konsumen tersier. Juga lihat herbivora. Detritivora Pemulung Dan omnivora. Membawa Kapasitas (K) Ukuran maksimum populasi spesies tunggal yang dapat didukung oleh habitat tertentu. Kartografi Bidang pengetahuan yang mempelajari konstruksi peta. Tindakan membuat peta. Sistem Cascading T ini adalah sistem dimana kita terutama tertarik pada aliran energi dan atau materi dari satu elemen ke elemen lainnya dan memahami proses yang menyebabkan pergerakan ini. Dalam sistem cascading, kita tidak sepenuhnya memahami hubungan kuantitatif yang ada antara unsur-unsur yang berkaitan dengan transfer energi dan atau masalah. Catastrophism Teori umum yang mengemukakan bahwa fenomena tertentu di Bumi adalah hasil dari peristiwa bencana. Misalnya, Banjir Alkitab bertanggung jawab atas formasi batuan sedimen dan kepunahan dinosaurus. Kation Suatu ion yang membawa muatan atom positif. Pertukaran Kation Perdagangan kimia kation antara mineral tanah dan bahan organik dengan larutan tanah dan akar tanaman. Kapasitas Pertukaran Kation Kapasitas tanah untuk bertukar kation dengan larutan tanah. Sering digunakan sebagai ukuran kesuburan tanah potensial. Gua Rongga atau rongga alami yang kira-kira diposisikan secara horizontal ke permukaan Bumi. Kavitasi Proses erosi yang intens akibat keruntuhan permukaan gelembung udara yang ditemukan pada aliran air yang terbatas. Menyebabkan detasemen material dari permukaan. Sel Sel adalah unit terkecil yang berfungsi sendiri yang ditemukan pada organisme hidup. Setiap sel tertutup oleh selaput atau dinding luar dan mengandung bahan genetik (DNA) dan bagian lainnya untuk menjalankan fungsinya. Beberapa organisme seperti bakteri hanya terdiri dari satu sel, namun sebagian besar organisme yang ditemukan di Bumi terdiri dari banyak sel. Seluler Terdiri dari sel. Proses terjadi antara atau di dalam sel. Selulosa Jenis karbohidrat. Komponen utama yang digunakan dalam pembangunan dinding sel tanaman. Skala Skala Celsius untuk mengukur suhu. Dalam skala ini, air mendidih pada suhu 100 derajat dan membeku pada suhu 0deg. Era Geologi Cenozoik yang terjadi dari 65 juta tahun yang lalu hingga saat ini. Ventilasi Tengah Bagian utama jalan dimana magma vulkanik bergerak ke permukaan Bumi. Angkatan Angkatan Centripetal diharuskan menjaga agar benda bergerak dalam pola melingkar di sekitar pusat rotasi. Gaya ini diarahkan menuju pusat rotasi. Biasa dalam fenomena meteorologi seperti tornado dan angin topan. C cakrawala cakrawala cakrawala biasanya ditemukan di bawah cakrawala B dan di atas cakrawala R. Lapisan ini terdiri dari batuan dasar cuaca yang belum terpengaruh secara signifikan oleh proses pedogenik. Chain Reaction (Nuclear) Sejumlah besar fisi nuklir. Terjadi dalam suatu massa tertentu dari isotop fisi, yang mengeluarkan sejumlah besar energi dalam waktu singkat. Kapur Bentuk kapur. Batuan sedimen ini terdiri dari kerang dan kerangka mikroorganisme laut. Chaparral Jenis komunitas tumbuhan umum di wilayah dunia yang memiliki iklim Mediterania (misalnya, California dan Italia). Hal ini ditandai dengan semak belukar. Semak belukar dan pohon kecil yang disesuaikan dengan kondisi kering musiman. Disebut juga Mediterania Scrubland. Chelate Zat organik yang menyebabkan proses kimia khelasi. Chelation Proses pelapukan kimia yang melibatkan ekstraksi atau kation logam dari batuan dan mineral oleh khelat. Kimia Salah satu dari jutaan unsur dan senyawa yang berbeda ditemukan secara alami dan disintesis oleh manusia. Chemical Autotroph Organism yang menggunakan energi eksternal yang ditemukan dalam senyawa kimia menghasilkan molekul makanan. Proses yang digunakan untuk memproduksi makanan oleh organisme ini dikenal dengan istilah chemosynthesis. Chemical Energy Energy dikonsumsi atau diproduksi dalam reaksi kimia. Reaksi Kimia Reaksi antara zat kimia dimana terjadi perubahan komposisi kimia unsur atau senyawa yang bersangkutan. Pelepasan Kimia Kerusakan batu dan mineral menjadi partikel berukuran kecil melalui dekomposisi kimia. Proses Chemosynthesis di mana organisme autotropika tertentu mengekstrak senyawa anorganik dari lingkungannya dan mengubahnya menjadi senyawa nutrisi organik tanpa menggunakan sinar matahari. Juga lihat fotosintesis. Tanah Chernozem (1) Tanah (tipe) dari Sistem Klasifikasi Tanah Kanada. Tanah ini biasa ditemukan di padang rumput Kanada. (2) Jenis tanah yang biasa ditemukan di lingkungan padang rumput. Tanah ini sering berwarna hitam dan memiliki cakrawala cakrawala yang kaya dengan humus. Angin Chinook Nama angin Amerika Utara yang terjadi di sisi pegunungan. Angin ini hangat dan memiliki kelembaban rendah. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Merupakan gas buatan yang telah terkonsentrasi di atmosfer bumi. Gas rumah kaca yang sangat kuat dilepaskan dari semprotan aerosol, refrigeran, dan produksi busa. Rumus kimia dasar untuk chlorofluorocarbons adalah CF x Cl x. Pigmen klorofil hijau ditemukan pada tanaman dan beberapa bakteri digunakan untuk menangkap energi dalam cahaya melalui fotosintesis. Chloroplast Organelle dalam sel yang mengandung klorofil dan menghasilkan energi organik melalui fotosintesis. Struktur kromosom organik itu membawa kode genetik organisme (DNA). Cinder Cone Volcano Sebuah gunung berapi kecil. Antara 100 dan 400 meter, terdiri dari batu meledak meledak keluar dari ventilasi tengah pada kecepatan tinggi. Gunung berapi ini berkembang dari magma komposisi basaltik sampai menengah. Circle of Illumination Sebuah garis yang memisahkan daerah di Bumi yang menerima sinar matahari dan daerah-daerah dalam kegelapan. Memotong Bumi bulat menjadi bagian yang terang dan gelap. Sabuk Circum-Pacific Sebuah zona yang melingkari tepi lembah Samudera Pasifik dimana tekukan tektonik menyebabkan terbentuknya gunung berapi dan parit. Disebut juga ring of fire. Cirque Cekungan batu tergelincir yang ditemukan di pegunungan. Sebagian besar gletser alpine berasal dari cirque. Gletser Cirque gletser kecil yang hanya menempati cirque. Cirrocumulus Awan Patchy putih dataran tinggi awan yang terdiri dari kristal es. Ditemukan di ketinggian berkisar 5.000 sampai 18.000 meter. Awan Cirrostratus Lapisan tinggi seperti awan yang tersusun dari kristal es. Awan tipis ini sering menutupi seluruh langit. Ditemukan di ketinggian berkisar 5.000 sampai 18.000 meter. Awan Cirrus Iklim ketinggian terdiri dari kristal es. Munculnya awan ini adalah bulu putih seperti tambalan, filamen atau pita tipis. Ditemukan di ketinggian berkisar 5.000 sampai 18.000 meter. Klasifikasi Proses mengelompokkan sesuatu ke dalam kategori. Batuan Sedimen Klastik Batuan sedimen yang terbentuk oleh litifikasi batuan bekas batuan yang telah diangkut secara fisik dan diendapkan. Partikel Clay Mineral dengan diameter berukuran kurang dari 0,004 milimeter. Juga lihat lumpur dan pasir. Pembelahan Kecenderungan beberapa mineral atau batuan membelah bidang kelemahan. Kelemahan ini terjadi karena sifat ikatan antara butiran mineral. Cliff Sebuah tebing batu curam tinggi. Proyek penelitian Multiuniversity Project CLIMAP yang merekonstruksi iklim Bumi selama sejuta tahun terakhir dengan memeriksa data proxy dari inti sedimen laut. Iklim Pola umum kondisi cuaca untuk suatu wilayah dalam jangka waktu yang panjang (minimal 30 tahun). Optimal Iklim Periode paling hangat selama zaman Holosen. Periode ini bertanggal sekitar 5.000 sampai 3.000 SM. Selama ini rata-rata suhu global 1 sampai 2deg Celcius lebih hangat dari sekarang. Klimatologi Studi ilmiah tentang iklim Bumi dalam rentang waktu yang lama (lebih dari beberapa hari). Mungkin juga melibatkan investigasi iklim yang berpengaruh pada biotik dan lingkungan abiotik. Masyarakat Climax Community Plant yang tidak lagi mengalami perubahan komposisi spesies akibat suksesi. Climograph Dua grafik dua dimensi yang menampilkan lokasi suhu dan presipitasi udara pada skala waktu yang berkisar dari periode 24 jam sampai satu tahun. Clone (1) Sekelompok tanaman genetis yang berasal dari reproduksi aseksual vegetatif dari induk tunggal. (2) Replikasi individu yang secara genetis identik dengan induknya. Sistem Tertutup Merupakan sistem yang mengalihkan energi. Tapi tidak masalah Melintasi batasnya ke lingkungan sekitarnya. Planet kita sering dipandang sebagai sistem tertutup. Tertutup Talik Merupakan bentuk ground unfrozen terlokalisir (talik) di daerah permafrost. Ini benar-benar tertutup oleh permafrost ke segala arah. Awan Kumpulan partikel kecil air cair atau padat yang terjadi di atas permukaan Bumi. Awan dikelompokkan sesuai dengan tinggi kemunculan dan bentuknya. Jenis utama awan meliputi: Cirrus. Cirrocumulus. Cirrostratus. Altocumulus. Altostratus. Nimbostratus Stratocumulus. Stratus Cumulus. Dan Cumulonimbus. Batuan Batubara Batubara terdiri dari sisa-sisa tanaman yang dipadatkan, dilapisi dan diubah. Batubara adalah campuran padat dari campuran organik, hidrokarbon, 30 sampai 98 karbon berat, dicampur dengan berbagai jumlah air dan sejumlah kecil senyawa sulfur dan nitrogen. Hal ini terbentuk dalam beberapa tahap karena sisa-sisa tanaman menjadi sasaran panas dan tekanan selama jutaan tahun. Proses Coalescence dimana dua atau lebih tetes hujan turun bersamaan menjadi satu tetesan yang lebih besar karena tabrakan di udara. Gundukan pasir pantai dune yang terbentuk di daerah pesisir. Pasir untuk formasinya dipasok dari pantai. Lahan Pesisir Lahan Basah ditemukan di sepanjang garis pantai dan ditutupi dengan air garam laut untuk semua atau sebagian tahun ini. Contoh habitat jenis ini termasuk rawa pasang surut, teluk, laguna, pasang surut, dan rawa bakau. Zona Pesisir Relatif bergizi-kaya, bagian dangkal lautan yang membentang dari pasang pasang tinggi di darat sampai ke tepi landas kontinen. Garis Pantai Garis yang memisahkan permukaan tanah dari laut atau laut. Koefisien Determinasi Statistik yang mengukur proporsi variasi variabel dependen yang dikaitkan dengan regresi statistik suatu variabel bebas. Dapat dihitung dengan mengambil kuadrat jika koefisien korelasinya. Koevolusi Evolusi terkoordinasi dari dua atau lebih spesies yang berinteraksi dan menggunakan tekanan selektif satu sama lain yang dapat menyebabkan setiap spesies mengalami adaptasi terkait. Lihat juga evolusi dan seleksi alam. Col Saddle seperti depresi ditemukan di antara dua puncak gunung. Dibentuk saat dua gletser cirque yang berlawanan kembali mengikis sebuah arecircte. Gurun Gurun Dingin ditemukan di garis lintang tinggi dan di dataran tinggi dimana curah hujannya rendah. Suhu udara permukaan umumnya dingin di lingkungan kering ini. Depan Dingin Zona transisi di atmosfer di mana massa udara dingin yang memuncak menggeser massa udara yang hangat. Gletser Gletser Dingin dimana es yang ditemukan dari permukaannya ke pangkalan memiliki suhu sedingin -30deg Celsius sepanjang tahun. Ini jauh di bawah titik leleh tekanan. Peleburan tekanan dapat menyebabkan pencairan es di dasar gletser ini. Salah satu dari tiga jenis gletser: gletser glasier gletser dingin dan gletser subpolar. Gerakan Kolonisasi individu atau propagul spesies ke wilayah baru. Komet Massa besar es dan debu yang memiliki orbit mengelilingi bintang. Kominensialisme Interaksi biologis antara dua spesies dimana satu spesies bermanfaat dalam hal kebugaran sementara pengalaman lainnya tidak berpengaruh pada kebugarannya. Komunitas Mengacu pada semua populasi spesies yang berinteraksi yang ditemukan di wilayah atau wilayah tertentu pada waktu tertentu. Community Boundary Spasial spasial sebuah komunitas yang unik. Alat Navigasi Kompas yang menggunakan medan magnet Bumi untuk menentukan arah. Interaksi Kompetisi dimana dua atau lebih organisme di tempat yang sama memerlukan sumber daya yang sama (misalnya makanan, air, tempat bersarang, dan ruang tanah) yang membatasi pasokan ke individu yang mencarinya. Persaingan dapat terjadi pada tingkat biotik interspesifik atau intraspecific. Persaingan juga bisa menjadi hasil dua proses yang berbeda: eksploitasi atau gangguan. Eksklusi Kompetitif Situasi dimana tidak ada dua spesies yang berinteraksi secara kompetitif dapat menempati relung fundamental yang sama persis tanpa batas waktu karena keterbatasan sumber daya. Hasil dari proses ini adalah kepunahan lokal spesies yang merupakan pesaing yang lebih miskin. Gunung berapi komposit Volcano dibuat dari lapisan alternatif aliran dan batu yang meledak. Tingginya berkisar antara 100 sampai 3.500 meter. Kimia magma gunung berapi ini cukup bervariasi mulai dari basalt sampai granit. Komposit Tanaman keluarga komposit (Asteraceae). Contoh umum tanaman berbunga ini adalah dahan, dandelion, dan bunga matahari. Senyawa Senyawa adalah atom dari unsur yang berbeda digabungkan. Ruang Beton Ruang geografis aktual di dunia nyata. Geografer mendekati ruang ini saat mereka mencoba untuk merepresentasikannya dalam model atau peta. Pendekatan ini disebut sebagai ruang abstrak. Kondensasi Perubahan keadaan materi dari uap ke cairan yang terjadi dengan pendinginan. Biasanya digunakan dalam meteorologi saat membahas pembentukan air cair dari uap. Proses ini melepaskan energi panas laten ke lingkungan. Kondensasi Nuklei Partikel mikroskopik dari debu, asap atau garam yang memungkinkan untuk kondensasi uap air sampai tetesan air di atmosfer. Nukleus untuk pembentukan tetesan hujan. Kondensasi biasanya terjadi pada partikel-partikel ini bila kelembaban relatif menjadi 100. Beberapa inti kondensasi, seperti garam, bersifat higroskopis dan air dapat mengembun pada mereka pada kelembaban relatif lebih rendah dari 100. Konduksi Konduksi terdiri dari transfer energi langsung dari atom ke atom dan mewakili aliran Energi sepanjang gradien suhu. Kerucut Depresi Depresi berbentuk kerucut terjadi secara horisontal di atas meja air. Penyebabnya dengan pemindahan airtanah secara berlebihan oleh permukaan sumur. Dibikin Aquifer Aquifer antara dua lapisan bahan tanah yang relatif kedap air, seperti tanah liat atau serpih. Air Tanah Basah yang Dikurung terjebak di antara dua lapisan batu yang tidak berdaya. Batuan sedimen konglomerat kasar terdiri dari fragmen batuan bulat yang disemen dalam campuran tanah liat dan lanit. Vegetasi Konifer Vegetasi berbentuk kerucut dari lintang menengah dan atas yang sebagian besar hijau dan memiliki bentuk jarum atau skala seperti daun. Bandingkan dengan vegetasi daun. Biologi Konservasi Ilmu multidisiplin yang berkaitan dengan konservasi gen. jenis . Masyarakat. Dan ekosistem yang membentuk keanekaragaman hayati bumi. Ini umumnya menyelidiki dampak manusia terhadap keanekaragaman hayati dan mencoba mengembangkan pendekatan praktis untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati dan integritas ekologis. Konsumen Merupakan organisme yang menerima nutrisi (makanan) yang dibutuhkan untuk pemeliharaan, pertumbuhan, dan reproduksi dari konsumsi jaringan produsen dan atau konsumen lainnya. Disebut juga heterotroph. Beberapa jenis konsumen telah dikenali termasuk: karnivora. Omnivora Pemulung herbivora . Detritivora Konsumen sekunder Dan konsumen tersier. Kontak Metamorfosis Adalah perubahan batuan metamorfik skala kecil karena pemanasan lokal. Hal ini biasanya disebabkan oleh gangguan batuk seperti ambang atau dyke. Continental Arctic Air Mass (A) Massa udara yang terbentuk di wilayah daratan yang luas dari garis lintang tinggi. Di belahan bumi utara, sistem ini terbentuk hanya di musim dingin di atas Greenland, Kanada utara, Siberia utara, dan Cekungan Arktik. Massa udara Arctic kontinental sangat dingin dan sangat kering. Massa udara ini juga sangat stabil. Bagian kerak kerak Granit dari kerak bumi yang membentuk benua. Ketebalan kerak benua bervariasi antara 20 sampai 75 kilometer. Lihat lapisan sial. Continental Divide Area yang ditinggikan yang terjadi di benua yang membagi landas drainase berskala benua. Teori Continental Drift yang menunjukkan bahwa kerak bumi terdiri dari beberapa lempeng benua yang memiliki kemampuan untuk bergerak. Pertama kali diusulkan oleh A. Snider pada tahun 1858 dan dikembangkan oleh F.B. Taylor (1908) dan Alfred Wegener (1915). Efek Kontinental Pengaruh permukaan kontinental terhadap iklim lokasi atau daerah. Efek ini menghasilkan rentang suhu udara permukaan yang lebih tinggi pada skala tahunan dan tahunan. Juga lihat efek maritim. Continental Glacier Jenis gletser terbesar dengan cakupan permukaan di urutan 5 juta kilometer persegi. Lembar Es Kontinental Lihat gletser kontinental. Continental Margin Area antara garis pantai benua dan awal dasar laut. Ini termasuk landas kontinen. Kenaikan benua Dan kemiringan benua. Continental Plate Segelas litosfer yang independen dan independen terdiri dari granit yang mengapung pada astenosfer plastik kental dan bergerak di atas permukaan Bumi. Piring benua bumi rata-rata 125 kilometer dan terbentuk lebih dari 3 miliar tahun yang lalu. Juga lihat lempeng samudera. Continental Polar Air Mass (cP) Massa udara yang terbentuk di wilayah daratan yang luas dari garis lintang menengah ke atas. Di Amerika Utara, sistem ini terbentuk di utara Kanada. Massa udara Polar kontinental dingin dan sangat kering di musim dingin dan sejuk dan kering di musim panas. Massa udara ini juga stabil di atmosfer di kedua musim. Continental Rise Lapisan sedimen tebal ditemukan di antara lereng kontinental dasar laut. Continental Shelf Margin terendam dangkal dari benua yang terletak di antara tepi garis pantai dan lereng kontinental. Luas permukaan kerak benua ini hampir memiliki lapisan permukaan yang terdiri dari sedimen atau batuan sedimen. Continental Shelf Break Batas zona antara landas kontinen dan lereng. Perisai Perisai Perisai Kemiringan Benua Bagian miring dari kerak benua yang ditemukan di antara landas kontinen dan kontinental. Massa Udara Tropis Tropis (cT) Massa udara yang terbentuk di wilayah daratan yang luas di garis lintang rendah. Di Amerika Utara, sistem ini terbentuk di barat daya Amerika Serikat dan Meksiko utara. Massa udara tropis Kontinental hangat dan kering di musim dingin dan panas dan kering di musim panas. Massa udara ini umumnya juga tidak stabil di musim dingin dan stabil di musim panas. Garis Kontur (Garis) pada peta topografi yang menghubungkan semua titik dengan ketinggian yang sama. Kontur Interval Perbedaan elevasi antara dua garis kontur berturut-turut. Interval di mana kontur digambar pada peta bergantung pada jumlah relief yang digambarkan dan skala peta. Sistem Pengendalian Suatu sistem yang dikendalikan secara cerdas oleh aktivitas manusia. Misalnya, sebuah bendungan di sungai. Permafrost Bentuk Permafrost yang terus menerus yang ada di bentang alam sebagai lapisan yang tidak terputus. Konveksi konveksi melibatkan transfer energi panas dengan cara gerakan massa vertikal melalui media. Konveksi Saat Ini Pergerakan gas atau cairan dalam gerakan massa vertikal yang kacau karena pemanasan. Pemasangan Konveksi Pengangkatan vertikal bidang udara melalui pemanasan konvektif atmosfer. Proses ini dapat memulai proses adiabatik di dalam paket udara. Presipitasi Konveksi Merupakan pembentukan presipitasi akibat pemanasan permukaan udara pada permukaan tanah. Jika terjadi pemanasan cukup, massa udara menjadi lebih hangat dan lebih ringan daripada udara di lingkungan sekitar, dan seperti balon udara panas, udara mulai naik, melebar dan mendingin. Bila pendinginan yang cukup terjadi terjadi kejenuhan terjadi pembentukan presipitasi. Proses ini aktif di pedalaman benua dan dekat ekuator membentuk awan cumulus dan kemungkinan badai petir di kemudian hari. Hujan biasanya adalah jenis curah hujan yang terbentuk, dan dalam kebanyakan kasus kelembaban ini disampaikan dalam jumlah besar selama periode waktu yang singkat di daerah yang sangat lokal. Konvergensi Arus masuk horisontal angin ke suatu daerah. Begitu sampai di daerah, angin kemudian bergerak secara vertikal. Konvergensi Presipitasi Pembentukan presipitasi akibat konvergensi dua massa udara. Dalam kebanyakan kasus, dua massa udara memiliki karakteristik klimatologis yang berbeda. Yang satu biasanya hangat dan lembab, sementara yang lainnya dingin dan kering. Ujung depan dari massa udara terakhir bertindak sebagai dinding miring atau depan yang menyebabkan udara hangat lembab diangkat. Tentu lifting menyebabkan massa udara lembab hangat mendingin akibat ekspansi sehingga menghasilkan kejenuhan. Jenis curah hujan ini biasa terjadi di garis lintang pertengahan di mana siklon terbentuk di sepanjang kutub depan. Juga disebut presipitasi frontal. Pengangkatan Konvergen Pengangkatan vertikal bidang udara melalui konvergensi massa udara yang berlawanan di atmosfer. Proses ini dapat memulai proses adiabatik di dalam paket udara. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Rujukan waktu dunia resmi saat ini untuk tujuan sipil dan ilmiah. Coordinated Universal Time diukur dari enam jam atom standar di Biro Internasional Bobot dan Ukuran (BIPM) di Paris, Prancis. Diimplementasikan pada tahun 1964. Karang Hewan laut sederhana yang hidup simbiosis dengan alga. Dalam hubungan simbiosis, alga menyediakan karang dengan nutrisi, sementara karang menyediakan alga dengan struktur untuk tinggal. Hewan-hewan karang mensekresi kalsium karbonat untuk menghasilkan kerangka luar yang keras. Pemutihan Karang Situasi dimana karang kehilangan alga simbiosis warna-warni mereka. Pemikiran disebabkan oleh air hangat yang tidak biasa, perubahan salinitas air laut laut. Atau paparan sinar ultraviolet yang berlebihan. Karang Terumbu Karang dari batu kapur ditemukan umumnya di bawah permukaan laut. Fitur kelautan ini diproduksi oleh banyak koloni hewan karang kecil, yang disebut polip, yang menciptakan struktur kalsium karbonat di sekitar mereka untuk perlindungan. Ketika karang mati, kerangka eksterior kosong mereka membentuk lapisan yang menyebabkan terumbu karang tumbuh. Terumbu karang ditemukan di daerah pesisir lautan tropis dan subtropis yang hangat. Inti Inti adalah lapisan yang kaya akan zat besi dan nikel yang ada di pedalaman bumi. Ini terdiri dari dua sub-lapisan: inti dalam dan inti luar. Intinya berdiameter sekitar 7.000 kilometer. Gaya Coriolis Gaya yang jelas karena rotasi Bumi. Penyebab benda bergerak dibelokkan ke kanan di Belahan Bumi Utara dan ke kiri di belahan bumi bagian selatan. Gaya Coriolis tidak ada di khatulistiwa. Kekuatan ini bertanggung jawab atas arah arus dalam fenomena meteorologi seperti siklon mid-lintang. Angin topan Dan anticyclones. Koefisien Korelasi Statistik yang mengukur tingkat hubungan linier antara dua variabel. Nilai-nilainya bervariasi antara -1 dan 1. Sempurna positif (variabel dependen meningkat dengan kenaikan variabel independen) asosiasi linier memiliki koefisien korelasi 1. Negatif sempurna (variabel dependen menurun dengan kenaikan variabel independen) linier Asosiasi memiliki koefisien korelasi -1. Sama sekali tidak ada hubungan antar variabel yang memiliki nilai nol. Coulee (1) Aliran lahiriah vulkanik curam yang telah dipadatkan. (2) Saluran air melebur glasial yang terbengkalai. (3) Istilah yang digunakan di Amerika Serikat untuk menggambarkan lembah sungai yang curam. Radiasi Counter-Radiasi Radiasi gelombang panjang Bumi kembali ke permukaan karena efek rumah kaca. Craton Stabil pondasi inti dari berbagai pelat bumi dari kerak benua. Terdiri dari perisai dan platform. Kawah Depresi melingkar di permukaan tanah dibuat oleh aktivitas vulkanik atau asteroid. Creep (1) Gerakan massa lambat dari downslope tanah. Terjadi dimana tekanan pada material kemiringan terlalu kecil untuk menciptakan kegagalan yang cepat. Lihat creep tanah. (2) Istilah lain yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan daya tarik. Periode Kapur Kapur yang terjadi kira-kira 65 sampai 144 juta tahun yang lalu. Selama periode ini, spesies tanaman berbunga pertama muncul dan dinosaurus memiliki keragaman terbesar mereka. Dinosaurus mati pada akhir periode ini. Crevasse (1) Membuka pada tanggul yang memungkinkan drainase air dari dataran banjir ke saluran sungai. (2) Patah pada permukaan rapuh gletser. Velocity Critainment Kecepatan yang dibutuhkan untuk mengangkut partikel berukuran tertentu ke media bergerak udara atau air. Kerak bumi paling luar lapisan batu padat. Antara 7 sampai 70 kilometer tebal. Dua jenis kerak ada: kerak samudra dan kerak benua. Cryosol Tanah Tanah (tipe) dari Sistem Klasifikasi Tanah Kanada. Tanah ini biasa terjadi pada lingkungan tundra lintang tinggi. Fitur pengenal utama tanah ini adalah lapisan permafrost dalam jarak satu meter dari permukaan tanah. Tekanan Tekanan Kristal yang diberikan pada suatu zat melalui es saat istirahat. Menangis Sesuatu yang beku. Awan Cumulus Cloud dengan basis yang relatif datar. Awan Cumulus terbentuk saat gelembung udara hangat lembab secara vertikal lepas dari permukaan Bumi. Ditemukan di ketinggian berkisar 300 sampai 2.000 meter. Awan Cumulonimbus Awan vertikal yang berkembang dengan baik yang sering berbentuk atas seperti landasan. Awan ini sangat padat dengan air yang dikondensasi dan diendapkan. Cuaca yang terkait dengan awan ini meliputi: angin kencang hujan petir tornado petir dan hujan deras. Saat cuaca ini terjadi awan ini kemudian terjadi badai petir. Bisa meluas di ketinggian dari beberapa ratus meter di atas permukaan hingga lebih dari 12.000 meter. Cuspate Foreland Merupakan akumulasi segitiga pasir andor kerikil yang berada di sepanjang garis pantai. Fitur ini dibentuk oleh gabungan dua ludah. Cyanobacteria Bakteri yang memiliki kemampuan berfotosintesis. Proses Cyclogenesis pembentukan siklon, pematangan, dan kematian. Daerah Siklon bertekanan rendah di atmosfer yang menampilkan pergerakan udara bergerak melingkar. Pada sirkulasi Belahan Bumi Utara berlawanan arah jarum jam, sedangkan siklon Belahan Selatan memiliki pola angin searah jarum jam. Sitoplasma Semua protoplasma dalam sel kecuali yang terkandung di dalam nukleus. Kutipan: Pidwirny, M. (2006). QuotGlossary Persyaratan: Cquot. Dasar-dasar Geografi Fisik, Edisi ke-2. Tanggal dilihat Physicalgeographyphysgeoglosc.html Dibuat oleh Dr. Michael Pidwirny Scott Jones University of British Columbia Okanagan Email Koreksi dan Saran ke: Salinan hak cipta 1999-2008 Michael PidwirnySebuah tindak lanjut studi tentang anak-anak yang mulai sekolah pada usia 4 (disebut sebagai Tahun 1 dalam penelitian ini ) Dilakukan untuk menguji pengaruh tiga model prasekolah yang berbeda pada keberhasilan sekolah selanjutnya. Anak-anak dari sebuah distrik sekolah perkotaan belajar lagi di Kelas 5 saat mereka bersiap untuk meninggalkan kelas utama dan di Kelas 6 ketika mereka dijadwalkan memasuki kelas empat jika sebelumnya tidak ditahan. The study examined report card grades, retention rates, and special education placement of 160 children at the end of their fifth year in school and 183 children at the end of their sixth year in school. The sample was 96 African American and 54 female, with 75 of the children qualifying for subsidized school lunch and 73 living in single-parent families. Academically, girls surpassed boys at the end of Year 5, and this difference persisted into the next grade level. Children whose preschool experience was more academically directed had been retained less often than peers. No differences attributable to preschool model were found for special education placement. By the end of childrens fifth year in school, there were no significant differences in academic performance of children who had experienced three different preschool models. By the end of their sixth year in school, children whose preschool experiences had been academically directed earned significantly lower grades compared to children who had attended child-initiated preschool classes. Childrens later school success appears to have been enhanced by more active, child-initiated early learning experiences. Their progress may have been slowed by overly academic preschool experiences that introduced formalized learning experiences too early for most childrens developmental status. Introduction In the ongoing debate over education reform designed to improve academic performance of American children, preschools are under increasing pressure to offer instruction in basic academic skills. This trend is especially prevalent in programs that serve low-income children. Compensatory early childhood programs such as Head Start and state-sponsored pre-kindergarten for low-income families and preschoolers with special needs are designed to help children acquire skills needed for later school success. Although the goal of school readiness is widely shared among early childhood educators, parents, and policy makers, the strategies for achieving this goal vary greatly. Fundamental philosophical and political differences in beliefs about the purpose of schooling, value orientations, and cultural priorities are central to the debate on how to best prepare young children for formal schooling (Kessler, 1991). Kindergarten retention rates have increased (e.g. Shepard amp Smith, 1988), perhaps due to the downward shift in curriculum that introduces formal reading and mathematics instruction much earlier. Escalating academic demands in kindergarten have clearly affected preschool programs for even younger children. Goffin (1994) noted a downward movement of the debate between developmental and academic orientations from elementary education to the preschool setting. When preschool was quotreconceptualized as an appropriate beginning for primary schooling (especially for low-income children),quot public school programs for 4-year-olds grew in number (Goffin, 1994, p. 120). Beginning in the 1980s, leading early childhood experts expressed concern about the wisdom of overly didactic, formal instructional practices for young children (e.g. Elkind, 1986 Zigler, 1987). They feared that short-term academic gains would be offset by long-term stifling of childrens motivation and self-initiated learning. Later research suggests that these early concerns were warranted. Compared to children whose kindergarten experience emphasized child-initiated learning, primary-grade teachers rated children from didactic, teacher-centered kindergartens lower in conduct and work-study habits, and perceived them to be more distractible, less willing to follow directions, and less prosocial (Hart, Charlesworth, Burts, amp DeWolf, 1993). Stipek, Feiler, Daniels, and Milburn (1995) also found motivational differences favoring a child-initiated view of early education compared to a more formalized, didactic approach. They cautioned that early academic gains in reading skills associated with didactic instruction of preschoolers quotcome with some costsquot that could have long-term negative effects on achievement. DeVries, Reese-Learned, and Morgan (1991) expressed similar concerns, arguing that temporary benefits of highly didactic approaches with young children cannot be justified in light of possible negative consequences for social development. Today, as Walsh (1989) predicted, the likelihood that children will experience a highly didactic, teacher-centered approach has increased as preschool is absorbed into public schools where a narrowly focused, externally imposed curriculum makes the preschool experience even more like elementary school. Although it was once believed that any well-implemented preschool program would achieve positive results (e.g. Lazar, Darlington, Murray, Royce, amp Snipper, 1982), a growing research base suggests otherwise (see Marcon, 1999, for a review of research on different preschool approaches). Of particular interest in the present study was sustainability of an earlier preschool approachs influence on academic performance. Several researchers have found that later school success declined when the intervention was discontinued. For example, Miller and Dyer (1975) found a drop in school achievement for children who entered a nondidactic program following a direct instruction preschool experience. Similarly, when the highly didactic Direct Instructional System for the Teaching of Arithmetic and Reading (DISTAR) was discontinued after third grade, childrens previously high achievement in reading and mathematics declined (Becker amp Gersten, 1982). Early academic success fostered by a child-initiated approach has been documented by a number of different researchers (e.g. Burts, Hart, Charlesworth, amp DeWolf, 1993 Marcon, 1993, 1999 Weikart, Epstein, Schweinhart, amp Bond, 1978). Some long-term benefits of this approach have been found for school achievement (e.g. Miller amp Bizzell, 1984) as well as for social behavior and general school competence (e.g. Schweinhart amp Weikart, 1997 Schweinhart, Weikart, amp Larner, 1986). Little is known, however, about the long-term effect of early intervention that combines didactic, teacher-centered strategies with child-initiated learning experiences. In the short term, this combination approach has varying outcomes, with some research favoring the strategy, especially for lower functioning children (e.g. Mills, Dale, Cole, amp Jenkins, 1995). A preponderance of the research evidence, however, has failed to support the combination approach (e.g. DeVries et al. 1991 Marcon, 1999 Pfannenstiel amp Schattgen, 1997 Rawl amp OTuel, 1982). Knowing how later school success of these children compares with that of children exposed to other preschool models would be useful in determining the effectiveness of a combination strategy. A second area of interest in the present study involved sex differences in later school success. Academically, studies of low-income children have found that girls did better than boys in pre-kindergarten (e.g. Marcon, 1999), kindergarten (e.g. Burts et al. 1993 Marcon, 1993), and in first grade (e.g. Reynolds, 1989). Boys do notably better in both the short and long term when their early learning experiences have been more child initiated rather than more didactic in nature (e.g. Marcon, 1993 Miller amp Bizzell, 1984). Successful transition between grade levels may also be moderated by sex. Parents and principals believe boys have more difficulty than girls in making the transition from third to fourth grade (Mayfield, 1983). Furthermore, differences in school competence (especially rates of nonpromotion) among African American children may be intensified by negative attitudes and behaviors toward school exhibited as early as fourth grade by African American boys (Rowan, 1989). Further examination of sex differences in later school success of low-income children and possible interaction with preschool model would add to our understanding of the often difficult transition from the primary to the later elementary school grades. The present study provides follow-up data for one cohort of low-income, minority children who had attended two years of school (preschool and kindergarten) prior to entering first grade. These children had experienced one of three different types of preschool: child-initiated, academically directed, or a quotcombinationquot approach. In this earlier quasi-experimental study, Marcon (1999) compared the three different approaches for their effect on childrens development and mastery of basic skills at the end of preschool. Findings indicated that children whose preschool experiences had been child-initiated demonstrated greater mastery of basic skills at the end of preschool than did children in programs where academics were emphasized and skills were directly taught. At the end of preschool, children in the quotcombinationquot model did significantly poorer on all measures except self-help and development of social coping skills compared to children in either the child-initiated or academically directed models. Preschool girls outperformed boys in all areas except gross motor development and playleisure skills. This follow-up study examines the transition from childrens fifth to sixth year in school (third to fourth grade for most of these children). Based on earlier findings for these children and results of other research studies (e.g. Miller amp Bizzell, 1984 Schweinhart amp Weikart, 1997 Schweinhart, Weikart, amp Larner, 1986), it was thought that any difference in later school success attributable to preschool model would favor the child-initiated early learning approach. Children who had experienced quotcombinationquot preschool curricula were expected to be least successful, whereas later school performance of those who had attended didactic, teacher-centered preschools was expected to be intermediary. Sex differences in school achievement favoring girls were expected to persist because boys, in general, do not perform as well in the early years of school (Richardson, Koller, amp Katz, 1986), and African American boys, unlike boys in general, do not typically show a rise in school achievement following the elementary school years (Pollard, 1993). The type of preschool experience was expected to have a greater effect on later school achievement of boys than on girls. Participants Children who began school at age 4 (referred to as Year 1 in this study) were studied again in Year 5 (when they were expected to be in third grade if not previously retained) and Year 6 (when they were expected to be in fourth grade if not previously retained) of their educational experience. This sample of urban students included 160 Year 5 children ( M age 107.6 months, SD 3.9) in 61 schools and 183 Year 6 children ( M age 119.8 months, SD 3.6) in 70 schools. The initial sample had been randomly selected proportional to enrollment of 4-year-olds in subdistricts within the school system. Each subdistrict was represented by at least one classroom for each of the three models studied. This stratified sample was geographically dispersed across the city and was representative of socioeconomic, administrative, and local variations within the school system (see Marcon, 1992, for a description of random selection and stratification procedures used in the original cohort study). This follow-up sample from the original cohort was 96 African American and 54 female. Most children (75) qualified for subsidized school lunch based on low family income, and 73 of the children lived in single-parent families. Data from both Years 5 and 6 were available for a subsample of the children ( n 139) in 64 schools. Subsample children did not differ significantly from the larger follow-up sample in any demographic characteristics. Recovery rate from preschool to fourth grade was 64 of the original sample. Although this attrition rate was high, it was not unexpected, and attrition was comparable across the preschool models, (2) 1.80, p .41. The recovered follow-up sample was not significantly different from the original preschool sample in terms of gender ( p .92), age ( p .82), parent involvement ( p .34), overall adaptive behavior ( p .16), social and work habits ( p .23), or physical development ( p .15) in preschool. Preschool grades of children in the recovered follow-up sample were, however, 3 lower than the original sample ( p .02). Compared to the original preschool sample, the recovered follow-up sample had more African American and fewer White children, (3) 15.34, p .01, who were poorer, (1) 12.60, p lt .001, and more likely to live in single-parent families, (1) 4.83, p .03. These differences were consistent with school districtwide changes in enrollment patterns following pre-kindergarten and kindergarten when children of many middle-class families leave the public school system. At age 4, all children had attended free, full-school-day preschool in the same urban school district, with approximately 84 of the sample having been enrolled in pre-kindergarten and 16 in Head Start. Eligibility for pre-kindergarten was based solely on age and residency, whereas Head Start eligibility had an additional federal requirement of low family income. All preschool teachers of children in this study, both pre-kindergarten and Head Start, held a bachelors degree or higher. Their median pre-kindergarten or Head Start teaching experience was approximately 10 years. As previously classified (see quotMeasures and Proceduresquot section for details), approximately 33 of children in this follow-up sample had attended preschool classes that followed a child-initiated approach, 35 attended academically directed preschool classes, and the remaining 32 had been enrolled in middle-of-the-road preschool classes that combined the other two preschool approaches. No Head Start classes in this school district used an academically directed approach. Kindergarten in this school district was predominantly academic in focus, with all but a handful of teachers indicating a strong belief that academic preparation was a more important goal of kindergarten than childrens socioemotional growth (Marcon, 1990, 1993). All first-grade teachers in this school district emphasized academics, with approximately two-thirds using a highly didactic, academically directed approach (Marcon, 1990). Measures and Procedures Preschool Model. The Pre-K Survey of Beliefs and Practices (see Marcon, 1999, for instrument and details) was used to classify childrens early learning experiences based on five theoretical differences between early childhood models: (1) scope of developmental goals, (2) conception of how children learn, (3) amount of autonomy given to the child, (4) conception of teachers role, and (5) provision of possibilities for learning from peers. Three groupings identified through cluster analysis using Wards method were selected as examples of the divergent preschool models operating in this urban school system. One group was composed of child development-oriented teachers who facilitated learning by allowing children to actively direct the focus of their learning. These child-initiated preschool classrooms were referred to as Model CI. Another group represented more academically oriented teachers who preferred more direct instruction and teacher-directed learning experiences for preschoolers. These academically directed preschool classrooms were referred to as Model AD. The third group represented teachers whose beliefs and practices fell in between the other two opposing models by endorsing a combination approach. These middle-of-the-road preschool classrooms were referred to as Model M. In the original study, accuracy of model classification based upon survey response was affirmed by independent classroom observers, and findings were congruous with other research demonstrating strong consistency between outside raters observations of early childhood instructional activities and teachers self-reported beliefs and practices (e.g. Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, Mosley, amp Fleege, 1993 Hyson, Hirsch-Pasek, amp Rescorla,1990 Kagan amp Smith, 1988 Vartuli, 1999). In the original study, Model CI and Model AD classifications were easily verified by independent classroom observers, but these same observers had some difficulty categorizing Model M practices in several classrooms. Model M teachers appeared to be closer to Model CI in goals but more like Model AD in teacher initiation of activities. Compared to Model CI teachers, the Model M teacher was notably more engaged in leading groups of children in less-individualized activities for longer periods of time. Compared to Model AD teachers, the Model M teacher allowed children greater access to classroom materials, encouraged more peer interaction, and initiated fewer teacher-directed cognitive activities that were not well integrated with other developmental domains. These Model M teachers were not, however, using a Vygotskian approach to foster childrens early learning and development. Model M teachers were best described as professionals who sought to blend notions of child development with their school systems competency-based curriculum. Their basis for doing so was most likely pragmatic. Report Cards. Data were collected from teachers and school records at the end of Year 5 and Year 6. The school districts Elementary School Progress Report (report card) was used to compare childrens classroom performance with the districts expectations for skills mastery. Like many urban school districts, a competency-based curriculum (CBC) was in place throughout most of the school system, and children were expected to demonstrate mastery of specific reading and arithmetic skills before advancing to the next grade level. CBC defined a skill as being mastered when a child could perform it upon request and provided teachers with three mastery assessment tasks for each reading and arithmetic objective (see McClure amp Leigh, 1981, for details of this school systems CBC). For research purposes, Progress Report grades were converted to the standard 5-point numeric scale: 0 F, 1 D, 2 C, 3 B, and 4 A. Each childs overall grade point average (GPA) was calculated. Grades in each of 11 subject areas were also converted to numeric scores: arithmetic, reading, language, spelling, handwriting, social studies, science, art, music, healthphysical education (PE), and citizenship. Citizenship grades provided a global assessment of a childs deportment while attending school. School records and teacher report provided information on the childs eligibility for subsidized school lunch and the number of parents or guardians living at home with the child (scored as 1 or 2). School Competence: Special Education Placement and Retention Year 5. During the primary grades (first, second, and third grades), this school district was more inclined to use retention in grade rather than special education services for children who experienced academic difficulties. By Year 5, less than 1 of this random sample had received special education services, whereas 20 had been retained in grade. No significant differences in special education placement were found for preschool model or sex. Special education placement during the primary grades was not related to family income as measured by eligibility for subsidized school lunch ( p .44) or to the childs living in a single-parent family ( p .43). Boys were more likely to have been retained prior to Year 5 (34) than were girls (10), (1, N 161) 13.97, p lt .001. Similarly, teachers were likely to recommend more boys (23) than girls (11) for retention at the end of Year 5, (1, N 165) 4.28, p .04. Although no significant difference in retention rate attributable to preschool model was found for girls ( p .41), Model AD boys had a significantly lower rate of retention prior to third grade than did boys who had attended other types of preschool, (2, n 71) 7.20, p .03. Overall, fewer children who had attended Model AD preschools had been retained prior to third grade (10), (2, N 161) 5.50, p .06, compared to retention rates of 24 and 26 for Models CI and M, respectively. There were no significant differences attributable to preschool model in teachers recommendations for retention at the end of Year 5 ( p .75). Other demographic factors (family income, single-parent families) that could contribute to retention in grade were examined. Lower-income children were more likely than higher-income children to have been retained prior to third grade, (1, N 160) 7.02, p .01. Although no significant difference in retention rate at the end of Year 5 was found between children who did or did not qualify for subsidized lunch ( p .14), teachers recommended far fewer children who did not qualify for subsidized lunch for retention than was expected statistically. Children who lived in single-parent versus two-parent families did not differ in retention rates prior to Year 5 ( p .18). At the end of Year 5, however, teachers were somewhat less likely to recommend retention for children who were growing up in two-parent families, (1, N 133) 2.44, p .12. Year 6. Because children were of the age to be leaving the primary grades, this school district was now more inclined to recommend special education services for children who experienced academic difficulties, (1, N 139) 5.16, p .02. In Year 6, the number of children who received special education services increased to 8 of the sample. No significant differences in special education placement were found for preschool model or sex. Special education placement following the primary grades was somewhat related to family income, (1, N 166) 2.52, p .11. Only half as many children who did not qualify for subsidized lunch as expected statistically were receiving special education services. Special education placement in Year 6 was not related to growing up in a single-parent family ( p .31). Possibly due to increases in special education placement, teachers recommendations for retention at the end of Year 6 (10) decreased in comparison with retention recommendations made at the end of Year 5 (16). No significant differences were found in recommended retention at the end of Year 6 for preschool model, sex, or family income. Teachers were more likely to recommend children from single-parent families for retention at the end of Year 6 than children living in two-parent families, (1, N 149) 4.25, p .04. Year 5 Report Cards A 3 x 2 (Preschool Model x Sex) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test for differential effects of preschool model on childrens grades, sex differences, and possible Preschool Model x Sex interactions at the end of Year 5 in school. The covariate used to control for possible economic differences between children was eligibility for subsidized school lunch (based on family income and size). Although a direct measure of family income would have been a more desirable covariate, it was not available. Eligibility for subsidized school lunch should be highly correlated with family income and is a widely used estimate of family income in public school evaluation research. All reported means have been adjusted for the covariate. Missing scores were not imputed. The academic performance of children who were quoton schedulequot at the end of Year 5 (third grade), as well as performance of children who had been retained prior to third grade, was examined in this follow-up study. Preschool Model. No significant main effect for preschool model was found in Year 5 overall GPA or any specific subject area for either quoton schedulequot or quotretainedquot children. A statistical trend toward significant differences between preschool models was found for Year 5 citizenship grades, F (2, 153) 2.66, p .07. Overall, Model AD children received citizenship grades that were 6 and 19 lower than Model CI and Model M children, respectively. Citizenship grades reflect childrens deportment in school. At the end of Year 5, children from the three different preschool models were performing academically at a comparable level. Teachers did, however, see the school behavior of children who had attended academically directed preschools as being notably poorer than that of peers. Sex Differences. A significant sex difference was found in overall Year 5 GPA, F (1, 153) 4.05, p .05, with girls earning a 10 higher GPA than boys. Effect size for this difference was moderate (.34). As seen in Figure 1, girls earned higher grades in each of the 11 subject areas. A significant difference was found for citizenship grades, F (1, 153) 12.26, p .001, with teachers rating girls school behavior 24 quotbetterquot than that of boys. Effect size for the difference in citizenship grades was large (.58). At the end of Year 5, girls were outperforming boys in school. Interactions. No significant Preschool Model x Sex interactions were found for overall GPA or any of the 11 subject areas for either quoton schedulequot or quotretainedquot children. No statistical trends toward significant group differences were found. The smallest gap between performance of boys and girls appeared for Model M children (boys GPA was only 2 lower than girls GPA). In four subject areas (language, spelling, art, and music), Model M boys received somewhat higher grades than did Model M girls. A similar pattern was not present in the other two preschool models. Year 5 Summary. For children who had attended preschool and kindergarten prior to entering first grade, there was no significant difference in academic performance attributable to preschool model at the end of childrens fifth year in school. Girls outperformed boys in school, but this difference was less noticeable among children who had attended quotcombinationquot preschool classes. Teachers rated boys school behavior lower than girls behavior. Compared to peers, children who had attended academically directed preschool classes also were rated lower in behavior compared to peers at the end of their fifth year in school. Year 6 Report Cards Preschool Models. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 2, a trend towards statistical significance between preschool models was found in Year 6 overall GPA ( p .07). GPA for Model CI was 4 higher than Model M and 14 higher than Model AD. The difference between Models CI and AD was moderate (effect size .38). In all subject areas except music, Model AD children displayed the lowest grades of the three preschool models. In all but three subject areas (language, social studies, and music), Model CI had the highest grades compared to peers who had other types of preschool experiences. Science grades of Model M children equaled those of Model CI. Post hoc Tukeys HSD ( p lt .01) indicated that Models CI and M earned significantly higher healthPE grades than did Model AD. By the end of Year 6, academic performance of children who had attended academically directed preschool classes was beginning to decline. Although not statistically significant, their school behavior continued to be rated somewhat lower than that of peers Model AD citizenship grades were 14 and 9 lower than Models CI and M, respectively. Table 1 Year 6 Report Cards: Preschool Model (PM) and Sex Differences (GB) Note: Means adjusted for family income (eligibility for subsidized lunch) covariate. Sex Differences. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 3, a significant sex difference was found in overall GPA ( p .003), with girls receiving 13 higher grades than boys. Effect size for this difference was moderate (.44). Girls earned higher grades in all of the 11 subject areas except art. These differences were statistically significant for reading, spelling, social studies, and citizenship. Effect sizes for sex differences were moderate to large, with the greatest effect size seen in citizenship grades (.76). A trend toward statistically significant differences between girls and boys was found in four other subject areas: arithmetic, language, science, and healthPE. At the end of Year 6, girls continued to outperform boys in school. Interactions. No significant Preschool Model x Sex interactions were found for overall GPA or any of the 11 subject areas in Year 6. A possible interaction between preschool model and sex was found for Year 6 music grades, F (2, 153) 2.59, p .08. Unlike other boys, Model AD boys earned somewhat higher grades in music (6) than did Model AD girls. However, at the end of childrens sixth year in school, the smallest gap between school performance of boys and girls appeared for Model CI children. The GPA of Model CI boys was only 9 lower than that of girls, whereas a 16 and 14 difference between girls and boys GPA was found for Models M and AD, respectively. Year 6 Summary. School performance of those who had attended academically directed preschool classes was beginning to decline by the end of childrens sixth year in school. Girls still outperformed boys in school, but this difference was now less noticeable among children who had attended child-initiated preschool classes. Teachers continued to rate school behavior of boys lower than that of girls. Although no significant differences attributable to preschool approach were found in behavior at the end of the sixth year in school, teachers continued to rate behavior of children with academically directed preschool experiences somewhat lower than their peers. Transition from Year 5 to Year 6 A 3 x 2 x 2 (Preschool Model x Sex x Year) repeated measures multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with year as the repeated variable was used to test for differential effects of preschool model on childrens grades, sex differences, and possible Preschool Model x Sex interactions across time (Year 5 to Year 6). As with previous analyses, the covariate used to control for possible influence of economic differences between children was eligibility for subsidized school lunch. Missing scores were not imputed. Main Effect for Year. Although childrens grades generally dropped as they left the primary grades and entered the later elementary school grades, no significant main effect for year was found in the subsamples overall GPA, F (1, 132) .88, p .35. Analyses of each subject area yielded only one significant main effect for year subsample childrens grades in language decreased 8 from Year 5 to Year 6, F (1, 131) 4.78, p .03. Effect size for this difference was small (.16). Interactions across Years. Of greater interest in childrens transition from the primary to the later elementary school grades was how an earlier preschool model or childrens sex or both might differentially affect school performance across years. Therefore, two-way interactions (Preschool Model x Year Sex x Year) and the possibility of a three-way interaction (Preschool Model x Sex x Year) were examined more closely. As shown in Table 2 and Figure 4, there was a significant interaction between preschool model and year for GPA ( p .02). The GPA of Model CI children increased 6, while GPA decreased 4 and 8 for Models M and AD, respectively. A similar pattern of Model CI increases and Models M and AD decreases was found in 6 of the 11 subject areas: reading, language, spelling, science, healthPE, and citizenship. In an additional three subject areas (arithmetic, art, and handwriting), Model CI grades either remained constant or increased. Model M grades increased in only one subject area, music. Model AD grades increased in only one subject area, handwriting. Finally, all three preschool models showed a drop in childrens social studies grades from Year 5 to Year 6. Table 2 ANCOVA Interactions for Preschool Model and Sex: Year 5 to Year 6 As shown in Table 2, four subject area Preschool Model x Year interactions were significant: arithmetic, reading, spelling, and healthPE. Statistical trends toward significant interactions were found for language and citizenship. Only one Sex x Year interaction was found to be significant. Girls grades in spelling increased 3, and boys grades decreased. A somewhat similar pattern was found for healthPE grades ( p .07), with boys grades decreasing 6 and girls grades remaining constant in healthPE. This Sex x Year interaction pattern, however, was not typical of other subject areas. Figure 5 shows increases or decreases in boys and girls grades across years for each preschool model. As seen in Table 2, citizenship was the only subject area to show a significant three-way interaction between preschool model, childrens sex, and year ( p .05). Model CI boys and girls had similar increases in citizenship grades across years (8 and 6, respectively). The overall decrease in Model M citizenship grades was due primarily to a 19 drop in boys grades Model M girls decreased only slightly (2). Citizenship grades of Model AD boys increased 26, while girls citizenship grades decreased 7. The source of boys improvement was due primarily to fewer failing Year 6 citizenship grades among boys whose school deportment had been previously unacceptable. Even with this improvement, however, Model AD boys remained 11 behind Model CI boys in Year 6 citizenship grades. And, although improved, these Year 6 citizenship grades for Model AD boys still remained lower than citizenship grades of girls (33, 32, and 18 lower compared to Models CI, M, and AD girls, respectively). Discussion As predicted, preschool model did have an influence on childrens later school achievement. Children whose preschool experience was child initiated faired better than peers in the transition from the primary to the later elementary school grades. Not only were their overall grades following the transition significantly higher, their school performance improved or held constant in all but two subject areas (music, social studies) despite increased academic demands of the next grade level. Contrary to predictions, children from preschool classes where teachers had attempted to combine distinctive approaches were performing better in school than expected. By the end of their fifth year in school, they had quotcaught upquot to classmates from other preschool models. Relative to peers, the position of children with combination approach preschool experiences was intermediary following the transition. Findings regarding later school success were somewhat mixed for children who had more didactic, academically directed preschool experiences. Although fewer of these children had been retained during the primary grades, children from this preschool model were least successful in making the transition to the later elementary school grades. Grades of children from academically directed preschool classrooms declined in all but one subject area (handwriting) following the Year 6 transition. What contributed to the lower rates of retention prior to third grade among children whose earlier preschool experiences had been academically directed One possibility is greater continuity between the preschool experience and what children encountered in this public schools kindergartens and primary grades. After preschool, these children were likely to enter a moderately academic kindergarten with more formal instruction practices in reading and arithmetic (Marcon, 1993). In fact, only 20 would have experienced a more socioemotional-oriented kindergarten in this school district, and virtually none of the first-grade classrooms that children entered would have resembled less academically focused preschools. Model AD children most likely had an easier transition to the primary grades. A second possibility involves family-related influences on early grade retention. Lower-income children in this follow-up study were more likely to have been retained prior to third grade. Children eligible for Head Start came from the lowest-income homes and in the setting of this study were likely to be growing up in single-parent families. No children eligible for Head Start in this study were enrolled in Model AD classes. Thus, lower retention of Model AD children could be more related to family income factors than to type of preschool experience. A third possibility is that grade-level placements may not fully reflect academic performance in a competency-based system of promotion that emphasizes basic reading and arithmetic skills. If mastery of critical skills in these two subjects was not demonstrated, children were automatically retained regardless of their performance in other subject areas. Likewise, children who demonstrated mastery of critical reading and arithmetic objectives were able to advance regardless of performance in other subject areas. Meeting basic competency requirements of the primary grades may not be sufficient to sustain later academic performance when quotpulling it all togetherquot requires more than just quotadding up the piecesquot children have acquired along the way. Children with academically directed preschool experiences may have missed out on the more integrative experiences of peers in other preschool models. Future research to investigate each of these possibilities is needed. By the end of the primary grades, there was little difference in the academic performance of children who had experienced three different preschool models. This finding was consistent with the developmental assumption that, by the end of third grade, most children will have attained the basic academic skills. Earlier limitations associated with a combination approach had been overcome, and children were generally academically comparable and on quoteven footingquot when they entered the transition to the later elementary school grades. What happened on the other side of this transition Why did academic performance of children from academically directed preschool classes begin to decline The difference between their school grades and those of children from child-initiated preschools was not just statistically significant151the 14 difference in grades was of practical significance with children differing by more than a third of a standard deviation in overall grades. Perhaps the answer can be found in new demands characteristic of the later elementary school grades. Through the primary grades, children are learning to read. An academically directed approach typically emphasizes the act of reading over comprehension. Beginning in fourth grade, children are reading to learn comprehension is critical. In fourth grade, they encounter more abstract concepts that do not necessarily match up with their everyday experiences. Additionally, fourth-grade teachers expect children to be more independent in the learning process, to assume more responsibility for their learning, and to show greater initiative. Perhaps teachers foster this independence by stepping back somewhat and shifting their instructional approach to be less didactic. It is at this point that motivation and self-initiated learning become crucial for childrens later school success. This is the point at which Elkind (1986) and Zigler (1987) worried that short-term academic gains produced by overly didactic, formal instructional practices for young children would be offset by long-term stifling of childrens motivation. Important lessons about independence and self-initiative are being learned in the early childhood years. Overly teacher-directed approaches that tell young children what to do, when to do it, and how to do it most likely curtail development of initiative during the preschool years. According to developmentalist Constance Kamii (1975, 1984), such an approach produces passive students who wait to be told what to think next. Therefore, it is not really surprising that children whose preschool experience may have curtailed initiative would find the transition to the later elementary school grades more difficult. The foundation of critical thinking may be found in early childhood experiences that foster curiosity, initiative, independence, and effective choice. As predicted, earlier sex differences in school achievement favoring girls persisted both at the end of the primary grades and following the transition to the later elementary school years. Going into the transition, the smallest gap between boys and girls academic performance was seen among children who had attended preschool classes where teachers used a quotcombinationquot approach. On the other side of the transition, the smallest gap between the sexes was seen in children who had child-initiated preschool experiences. When academic demands increased, boys whose earliest school experiences involved active, self-initiated learning appeared to be better able to meet these new demands. Although sex differences did not, as predicted, moderate the effect of preschool model across time, the closing of the academic gap between boys and girls following the primary grades was interesting. African American boys do not typically follow the academic pattern of boys in general by surpassing girls following the elementary school years. Might the boys in this predominantly African American sample whose preschool experience was active and child initiated break the pattern and pull ahead of girls, or at least stay close to girls, at the next major educational transition Miller and Bizzells findings (1984) suggest that this outcome is a distinct possibility. And, if so, what is the underlying mechanism by which to account for such a possibility How do cultural factors interact with and moderate the influence of various preschool models The passivity required of children in an overly academically directed approach may be especially difficult for young African American boys. In the preschool years, girls earlier maturation may have allowed them to better process the verbal instruction typical of didactic, academically directed instruction, whereas boys generally slower rate of neurological development may have required a more active, quothands onquot approach found in nondidactic, child-initiated early learning experiences. Lessons learned in the preschool years assuredly carry over into childrens later school careers. The next academic transition, when children leave elementary school, will be especially interesting for understanding sex differences in academic performance of these low-income children. Caution is warranted when interpreting this studys findings. First, and foremost, it is important to remember that the quasi-experimental design used in this research does not establish causality. Although parents did not choose their childs teacher or preschool model, neither did the researcher randomly assign children to preschool model at the beginning of this longitudinal study. This was a field study reflecting typical educational practices where children attend their neighborhood school. Second, because the research design is correlational, other intervening variables between preschool and fourth grade most likely contribute to these findings. For example, schools attended, as well as teachers and classmates, undoubtedly affect childrens later school achievement. Additionally, the influence of family characteristics shown to positively affect educational outcomes of African American children (Luster amp McAdoo, 1996) were not adequately examined in this study of intact groups. Only effects of family income and number of parents were investigated. Future research would be strengthened by greater attention to other family characteristics, such as parental beliefs, that are known to influence childrens development (Sigel, 1985). Third, the follow-up sample did differ somewhat from the original in that it consisted of more minority children who were poorer and more likely to live in single-parent families than the sample originally studied. This difference, along with high attrition, was expected in a city where middle-class children often leave the public school system after kindergarten and children from highly mobile, lower-income families often relocate to a neighboring state. Because policy makers were interested in action research that could benefit children enrolled in their own school district, children who left this school system were not followed. Data from those who left the public schools would be interesting to examine. However, it is unlikely that these new data would have altered findings regarding the influence of preschool model because approximately equal numbers of children from each model were lost. Finally, use of individual children as the statistical unit of analysis, rather than school or classroom means, could limit generalizability of findings due to potential interdependence of grades for children in the same classroom. Unfortunately, even nested analysis of potentially nonindependent observations does not guarantee that statistical assumptions of independence of error will be met (Hopkins, 1982). The large number of schools (and hence of teachers) in this follow-up study reduces the possible effect of any particular teachers grading practices on these findings. Concern about interdependence of grades assigned to children in the same classroom is also somewhat reduced by the competency-based grading system used in this school district. It is important to remember that the large number of schools and teachers sampled in this study enhances, but does not guarantee, generalizability of this studys findings. Childrens later school success appears to be enhanced by more active, child-initiated learning experiences. Their long-term progress may be slowed by overly academic preschool experiences that introduce formalized learning experiences too early for most childrens developmental status. Pushing children too soon may actually backfire when children move into the later elementary school grades and are required to think more independently and take on greater responsibility for their own learning process. References Becker, Wesley C. amp Gersten, Russell. (1982). A follow-up of follow through: The later effects of the direct instruction model on children in fifth and sixth grades. American Educational Research Journal, 19 (1), 75-92. EJ 271 993 . Burts, Diane C. Hart, Craig, H. Charlesworth, Rosalind amp DeWolf, Michele. (1993). Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493 673 . Charlesworth, Rosalind Hart, Craig H. Burts, Diane C. Mosley, Jean amp Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). Measuring the developmental appropriateness of kindergarten teachers beliefs and practices. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8 (3), 255-276. EJ 474 784. DeVries, Rheta Reese-Learned, Halcyon amp Morgan, Pamela. (1991). Sociomoral development in direct-instruction, eclectic, and constructivist kindergartens: A study of childrens enacted interpersonal understanding. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6 (4), 473-517. EJ 441 873 . Elkind, David. (1986). Formal education and early childhood education: An essential difference. Phi Delta Kappan, 67 (9), 631-636. EJ 337 505 . Goffin, Stacie G. (1994). Curriculum models and early childhood education: Appraising the relationship. New York: Merrill. Hart, Craig H. Charlesworth, Rosalind Burts, Diane C. amp DeWolf, Michele. (1993, March). The relationship of attendance in developmentally appropriate or inappropriate kindergarten classrooms to first and second grade behavior. Poster session presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, LA. Hopkins, Kenneth D. (1982). The unit of analysis: Group means versus individual observations. American Educational Research Journal, 19 (1), 5-18. EJ 271 990 . Hyson, Marion C. Hirsch-Pasek, Kathy amp Rescorla, Leslie. (1990). The classroom practices inventory: An observational instrument based on NAEYCs guidelines for developmentally appropriate practices for 4- and 5-year-old children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 5 (4), 475-494. EJ 423 540 . Kagan, Dona M. amp Smith, Kenneth. (1988). Beliefs and behaviours of kindergarten teachers. Educational Research, 30 (1), 26-35. Kamii, Constance. (1975). One intelligence indivisible. 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Marcon, Rebecca. (1992). Differential effects of three preschool models on inner-city 4-year-olds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7 (4), 517-530. EJ 458 104 . Marcon, Rebecca. (1993). Socioemotional versus academic emphasis: Impact on kindergartners development and achievement. Early Child Development and Care, 96, 81-91. EJ 478 144 . Marcon, Rebecca. (1999). Differential impact of preschool models on development and early learning of inner-city children: A three cohort study. Developmental Psychology, 35 (2), 358-375. EJ 582 451 . Mayfield, Margie I. (1983). Orientation to school and transitions of children between primary grades. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 29 (4), 272-284. EJ 292 101 . McClure, Larry, amp Leigh, J. (1981). A sampler of competency-based education at its best. In Ruth S. Nickse amp Larry McClure (Eds.), Competency-based education: Beyond minimum competency testing (pp. 89-94). New York: Teachers College Press. ED 206 675 . 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Gender, achievement, and African-American students perceptions of their school experience. Educational Psychologist, 28 (4), 341-356. Rawl, Ruth K. amp OTuel, Frances S. (1982). A comparison of three prereading approaches for kindergarten students. Reading Improvement, 19 (3), 205-211. EJ 269 746 . Reynolds, Arthur J. (1989). A structural model of first-grade outcomes for an urban, low socioeconomic status, minority population. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (4), 594-603. EJ 404 602 . Richardson, Stephen A. Koller, Helene amp Katz, Mindy. (1986). Factors leading to differences in the school performance of boys and girls. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 7 (1), 49-55. Rowan, Joseph L. (1989). The effect of gender on non-promotion of Black males. Unpublished manuscript. ED 313 456 . Schweinhart, Lawrence J. amp Weikart, David P. (1997). The HighScope preschool curriculum comparison study through age 23. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12 (2), 117-143. EJ 554 350 . Schweinhart, Lawrence J. Weikart, David P. amp Larner, Mary B. (1986). Consequences of three preschool curriculum models through age 15. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 1 (1), 15-45. EJ 334 891 . Shepard, Lorrie A. amp Smith, Mary Lee. (1988). Escalating academic demand in kindergarten: Counterproductive policies. Elementary School Journal, 89 (2), 135-145. EJ 382 617 . Sigel, Irving E. (1985). Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Stipek, Deborah Feiler, Rachelle Daniels, Denise amp Milburn, Sharon. (1995). Effects of different instructional approaches on young childrens achievement and motivation. Child Development, 66 (1), 209-223. EJ 501 879 . Vartuli, Sue. (1999). How early childhood teacher beliefs vary across grade level. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14 (4), 489-514. EJ 631 458 . Walsh, Daniel J. (1989). Changes in kindergarten: Why here Why now Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4 (3), 377-391. EJ 402 845 . Weikart, David P. Epstein, Ann S. Schweinhart, Lawrence J. amp Bond, James T. (1978). The Ypsilanti preschool curriculum demonstration project: Preschool years and longitudinal results (Monographs of the HighScope Educational Research Foundation, 4). Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Press. ED 156 756 . Zigler, Edward. (1987). Formal schooling for four-year-olds No. American Psychologist, 42 (3), 254-260. EJ 355 124. Author Information Rebecca A. Marcon, Ph.D. is a developmental psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of North Florida. She received her B.A. in psychology from California State University-Fullerton and her M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles. After working as a school psychologist in the barrios of east Los Angeles, she left California to pursue her Ph.D. in developmental psychology at Louisiana State University. Since completing her Ph.D. she has been a faculty member in the Departments of Psychology at Clemson University, Davidson College, and the University of North Florida. She was also a senior research associate in the District of Columbia Public Schools where she initiated an ongoing longitudinal study of early childhood educational practices. Her research interests include social and language development, early intervention, and public policy. She continues to serve young children and families in the District of Columbia Public Schools as a researcher and consultant. Dr. Marcon also is actively involved with Head Start programs serving young children in northeast Florida. She is a member of the Early Childhood Research Quarterly Editorial Board and serves as a Research in Review Editor for Young Children. Rebecca A. Marcon, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of North Florida 4567 St. Johns Bluff Road, South Jacksonville, FL 32224-2673 Office Bldg. 39-4072 Telephone: 904-620-2807 Fax: 904-620-3814 Email: rmarconunf.edu This article has been accessed 71,587 times through June 1, 2007.Moving to Puerto Rico Whether it is for school, work or for any other reason, moving to Puerto Rico requires a lot of coordination. Before purchasing a one-way ticket to the island, there is a lot that you need to know before you arrive. Here are some basics to get you started. Shipping a Car When considering transporting automobiles, furniture and other large household items over land and sea, remember that it may be more economical to sell certain items than it is to ship them -- for instance, older cars valued at less than a thousand dollars. Shipping a car or household items usually takes from 7 to 14 days, assuming that the request was received at least a 1 to 2 week in advance. Check with your local marines cargo company or an authorized trucking company for schedules and prices. In addition, contact the Office of Excise Taxes at (787) 721-6237 or (787) 721-0338 in Puerto Rico to obtain an approximate amount for the excise tax you will need to pay to bring your vehicle to the island. You will need to provide vehicle information: make, model, year, automaticstandard, and number of doors. License plates are not transferable. License stickers are renewed every year at which time you will have to pay 35 annual fee for no fault insurance and 65 for annual registration. For more information contact the Departamento de Transportacioacuten y Obras Publicas (dtop.gov.pr) at (800) 981-3021 or (787) 729-2929. Cost of Living The cost of living in Puerto Rico index averaged 79.11, way below the national average of 100 (ACCRA Cost of Living Index, 2013). Housing prices in Puerto Rico are comparable to Miami or Los Angeles, but property taxes are considerably lower than most places in the US. The real estate market in Puerto Rico is booming due to population growth. Real Estate agencies are a good starting point for renting or purchasing property. Newspapers ads and the Internet is another possible way to find housing. There are thousands of property ads appearing every day in newspapers, web sites and magazines. Puerto Rico Home Prices and Home Values (US States and Locations Near Puerto Rico Comparison) Median List Price () Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Florida South Carolina North Carolina Georgia California New York Texas Source: Zillow Local Info, January 29, 2013 Titles, Deeds and Land Records Land records are available through the Registros de la Propiedad. There are 29 offices that serve specific municipalities, neighborhoods or sectors. To obtain information from these records it is usually necessary to know the name of the purchaser, the approximate date of purchase and the city in which the land was then located. To obtain certified copies write to or call: Registro de la Propiedad Oficina de la Directora Administrativa Departamento de Justicia, Piso 3 Calle Olimpo, Esq. Axtmayer Pda. 11 Miramar, San Juan, PR 00907 P.O. Box 9020192 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00902-0192 (787) 723-8960 (787)723-7560 Fax (787)725-8925 Finding Work in Puerto Rico If you do not have a job, before you have arrived, make sure you have done your resume (curriculum vitae) and that you have copies of all relevant documentation, such as up to date references. For applicants of 18 years or more some employers may require a Certificate of Good BehaviorCertificate of No Criminal Conviction (PDF), which is issued by the Puerto Rico Police Department. There are different methods to find a job in Puerto Rico. Here are a few tips: Ask for job leads from: family members, friends, people in the community, and staff at career centers. Knock on the doors of any employers, factories, or offices that interest you, whether or not they have vacancies. Use the Yellow Pages to identify areas that interest you in or near the town or city where you live and then call the employers in that field to find out whether they are hiring for the position that you can do -- and do well. You can also find lots of job offers in newspapers, specialist magazines and on the Internet. Although you may find a job through one of the many Internet job search sites, the best use of the Internet is to research companies you may want to work for. If youre looking for employment in Puerto Rico, these web sites can help you in your job search. How to obtain a Certificate of Good BehaviorCertificate of No Criminal Conviction You may request a certificate by completing the Certificate of No Criminal Conviction application (PDF). You must also include a postal money order in the amount of 1.50 made out to: Secretario de Hacienda. Send the money order and letter to: Superintendente Auxiliar Servicios al Ciudadano Policia de Puerto Rico P.O. Box 70166 San Juan, PR 00936-8166 For more information call (787) 781-0227. Puerto Ricos overall literacy rate of 90 percent and its budget for education is approximately 40 percent. Education is obligatory between 6 to 17 years old. Primary school consists of six grades the secondary levels is divided into 2 cycles of 3 years each. The school term in public schools starts in August through mid-December and January through late May. The Department of Education oversees the public education system. The language used in the schools is Spanish, however, English is taught from kindergarten to high school as part of the school curriculum. Some private schools provides English programs where all classes are conducted in English except for the Spanish class. There are also several colleges and universities available throughout the island, including: University of Puerto Rico, Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, among others. Utilities, Newspapers Communications Electricity The general rule in Puerto Rico is United Standards 110 and 120 volts AC, and the outlets take the same two-prong plugs found in the United States. Electrical service is provided by the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority (PREPA) (Autoridad de Energiacutea Eleacutectrica) (aeepr), the second largest government owned utility in the U.S. with assets of 3.5 billion in 1995. It is also the only supplier of electricity in Puerto Rico. Electricity bills are to be paid every month. For more information contact the Customer Services Center at: (787) 289-3434, outside the metro area 1-800-981-2434 or visit the nearest office. New generators are being built to keep up with the demand by adding almost 1,500 megawatts of capacity by 2001. Expansion is part of a five year, 1.6 billion capital improvement program. Two private co-generating plants are under construction. The first, a 600 million facility, broke ground in March of 1998. - Electric voltage 110V, 60-CYCLES, AC - Capacity 5,040,000 kW. - Production 20.02 billion kWh (2011 est.) - Consumption 19.43 billion kWh (2010 est.) Water amp Sewage The island is served by Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authoritys (PRASA) (acueductospr) (Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados) extensive system of over 10,000 miles of water mains and aqueducts and 2,000 miles of sewage lines. Puerto Ricos water quality is subject to the same regulated EPA standards that apply on the U.S. mainland. A private company, Professional Services Group, manages and operates PRASAs system. Tap water is considered safe to drink. Milk is pasteurized and dairy products are safe for consumption. Local meat, poultry, seafood, fruit and vegetables are generally considered safe to eat. For more information contact Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados Customer Service at: (787) 620-2482. Natural Gas Natural gas is delivered by the cylinder. Many Puerto Ricans use natural gas propane stoves instead of electric stoves. Propane cylinders can be obtained from a local propane gas supplier. Solid Waste Puerto Rico has over 32 landfills and waste-burning facilities. As with electricity and water, the only supplier of garbage disposal is the government-run company called Autoridad de Desperdicios Solidos (ads.gobierno.pr), known as ADS. For more information call the main office at: (787) 765-7575 or or contact the nearest office (PDF). Communications U.S. by high capacity submarine cable and INTELSAT with high-speed data capability digital telephone system with about 1 million lines cellular telephone service broadcast stations - 50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV cable television carries all four major U.S. networks. The first local radio broadcast dating from 1923 and television from 1954. Dow Jones and Reuters are among the quotation and news services available. Daily Newspapers (national): 4: El Nuevo Diacutea (endi) (The new day), El Vocero de Puerto Rico (The voice of Puerto Rico), The San Juan Star (thesanjuanstar), and Primera Hora (First hour). Daily Newspaper Circulation: 650,000 (1998) Daily Circulation: 185 per 1000 persons Newspapers Advertising Revenues: 250 million Total Radios: 2.7 million (1997) Radios: 679 per 1000 persons Radio broadcast stations: AM 74, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2006) Television broadcast stations: 34 (2008) Total televisions: 900,000 or 99 of total households Televisions: 1.021 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 18 (plus three stations of the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service) (1997) TV Stations: Telemundo (WKAQ), Televicentro (WAPA), and TELE ONCE . Television Revenues: 1.5 million (1998) Cable TV subscribers: 280,000 (1998) Puerto Rico has modern, reliable United States style telephone service (area calling codes are 787 and 939). All local calls costs 25 cents. Local information is 411, 1-787-555-1212. For directory assistance to others parts of Puerto Rico, dial 0. Person-to-person, collect and calling card calls are easy to place. At the center of the phone book are blue pages in English. Total Telephones (main lines in use): total subscriptions: 813,106 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.) Total Telephones (mobile cellular): total: 3.205 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2015 est.) Telephone Service Providers: Companies providing local and long distance services include: ATT. Sprint, and MCI among others. Internet service companies provide access to the Net through local telephone calls around the island. National providers includes: ATampT, America On-Line, CompuServe, MSN and Sprynet. Local providers: Datacom Caribe, Inc.. Caribbean Internet Services (now a PSINet Company), and PRTC. Internet country code. pr Internet hosts: 469 (2012) Internet users: total: 2.86 million percent of population: 79.5 (July 2015 est.) Companies providing mobile-phone, paging and celluar services include: Centennial de Puerto Rico (centennialpr ), Verizon Wireless (verizonwirelesspr), among others. Companies providing Cable TV services include: Adelphia (adelphiapr), Centennial de Puerto Rico (centennialprcabletv), Liberty Cablevision (libertycablevision), among others. Postal Service Puerto Rico is part of the U.S. postal system (USPS ) and has the same mail rates (28cent for a postcard, 44cent for a first-class letter) and service as provided on the U.S. mainland. Post offices are located in every city and offer Express Mail next-day service to the U.S. mainland and Puerto Rico. In addition, express services are offered by FedEx, UPS, Emery, RPS, and DHL. Taxes in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico has a 6.0 sales tax. Municipalities have the option of imposing an additional sales tax of up to 1.0 (effective on November 15, 2006). In addition, in the event that the governor determines an insufficiency in collections for the general fund an additional 1 to the central government will be imposed. Puerto Ricos combined sales and use tax rate is currently 7. All inbound shipments to Puerto Rico are subject to a local excise tax. Merchandise andor articles arriving from the U.S. that will be sold, consumed, given away, andor remain in Puerto Rico are subject to a 6.6 Puerto Rico excise tax that is calculated from the commercial invoice value. This is payable upon entry to Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico has it own tax system. Although it is modeled after the U.S. system, there are differences in law and tax rates. The Puerto Rico tax system is based on self-assessment. Taxes are paid to the state. In addition, a premium is paid to the Social Security. Individual taxpayers are required to file an annual income tax return when minimum-income thresholds are met. They report taxable income and deductions, compare their final tax liability to any income tax withheld or estimated tax paid, and determine any balance due or overpayment of tax due from the Treasury. For information about the filing taxes in Puerto Rico contact the Bureau of Income Tax at the following address: Negociado de Asistencia Contributiva y Legislacioacuten Departmento de Hacienda P.O. Box 565 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00902-6265. The telephone number is (787) 721-2020, extension 3611. To obtain tax forms and instruction booklets contact the Forms and Publications Division Office at the above address, call (787) 721-2020, extensions 2643, 2645, or 2646, or visit their web site (hacienda.gobierno.pr). Health and Medical Facilities Regulations and requirements may be subject to change at short notice, and you are advised to contact your doctor well in advance of your intended date of departure. Good medical facilities exist in Puerto Rico. Every hotel has a doctor on call for guests. Law requires immunizations for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, and rubella. Immunizations are required for school registration. Drivers License and Drivers Records The process of obtaining a Puerto Rico driver license is easy to follow. When you apply for your license, take the following basic information: Social security card, ID with your full name, residential and postal address, date of birth and drivers license number (if applicable). To apply, visit one of the locations listed on the on the DMV website. Learners Permit Certificate A learners license allows you to practice driving while accompanied by a licensed adult age 21 or older. You must be at least 16 to apply. You can study for the written permit test using the Drivers Manual (PDF) provided by the DTOP available online. To apply you must provide the following: Application for Driver License (form DTOP-775) (PDF) If you are under 18 years of age, but older than 16 years of age, parent or legal guardian must present birth certificate (acceptable forms of identification ) (PDF) and complete a notarized Parental affidavit Medical certificate (form DTOP-260) Social Security number (present Social Security card, W-2 form, SSA-1099, US Military card, or copy State or Federal Tax returns) Provide proof of residence and birth date (birth cerificate or passport - acceptable documents ) (PDF) Three 2x2 photographs Internal Revenue Seal of 11.00 Pass the written exam Learners Permit Certificate with at least 30 days of expedition Pass the driving exam Three 2x2 photographs Internal Revenue Seal of 11.00 If you wish to retake the exam you should present an Internal Revenue Seal of 5.00. Renew of Drivers License Complete the Application for Driver License (PDF), including medical certificate Two 2x2 photographs Internal Revenue Seal of 11.00, if your license has expired you must present one for 31.00 If your license has been expired for more than 2 years and 30 days, you must take the written exam applicable for your license type. Drivers License for New Residents New residents must obtain a valid Puerto Rico drivers license within 30 days of establishing residency and may register to vote after 30 days. If you are a U.S. Citizen and you have a valid out-of-state license you must provide the following: Take an eye exam Pass the written exam, (if you are over 25 and your current license has no outstanding violations, the written exam could be waived) Internal Revenue Seal of 11.00 In most instances eye and written exam is not required when presenting a a valid drivers license from another state. Duplicate of Drivers License Affidavit on the loss of the license, indicating that has not been occupied by the Police or suspended by some court of Justice Two 2x2 photographs Internal Revenue Seal of 5.00 Identification with photo How to obtain a drivers record You may request a driver record by mail by providing the following information: Full name as it appears on your drivers license Social Security number License number Reason for the request Address to which the record should be mailed Daytime telephone number Photocopy of a valid photo identification, preferably your Puerto Rico drivers license Money order in the amount of 1.50 made out to: Secretario de Hacienda. Mail to: Secretario de Hacienda DivisiApartado 41243 San Juan, PR 00940-1240 Requests usually take 2 to 3 business days and mailed out via first class US Mail. Vehicle Registration and Insurance Information To register your car you must present vehicles current registration certificate, title (unless held by lien holder), and your out-of-state license plates. Puerto Rico law does not require drivers to carry vehicle insurance. Voter Registration To register to vote applicants must be a U.S. citizen, 18-years-old by the election date and have lived in the state and county for at least 30 days and within their precinct 10 days prior to the election. There is a good representation of all the major religious denominations in most towns: Roman Catholic, Christian Scientist, Presbyterian, Methodist, Evangelists, Islam, Scots Kirk, Seventh Day Adventists, Jehovahs Witnesses, Salvation Army, Church of Christ, Mennonite, etc. Book Your Trip
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