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THE LUCKY MOJO FREE SPELLS ARCHIVE FREE MAGIC SPELLS DAN SPELL CASTING: Mantra Cinta, Mantra Uang, Mantra Berkah, Hekseng Mantra Ajaib Gratis di situs ini adalah hak cipta oleh masing-masing penulis seperti yang tercantum pada setiap halaman web, dan semua hak dilindungi oleh mereka. Penulis. Dengan kata lain, Anda bisa mendownload Free Magic Spells dan mencetaknya di rumah untuk Anda gunakan sendiri, namun Anda mungkin tidak menyalinnya lebih lanjut, karena penulis mengendalikan hak fotokopi. Secara khusus, Anda mungkin tidak mencerminkan Mantra Sihir Gratis ini ke situs web lain, Anda mungkin tidak mendistribusikannya atau menerbitkannya dalam bentuk cetak (entah untuk uang atau gratis), dan Anda mungkin tidak membagikannya secara elektronik dalam daftar elektronik atau usenet (baik Untuk uang atau gratis) tanpa izin tertulis dari masing-masing pemegang hak cipta. Dasar-dasar Spell Ajaib: Alat dan Teknik Magick Putih: Mantra Ajaib yang Bermanfaat Magick Merah: Mantra Cinta dan Maggie Magick Hijau Ajaib: Mantra Ajaib Uang Ajaib Magick Ungu: Mantra Sihir Meningkatkan Kekuatan Magick Hitam: Mantra Ajaib yang Merusak BUKU REAL MAGIC SPELL Informasi Umum tentang Spell- Casting, Hoodoo Rootwork, Witchcraft, and Conjuration Jika Anda baru mengenal mantra sihir dan casting ejaan, mulailah dengan artikel-artikel ini yang memberikan informasi gratis tentang bagaimana mantra magis sesungguhnya dilemparkan oleh praktisi otentik dari berbagai jalur dan pelajari dasar-dasar sederhana yang sederhana tentang bagaimana Untuk melakukan mantra sihir yang kuat dalam berbagai tradisi sihir, sulap, hoodoo, voodoo, akar, dan mantra. Apakah Kerja Ajaib, Apakah Mantra Nyata, Adakah Hal yang Sama dengan Alat dan Bahan Ajaib Real untuk Mengetik Mantra Ajaib Resep untuk Ramuan Ajaib yang digunakan dalam Mantra Ajaib Ajaib Tip Praktis tentang Mantra dan Ritual dari Praktisi Aktual Pembersih Ritual Magick dan Cuci Lantai di Hoodoo Tradition of Magic Spells Dressing dan Anising Oils dalam Hoodoo Tradition of Magic Spells Dupa dalam Hoodoo Tradition of Magic Spells Sachet Bubuk dalam Hoodoo Tradition of Magic Spells Lilin Burning di Hoodoo Tradition of Magic Spells Cara Membuat Tangan Mojo, Conjure Tas, Tas Mojo, Tas Trick, Toby, atau Slacking Sack Nationing & Membuang Ritual Tetap dalam Tradisi Lonceng Lonceng Ajaib Bagaimana Mages menggunakan Doa Agama sebagai Mantra Ajaib untuk Berkah, Good Luck, dan Perlindungan Arsip Amulet Lucky W: Bagus Keberuntungan Talisman dan Mantra Beruntung yang Digunakan dalam Mantra Sihir Trik Melacak Kaki di African American Hoodoo Tradisi Mantra Sihir Fase Bulan: Bagaimana Mengenalinya dan Bagaimana Memakainya Rk Dengan Mereka Saat Mengeluarkan Mantra Magick Cara Menggunakan Herbal, Akar, dan Mineral dalam Mantra Ajaib Herb Hoodoo dan Magic Root: Mantra Sihir Sample Gratis dari buku Yronwodes Cat Buku Rumus Kuno, sebuah formulasi magis domain publik Errata ke Herman Slaters Magickal Formulary Lihat juga The Lucky Mojo Magic Spells and Occultism Halaman FAQ: Tautan ke Puluhan halaman FAQ Dengan Jawaban untuk Pertanyaan yang Sering Diajukan tentang Magick memesan buku okultisme dan persediaan spiritual dari The Lucky Mojo Curio Co. online okultis shop GRATIS WHITE MAGIC SPELLS Protection Magic Spells, Penyembuhan Mantra Ajaib, Mantra Ajaib, Mantra Ajaib, Mantra Sihir yang Melanggar, Mantra Sihir Jinx-Breaking, Mantra Sihir Hex-Breaking, Mantra Magick Kutukan Palsu Mantra Sihir Putih digunakan untuk melindungi, memberkati, menyembuhkan, dan membantu diri Anda sendiri atau orang yang Anda sayangi. Mereka dapat memberkati usaha baru, membantu pikiran dan tubuh, melindungi orang dan tempat dari kutukan dan heks, mengubah mantra sihir jahat, membalikkan kondisi buruk, mematahkan kutukan, dan membantu mimpi dan harapan menjadi kenyataan. Mantra sihir putih semuanya dimaksudkan untuk menjadi positif, menggembirakan, dan lembut mereka tidak pernah memaksa. Mantra sihir Hollowoo Rootwork untuk Berkat, Pembersihan, dan Penyembuhan Doa dan Mantra Alami untuk Berkat dari Sumber Kristen, Hindu, dan Santeria Memberkati Mantra dan Doa dari berbagai tradisi Magis Mantra dan Doa untuk Persahabatan dan Kebaikan Seruan Ajaran Sihir Ajaib Mantra Mengakhiri mimpi buruk dan membawa mimpi yang baik Kesehatan, energi, dan berat kehilangan mantra sihir mantra sihir untuk perlindungan dari berbagai tradisi Pelindung dan curative sihir mantra dan amulet terhadap mata kejahatan api dinding perlindungan Hoodoo Rootwork sihir mantra Hoodoo Rootwork sihir mantra menggunakan empat pencuri cuka untuk Perlindungan Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Mantra, Shalat Agama, dan Talisman untuk Mantra Pelindung Aman Pelayaran Aman Menggunakan Ayam Hitam, Telur, dan Bulu Ayam Melawan Kesengsaraan Sengsara Pesona dan Mantra Sihir untuk Melindungi dan Menolak Mantra Sihir Pelindung dan Kuratif yang Menguntungkan Menggunakan Garam Mengaburkan dan Jinx- Breaking Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Spells GRATIS RED MAG IC SPELLS Love Spells, Mantra Cinta, Mantra Romantis, Kesuburan Magick, Magang Lidah, Magick Seks, Magic Magic Marriage Mantra Magic Merah digunakan untuk menemukan kekasih baru, mengubah teman baik menjadi kekasih, menarik orang yang dicintai lebih dekat, menerima Usulan pernikahan, merayakan kehidupan pernikahan, menegakkan kesetiaan seksual, memperbaiki perselisihan kekasih, mengembalikan kekasih yang hilang, memperbesar nafsu, meningkatkan libido, menarik pasangan seksual biasa, atau meningkatkan kesuburan. Mantra sihir merah bisa menjadi lembut atau kuat, sugestif atau pemaksaan apa yang membuat mereka semua mantra sihir merah adalah bahwa mereka ada kaitannya dengan asmara, cinta, nafsu, kesuburan, atau seksualitas. Ratusan Mantra Cinta Sihir dan Mantra Cinta untuk Romance, Sex, Fidelity, dan Fertility White Candle Love Spell Lodestone dan Candle Love Spell 3-Candle Love Eja Dressed Letter Love Eja untuk Menarik Cinta dari Afar Suka Aku atau Die Jack Ball to Goofer a Man Honey Jar Spells untuk Sweeten a Lover atau Mendali Pecinta Quarrel Attraction Love Spells Menggunakan Kotoran Makam The Intranquility Love Spell untuk Membawa Kembali Kekasih yang Hilang Cinta Mantra dan Nafsu Lengan dari Berbagai Tradisi Penggunaan Cairan Tubuh di Hoodoo Rootwork Sex Magick, Love Spells, dan Mantra keberuntungan Hoodoo Rootwork sihir cinta mantra dominasi perempuan lebih dari laki-laki Mens mantra sihir menggunakan tinggi John menaklukkan untuk meningkatkan sifat seksual dan menarik wanita Hoodoo Rootwork sihir cinta mantra menggunakan melihat saya lebih dari minyak atau bubuk untuk mendapatkan memperhatikan seksual cinta sihir mantra menggunakan anjing magnetik untuk Menggambar Pecinta Bersama Hoodoo Rootwork Nation Sack: Menggunakan Tas Mojo Womans untuk Menjaga Seekor Pria Mengikat Sihir Cinta dengan menggunakan Rekonsiliasi Minyak atau Bubuk untuk Membawa Kembali Keindahan Er mantra sihir menggunakan daya tarik minyak atau bubuk untuk menarik dalam pasangan seksual dan menarik pecinta Hoodoo Rootwork sihir mantra menggunakan kotoran kuburan untuk membuat seseorang mencintai Anda Hoodoo Rootwork sihir cinta mantra menggunakan kucing hitam tulang untuk membuat kekasih datang kembali cinta mantra di Gau ( Kotak Doa Buddhis Tibet) Mantra Sihir Seks untuk Meningkatkan Libido Wanita Informasi tentang Praktik Seksual dan Ajaib Ajaib dan Seks Magick Berkas Referensi Love Sihir Cinta dan Magick Cinta juga lihat Arcane Archive: agama: hinduism: yoga: tantra yoga see Juga Arcane Archive: mistisisme: seks lihat juga alt.sex FAQ: Jawaban untuk Pertanyaan yang Sering Diajukan tentang Anatomi Seksual dan Teknik Seks (Untuk Pekerjaan Anti-Cinta dan Break-Up, lihat bagian tentang Magick Hitam: Mantra Sulap yang Merusak FREE GREEN MAGIC SPELLS Money Magick, Monetary Spells, Kesejahteraan Mantra, Good Luck Spells, Gambling Magic Spells, Wealth Spells Green Magic mantra digunakan untuk mendatangkan uang tunai, menarik uang, menerima tawaran pekerjaan atau promoti. On, membawa kembali uang berutang, memperbesar kemenangan perjudian, meningkatkan keberuntungan, menarik mitra bisnis dan pelanggan, atau meningkatkan kemakmuran. Mantra sihir hijau bisa lembut atau kuat, sugestif atau pemaksaan apa yang membuat mereka semua mantra sihir hijau adalah bahwa mereka ada kaitannya dengan uang, perjudian, kesuksesan bisnis, atau kekayaan. Rakyat sihir uang mantra dan uang Menggambar Good Luck Mantra Uang Menggambar Magick Mantra dari Berbagai Tradisi Gamblers Lucky Money Magic Mantra dan Lucky Money Charms Madu Jar Mantra untuk Membuat Petugas Pinjaman Favor Your Case Magic Mantra menggunakan Tinggi John the Conquer untuk Draw Uang dan Luck Magic Mantra menggunakan Lodestones untuk Menggambar Mantra Ajaib Uang menggunakan Pasir Magnetik untuk Menggambar Mantra Ajaib Uang dengan Menggunakan Minyak Menggambar Uang atau Bubuk untuk Meningkatkan Penghasilan Mantra Ajaib dengan Mahkota Kesuksesan Minyak atau Bubuk untuk Mempromosikan Sihir Ajaib Karir Anda Menggunakan Daya Tarik Minyak atau Bubuk untuk Menggambar pada Pelanggan dan Menarik Uang Ayub-Mendapatkan Mantra Ajaib Mantra Ajaib untuk Memikat Peminjam untuk Mengembalikan Uang Mantra Ajaib untuk Kembalinya Uang Berutang BANYAK BEBAS MAGIC GRATIS Mendapatkan Kekuatan Magick Mantra, Sihir, Trik Kasus Pengadilan, Pembuatan Pakta, Penjual Jiwa, Ajakan Involatori , Mengontrol Mantra Ajaib Mantra Ungu Ungu digunakan untuk membawa kesuksesan pribadi, menarik sekutu, menerima vonis yang menguntungkan di pengadilan, memperbesar Pemerintahan, memaksa orang lain untuk bersikap sesuai keinginan, meningkatkan kontrol, menarik semangat atau iblis yang membantu, atau meningkatkan kekuasaan. Mantra sihir Ungu bisa lembut atau kuat, sugestif atau pemaksaan apa yang membuat mereka semua mantra sihir ungu adalah bahwa mereka ada kaitannya dengan mengendalikan, memerintah, memaksa, atau membungkuk orang lain terhadap keinginan orang lain. Memanggil setan di persimpangan jalan raya Magick untuk membuat pakta dengan iblis, malaikat, dan roh Mantra sihir rohani untuk Menghubungi orang-orang yang meninggal Kasus Magic Court Magic mantra mantra untuk kasus pengadilan dan hal-hal hukum lainnya Madu menyanyikan mantra sihir untuk memanaskan seorang hakim atau Juri kepada Anda dalam Kasus Pengadilan Mantra Ajaib untuk Sukses Pribadi dan Penguasaan Mengkomandarkan Mantra Ajaib untuk Mengatur, Mengontrol, Miliki Jalan Anda, dan Menghormati Mantra Sihir yang Memikat untuk Memaksa Orang untuk Mendapat Bagus untuk Janji Mereka kepada Anda Mantra Ajaib untuk Imamat dan Imunitas Kesaib The alt.magick Reference File of Demon dan Angel-Summoning Magick Spells Berkas Referensi alt.magick untuk Nama-Nama Demons untuk digunakan dalam Mantra Ajakan Ajaib juga melihat Arcane Achive: okultisme: sihir: seremonial magic FREE BLACK MAGIC SPELLS Kutukan, Hexes, Jinxes, Musuh Trik, Mantra Kematian, Mantra Sihir Negatif, Mantra Sihir yang Merusak, Mantra Magick yang Memaksa, Mantra Sihir yang Berbahaya Sihir Black Magic digunakan untuk menimbulkan penyakit. Dan penyakit yang tidak alami, memecah urusan cinta, menciptakan kondisi yang menyilang, mengusir musuh, memaksa orang keluar dari pekerjaan mereka, mendatangkan pembalasan yang dibenarkan, menghancurkan orang-orang yang telah memberi tipuan untuk Anda, menarik semangat dan setan yang penuh semangat untuk membantu menyakiti orang lain, atau Kutukan dan hex orang mati. Mantra sihir hitam bisa lembut atau kuat, sugestif atau pemaksaan apa yang membuat mereka semua mantra sihir hitam adalah bahwa mereka ada kaitannya dengan menyakiti, melukai, goofering, jinxing, atau musuh pijakan panas. Balas Dendam dan Binding Magic Mantra, termasuk Cermin-Kotak Ejaan Cina dan Afrika-Amerika Black Magick Kutukan Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Mantra menggunakan Debu Goofer untuk Strike Ajaib Musuh Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Mantra menggunakan Kotoran Makam untuk Orang Berbahaya Magical Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Mantra menggunakan Hot Foot Bedak untuk mengusir orang-orang Away Hoodoo Rootwork Magic Mantra untuk membuat kondisi yang disilangkan dan orang-orang yang merusak Kehidupan Hollowoo Rootwork Magic Mantra yang Menggunakan Air Perang untuk Jinx dan Musuh Musuh Memotong dan Menghilangkan Mantra agar Jatuh Karena Cinta, Mengakhiri Hubungan, dan Membuka Jalan untuk yang Baru Love Anti-Love dan Break-Up Spells (Mantra Sihir Hitam yang Menghancurkan Cinta) Mantra Sihir Hitam untuk Mengutuk Kekayaan dari Berbagai Tradisi Mantra Sihir Hitam yang Merusak dan Menyakitkan dari Berbagai Tradisi Berkas Referensi Surmobick tentang Mantra Magick Merusak yang Merusak juga melihat Arsip Arcane : Agama: satanisme Hire a Spell-Caster dari Asosiasi Pembaca Independen dan Rootworkers Asosiasi Indepe Ndent Pembaca dan Rootworkers (AIRR) adalah kumpulan praktisi profesional sihir rakyat Afrika, hoodoo, sulingan, dan akar yang memberikan pembacaan psikis dan layanan perumusan akar spiritual kepada publik. AIRR mempromosikan layanan berkualitas dan perilaku etis melalui akreditasi dan evaluasi anggota kami. Tidak seperti layanan pembaca psikis online komersial, AIRR adalah organisasi yang didukung oleh keanggotaan yang tidak menerima biaya atau suap untuk rujukan. Cari Semua Situs Beruntung Mojo dan Afiliasi Anda dapat mencari situs kami untuk satu kata (seperti archaeoastronomy, hoodoo, sulap, atau klitoris), sebuah frase yang tepat yang terdapat dalam tanda kutip (seperti mantra cinta, persediaan spiritual, toko okultisme, keberuntungan perjudian, Lucky Mojo bag, atau guardian angel), atau nama dalam tanda kutip (seperti Blind Willie McTell, Black Hawk, Hoyts Cologne, atau Frank Stokes): LUCKY MOJO CURIO CO ONLINE CATALOG LUCKY MOJO adalah domain besar yang disusun dalam sebuah nomor Dari situs web yang saling terkait, masing-masing dengan tema dan tampilan tersendiri. Anda sedang membaca: KALENDER KUNJUNGAN LUCKY MOJO COUR OCCULT SHOP. Berikut adalah beberapa situs web MOUNO LUCKY lainnya yang dapat Anda kunjungi: OCCULTISM, MAGIC SPELLS, MYSTICISM, AGAMA, SYMBOLISME Hoodoo dalam Teori dan Praktik oleh kucing yronwode: sebuah pengantar akar akar Afrika-Amerika Hoodoo Herb dan Root Magic oleh cat yronwode: sebuah material magica Dari African-American conjuis Lucky W Amulet Arsip oleh kucing yronwode: sebuah museum online di seluruh dunia jimat dan pesona Sacred Sex. Esai dan artikel tentang yoga tantra, neo-tantra, karezza, sihir seks, dan ibadah seks Pemandangan Suci. Esai dan artikel tentang archaeoastronomy dan geometri suci Freemasonry for Women oleh kucing yronwode: sejarah campuran gender Freemasonik lodges The Lucky Mojo Esoteric Archive. Menangkap file teks internet pada topik okultisme dan spiritual Lucky Mojo Usenet FAQ Arsip: Tanya Jawab dan REFs untuk newsgroup okultisme dan magis usenet Aleister Crowley Text Archive. Banyak teks oleh okultis awal abad ke-5 Lucky Mojo Magic Spells Archives. Mantra cinta, mantra uang, mantra keberuntungan, mantra perlindungan, dan lebih banyak lagi Arsip Spell Cinta Kasih. Mantra cinta, mantra atraksi, sihir seks, mantra asmara, dan mantra nafsu Gratis Arsip Eja Uang. Mantra uang, mantra kemakmuran, dan mantra kekayaan untuk pekerjaan dan bisnis Free Protection Spell Archive. Mantra perlindungan melawan sihir, kutukan, hexes, dan mata jahat Gratis Gambling Luck Spell Archive. Mantra perjudian yang beruntung untuk undian, kasino, dan balapan KULTUR POPULER Hoodoo and Blues Lyrics. Transkripsi lagu blues tentang sihir rakyat Afrika-Amerika EaRhEaDS Syd Barrett Lyrics Site. Lirik oleh pendiri Pink Floyd Sound The Lesser Book of the Vishanti. Dr Strange Comics sebagai sistem magis, oleh kucing yronwode The Spirit Checklist. Sebuah buku komik koran tahun 1940 oleh Will Eisner, diindeks oleh kucing yronwode Fit to Print. Mengumpulkan kolom mingguan tentang komik dan budaya pop oleh kucing yronwode Eclipse Comics Index. Daftar semua komik Eclipse, album, dan kartu perdagangan PENDIDIKAN DAN OUTREACH Kursus Correspondence Hoodoo Correspondence dengan kucing yronwode: 52 pelajaran mingguan dalam bentuk buku Lokakarya Pelatihan Hoodoo Conjure. Kelas akar tangan, ceramah, dan seminar Magang dengan catherine yronwode. Pelatihan 3 minggu pribadi untuk lulusan HRCC yang berkualitas Lucky Mojo Community Forum. Sebuah papan pesan online untuk pelanggan spiritual okultisme kami Lucky Mojo Hoodoo Rootwork Hour Radio Show. Belajar mantra sihir gratis melalui podcast download Lucky Mojo Videos. Lihat tur video dari toko Lucky Mojo dan dapatkan sekilas kereta semangat Lucky Mojo Newsletter Archive. Berlangganan dan menerima kupon diskon dan mantra magick gratis Ikuti Kami di Facebook. Dapatkan berita perusahaan dan update produk sebagai Lucky Mojo Facebook Fan ONLINE SHOPPING Lucky Mojo Curio Co. Persediaan spiritual untuk hoodoo, magick, sihir, dan menyulap Herb Magic. Jajaran lengkap Lucky Mojo Herbs, Mineral, dan Zoological Curios, dengan contoh mantra Mystic Tea Room Gift Shop. Antik, vintage, dan peruntungan kontemporer mengatakan cangkir teh SITUS PRIBADI catherine yronwode. Penulis eklektik dan eksentrik dari banyak halaman web nagasiva yronwode di atas. Nigris (333), nocTifer, lorax666, boboroshi, Troll Towelhead. Taman Joy Blues. Bekas komune hippie 80 acre di dekat Birch Tree di Missouri Ozarks Liselotte Erlanger Glozer. Artikel bergambar pada kartu pos vintage tertagih Jackie Payne: Shades of Blues. Seorang penyanyi blues San Francisco Bay Area ADMINISTRATIVE Lucky Mojo Site Map. Halaman rumah untuk keseluruhan tumpukan elektron Lucky Mojo Semua Halaman. Deskriptif bernama link ke sekitar 1.000 top-level situs web Lucky Mojo Cara Menghubungi Kami. Kami menerima umpan balik dan saran mengenai pemeliharaan situs ini. Lakukan Donasi. Tolong kirimkan sumbangan Paypal kecil untuk menyimpan bandwidth dan mac. SITUS LAIN DARI INTEREST Arcane Archive. Ribuan posting Usenet yang diarsipkan pada agama, sihir, ejaan, mistisisme, dan spiritualitas Asosiasi Pembaca Independen dan Rootworker. Layanan bacaan psikis, sulap, dan hoodoo root Lilin dan Curios. Esai dan artikel tentang sulap tradisional Afrika Amerika dan sihir rakyat, ditambah belanja Crystal Silence League. Sebuah situs non-denominasional mengirimkan doa-doa Anda untuk berdoa bagi orang lain membiarkan orang lain berdoa untuk Anda Injil Setan. Kisah Yesus dan para malaikat, dari sudut pandang Tuhan Psikolog Dunia Hoodoo ini. Hubungkan secara online atau teleponlah 1-888-4-HOODOO untuk pembacaan instan sekarang dari anggota Gereja Spiritual Independen Misionaris AIRR. Layanan doa doa antar iman, Gereja Terkecil di Dunia Mystic Tea Room. Pembacaan daun teh, ramuan cangkir teh, dan museum peruntungan antik yang menceritakan cangkir Setan Servis. Sebuah arsip yang menyajikan teori, praktik, dan sejarah Setanisme dan Satanists Southern Spirits. Catatan abad 19 dan 20 tentang hoodoo, termasuk narasi mantan budak mewawancarai Mantra Spiritual. Pelajaran sihir rakyat dan casting ejaan dari perspektif Wikcan yang eklektik, ditambah belanja Rumah Yronwode. Halaman pribadi yronwode catherine dan yronwode nagasiva, arsip arsip yronwode magis. Lembaga Yronwode untuk Pelestarian dan Pemasyarakatan Etnomagisologi Pribumi Game Kartu Permainan Trading Game BattleTech Collectible Card adalah permainan kartu tertagih yang ada di alam semesta BattleTech yang dikembangkan oleh Wizards of the Coast (WotC) untuk FASA. Menggunakan gaya gameplay dan distribusi kartu yang sama dengan WotCs Magic: The Gathering. Ini dirancang oleh Richard Garfield. Produksinya berjalan dari tahun 1996 sampai 2001. BattleTech CCG menampilkan BattleMechs. Karakter, dan teknologi dari permainan papan asli, dengan karya seni baru yang dilakukan oleh berbagai seniman. Saat ini, BattleTech CCG sudah tidak lagi dicetak. Tujuan dari permainan ini adalah membuat lawan Anda kehabisan kartu dari stoknya (setumpuk kartu). Cara paling dasar untuk mencapai ini adalah dengan menyerang persediaan enemys Anda dengan mechs dan unit lainnya. Setiap pemain membutuhkan dek dengan maksimal 60 kartu. Deck tersebut dapat terdiri dari kombinasi kartu yang diinginkan pemain, walaupun saat bermain dengan peraturan resmi FASA, memilih kartu untuk dek Anda akan terbatas, mis. Hanya kartu dari satu factionclan. Berbagai kartu yang tepat bisa menjadi vital bagi kemenangan dan sebagian besar terkait dengan taktik tertentu. Canonicity edit Meskipun diproduksi dengan lisensi yang valid, kartu BattleTech CCG secara tegas dinyatakan tidak bersifat kanonik. 91193 Dengan demikian, penampilan pada kartu atau teks fluksnya yang terkait tidak membuktikan bahwa ada sesuatu atau seseorang yang benar-benar ada di dalam alam semesta BattleTech, atau bahwa setiap kejadian yang disebutkan di sana pernah terjadi. Namun, sebagai produk resmi berlisensi, kartu tersebut bisa dianggap apokrif. Turn Sequence edit Urutan giliran dibagi menjadi 6 fase, dimainkan dengan urutan sebagai berikut. Selama tahap penyebaran, Anda akan menggunakan kartu perintah khusus (Command Resource) untuk membeli biaya unit dan kartu perintah lainnya seperti pilot, kepribadian dan struktur politik. Setelah mereka dibayar karena mereka dimasukkan ke dalam bermain (dikerahkan) dan dapat digunakan untuk menyerang lawan Anda atau mendapatkan keuntungan taktis. Saat menyerang target tertentu selama misi, unit Anda dapat dibantu oleh kartu misi (yang mungkin dimainkan sebagai instan) yang memberi mereka keunggulan dalam melawan musuh dan unitnya. Jenis Kartu edit Unit. Termasuk Mechs, Battle Armor dan Combat Vehicles Command. Termasuk sumber daya, struktur dan misi Pilot. Sebagai peluang untuk mempengaruhi kombatan Kartu Daftar edit Daftar Kartu Dengan Set: Aturan edit Box Powers edit Permainan kartu BattleTech trading mengenalkan box power dengan merilis Edisi Commanders. Kekuatan kotak adalah,. Sebuah kemampuan khusus yang ditawarkan kepada pengguna sebuah dek melalui afiliasinya dengan Clan atau House. 91293 91393 Aturan untuk kemampuan ini dicetak di bagian luar dek yang telah dibangun sebelumnya untuk masing-masing House Clan amp yang diwakili. Hal ini memungkinkan pemain untuk menukar kartu tak berguna di tangan sekarang untuk kemampuan yang direferensikan. Kekuatan kotak tidak dianggap sebagai kartu atau juga kotak sesuatu yang bisa menjadi sasaran lawan atau dibatalkan oleh pemain. Kekuatan kotak untuk Klan dan Rumah tanpa dek yang sudah selesai dibangun dapat diterima langsung dari Wizards of the Coast. Penerbit game 91493 91593 Aturan kekuatan kotak akumulasi disediakan di sini. Simbol tap melanjutkan setiap aturan. Clan edit Ghost Bear (Alshain) Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk mengaktifkan Mekanika di Wilayah Konstruksi Anda yang telah dibangun sepenuhnya. Pasang 1 counter serangan di atasnya untuk setiap 3 konter konstruksi di atas biayanya. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama fase Deploy Anda. 91693 Jade Falcon (Besi) Memo kartu dari tangan Anda untuk memperbaiki kerusakan sampai 3 unit Anda. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama fase RepairReload Anda. 91793 Smoke Jaguar (Huntress) Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk memilih salah satu Mechs Anda. Re-roll semua dadu rudal untuk itu Mech. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya setelah semua dadu rudal untuk Mech yang telah digulung. 91893 Steel Viper Memo kartu dari tangan Anda untuk mencari Stockpile Anda untuk setiap kartu Unit. Tunjukkan kartu itu ke semua pemain, taruh di tangan Anda, dan kocok Stockpile Anda. Kemudian pilih kartu Unit di tangan Anda, tunjukkan pada semua pemain, dan isi kembali kartu tersebut. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama fase Deploy Anda. 91993 Wolf (Strana Mechty) Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk memilih salah satu Mechs Anda. Mekanisme itu bisa menyerang seolah-olah kecepatannya satu putaran lebih cepat. Gunakan kemampuan ini selama fase Misi Anda, tapi tidak selama misi berlangsung. 911093 Inner Sphere mengedit ComStar (Terra) Memo kartu dari tangan Anda untuk melihat tangan lawan Anda dan membuang satu kartu secara acak dari tangannya. Gunakan kemampuan ini selama fase Misi Anda, tapi tidak selama misi berlangsung. 911193 Davion (New Avalon) Memo kartu dari tangan Anda untuk mendapatkan 2 inisiatif. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama misi. 911293 Marik Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk memberi salah satu Unit Jangka Panjang Anda 2. (Jika Unit itu diblokir, mungkin akan merusaknya dari target.) Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama misi berlangsung. 91993 Kurita (Luthien) Memo kartu dari tanganmu untuk memberi serangan Mech 1 menyerangmu. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama Misi, dan hanya jika Mekanisme itu menyerang sendiri. 911393 Liao memo kartu dari tanganmu untuk memberi inisiatif lawanmu. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama misi. 91993 Rasalhague Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk memiliki kartu Command yang menangani kerusakan total kerusakan total. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya saat Anda mengaktifkan kartu itu. 91993 St Ives Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk mendapatkan A, L, M, P, dan T sampai akhir giliran. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama fase Deploy Anda. 91993 Steiner (Tharkad) Scrap kartu dari tangan Anda untuk mendapatkan. Gunakan kemampuan ini hanya selama fase Deploy Anda. 911493 Referensi edit Di thread ini di Forum BattleTech Forum Clan: Aturan Keterlibatan. Hal. 48, Box power: buklet yang disertakan dengan dek pembuka Clan Inner Sphere: Aturan Keterlibatan. Hal. 48, Box power: buklet yang dilengkapi dengan deck starter Inner Sphere Clan: Aturan Keterlibatan. Hal. 37, Box Powers Inner Sphere: Aturan Keterlibatan. Hal. 37, Box Powers Clan Ghost Bear - Edisi Komando. Dek yang direkonstruksi Clan Jade Falcon - Edisi Commanders. Dek yang direkonstruksi Clan Smoke Jaguar - Commanders Edition. Dek preconstructed 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Wizards of the Coast (dukungan produk) (link mati) Clan Wolf - Commanders Edition. Dek dek yang direkonstruksi ComStar - Commanders Edition. Dek preconstructed House Davion - Edisi Commanders. Dek dekonstruksi House Kurita - Edisi Commanders. Dek dekonstruksi House Steiner - Edisi Commanders. Dekonstruksi yang didahuluiHOODOO, CONJURE, dan ROOTWORK AFRICAN AMERICAN FOLK MAGIC oleh catherine yronwode Artikel yang panjang ini terbagi menjadi beberapa bagian: HOODOO, CONJURE, ROOTWORK: Definisi Persyaratan: Bagaimana Saya Menentukan Hoodoo APA HOODOO IS: Tradisi Sihir-African-American Folk WHAT HOODOO TIDAK: Voodoo, Santeria, Palo, Brujeria, dll. ADMIXTURES: Pengaruh Eropa, Spiritual, dan Kabbalisme terhadap Hoodoo ADMIXTURES: Pengaruh Asia, Hindu, Budha, dan Tao terhadap Hoodoo RESPECT: Apa Itu HOODOO, CONJURE, AND ROOTWORK : DEFINISI SYARAT Hoodoo, Conjure, Rootwork, dan istilah serupa mengacu pada praktik sihir rakyat Afrika Amerika. Hoodoo adalah istilah Amerika, berasal dari abad ke-19 atau sebelumnya. Salah satu maknanya mengacu pada sihir rakyat Afrika-Amerika. Berikut adalah bagaimana saya mendefinisikan kata hoodoo: Hoodoo terdiri dari tubuh besar praktik dan keyakinan folkloric Afrika dengan campuran yang cukup besar dari pengetahuan botani Amerika Amerika dan cerita rakyat Eropa. Meskipun sebagian besar penganutnya berkulit hitam, bertentangan dengan pendapat umum, namun selalu dipraktikkan oleh orang kulit putih dan kulit hitam di Amerika. Nama populer lainnya untuk hoodoo di masyarakat kulit hitam termasuk sulap, sulap, ilmu sihir, akar rumput, pembakaran lilin, dan tipuan. Tiga yang pertama adalah kata-kata bahasa Inggris yang keempat adalah pengakuan keunggulan yang dimainkan akar kering dalam pembuatan mantra dan pengecoran mantra, dan yang ke lima dan keenam adalah arti khusus untuk kata-kata bahasa Inggris yang umum. Hoodoo digunakan sebagai kata benda untuk memberi nama sistem sihir (Dia menggunakan hoodoo padanya) dan para praktisi (Dokter Buzzard adalah seorang hoodoo hebat pada masanya). Pada tahun 1930an, beberapa praktisi menggunakan kata benda hoodooisme (analog dengan okultisme) untuk menggambarkan pekerjaan mereka, namun istilah tersebut telah tidak berlaku lagi. Hoodoo juga kata sifat (dia meletakkan trik hoodoo untuknya) dan kata kerja (dia berkencan dengan pria itu sampai dia tidak bisa mencintai siapa pun kecuali dia). Kata kerja untuk hoodoo muncul dalam koleksi lagu-lagu rakyat pra-blues awal. Misalnya, dalam buku Dorothy Scarboroughs On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs, (Harvard University Press, 1925), sebuah versi yang dikumpulkan dari lagu tari-tua Cotton-Eyed Joe bercerita tentang seorang pria yang menidurkan wanita. Seorang konsultan profesional yang mempraktikkan hoodoo atas nama klien dapat disebut sebagai dokter hoodoo atau pria hoodoo jika pria dan wanita hoodoo atau wanita hoodoo jika perempuan. Referensi awal yang khas terjadi dalam buku catatan Samuel C. Taylors untuk tahun 1891, di mana dia menggambarkan dan menggambarkan pertemuan dengan Dokter Hoodoo saat berada di kereta api. Taylor, seorang pria kulit putih, menceritakan bahwa kata hoodoo diajarkan kepadanya oleh porter Pullman hitam di kereta. Dokter yang dia gambarkan itu adalah seorang dukun dan penyihir rakyat. Lagu blues yang luar biasa dimana kata hoodoo digunakan sebagai kata benda, sebagai kata sifat, DAN sebagai kata kerja adalah Hoodoo Lady Blues oleh Arthur Big Boy Crudup. Direkam pada bulan Oktober 1947 untuk Victor Records. (Transkripsi oleh Gorgen Antonsson, antonsson.sembox304.swipnet.se, dan Alan Balfour, abalfourdial.pipex): HOODOO LADY BLUES Arthur Big Boy Crudup Percaya Jatuh di Louisiana, hanya untuk melihat seorang teman lama saya yang Percaya. Turun di Louisiana, hanya untuk melihat seorang teman lama saya. Anda tahu, mungkin dia bisa membantu saya, memperbaiki masa sulit dan sulit saya. Anda tahu mereka memberitahuku di Louisiana, ada hoodoos di sekitarmu Kau tahu mereka memberitahuku di Louisiana, ada hoodoos di sekitarmu Kau tahu mereka akan melakukan apapun untuk uang, manusia, di dunia, aku nyatakan. Spoken: Iya, man, mainkan untukku diikuti oleh solo gitar Sekarang, Miss Hoodoo Lady, tolong beri aku tangan hoodoo Sekarang, Miss Hoodoo Lady, tolong beri aku tangan hoodoo aku ingin hoodoo wanita ini milikku, aku percaya shes got Pria lain Sekarang, dia bertengkar sepanjang malam, dia tidak akan membiarkan saya tidur. Tuhan, saya bertanya-tanya apa yang dilakukan wanita ini dilakukan terhadap saya. Sekarang, Miss Hoodoo Lady, tolong beri saya tangan hoodoo Sekarang, Nona Hoodoo Lady, tolong beri saya tangan hoodoo Saya ingin hoodoo wanita ini saya, saya percaya dia punya pria lain. Berbeda dengan kata sulap, asal kata hoodoo tidak diketahui dengan pasti. Sebagian besar diasumsikan sebagai orang Afrika, dan beberapa di antaranya mengklaim bahwa itu berasal dari sebuah kata dalam bahasa Hausa untuk nasib buruk. Namun, penggunaan paling awal di Amerika berhubungan dengan pelaut Irlandia dan Skotlandia, bukan budak Afrika. Pada pertengahan abad ke 19, kapal-kapal yang telah mengalami serangkaian pelayaran naas dan kecelakaan disebut kapal hoodoo atau dikatakan telah hoodood. Dalam beberapa masalah, masalah di kapal ini disebabkan oleh roh jahat atau kehadiran. Mereka yang menghubungkan kata hoodoo dengan pelaut Irlandia atau Skotlandia mengatakan bahwa itu adalah transliterasi fonetik kata-kata Gaelik Uath Dubh (diucapkan hooh dooh), yang berarti hantu gelap, entitas jahat, atau hantu runcing. (Ini adalah runcing karena Uath - hooh - adalah nama Gaelik untuk pohon Hawthorn atau May yang runcing.) Asal Gaelik untuk kata hoodoo juga akan menjelaskan mengapa jenis formasi batu geologi yang aneh di seluruh Amerika adalah Demikian juga disebut hoodoo - perangkap Irlandia dan pedagang melihat benda aneh ini sebagai setan yang dipersonifikasikan. Asal Gaelik untuk kata hoodoo, percaya atau tidak, masuk akal dalam hal sejarah Afrika Amerika, untuk sebagian besar pelaut Amerika selama abad ke-19, terutama sebelum Perang Sipil, adalah orang Amerika Afrika, dan mereka bercampur dengan bebas dengan Pelaut Irlandia di perdagangan pelayaran Atlantik dan di pelabuhan dari New York ke New Orleans. Pada masa-masa sebelumnya sebuah kapal hoodoo adalah sebuah istilah yang diaplikasikan pada sebuah kapal hantu, yaitu, seseorang menemukan hanyut tanpa awak kapal. Dari situ menjadi istilah yang lebih umum artinya kapal yang dikutuk atau macet. Pada awal persediaan minyak abad ke-20, bubuk hoodoo adalah senyawa yang diaplikasikan pada tunggul pohon sehingga menyebabkannya membusuk lebih cepat - lagi-lagi mengacu pada hantu - dalam hal ini hantu pohon mati. Itu bukan bagaimana kata itu digunakan sekarang. Di Inggris kontemporer, hoodoo biasanya mengacu pada sebuah olahraga-jinx (Tottenham Hotspurs menyingkirkan hoodoo Manchester United). Di komunitas Afrika Amerika, kata hoodoo telah, setidaknya selama 100 tahun terakhir, mengacu pada keseluruhan rangkaian praktik magis, yang mengutuk dan nasib buruk hanyalah sebagian kecil saja. Eoghan Ballard telah membuat argumen yang menarik bahwa kata hoodoo berasal dari kata Spanyol untuk orang Yahudi. Meskipun ini sepertinya tidak mungkin terjadi, ada beberapa preseden untuk gagasan ini: Di ​​antara praktisi Kuba pemujaan Mkisi Afrika Tengah - yang disebut Palo (Tongkat) dalam bahasa Spanyol, karena penggunaan hutan, akar, dan tumbuhan - Ada dua kelompok besar, mereka yang mempraktikkan Palo Cristiano (Christian Palo) dan mereka yang mempraktikkan Palo Judio (Palo Yahudi). Dalam konteks ini, kata Judio (diucapkan hoo-dyoh) tidak mengacu pada Yudaisme, hal ini mengacu pada fakta bahwa penganut subyektif Palo tidak bertobat ke agama Kristen - mereka mempertahankan simbolisme Afrika dalam praktik mereka dan, seperti Orang-orang Yahudi, mereka menolak menyerahkan diri mereka kepada agama Kristen. Teori Eoghans mengatakan bahwa kata hoodoo mungkin berasal dari pengertian khusus di mana istilah Spanyol Afro-Karibia ini digunakan di Palo - dan dengan demikian akan merujuk pada budak Afrika yang menolak untuk meninggalkan kebiasaan dan praktik di Afrika. Beberapa penulis mengatakan bahwa kata hoodoo adalah korupsi kata Voodoo, tapi sepertinya sangat tidak mungkin. Pertama, Voodoo adalah agama Afrika Barat yang dipindahkan ke Haiti (lihat di bawah) dan hoodoo adalah sistem kepercayaan dan praktik magis Afrika Tengah. Selanjutnya, kata hoodoo muncul di mana-mana di komunitas kulit hitam, namun kata Voodoo ada bersamaan dengan kata hoodoo terutama di negara bagian Louisiana (tempat ia dibawa oleh imigran Haiti di awal abad ke-19) - dan bahkan di sana keduanya Istilah mengacu pada hal yang berbeda sepenuhnya. Akhirnya, di bagian lain di Selatan, kata Voodoo tidak ditemukan sama sekali kecuali tulisan orang kulit putih yang kurang informasi, dan istilah hoodoo, akar, sulap dan sihir banyak diterapkan pada sistem sihir rakyat Afrika-Amerika. Diskusi panjang mengenai distribusi regional dari istilah-istilah ini dapat ditemukan di Harry Middleton Hyatts Hoodoo - Conjuration - Witchcraft - Rootwork, kumpulan materi 5 volume, 4.766 halaman (terdiri dari 13.458 mantra sihir dan kepercayaan rakyat yang terpisah) yang dikumpulkan oleh Hyatt Dari 1.600 informan di Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, dan Virginia antara tahun 1936 dan 1940. Perlu dicatat bahwa dalam semua wawancara yang direkam Hyatt, praktisi rootwork, Bahkan di New Orleans, hanya berbicara tentang hoodoo, tidak pernah dari Voodoo. Sebenarnya, satu-satunya penggunaan kata Voodoo yang mencolok dalam surat yang dikirim ke Hyatt oleh seorang dokter hoodoo hitam terdidik yang mendorongnya untuk membuat janji untuk mewawancarainya. Pekerja akar ini menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa dia sedang menulis surat kepada seorang kulit putih dan sangat jelas dari konteks surat bahwa dia menyesuaikan pidatonya agar sesuai dengan apa yang dia yakini sebagai prasangka cerita rakyat putih. Beberapa. Ada yang bilang voodoo Tapi kita. Yang dikenal di New Orleans sebagai hoodoo. - Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton, 1938. Keanehan ini - orang kulit hitam memanggil orang hoodoo sihir mereka dan orang kulit putih menyebutnya Voodoo, seolah dengan demikian mereka bisa meyakinkan orang kulit hitam bahwa akar adalah agama Afrika Barat atau Haiti - Jelas dicatat dalam buku penting Zora Neale Hurstons tentang masalah ini, Mules and Men, diterbitkan pada tahun 1935. Hurston adalah seorang folklorist Afrika Amerika dengan telinga yang bagus untuk dialek yang juga menulis sebuah buku tentang Haiti Voodoo (Tell My Horse), jadi dia berbicara Dengan otoritas saat dia merujuk subjeknya sebagai Hoodoo, atau Voodoo, seperti yang diucapkan oleh orang kulit putih. Hurston ditunjukkan dengan satu kata kerja bertubuh ganda yang licik bahwa keduanya merupakan kesalahan dialek putih untuk mengucapkan kata hoodoo sebagai Voodoo, dan ini juga merupakan kesalahan akademis otoritas akademis untuk mengucapkan praktik hoodoo kepada BE Voodoo. Sekarang, dapat dikatakan bahwa Hurston berasal dari Florida dan bahwa dia lebih memilih kata hoodoo untuk Voodoo, meskipun yang terakhir adalah istilah yang lebih umum di New Orleans - namun gagasan semacam itu pasti dapat diatasi dengan mengacu pada sebuah wawancara bahwa Ferdinand Jelly Roll Morton, seorang penduduk asli African American Creole dari New Orleans (dan seorang musisi jazz terkenal dengan haknya sendiri) memberikan kepada ahli musik dan musikologis Alan Lomax dari Library of Congress pada tahun 1938. Morton, yang cukup sadar akan rekaman interview and its historical importance, went out of his way to explain many local idioms and turns of speech to Lomax, who was a white man basically ignorant of such matters. When Morton began describing to Lomax why a multiple murderer in New Orleans was never prosecuted, he interrupted the flow of his own words to explain his terminology to Lomax. He said: I guess the reason why he got out of trouble so much, it was often known that Madame Papaloos was the lady that. always backed him when he got in trouble. I dont mean with funds, or anything like that. Money wasnt really in it. As I understand, she was a hoodoo woman. Some. some say voodoo. But we. its known in New Orleans as hoodoo. Reading between the lines in Mortons polite and erudite speech pattern, it is easy to recognize that the some. some are white people -- but he did not wish to offend Lomax by naming them as such -- and that the we are the black Creoles of New Orleans. (A lengthy extract from the interview is at the Southern Spirits web page titled Jelly Roll Morton on Hoodoo in New Orleans. My experience parallels that of Hyatt . Hurston, and Morton, for i too have found that in most cases where the words hoodoo and Voodoo appear to be used interchangeably, further research discloses that a rural black speaker used the word hoodoo and a white or urban black author, editor, or indexer either mistranscribed the word as Voodoo or erroneously explained the speakers meaning by claiming that hoodoo actually is Voodoo. Examples of this error are too numerous to mention they can be found everywhere in printed folklore studies and on the world wide web. For example: the book Voodoo and Hoodoo by Jim Haskins is not about Voodoo it is about hoodoo -- and Haskins, who is black, knows it, too, and said so in the body of the text but still he allowed his publisher to perpetuate the error in his title. Furthermore, in collecting old African American songs about ho odoo, two things are quite apparent: First there are no recordings of songs by white Americans that mention hoodoo until long after the Second World War (and during this same time-period there are hundreds of recordings by black musicians from all around the country that name and or describe hoodoo and its practices), and, second, none of those earlier songs by black nusicians refer to Voodoo it is not until the post-War electric-urban rhythm and blues period that black singers took their cues from white record producers and began to call hoodoo Voodoo in recorded songs. For a clear example of this, see the lyrics transcriptions of two different recordings of The Mojo Boogie by J. B. Lenoir. In African American communities along the Eastern seaboard, the word witchcraft is often used as a synonym for hoodoo. While the work described is more African than European in character, the terminology follows the old British sense of the word, wherein witchcraft is viewed as both a healing art and a harmful activity. However, whereas in mainstream English witch and witchcraft are purely nouns, in many black communities, witchcraft can be a verb when used in a negative context: Thus, a witch is said to practice witchcraft and his victim is said to have been witchcrafted, rather than the mainstream English been bewitched. Thus it would be proper to say, She witchcrafted that old man until she just about run him crazy. In some areas, people reserve the word hoodoo to refer to harmful magic and have another term, like spiritual work, for beneficial magic, but in other regions, hoodoo is said to include everything from love spells to protection magic . Likewise, in the Carolinas, where the word witchcraft is more popular than the word hoodoo, witchcraft generally means harmful (hoodoo) magic, and helping yourself means performing (hoodoo) spells that may increase your happiness, draw money . or enhance gambling luck . Conjure -- sometimes spelled cunjure to express old-fashioned dialect pronunciation -- is another regional term for hoodoo. It derives from the English conjurer, but what is described is neither invocatory magic nor prestidigitation, which is what the words imply in standard English. In the African American community, a conjurer, conjure, cunjure, or cunjure doctor is a hoodoo practitioner, and the work he does is conjure, cunjure, conjure doctoring, cunjure doctoring, conjuration, or cunjeration. Generally speaking, conjure does not carry the negative or cursing connotation that hoodoo can -- and the old-fashioned figure of a conjure man or conjure woman is not quite as open to frightening associations as hoodoo man or hoodoo woman. The term candle burning as a generic descriptor for spell-casting of any kind became increasingly common in the wake of the 1942 publication of the popular instruction manual, The Master Book of Candle Burning by Henri Gamache . The phrase is taken from the books title and it refers to the widesprad use of candle magic among those who frequent black occult shops in urban areas. These stores, which were once equally often known as herb shops or drug stores, stock a wide variety of products, including medical herbs, minerals, and animal curios. Since the early 1940s, they have also been called candle shops, and the form of spiritual work they propagate into the black community is now known to many as candle burning. It should be noted, however, that candle burning does not refer exclusively to the lighting of candles for magical purposes it is a generic term that encompasses the use of oils, powders, herbs, incense, and other preparations -- and thus, a person suspected of practicing magic of any kind aganst an enemy might be said to be burning candles on her. The word trick is not all that common among hoodoo practitioners, but is still used often enough to have generated subsidiary terms like trick doctor, trick bag, laying down tricks, tricking, and tricky. A trick bag is a mojo bag . Being tricky means liable to use conjure when you least suspect it, and can be heard in context in the song Hoodoo Lady by Memphis Minnie (Lizzie Douglas): You better watch her -- shes tricky Other terms for a professional hoodoo practitioner are root doctor, root worker, two-head(ed) doctor, two-head(ed) woman, and two-head(ed) man. The first two refer to rootwork -- the use of herbs for medical and magical purposes the latter three are African survivals, referring to the workers contact with spirits who reside in the cunjure doctors head and may guide him or her. Descriptive verbs for performing harmful hoodoo spell work include to hurt, jinx trick, cross . put that stuff (or thing or jinx) on someone, throw for someone (when powders are utilized), and poison (which can refer to contacted as well as ingested substances). Curative magic to counteract these operations may be called uncrossing . jinx-breaking, turning the trick (sending it back to the sender), reversing the jinx (sending it back), or taking off those crossed conditions. The ambiguous verb fix can refer to either harmful or benign magical operations or conjure work. Generally speaking, when fix is applied to an inanimate object -- as in fixing up a mojo , or he makes fixed candles , or she fixed some baths for him -- the intention is helpful and the word is synonymous with prepare, anoint, or dress. But when the verb fix is applied to a person rather than an object -- she fixed him, she got him fixed, or Im going to use Boss Fix powder on my supervisor, -- the subtextual implication is that the intention is to either manipulate or harm the clients enemies. The only exception to this is in the phrase she fixed her pussy, where the woman dresses or prepares her own genital organs in such a way that any man coming into contact will be magically captured. In this case the intention is helpful to the woman who fixes her pussy, but manipulative to the man who thus finds that she hoodood his nature. If the hoodoo practitioner or conjure worker is also a clairvoyant or a psychic reader he or she may also be known as a gifted reader, a fortune teller, or a Black Gypsy . The reader may divine your future by means of playing cards or tarot cards, palmistry or hand reading, tea cup reading, bone reading, with a pendulum or a spirit board, or by direct second sight or prophesy. Not all readers will work for you or practice hoodoo, but most workers will read for you. Those gifted readers who practice hoodoo folk magic for their clients within a Christian religious context, especially (but not exclusively) within the Spiritualist Church, are sometimes called spiritual doctors, spiritual workers, or spiritual ladies, and are said to perform only spiritual work, by which it is meant that they will pray for a client and help him (magically), but they will not lay tricks or put on jinxes to hurt a clients enemies. WHAT HOODOO IS: AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN FOLK-MAGIC TRADITION Folk magic is a world-wide phenomenon. The beliefs and customs brought to America by African slaves mingled here with the beliefs, customs, and botanical knowledge of Native Americans and with the Christian, Jewish, and pagan folklore of European immigrants. The result was hoodoo. The hoodoo tradition places emphasis on personal magical power and thus it lacks strong links to any specific form of theology and can be adapted to any one of several forms of outward religious worship. Although an individual practitioner may take on students, hoodoo, conjure, and rootwork are not obviously hierarchical systems. Teachings and rituals are handed down from a one practitioner to another, but there are no priests or priestesses and no division between initiates and laity. Root doctors and gifted readers are widely sought after by clients. Whereas in the typical White Protestant Christian social model, especially in its more right-wing form, where magic-workers are shunned or relegated to the outskirts of the community, African-American conjures may be pillars of their community and well-respected members of their churches and fraternal orders. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many of the best workers became nationally known and people travelled hundreds of miles to consult with them. Among such well known root workers were Doctor Buzzard of Beaufort, South Carolina Doctor Jim Jordan of Murfreesboro, North Carolina Aunt Caroline Dye of Newport, Arkansas (shown here) and the Seven Sisters of New Orleans . the latter two both celebrated in rural blues songs . Of all the pantheon of African deities, one, variously known as Nbumba Nzila, Ellegua, Legba, or Eshu in Africa, is clearly recognizable in hoodoo: he is the dark man or black man or devil one can meet at the crossroads -- a direct iteration of his role in African theology. As a trickster and opener of the way, he is vaguely similar to the Teutonic pagan devil . and like that deity, he is often confused by Christians and Jews with the Biblical Satan, but he is not that entity, and many wise hoodooists know well that he is not. Like the folk magic of many other cultures, hoodoo attributes magical properties to herbs, roots, minerals (especially the lodestone ), animal parts, and the personal possessions and bodily effluvia of people. The African origins of hoodoo, rootwork, and conjure can clearly be seen in such magical customs as jinxing . hot footing . foot track magic . crossing . and crossroads magic . in which are embedded remnants of the folkloric beliefs of the Congo, Yoruba, Fon, and Ewe people (whose religions in African and the diaspora are variously known as Palo Mayombe, Santeria, Lucumi, Ocha, Umbanda, Kimina, Candomble, Orisha-worship, Loa-worship, Nkisi-worship, etc. but who do not practice hoodoo per se.) A generic term for this class of folk-magical operation is tricking or laying down tricks . Foot track magic ascribes magical essence to a persons footprint. In practice, the conjurer may, for instance, bury the lifted footprint dirt of his or her victim in a bottle spell with other items or lay a trick by sprinkling a mineral-based powder such as Goofer Dust . an herb-and mineral formula such as Hot Foot Powder . or a scented sachet powder across the victims foot track . where it will be stepped upon. Walking over the buried bottle spell or contact between the powder and the victims foot results in magical poisoning, an unnatural illness, or a run of bad luck. Hot Foot Powder is the name for a mineral and herb powder mix used in a sub-set of foot track magic called hot footing . drive away, or get away work. The Hot Foot Powder is typically sprinkled around the doorway or threshold of an enemy and will cause him or her to leave home and wander the world. It may be laid across a path leading to a home or sprinkled in a place of business, but the classical application is at the enemys door. Crossing is a sub-set of foot track magic in which the persons path is crossed with a mark drawn in the dust or laid out with herbs or powders . The hurt enters the victim through the feet when he or she walks over the mark or trick . Typical crossing marks include wavy lines, crosses, and Xs (the latter two usually drawn within circles). They are sometimes spit into or upon to activate them. Crossing may also include setting out crossed needles, pins, nails, or brooms to work a spell. Because it is an important retention of Central African folk magic traditions, by extension, the word crossing has also come to be a near-synonym for jinxing . a form of curse in which the practitioner throws herbs, powders . or prepared waters or oils into an enemys yard or performs a candle-burning curse. The crossed or jinxed victim is said to suffer unexplained bad luck, often for years on end. Antidotes for foot track magic include finding and destroying the buried bottle spell setting out salt to kill the roots performing a ritual bath, sweeping, and floor washing to remove the powders and the wearing of protective amulets, such as a silver dime . or nine Devils Shoe String twigs, in the shoes or around the ankles. The reason silver is protective is chemistry and chemistry is universal. Silver turns black on exposure to sulphur. Sulphur a.k.a. brimstone smells bad and it is found in the mouths of volcanos worldwide (also in certain mineral hot springs) thus sulphur is universally viewed as infernal. In any culture that has a good god in the sky and a bad goddevil in the ground, sulphur will be seen as a symbol of the bad underworld. Meanwhile, the moon looks silvery and is generally identified with the metal silver. Silver turns black on exposure to sulphur -- hence, wearing silver warns of an infernal attack. This is chemistry applied to magic, it is the doctrine of signatures, and it is pan-cultural. The fact that coins are often made of silver explains why silver coins are used in magic (more than, say, brass or copper or gold coins) -- and why there is also a widespread tradition of silver charms or amulets in almost every culture. Antidotes for crossing and jinxing are called uncrossing and jinx-breaking respectively, and they may entail candle-burning . retaliatory curses, and the wearing of amulets . Crossroads magic involves a set of beliefs about the acquisition of power and the disposition of magical items at a crossroads or place where two roads intersect. African-American crossroads magic is similar to European folk-magic involving crossroads . but arose independently (and probably earlier) in Africa, and reflects African religious beliefs. Hoodoo -- especially in the form called rootwork -- makes use of Native American botanical folklore, but usually for magical rather than medical purposes. American plant species like the John the Conqueror Root (Ipomoea jalapa) shown here have taken on great significance in hoodoo --- a significance that precisely parallels their usage among Native herb doctors. The influence that Natives had on rootwork is openly acknowledged, for the concept of the powerful Indian or Indian Spirit is endemic in conjure and crops up again and again in the names given to hoodoo herbal formulas and magical curios. Many of the most famous rootwork practitioners of the 19th and 20th centuries came from mixed-race families and proudly spoke of learning about herbs from an Indian Grandma. More information about the Native American sources of hoodoo herbal and zoological curios can be found in my book Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic. Hoodoo also freely incorporates European botanical folklore -- e.g. the notion that carrying a buckeye nut will cure rheumatism, which is German and Dutch in origin. Furthermore, since at least the early 20th century, most hoodoo and conjure practitioners have familiarized themselves with European-derived books of magic and Kabbalism such as the Albertus Magnus Egyptian Secrets compilation, Pow-Wows or The Long-Lost Friend, Secrets of the Psalms, The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, and so forth. The use of Moon phases in spell-casting . astrological signs of the Zodiac in magical symbolism . and Planetary days of the week for timing of magic spells and recitation of Psalms, and Prayers -- derived from Jewish and Christian magical sources -- are all to be found in conjure, and moreso among practitioners who are urban or who have had access to books on those subjects. However, although many African-American root doctors work with information about herbs and astrological magic derived from Mediaeval and modern European folklore, the typical hoodoo practitioner or conjure doctor does not place as much emphasis on European systems of word-magic (gematria), number-magic (numerology), or astronomical magic (astrology) as European-American practitioners do. also, while maintaining an altar for candles and incense are almost invariably part of any hoodoo doctors or conjure practitioners set-up, hoodoo conjurations themselves require none of the typical neo-pagan accoutrements such as knives (athames), cauldrons, chalices, or wands. When it comes to divination systems, a few urban hoodoo and conjure readers use astrology and some read tea-leaves, palms, or cards -- but they are as likely to use a deck of 52 playing cards as a tarot set -- and they may call what they do Gypsy fortune telling, a term that came into wide use in the black community around World War Two. The oldest form of hoodoo divination, casting the bones or reading the bones, is a direct survival of a West African system of divination with bones. The American version, rarely encountered in urban conjure or hoodoo practice today, uses a variety of chicken bones or possum bones and maintains much the same form it had in Africa. Another type of divination, in which a specially prepared mojo hand called a Jack-ball serves as a pendulum, is mainly consulted to determine whether one will have luck in gambling at a given time. Divination from dreams is an important part of hoodoo, too. Practitioners consult dream books, alphabetical listings in which each dream image is accompanied by a short interpretation and a set of lucky numbers to use in gambling. In former times, the most popular numbers game in the African American community was an illegal lottery called Policy, and some of the older dream books, such as the perennially popular Aunt Sallys Policy Players Dream Book still carry that name in their title, although now they are used by folks who play state lotteries. Also still popular are the many dream books by Professor Uriah Konje and Professor de Herbert (two pseudonyms of Herbert Gladstone Parris) . The popularity of dream divination in the African-American community is testified to by the fact that in 1942, one major supplier, King Novelty Co. sold no less than 16 different competing dream books. Almost as many are still available today. Probably the one thing that most distinguishes hoodoo from other systems of folk magic is the centrality of the mojo bag or mojo hand, also called a conjure bag . This item, also known as a conjure hand, toby, trick bag, jomo . or nation sack . frequently takes the form of a flannel bag filled with roots, herbs, minerals, and other curios. The mojo bag is usually carried on the person, but it can also be hidden in the bedroom or at a place of business, or placed behind a doorway. There is a taboo against anyone who is not the owner touching it. While numerous other cultures also utilize personal magical bags -- the so-called fetish bags of Native Americans and the red woolen bags used by witches in Tuscany -- the mojo hand is essentially African its closest cultural relatives are the Afro-Caribbean wanga or oanga bag used in Obeah magic and the pacquet used in Voodoo. Variant forms of hand include the luck ball . wound of yarn or string around a hidden object the black hens egg . which is blown out and then refilled with magical powders and the Jack ball mentioned above, a luck-ball-cum-pendulum consulted in divination. Like European magic, hoodoo makes use of ritual candles . incense . conjure oils . and sachet powders -- to which are added, due to the African emphasis on footprint magic and spiritual cleansing . floor washes and spiritual baths. Unlike European-derived magic, however, the hoodoo formulas for these products have no high-flown Mediaeval or New Age names such as Astral Powder or Oil of Jupiter or Serenity Incense. Instead, a hoodoo spell -- called a job -- consists of fixing up a mojo or prescribing a ritual for bringing in good luck or diagnosing metaphysical problems and then countering them. These metaphysical problems are called conditions. The formulae for hoodoo oils . incense . sachet powders . floor washes, baths, and candles used to bring about luck and to stop evil conditions are named after the conditions themselves. Among these are such traditional and colourful titles as Money Stay With Me . Essence of Bend-Over . Compelling . Kiss Me Now . Hot Foot . Follow Me Boy . Law Keep Away . Fast Luck . Court Case . and Fiery Wall of Protection . These names have led many Caucasians trained in European herb-magic to think that hoodoo is fake magic, but when the formulae themselves are examined, one will find remarkable similarities between, for example, neo-pagan Oil of Venus and hoodoo Love Me Oil. This is not to say that all suppliers of hoodoo formulae deliver the herb-based products one hopes they will (any more than all manufacturers of neo-pagan formulae do), but hoodoo books on herb magic show that the knowledge base is comparable in scope and in seriousness of purpose. WHAT HOODOO IS NOT: VOODOO, SANTERIA, PALO, ETC. Hoodoo is not the name of a religion nor a denomination of a religion, although it incorporates elements from African and European religions in terms of its core beliefs. As you may guess by now, it is not at all correct to refer to African-American hoodoo as Voodoo. Voodoo (also spelled Vodoun and always capitalized, as a religions name should be) is a Haitian religion that is quite African (Dahomean, in this case) in character. Above all, it is a RELIGION. The word Voodoo derives from an African word meaning spirit or God. One reason for the confusion between hoodoo and Voodoo is that the study of African American rootwork with respect to African systems of belief has only recently risen above the level of mere speculation. HOODOO IS NOT AFRICAN OR HAITIAN VOODOO Older outsider-scholarly-academic accounts of hoodoo tended to emphasize West African linkages, in part because that area of Africa was heavily traversed during the 19th century by English speaking Christian missionaries who published books mentioning native customs -- which American slave-owners saw as similar to practices they observed among their slaves. This is why many 19th century accounts of hoodoo by white authors call it Voodoo. However, by mid-20th century, with the publication of Flash of the Spirit by Robert Farris Thompson, scholarly focus shifted to the Congo as the source of most of what anthropologists would call African retentions in conjure -- beliefs, customs, sayings, or even complete rituals that have been recorded in Africa and that have survived in the United States through the many centuries that Africans have lived here. As recent scholarship has uncovered, Congo African retentions more closely account for patterns of belief and practice found in American hoodoo than West African retentions do -- and this Congo emphasis also accords well with demographic reconstructions of the original homes of North American slaves. Other African-diaspora religious syntheses sometimes confused with hoodoo include African-Cuban Santeria and Palo, African-Brazilian Candomble and Umbanda, and African-Jamaican Obeah. In most of these religions, as practiced in the Americas, African deities are masked with Spanish, French, or Portuguese Catholicism, and the Yoruban, Fon, and Congolese spirits (Orishas, Loas, and Nkisi) are nominally replaced by proxy Catholic saints, sometimes called the Seven African Powers . Newcomers to hoodoo -- especially white folks with an interest in what they believe to be exotic or other-cultural experiences -- often tell themselves (and, if they are authors, their unfortunate public) that hoodoo is Voodoo and, further, the true and authentic source for all things hoodoo Voodoo can be found only in Haiti and or New Orleans. This is manifestly untrue, and can be demonstrated to be a fiction by anyone who cares to interview rootworkers outside of the Crescent City. Until the 1970s, when there was a widespread American revival of interest in African religions, the only place Voodoo had been openly practiced in the United States was New Orleans, where Haitian slaves (and their refugee masters) had settled after the Haitian slave rebellion of 1803. However, these few boatloads of refugees from Haiti did not constitute the majority of African American slaves in New Orleans, many of whom had been transported directly from Africa, via Spanish-speaking Cuba, or were sold down the river from farther up the Mississippi Delta. One hundred years after the Haitian slave rebellion, New Orleans did have a vibrant Creole culture, but -- and this is extremely important to understand -- by the 1930s, when scholarly folkloric attention turned to the religions of New Orleans, Voodoo had become so debased in memory that even the African American folklorist Zora Neale Hurston found no trace of it. Voodoo in New Orleans had lost any claim to being a true religion, insofar as a religion can be distinguished by the presence of a clergy and a laity, a manner of recognizing fellow congregants, a regular meeting place for worship, and a liturgical order of services in veneration of a supra-human entity. No congregation, peristyle, house, or community of worshippers in New Orleans was practicing Voodoo and whatever remained of Voodoo in New Orleans. There were no regular places of Voodoo worship, ordained or initiated clergy, or regular congregants. Instead of Voodoo, New Orleans was home to another thriving community of Christian folk-magic practitioners who called what they did hoodoo, and their brand of hoodoo was infused with concepts gleaned from the new religion of Spiritualism and the old religion of Catholicism. Spiritualism, a religion founded in the 19th century, had become popular in black communities all around the nation. There were -- and are -- black Spiritualist churches in Northern cities such as Chicago, New York, Kansas City, and Detroit as well as in western cities like Oakland and Los Angeles. During segregationist times, the black Spiritualist denominations began to refer to themselves as part of the the Spiritual Church Movement, rather than Spiritualism, and their churches were called Spiritual Churches rather than Spiritualist Churches, to distinguish them from white-only or segregated Spiritualist Churches. HOODOO IS NOT NEW ORLEANS VOODOO In recent years, contact between Americans and Haitians, an influx of Haitian immigrants to the USA, and the popularity of Voodoo among interested white practitioners with backgrounds in Paganism andor Hermetic magic have led to the creation of a form of the ritualized practice hat goes under the name New Orleans Voodoo. New Orleans Voodoo is a newly constructed faux-religion which has no cultural, family, liturgical, or social roots in traditional African, African-American, or Haitian religions, but traces back to literary sources instead. Since the mid 20th century it has evolved under the hands of four major promoters, none of whom had direct lineage transmission from the previous ones and each of whom accreted a small following which took no part in the major social life of New Orleans. Each of these promoters was or is an author andor the owner of a tourist venue or a store. Each of these promoters and their followers drew or draw upon a handful of 20th century anthropological and popular works describing Haitian Voodoo, which they use as source-books for their performances. These source-books include the works of authors such as Zora Neale Hurston (1938), Maya Deren (1953), Alfred Metraux (1958), Milo Rigaud (1969), and Wade Davis (1985). At best the fabrications of these promoters can be said to be historical fantasy recreations in the style of the Renaissance Faire venues in the USA, and at worst they have been a means to part sincere seekers from their money under the guise of offering exotic initiations or ecstatic worship services that are spurious at their root. The four major promoters of the faux-religion of New Orleans Voodoo have been Robert Tallant (1940s), Charles Gandolfo (1960s-1990s), Sallie Ann Glassmann (1990s), and Denise Alvarado (2000s). Other, less well-known, promoters have included the author and publisher Raymond J. Martinez (1950s), the dancer Ava Kay Jones (1980s-1990s), the author and store owner Sharon Caulder (1990s), the store owner Miriam Chemani (1990s - present), the author John Shrieve (1990s - presnet), and the paranormal haunted tour organizer Bloody Mary (1990s - present). of all of these, only Priestess Miriam Chemani has a legitiamte claim to knowledge. Born in Mississippi and trained a a rootworker, she joined the Spiritual Church Movement and married a man from Belize who brought to her his understanding of Afro-Caribbean practices. Her Voodoo Spiritual Temple takes the form of its name from an eclectic Spiritual Church, and she offers a wide variety of services in both Black American and Afro-Caribbean styles. Aside froom Priestess Miriams ecelective Spiritualist church, New Orleans Voodoo has historically had no community membership base, in Louisiana other than as a source of employment for shop employees, dancers, authors, and publishers. These faux-religionists write books, compose music, sell Voodoo-themed goods in their shops, hold Voodoo-themed festivals and workshops, and put on Voodoo-themed dance and drumming performances for tourists. The latter events were especially popular under the direction of Charles Gandolfo and Ava Kay Jones. New Orleans Voodoo has been promoted to the outside world by small independent coteries of less than ten or twenty core participants who charge money for their literature, workshops, museums, tours, andor performances. Its wider range of participants are tourists and spiritual seekers there is a notable and significant lack of community participation from the environs of New Orleans or Southern Lousisiana in general. None of its leaders or followers can demonstrate that its practices spring from a local community base. More to the point, none of them can explain why hoodoo and rootwork are found without their Haitian trappings everywhere Black Americans can be found, from Clarksdale, Mississippi, to Detoit, Michigan, and from Atlanta, Georgia, to Compton, California. Having been repeatedly accused of fakery, some of the promoters of New Orleans Voodoo have belatedly sought initiations in Africa or Haiti to add gravitas to their literary mining expeditions through well-known works describing Haitian Voodoo. Others have gone out of their way to acquire actual African artifacts to display in their museums, or to purchase Brazilian Quimbanda statuary to resell as spurious Voodoo goods. At least one made a point of importing Haitian art for sale -- some of which, it turned ut, was manufactured for her by a movie-prop maker in Hollywood California. And always among the expensive and exotic faux-Voodoo religious goods are salted a dizzying variety of small, cheap faux-Voodoo trinkets made in China, often decorated in Mardi Gras style, as if Mardi Gras were an alternative form of Voodoo. And, of course, when they wish to promote magick or spell-casting, they turn to traditional African American hoodoo, which they re-brand as Voodoo. HOODOO IS NOT SANTERIA, LUKUMI, OR IFA Santeria, also known as Lucumi, is a Cuban derivation of a West African religion that was introduced to the U.S. as early as 1954, when the first African-Americans were initiated by Cuban-born priests of Lucumi in New York City. It experienced rapid growth during the 1970s when the Cultural Nationalist movement led many American-born blacks to investigate their African heritage and a sudden upswing of immigration from Cuba simultaneously brought an influx of Santeros to the United States. Santeria and Lucumi (also spelled Lukumi, and sometimes allied with related terms such as Ifa and Ocha) are now widespread and flourishing among immigrant and U.S.-born people of various races. Santeria worship features drumming and songs of praise in honour of the diety and an array of supra-human spiritual entities called the orishas. The orishas of santeria have been likened to demi-gods, nature spirits, angels, archangels, or Catholic saints, depending on whom you ask (and it is not my intention here to determine the accuracy of those claims, merely to note them). In Santeria services, veneration is made and offerings are tendered to the orishas and to the ancestral dead, and participants may experience trance possession or mounting by the spirits. Santeria offerings include blood sacrifices, and ceremonies may feature the killing of small domestic animals such as chickens, goats, and ducks and the licking of their blood, as well as offerings of rum, cigar smoke, fruit, and other foods. The veneer of Catholicism that Cuban Santeria acquired over the past few centuries is gradually being abandoned in the United States, especially by American Santeros who are actively interchanging information with Nigerians in an attempt to bridge the gap formed by years of diaspora. Interestingly, one of the many Catholicized proxy images of Santeria --the so-called Seven African Powers . which consists of seven orishas disguised as Catholic saints -- did enter into hoodoo practice during the African Cultural Nationalist era of the late 1970s and can be found in the form of candles . powders . incense . and the like. Its use in hoodoo is emblematic, however, and not religious it refers to the African ancestors, generally speaking, and not to the orishas or to specific tribal groups of African people. In a sense, the exoticism of this image in hoodoo is a parallel to the older (and stil contemporary) employment of Lucky Buddha or Moses or Indian Spirit Guide images in hoodoo it borrows and draws upon powerful pre-existing religio-magical imagery, without committing the user to leave Christianity or to participate in a religion about which the practitioner has only a general knowledge. HOODOO IS NOT PALO MAYOMBE, PALO MONTE, OR PALO KIMBISA Cuba, the same Caribbean island that gave rise to Santeria from the remnants of West African Lukumi, is also was the origination-point for a diasporic adaptation of the Central African or Congo religion. The Spanish name for this religion, which includes some Catholic imagery, is Palo, which means stick -- a reference to the use of herbs, barks, wood, and roots in the folk-magic of Africans and their descendants. There are various lineages of Palo in Cuba, and the best-known terms for them in America are Palo Monte and Palo Mayombe. As with Cuban Santeria, Palo has its own deity and its own lengthy lists of supra-human spiritual entities, the kimpungulu or mpungus, to whom veneration is made and offerings are tendered at ceremonies that feature drumming and trance possession. These offerings include blood sacrifies, and ceremonies may feature the killing of small domestic animals such as chickens, goats, and ducks. Offerings of rum, cigar smoke, fruit and foods may be given as well. HOODOO IS NOT QUIMBANDA, UMBANDA, CANDOMBLE, 21 DIVISIONES, ETC. Just as Voodoo developed among African slaves in Haiti and Santeria-Lukumi and Palo developed among African slaves in Cuba, so did a variety of other African diasporic religions develop among African slaves in other nations along the eastern coast of Central and South America. These religions -- Quimbanda, Umbanda, Candomble, 21 Divisiones -- feature trance possession by spirits and they developed independently of Voodoo, Santeria-Lukumi, or Palo in nations such as Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Belize, and Suriname. They each have their own deities, and their own range of supra-human spiritual entities to whom venerations, blood sacrifies andor offerings of food, alcohol, and tobacco are made. Insofar as immigrants from these nations have settled in the United States and American citizens have traveled to these nations, sought initiations into these religions, and brought their practices back to the United States, there are small, distinct groups of adherents to these religions in the United States. None of these groups can be traced back farther than the 1950s (in New York City) and most arrived after the 1970s (in Florida and California). None of these initiatic religions contributed to the development of hoodoo in the United States. However, as with the image of the Seven African Powers of Santeria, one specific image from these religions -- Santa Marta Dominadora Lubana, an entity from the 21 Divisiones religion of the Dominican Republic (conflated by name, but not by appearance with the French Catholic Saint Martha the Dominator Santa Marta of Tarascon) -- entered into hoodoo during the late 1990s in the form of statuary and printed labels. Lubana is an image of a powerful woman with snakes in her hands, and its use by hoodoo practitioners borrows from and draws upon pre-existing religio-magical imagery, without committing the user to abandon Christianity or to participate in a religion about which he or she has little knowledge. HOODOO IS NOT APPALACHIAN FOLK MAGIC Beginning around 2010, as word of hoodoos eistance had spread into the mostly white Neo-Pagan community, a new mene was cretaed. This one claimed that hoodoo is a form of Appalachian folk magic or that it is a form of Appalachian Granny Magic. An entire book was published in support of this rdiculous claim. And of course, once a book existed, one thousand little copyists spread the word via social media: hoodoo derives from Appalachian folk magic. By 2013, i could wake up, go to Facebook, and read posts from white people all over the country who were congratulatorily telling each other that rootwork is primarily African American but it draws heavily from Appalachian and Irish and French folk magics and traditions. Ini tidak benar. Contact between African Americans in the deep South and Scots-Irish Appalachians in the Mountain South were very limited. (Mostly, they met later in northern cities after the Great Northern Migration, in factory towns like Gary, Indiana.) The mistake is that these johnny-come-latelies to African American culture think that Appalachian folk magic is a root source of hoodoo. Bukan itu. It is, like hoodoo, actually a branch. It is a branch of Scottish-Irish-English folk magic. Hoodoo, which originated with African ways of working, also draws on Scottish-Irish traditions, but via contact with the descendants of English slave masters and their Scots-Irish bond servants in the South, not via contact with Appalachian farmers and fur trappers. Furthermore, both were influenced by contact with Native Americans. In other words, hoodoo has more sources and is more comingled than Appalachian folk magic, but although Appalachian folk magic and hoodoo share one source (Scots-Irish folk magic), hoodoo did not ever draw upon (much less draw heavily) from Appalachian customs and traditions. As for the idea that hoodoo draws heavily from French folk magic, that is simply a fantasy. Such an influence can be found in one limited region, rural Louisiana, where the traiteur tradition lingers -- but not French people settled into Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, or Texas to have made any impression at all upon the folk magic of black people in those regions. HOODOO AND AFRICAN RETENTIONS The bulk of the African-American populace in the U.S. -- that is, those people who are primarily descended from African slaves and Anglo-American slave-owners -- practice the religion known as Protestant Christianity. The major denominations represented are Baptist, Methodist, and African Methodist Episcopalian. If, in addition to their regular Sunday worship they also engage in folk-magic, what they are doing would in all probability be the African-European-American conflation called hoodoo, conjure, or rootwork. There are, of course, certain customs and beliefs which can be seen as more or less Pan-African (ancestor veneration comes to mind as an example) and these need not be linked to one African group or another -- for virtually every African captive would have shared these beliefs. Likewise, certain food customs and recipes have either been retained from Africa or have been fairly uniformly adapted into European-American cuisine in such a way that these foods are as recognizably black American as the African folkways that are noted by anthropologists One thing i look out for when trying to determine the actuality of African retentions over the course of hundreds of years in the USA is their distribution pattern. African captives themselves were distributed widely throughout the Americas, both North and South, in the Northeastern urbanized region as well as in the better-documented rural Southern slave states. In ALL of those places, you will find common African retentions, such as -- to name four of them off the top of my head: using specific hot and spicy food ingredients in recipes that are designed to produce love, monetary benefit, or compliance from those who eat the foods, mixing pepper and salt and wearing it in your shoe for protection from witchcraft and negative spellcraft, working with live ants (in their nests) in an assortment of spells. mixing up three-ingredient spiritual cleansing baths and floor washes that have a mineral component, These ideas, and other similar African magical customs, will be found everywhere that black folks live in America, from Sandusky, Ohio to Atlanta, Georgia. Not everyone will believe in them or use them, but they are a common heritage in the culture and will be encountered on a regular basis -- just the way you will see Irish Americans all over the USA talking about hanging horseshoes with the points up or the luck will run out. So when someone tells me that a common African American belief derives from New Orleans Voodoo i just smile. It is African, and it is EVERYWHERE. New Orleans is just a little part of everywhere. ADMIXTURES: EUROPEAN, SPIRITIST, AND KABBALIST INFLUENCES ON HOODOO The African aspects of hoodoo -- foot track magic, crossroads magic, laying down tricks . ritual sweeping and floor washing . and ritual bathing -- have been well documented by folklorists interested in exploring what are called African survivals in American black culture. What is less well recognized is the evidence that hoodoo practice during the 20th century (and arguably in the late 19th century as well), was greatly admixed with European folk-magic, Mediaeval conjuration, Jewish Kabbalism, Allan Kardecian Spiritism, and even a smattering of Hindu mysticism. What is incorporated into hoodoo from European grimoires does not go by the book. It does not look much like what one imagines Abramelin the Mage or Faust to have done, nor does it resemble ceremonial magick as practiced in European and American occult lodge systems since the 19th century. This is because hoodoo incorporations of European grimoire material fall into four categories: 1) Employment of botanical, mineral, and zoological curios according to the wonder book tradition of Anglo-Germanic Europe (e.g. Albertus Magnus Egyptian Secrets and John George Hohmans Pow-Wows or The Long-Lost Friend. ) 2) Recital of Psalms and selected Biblical verses for magical purposes according to Jewish (and later Christian) magical traditions as exemplified in. which was translated into German and thence into English under the title Godfrey Seligs Secrets of the Psalms and 3) Recital or writing out of selected power words according to the pagan European and Jewish magical traditions, such as the SATOR square (ancient Roman), and SHADDAI (Jewish), which are found in such books or may have been acquired through direct contact with contemporary Jews. 4) The use of Moon phases and Moon signs in timing magic spells to draw or repel according to the Moons waxing and waning and and understanding of Zodiacal and Planetary symbolism in spell-casting . 5) Employment of talismans, lucky charms, lucky coins, and seals and sigils made according to the Christian-Jewish Kabbalist meld that produced European grimoires such as The Key of Solomon, and The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses -- but without the rites themselves, just the use of the seals. 6) The use of herbs in hoodoo is often neither European Pagan nor African. In some cases, to the surprise of those unfamiliar with the practice, it is Jewish, often as adapted by Christians from Jewish traditions. For example, let us consider the use of Hyssop in cleansing baths. See Psalms 51, and realize that any Jew or Christian will use Hyssop for cleansing. That includes white as well as black Jews and Christians. Interestingly, the word translated into English as Hyssop in the King James Bible is not the herb called Hyssop in Europe or America -- that herb does not grow in the Middle East -- but the European Hyssop has been used as a satisfactory substitute for a millennium at least. Frankincense is another example: This resin incense has been sold by pharmacists, perfumers, and church supply companies since the invention of modern commerce. Black people could order it as easily as whites. It is burned in black churches too, not just in white churches. The creation of ritual circles, robes, and tools and other strictly ceremonialist material in the grimoires -- and it is important to note that not all grimoires of European origin even do contain ceremonialist instructions regarding circles, consecrated swords, and the like in the first place -- has been elided in hoodoo. What are used are the words (Psalms and Jewish kabbalist and pagan European power words) and the pictures (seals and sigils). In practical terms, the seals are made into paper talismans and placed in mojo bags or other packets. To understand the gestalt of hoodoo better, i urge students to focus on the development of urban hoodoo from rural hoodoo. Urban hoodoo began to develop after the end of the Civil War in 1865 and reached full penetration with nationwide mail order supply houses by 1935. Urban hoodoo incorporates elements of Jewish magic (the Psalms used as magical texts, the names of various angels and archangels), Christian magic (primarily German folk magic of the Albertus Magnus sort, via Pow Wows by John George Hohman) and even smatterings of Hindu (lucky elephant) and Chinese (Lucky HoteiBuddha) folk magic. It is as urban and urbane as any other form of occultism, but it uses the elements it has incorporated from other cultures in service of a primarily African interest in certain forms of magic (notational customs for these ways of working include concepts such as foot track, metallic, live things, and hot-spicy). At this point, some well-meaning primitivist folk magician usually jumps up with the spurious claim that old-time rootworkers could not learn from the Bible or from occult tomes because they were illiterate. So now we have to ask, why do White people want to believe that Black people cannot read or write Racial stereotyping Well, no matter why the question is raised, lets just look at the truth or falsehood of the premise. The idea that root doctors were illiterate can be blown apart very quickly by reading the 1,600 hoodoo practitioner interviews collected by Harry Hyatt during in the 1930s. Hyatt reproduced the business cards of rootworkers in his book. Obviously the cards were printed out and given to clients who can read. Hyatt interviewed rootworkers who were agents for Valmor, Lucky Heart, Curio Sales, and other companies of the era and who showed him their order forms and read lists of herbs and curios aloud to him. Hyatt interviewed rootworkers who told him that they had read books such as the 6th and 7th Books of Moses (an English translation of a German Judeo-Christian grimoire first published in the 15 or 16 hundreds). He interviewed rootworkers who explained that they had studied with the Rosicrucians (AMORC) in San Jose and received diplomas from them. Obviously these people were literate But lets go back to an even earlier decade, the 1920s: Not only was Zora Neale Hurston running around interviewing her family and friends about hoodoo and writing up everything she knew for the Journal of American Folklore (later published in the book Mules and Men), we also can see that decade as the first real heyday of Jim Jordan -- the subject of F. Roy Johnsons biography, The Fabled Dr. Jim Jordan, A Story of Conjure (1963). Jordan was born in 1871 and was fully literate and he became a conjure doctor around 1905. Not only that, he also sold books like Pow Wows and The 6th and 7th Books of Moses in his conjure shop in the tiny town of Como, North Carolina as early as the 1920s, according to his sons, who were interviewed by the author. He would not have stocked such books in his store unless he had customers who could read them. So lets go back farther, to the 1890s: The earliest spell-by-spell account of hoodoo was published in The Southern Workman and Hampton School Record in 1895. Hampton was an all-black college -- and the article, in three parts, consisted of a written survey by Alice Bacon and Leonora Herron of all the hoodoo practices found among the colleges (Black) students Lets go farther back yet: Charles Wadell Chesnutt, the African American author of The Conjure Woman (1899) had been writing fiction that contained accurate descriptions of hoodoo since the 1870s. Most of these stories are online. So lets go back even farther in time: Consider the African American trance medium and sex magician Paschal Beverly Randolph, born in 1825 and the author of dozens of books on magic, who sold conjure supplies by mail order even before Emancipation. He wrote articles for magazines and took out ads in magazines and obviously he was counting on people to read those ads. In short the people who wrote the first early accounts of hoodoo were all Black people. Yes, of course, there are illiterate people in the USA, and some of them are conjure doctors, no doubt, but dont go falling into stereotyped thinking and assert that oldster conjure doctors could not read or write. If anyone in their local community COULD read and write, it was the root doctors Because the topic of European and Jewish inclusions in hoodoo is fraught with racial and social land-mines, especially when one takes into consideration the commercial contributions of Jewish chemists and suppliers of conjure goods -- and because this long history has been repeatedly glossed over or flatly disputed by those whose academic careers rest upon discovering African survivals in hoodoo to the exclusion of any European influences, i would like to present here a single case study dealing with one book of European magic and its profound influence on 20th century hoodoo. The book is John George Hohmans Pow-Wows or The Long-Lost Friend. If you are unfamiliar with this book, perhaps you should click on its link and acquaint yourself with it before reading what follows. As a sample, let us consider the use of Five-Finger Grass in hoodoo. Five-Finger Grass entered hoodoo through the acceptance of the Christian magic book Pow Wows, which is more or less a redaction of one of the German spurious Albertus Magnus grimoires -- and 100 Christian, what with all its appeals to Jesus, Mary, Joseph, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and the reciting of Pater Nosters, AND the fact that Albertus Magnus was a Christian monk and became a Christian Saint. ). Therefore, although some people may claim its use to be pagan European, they would have to find a reference earlier than Albertus Magnus in order to actually prove that European witches did not pick it up from Albertus Magnus Christian magic books. Also, since Potentilla species grow wild in North America, you need to look at how the various tribes of American Natives used it medically and magically -- because much of hoodoo came from that source too. But, if you want to take my word for it, i can tell you that i have done a bit of reasearch on this particular species and that Five-Finger Grass is only recorded in hoodoo spells after the rise of Morton Neumanns mail order herb supply system -- and he sold Pow Wows to his hoodoo customers, so it is pretty likely that he was the inadvertent source for its popularity in hoodoo after World War One. Because a certain incredulity surrounds claims that Hohmans quintessentially Germanic grimoire had considerable popularity among African-American root doctors in the South, i shall herewith supply evidence to back up this contention. To do this, i need to take you back to the period between World War One and World War Two, to the glory days of outfits like the King Novelty Co. and its sister-companies, Famous Products Distribution and Valmor Beauty Products, all three owned and operated by a Jewish chemist and hoodoo supplier named Morton Neumann, out of Chicago. Valmors top-selling products included Sweet Georgia Brown and, eventually, Madame Jones hair pomades, when the Madam Jones Co. line was folded into the Valmor line. King Noveltys line included typical hoodoo curios such as John the Conqueror roots and Black Cat incense. But in actuality, the Valmor and the King Novelty lines overlapped considerably. The same address was used for both companies and each ones catalogue carried many pages of ads for the others line of goods. Neumann also mingled cosmetics with folk magic, resulting in beauty products packaged and marketed as quasi-spiritual supplies (e.g. Lucky Brown cosmetics and Lucky Mo-Jo Good Luck perfume). Some major competitors to KingValmor were the Lucky Heart Cosmetics Company Judeo-Christian Religion, Kabbalism, and Spiritism Secrets of the Psalms by Godfrey Selig The Eighteen Absent Years of Jesus Christ by Lloyd Kenton Jones The Holy Bible (3 different editions of the King James Version) The 6th and 7th Books of Moses (anon.) The Ten Lost Books of the Prophets by Lewis de Claremont (10 separate booklets, sold as a set) Can We Talk to Spirit Friends by Swami Vishita European (Judeo-Christian) Magic and Divination Pow-Wows or Long-Lost Friend by John George Hohman Legends of Incense Herb amp Oil Magic by Lewis de Claremont The Seven Keys to Power by Lewis de Claremont The Ancients Book of Magic by Lewis de Claremont Herrmans Book of Black Art by Herrman The Book of Birthdays (Anon.) ( simple astrology for hoodoo use ) The Secrets of Numbers Revealed by Godfrey Spencer (numerology) Self-Improvement How to Make Love: The Secret of Love-Making Explained (Anon.) Book of 1000 Ways to Get Rich: Book of Knowledge (Anon.) Love Letters: How to Write Them (Anon.) Lovers Secrets or The Art of Wooing, Winning, and Wedding by the Wehman Bros. Dream Books All Star Lucky H. I. T. Dream Book (Anon.) Aunt Sallys Policy Players Dream Book by Aunt Sally The Cuban B. O. Dream Book by Professor Konje The Egyptian Witch Dream Book and Fortune Teller (Anon.) The Five in One Dream Book by Madame Vangina Hamdda Genuine Afro Dream Book (Anon.) The Golden Dream Book (Anon.) The Great Divine Dream Book (Anon.) King Tut Policy Players Dream Book (Anon.) Lucky Number Policy Players Dream Book Including Napoleons Oraculum (Anon.) The Lucky Star Dream Book by Professor Konje National Dream Book (Anon.) Policy Petes Mutuel Number Dream Book by Policy Pete Prince Ali Lucky Five Star Dream Book by Prince Ali The Success Dream Book by Professor De Herbert The Witches Dream Book and Fortune Teller (Anon.) Unclassifiable The Worlds Greatest Magician: Black Herman by Black Herman (4 books in one -- co mbines the autobiography of an African-American stage magician, instructions for simple stage magic tricks, astrological interpretations, dream interpretations, and a few hoodoo formulas) Note that of all these books, only ONE -- the Black Herman autobiography -- specifically mentions hoodoo of the sort that we consider to be African-American or that contains African folk-magic remnants -- and this in a catalogue FILLED with conjure bags and hoodoo supplies. (Samples: High John the Conqueror Root Fixed in Bag with Van Van Oil and Five Finger Grass, Lodestone Fixed in Bag with Lodestone Powder and Magnetic Sand , Southern Style Herb Bag Dressed with Southern-Style Van Van Oil). Obviously King Novelty was targeting Southern hoodoo practitioners, but as late as 1942, the company had no written material on hoodoo to sell to them. The first spell-book that reflected contemporary urban African-American spiritist-Christian practices was Henri Gamaches Master Book of Candle Burning, published in 1942. This treatise on the New Orleans style Philosophy of Fire appeared in Kings catalogue for 1943 it was followed by other books by Gamache . such as The 8th, 9th, and 10th Books of Moses . that collected folklore from African-American, Afro-Caribbean, ancient Roman, Mediaeval European, and contemporary Hindu folk sources. Until Gamache came on the scene, distributors like King placed books on European folk-magic in the hoodoo pipeline instead. Was this effective Yes, it was. Did African-Americans in the South adopt the European folklore and Mediaeval Jewish Kabbalism found in these books in their own practices Yes they did. In Harry Middleton Hyatts 5 volume compilation of hoodoo spells collected from 1600 hoodoo practitioners in the South during the 1930s, several informants tell Hyatt where to purchase herbs and oils for use in root working. The King Novelty Company of Chicago is specifically mentioned by name many times, although Hyatt fumbles the transcription, calling it the King Narveille Company (Narveille presumably conflates novelty with reveille to form the sound-pattern nar-vell-ee). Although most of Hyatts informants describe how they lay down tricks according to the old, traditionally African-derived methods, a surprising number of them name specific books on European and Kabbalistic magic that they have found valuable in hoodoo work. For instance, interviewee no. 1534, a Louisiana-born black conjure doctor from Memphis, Tennessee, tells Hyatt that in order to perform a certain rite to regain a lost lover for a client, Yod have to talk Hebrew-like. Yo realize de Hebrew language -- some of dats in de Six and Seven Books of Moses and den de balance is in de 91 Psalms of David probably a reference to Godfrey Seligs Secrets of the Psalms . Later in the interview, the same man tells Hyatt that he has read The Black Art, by Hermann and Albertus Magnus Egyptian Secrets. The former is a 19th century treatise on necromancy, mesmerism, scrying, and other occult subjects the latter is one of several 19th century collections of magical lore spuriously attributed to the German Saint Albertus Magnus (1193-1280). This conjure worker is not unique his familiarity with the catalogue offerings of King Novelty and its competitors is echoed everywhere in the Hyatt interviews. Another informant tells Hyatt to buy copies of certain books from the Dorene Publishing Company of Texas and even takes the time to spell out the companys name and address for him. Dorene has long published Secrets of the Psalms and Lewis de Claremonts Seven Keys to Power, both listed in the 1942 King catalogue above. Still in business, the company continues to market its line through International Imports, The Lucky Mojo Curio Co. . and other national distributors of such material. A competing publisher, Joe Kays Fulton Religious Supply of Brooklyn, New York . supplied Pow-Wows or The Long-Lost Friend to King Novelty, and kept it in print well into the 1990s. The King catalogue of 1942 refers to Pow-Wows as one of our best sellers and notes that it was reissued at the request of a large number of people who are said to place complete faith in Hohmans writings. I cannot speak to the latter claim, but in my experience, the former statement is STILL true, fifty-five years after it appeared in the King catalogue, and long after King Novelty itself went out of business: Pow-Wows is one of the top two best-selling books carried by my own Lucky Mojo Curio Co. (The other is Aunt Sallys Policy Players Dream Book, also listed in that 1942 King catalogue). Obviously, it can be shown that one specific collection of German folk magic first published in Pennsylvania in 1820 became a staple source of knowledge among African-American root workers in the South during the early 20th century -- but i could repeat this documentation of European influences on hoodoo by giving similar details on the popularity of virtually every book listed in the 1942 King catalogue or advertised in the pages of The Chicago Defender during the 1940s. However, i shall not belabour the point, because i think the case is proved: Hoodoo is not strictly an African survival phenomenon. It is also not a religion per se. It consists of a strong core of African folk magic admixed with American Indian herb lore, European folk magic (much of which pre-dates Christianity), and Jewish Kabbalistic magic. It is, in short, as African -- and as American -- as the blues and jazz. Illustrations of labels, packaging, catalogue pages, advertisements, and agents flyers for Valmor, King Novelty, Lucky Brown, Lucky Heart. Clover Horn, and other cosmetics and spiritual supply companies of the pre-World-War-Two era, plus further text-based information on the interplay between occultism and hoodoo in the inter-war period, can be found on these Hoodoo in Theory and Practice pages by cat yronwode . Clover Horn Company, Baltimore, Maryland Hoyts Cologne, a lucky perfume Lucky Brown, Valmor, King Novelty, Chicago, Illinois Lucky Heart Cosmetics, Memphis, Tennessee Lucky Mon-Gol Curios, Memphis, Tennessee The lucky aspects of commercial hair care preparations Laying Tricks and Disposing of Ritual Remains Oracle Products and the mysterious Mr. Young, New York City, New York Guidance House and Sydney J. R. Steiner a.k.a. Mikhail Strabo, New York City, New York Aunt Sallys Policy Players Dream Book Mojo Bags Lodestones Jews in Hoodoo ADMIXTURES: ASIAN, HINDU, BUDDHIST, AND TAOIST INFLUENCES ON HOODOO Although the results are less easily seen than the European admixtures to hoodoo . African American conjure doctoring traditions have expanded to include quite a bit of Asian religious and cultural imagery, including product names and even formulas derived from Buddhist . Taoist, and Hindu sources. This trend began during the late 19th century and was nationwide in scope by the mid 1920s. It was especially notable in the names and images found on various forms of incense that were marketed throughout America at that tme. Among the popular hoodoo spiritual supplies with Asian roots are Chinese Wash . Ling Nuts (called Devil Pods or Bat Nuts ), Lucky Buddha and Laughing Buddha products, and a line of incense and candles marketed under the name Lama Temple -- a name that refers to the lamas or priests of Tibetan Buddhism . In more recent times, the rise of popular culture interest in Hindu religion during 1960s, led spiritual workers to adapt and work with Hindu deities . most especially Ganesh , the elehant-headed god associated with breaking through obstacles, and Kali . a wrathful goddess. RESPECT: WHAT IT IS Having examined a number of admixtures to hoodoo, it is important to return to the core of the tradition. In other words, just because this African system of folk magic contains visible evidence of European Christian, Jewish . Native American, and even a few Asian admixtures, that does not mean that it a wide-open system of eclectic magic where anything goes. Hoodoo is African American folk magic, primarily the folk magic of African American Protestant Christians, with some inclusion of African American Catholics, African American Spiritualists, African American Muslims, etc. -- and is well documented as such. Anyone who misses that point is wasting their time. Hoodoo has its own cultural repertoire of tools, spells, formulas, methods, techniques, and beliefs. Within that cultural repertoire, people make their own choices of how to conduct themselves and how to create a work of magical intent -- but they remain within the cultural repertoire as they do so. I generally explain this by using a cooking analogy: If you are learning to cook Italian style food, you have the choice of many arrays of antipasto, many styles of pasta, many styles of sauces, many forms of dessert. There are regional variations and historical variations as well. BUT -- you know, when you see it, smell it, and taste it, if the food is traditional Italian. WHY because even with all the possible variations invoked by the cook, the list of ingredients, the methods of preparation, the chosen combinations of taste and texture all fit the cultural context of food as defined by generations of Italian people. What seems to the outsider like a matter of personal preference on the part of the cook is actually a personal preference on the part of the cook WITHIN A CULTURAL TRADITION. No Italian cook would serve Yorkshire pudding as antipasto. No Italian cook would boil pasta in vinegar. No Italian cook would substitute Coffee liqueur for Olive oil. No Italian cook would serve marinara sauce on rice noodles. No Italian cook would prepare scampi with molasses in the sauce. WHY NOT, if it was their preference to do so Because it would NOT be their preference to do so, because they are serving a generations-long tradition, called Italian cooking. Thus it is with hoodoo: We do not use Mullein leaf for Graveyard Dirt . We do not give people untied mojo hands . We do not wear a headcap of bells and feathers and dance around naked under the full moon. We do not vibrate names of the archangels of the four quarters in Hebrew before we make up a honey jar . Our preferences admit of variation, but our variations fall within the generations-old tradition of conjure. Hoodoo does not actively exclude belief, participation, or practice by White Protestant Americans, White Neo-Pagan Americans, Jewish Americans, White Catholic Americans, Hispanic Catholic Americans, Central Americans, Asian Americans, Asians, Europeans, Africans, Afro-Caribbeans, Australian Aborigines, South Americans, or Native Americans, because it has no centrally hierarchical authority structure to do so. But the lack of a central power structure does not mean that any person or group can appropriate or redefine hoodoo, anymore than anyone can appropriate or redefine traditional Italian cookery. Hoodoo remains as it always has been: African American folk magic, primarily the folk magic of African American Protestant Christians, with some inclusion of African American Catholics, African American Spiritualists, African American Muslims, etc. Hoodoo spells are more often than not performed with accompanying Biblical text, particularly from The Biblical Book of Psalms . and they are more often than not performed in Jesus name In my opinion, any practitioner of conjure who did not grow up within African American culture is either a guest and should have the good manners of a guest, or has joined into the culture in some way and to some extent and should therefore be ready to defend African American culture, including hoodoo, against the redefinitions, reworkings, and appropriations that outsiders continually seek to inflict upon it. In other words, if you cannot respect hoodoo as it is and for what it is, then please, do not mess with it at all. 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