Iroquois-trading-system

Iroquois-trading-system

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Iroquois yang juga dikenal sebagai Haudenosaunee atau People of the Longhouse, adalah liga dari beberapa negara dan suku masyarakat adat Amerika Utara. Setelah orang-orang yang berbicara bahasa Iroquoian dari New York tengah dan bagian utara New York bergabung sebagai suku yang berbeda, pada abad ke-16 atau lebih awal, mereka berkumpul dalam sebuah asosiasi yang dikenal sekarang sebagai Liga Iroquois, atau Liga Perdamaian dan Kekuasaan. Liga Iroquois asli sering dikenal sebagai Lima Bangsa, karena terdiri dari negara-negara Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga dan Seneca. Setelah bangsa Tuscarora bergabung dengan Liga pada tahun 1722, Iroquois dikenal sebagai Enam Bangsa. Liga diwujudkan di Grand Council, sebuah majelis dari lima puluh sakral turun-temurun. Orang-orang Iroquia lainnya tinggal di sepanjang Sungai St. Lawrence, di sekitar Great Lakes dan di Southeast Amerika, tapi mereka bukan bagian dari Haudenosaunee dan sering berkompetisi dan berperang dengan suku-suku ini. Ketika orang-orang Eropa pertama kali tiba di Amerika Utara, Haudenosaunee berbasis di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi bagian timur laut Amerika Serikat, terutama yang disebut sekarang di bagian utara New York di barat Sungai Hudson dan melalui wilayah Finger Lakes. Hari ini, Iroquois hidup terutama di New York, Quebec, dan Ontario. Liga Iroquois juga dikenal sebagai Konfederasi Iroquois. Beberapa ilmuwan modern membedakan antara Liga dan Konfederasi. Menurut penafsiran ini, Liga Iroquois mengacu pada lembaga seremonial dan budaya yang terkandung dalam Grand Council, sementara Konfederasi Iroquois adalah entitas politik dan diplomatik terdesentralisasi yang muncul sebagai tanggapan atas penjajahan Eropa. Liga masih ada Konfederasi bubar setelah kekalahan Inggris dan sekutu Iroquois bangsa-bangsa dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika. Iroquois menyebut diri mereka Haudenosaunee, yang berarti People of the Longhouse, atau lebih tepatnya, Mereka Membangun Rumah Panjang. Menurut tradisi mereka, The Great Peacemaker mengenalkan namanya pada saat terbentuknya Liga. Ini menyiratkan bahwa bangsa-bangsa Liga harus hidup bersama sebagai keluarga di rumah panjang yang sama. Secara simbolis, Mohawk adalah penjaga pintu timur, karena mereka berada di timur yang paling dekat dengan Hudson, dan Seneca adalah penjaga pintu barat rumah panjang suku, wilayah yang mereka kendalikan di New York. Onondaga, yang tanah airnya berada di pusat wilayah Haudenosaunee, merupakan penjaga gawang tengah Liga Utama (keduanya harfiah dan kiasan). Koloni Prancis menyebut Haudenosaunee dengan nama Iroquois. Nama itu memiliki berbagai kemungkinan asal usul, keduanya dipelajari oleh orang Prancis dari suku-suku yang merupakan musuh Haudenosaunee. Anggota Bangsa Seneca adalah penduduk asli Amerika, salah satu dari Enam Bangsa-Bangsa Liga Iroquois. Sekitar 10.000 orang Indian Seneca tinggal di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada, terutama dalam reservasi di negara bagian New York bagian barat, dengan yang tinggal di Oklahoma dan dekat Brantford, Ontario. Seneca, atau Onodowohgah (Orang di Atas Bukit), secara tradisional tinggal di tempat yang sekarang bernama New York antara Sungai Genesee dan Danau Canandaigua. Dengan formasi prasejarah Konfederasi Iroquois, Seneca dikenal sebagai Penjaga Pintu Barat karena mereka berada di tepi barat wilayah Iroquois. Senecas sejauh ini merupakan negara terbesar Iroquois. Secara tradisional, ekonomi didasarkan pada penanaman jagung, kacang-kacangan, dan squash (tiga saudara perempuan), terutama oleh wanita, dan berburu dan memancing oleh para pria. Selama masa penjajahan mereka terlibat dalam perdagangan bulu, pertama dengan Belanda dan kemudian dengan Inggris. Ini berfungsi untuk meningkatkan permusuhan dengan kelompok penduduk asli lainnya, terutama musuh tradisional mereka, Huron, suku Iroquoian di New France dekat Danau Simcoe. Selama abad ke-17, serangan terhadap desa Huron menyebabkan kehancuran dan penyebaran Huron. Penawanan yang tidak disiksa sampai meninggal diadopsi ke dalam suku tersebut. Selama Revolusi Amerika, Seneca bersama tetangga terdekat mereka di Liga, Cayuga, melakukan banyak penggerebekan di permukiman dan benteng Amerika, dihasut oleh orang Inggris di Fort Niagara. Penggerebekan ini dikurangi setelah Ekspedisi Clinton dan Sullivan menghancurkan banyak desa Cayuga. Divisi di Liga dari campuran loyalitas anggotanya ke Inggris atau Amerika melemahkan kekuatannya. Pada tanggal 11 November 1794, Seneca (bersama dengan negara-negara Haudenosaunee lainnya) menandatangani Perjanjian Canandaigua dengan Amerika Serikat. Seneca, seperti anggota Liga lainnya, dikenal sebagai People of the Long House. Mereka tinggal di desa-desa, sering dikelilingi palisade karena peperangan, yang bergerak setiap sepuluh atau lima belas tahun karena tanah dan permainan habis. Selama abad ke-19 mereka mengadopsi banyak kebiasaan tetangga kulit putih mereka, membangun pondok kayu dan berpartisipasi dalam ekonomi pertanian lokal. Senat terkenal dalam sejarah termasuk Jaket Merah, Cornplanter, Guyasuta, Danau Tampan, dan Ely S. Parker. Hari ini Seneca membentuk pemerintahan modern, Bangsa Seneca dari India, pada tahun 1848, namun pemerintah kesukuan tradisional masih memiliki beberapa kekuasaan. Saat ini beberapa Seneca terlibat dalam penjualan bensin dan rokok bertarif rendah dan bingo dengan taruhan tinggi. Mereka memperdebatkan keterlibatan mereka dalam perjudian yang dilegalkan di tanah reservasi. Yang lainnya dipekerjakan dalam ekonomi lokal di wilayah ini. Sekitar 7200 anggota yang terdaftar tinggal di tiga tempat di New York: Allegany (yang berisi kota Salamanca), Cattaraugus dekat Gowanda, New York, dan Oil Springs, dekat Kuba, New York. Sedikit, jika ada, Seneca tinggal di Oil Springs. Kelompok independen tinggal di Reservasi Tonawanda di dekat Akron, New York. Seneca lainnya tinggal bersama Cayuga di Miami, Oklahoma atau di enam negara cadangan Sungai Grand di dekat Brantford, Ontario, Kanada. Negara Cayuga (Guyohkohnyo atau People of the Great Swamp) adalah satu dari lima unsur asli Iroquois, sebuah konfederasi orang India di New York. Tanah air Cayuga terletak di wilayah Finger Lakes antara tetangga liga mereka, Onondaga dan Seneca. Karena banyak serangan terhadap penjajah Amerika selama Revolusi Amerika, ekspedisi Sullivan yang menghukum menghancurkan tanah air Cayuga. Korban selamat melarikan diri ke suku Iroquois lainnya atau ke Kanada. Saat ini, ada tiga band Cayuga. Dua terbesar adalah Cayuga Bawah dan Upper Cayuga, keduanya di Six Nations of the Grand River. Hanya sejumlah kecil yang tinggal di New York bersama Cayuga Nation di Versailles. Setelah Mohawks, Cayuga adalah orang-orang yang paling banyak jumlahnya di Enam Negara. Pada tanggal 11 November 1794, Bangsa Cayuga (bersama dengan negara-negara Haudenosaunee lainnya) menandatangani Perjanjian Canandaigua dengan Amerika Serikat. Onondaga (Onundagaono atau People of the Hills) adalah satu dari lima suku konstituen asli Liga Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). Tanah air tradisional mereka berada di dalam dan sekitar Onondaga County, New York. Karena berada di pusat kota, mereka adalah pemelihara api di rumah panjang figuratif, dengan Cayuga dan Seneca ke barat mereka dan Oneida dan Mohawk ke timur mereka. Untuk alasan ini, Liga Iroquois secara historis bertemu di Onondaga, seperti yang dilakukan para pemimpin tradisional saat ini. Dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika, Onondaga pada awalnya secara resmi netral, meskipun prajurit Onondaga individu terlibat dalam setidaknya satu serangan di permukiman Amerika. Onondaga kemudian berpihak pada mayoritas Liga dan berjuang melawan Amerika Serikat dalam persekutuan dengan Kerajaan Inggris, setelah sebuah serangan Amerika di desa utama mereka pada tanggal 20 April 1779. Oleh karena itu banyak Onondaga mengikuti Joseph Brant ke Six Nations, Ontario setelah Amerika Serikat diberi kebebasan. Mereka yang tersisa di New York berada di bawah pemerintahan kepala suku tradisional yang ditunjuk oleh matriark, bukan terpilih. Pada tanggal 11 November 1794, Bangsa Onondaga, bersama dengan negara-negara Haudenosaunee lainnya, menandatangani Perjanjian Canandaigua dengan Amerika Serikat. Pada tanggal 11 Maret 2005, Negara Onondaga Nedrow, New York, mengajukan tindakan hak atas tanah di pengadilan federal, meminta pengakuan atas tanah seluas lebih dari 3.000 mil persegi yang berpusat di Syracuse, New York, serta pengaruh yang meningkat terhadap lingkungan. Upaya restorasi di Danau Onondaga dan situs Superfund EPA lainnya. Oneida (Onayotekaono atau People of the Upright Stone) adalah suku Indian Amerika dan terdiri dari satu dari lima negara pendiri Konfederasi Iroquois. Iroquois menyebut diri mereka Haudenosaunee (Orang-orang dari rumah-rumah panjang) mengacu pada gaya hidup komunal mereka dan pembangunan tempat tinggal mereka. Awalnya Oneida menghuni daerah yang kemudian menjadi pusat New York, terutama di sekitar Danau Oneida dan Kabupaten Oneida. Mereka putus dengan negara-negara lain dari Haudenosaunee ke sisi dengan Amerika Serikat dalam Perang Revolusi, khususnya membantu George Washington di Valley Forge pada tahun 1777. Setelah perang mereka digantikan oleh pembalasan dan penggerebekan lainnya. Pada 1794 mereka, bersama dengan negara-negara Haudenosaunee lainnya, menandatangani Perjanjian Canandaigua dengan Amerika Serikat. Mereka diberi tanah seluas 6 juta hektar (24.000 km), terutama di New York ini merupakan reservasi India pertama di Amerika Serikat. Perjanjian dan tindakan selanjutnya oleh Negara Bagian New York mengupas ini sampai 32 ekar (0,1 km). Pada tahun 1830-an banyak Oneida pindah ke Kanada dan Wisconsin, karena meningkatnya pasang Indian Removal. Pada tahun 1974 dan 1985, Mahkamah Agung AS memutuskan bahwa perjanjian antara Negara Bagian New York dan Oneida yang telah merampas tanah-tanah ini adalah ilegal. Proses pengadilan dalam hal ini sedang berlangsung. Kanienkehaka, atau suku Mohawk dari penduduk asli Amerika tinggal di sekitar Danau Ontario dan Sungai St. Lawrence di tempat yang sekarang menjadi Kanada dan Amerika Serikat. Tanah air tradisional mereka lebih jauh ke Selatan, di New York State, sekitar sekarang Albany, New York. Mereka termasuk dalam konfederasi Iroquois. Setelah pembentukan konfederasi Iroquois pra-sejarah (Hodenosaunee), Mohawks menjadi penjaga Pintu Timur, menjaga anggota-anggota melawan invasi dari arah itu. Selama abad ke-17, Mohawks bersekutu dengan Belanda di Fort Orange, New Netherland (sekarang Albany, New York). Mitra dagang Belanda mereka melengkapi Mohawks untuk berperang melawan negara-negara lain yang bersekutu dengan orang Prancis, termasuk Ojibwes, Huron-Wendats, dan Algonkins. Setelah jatuhnya New Netherland ke Inggris, Mohawks menjadi sekutu Crown Inggris. Karena konflik yang sedang berlangsung dengan pemukim Anglo-Amerika yang menyusup ke Lembah Mohawk dan kewajiban perjanjian yang luar biasa kepada Crown, Mohawks pada umumnya berperang melawan Amerika Serikat selama Perang Revolusi Amerika, Perang Konfederasi Wabash, dan Perang tahun 1812. Setelah Kemenangan orang Amerika, salah satu pemimpin Mohawk terkemuka, Joseph Brant, memimpin sekelompok besar Iroquois keluar dari New York ke sebuah tanah air baru di Enam Negara di Grand River, Ontario. Pada tanggal 11 November 1794, perwakilan Mohawks (bersama dengan negara-negara lain di Haudenosaunee) menandatangani Perjanjian Canandaigua dengan Amerika Serikat. Satu kelompok besar Mohawks, yang diusir oleh Amerika Serikat karena pengkhianat diberi tanah oleh Gubernur Inggris Craig dan dikenakan kepada orang Quebec yang berbicara di Kanada yang menolak lahan baru karena tidak berbahasa Inggris. Mereka tinggal di sekitar Montreal, tempat mereka bertugas sebagai tentara bayaran tentara Inggris. Salah satu Mohawks Katolik yang paling terkenal adalah Kateri, yang kemudian dibeatifikasi. Dari kelompok ini turun Mohawks dari Kahnawake, Akwesasne dan Kanesatake. Anggota suku Mohawk sekarang tinggal di permukiman yang tersebar di seluruh New York State dan Southeastern Canada. Di antaranya adalah Ganienkeh dan Kanatsiohareke di Northeast New York, AkwesasneSt.Regis di sepanjang perbatasan Ontario-New York State, KanesatakeOka dan KahnawakeCaughnawaga di Quebec barat daya, dan Tyendinaga dan WahtaGibson di selatan Ontario. Mohawks juga membentuk mayoritas di cadangan campuran Iroquois, Enam Wilayah Sungai Grand, di Ontario. Banyak komunitas Mohawk memiliki dua set kepala yang ada secara paralel dan dalam beberapa hal memiliki saingan. Satu kelompok adalah kepala keturunan yang ditunjuk oleh ibu marga dengan cara tradisional dan yang lainnya adalah pemimpin terpilih yang biasanya dipaksakan oleh pemerintah Kanada dan AS secara eksklusif. Sejak tahun 1980an, politik Mohawk didorong oleh perselisihan fiktif mengenai perjudian. Kedua pemimpin terpilih dan Society Warrior yang kontroversial telah mendorong permainan sebagai sarana untuk menjamin kemandirian masyarakat di berbagai cadangan cadangan, sementara para pemimpin tradisional menentang permainan berdasarkan alasan moral dan karena takut akan korupsi dan kejahatan terorganisir. Perselisihan semacam itu juga dikaitkan dengan perpecahan agama: kepala adat sering dikaitkan dengan tradisi Longhouse, sementara Masyarakat Warrior telah menyerang agama tersebut untuk mendukung tradisi pra-Longhouse Lama. Sementara itu, para pemimpin terpilih cenderung dikaitkan (meski dengan cara yang jauh lebih longgar dan umum) dengan nilai-nilai demokrasi. Pemerintah Kanada yang memerintah orang Indian memaksakan sekolah bahasa Inggris dan memisahkan keluarga untuk menempatkan anak-anak di pesantren Inggris. Mohawks seperti di suku lain telah kehilangan bahasa ibu mereka dan banyak yang meninggalkan cagar untuk menjalin hubungan dengan budaya Kanada Inggris. Tuscarora adalah suku asli Amerika yang berasal dari North Carolina, yang pindah ke utara ke New York, dan kemudian ke Kanada. Pada 1720 Tuscarora melarikan diri dari invasi Eropa ke North Carolina ke New York untuk menjadi negara keenam dari Iroquois, menetap di dekat Oneidas. Perang Tuscarora tahun 1711 Penyelesaian sukses pertama dan permanen di North Carolina oleh orang-orang Eropa dimulai dengan sungguh-sungguh di tahun 1653. Tuscarora hidup dalam damai dengan pemukim Eropa yang tiba di North Carolina selama lebih dari 50 tahun pada saat hampir setiap koloni lain di Amerika Secara aktif terlibat dalam beberapa bentuk konflik dengan penduduk asli Amerika. Namun, kedatangan para pemukim akhirnya menjadi bencana bagi penduduk asli North Carolina. Ada dua kontingen utama Tuscarora pada saat ini, sebuah kelompok Utara yang dipimpin oleh Kepala Tom Blunt dan sebuah kelompok Selatan yang dipimpin oleh Chief Hancock. Kepala Blunt menduduki daerah sekitar apa yang sekarang ada di Kabupaten Bertie di Sungai Sungai Roanoke Hancock lebih dekat ke New Bern, menempati daerah selatan Sungai Pamplico (sekarang Sungai Pamlico). Sementara Chief Blunt menjadi teman dekat keluarga Blount di wilayah Bertie, Chief Hancock menemukan bahwa desa-desanya menggerebek dan orang-orangnya sering diculik dan dijual menjadi perbudakan. Kedua kelompok sangat terpengaruh oleh pengenalan penyakit Eropa, dan keduanya dengan cepat memiliki tanah mereka yang dicuri oleh pemukim yang melanggar. Pada akhirnya, Chief Hancock merasa tidak ada alternatif lain kecuali menyerang pemukim. Tom Blunt tidak terlibat dalam perang saat ini. Tuscarora Selatan, yang dipimpin oleh Chief Hancock, bekerja sama dengan orang-orang Indian Pamplico, Cothechneys, Cores, Mattamuskeets dan Matchepungoes untuk menyerang pemukim di berbagai lokasi dalam waktu singkat. Sasaran utama adalah para pekebun di Sungai Roanoke, para pekebun di Sungai Neuse dan Trent dan kota Bath. Serangan pertama dimulai pada 22 September 1711, dan ratusan pemukim akhirnya terbunuh. Beberapa tokoh politik utama terbunuh atau terdorong dalam bulan-bulan berikutnya. Gubernur Edward Hyde memanggil milisi North Carolina, dan mendapatkan bantuan dari Legislatif South Carolina, yang menyediakan enam ratus milisi dan tiga ratus enam puluh orang India di bawah Kolonel Barnwell. Kekuatan ini menyerang Tuscarora Selatan dan suku-suku lain di Craven County di Fort Narhantes di tepi Sungai Neuse pada tahun 1712. Tuscarora dikalahkan dengan pembantaian besar lebih dari tiga ratus orang liar terbunuh, dan seratus orang tahanan dibuat. Tahanan ini sebagian besar adalah wanita dan anak-anak, yang akhirnya dijual menjadi budak. Chief Blunt kemudian menawarkan kesempatan untuk mengendalikan seluruh suku Tuscarora jika dia membantu para pemukim untuk menjatuhkan Chief Hancock. Chief Blunt berhasil menangkap Chief Hancock, dan pemukim mengeksekusi dia pada tahun 1712. Pada tahun 1713, Tuscarora Selatan kehilangan Benteng Neoheroka, dengan 900 orang terbunuh atau tertangkap. Pada titik inilah mayoritas Tuscarora Selatan mulai bermigrasi ke New York untuk melarikan diri dari pemukim di North Carolina. Sisa Tuscarora menandatangani sebuah perjanjian dengan para pemukim pada bulan Juni 1718 memberi mereka sebidang tanah di Sungai Roanoke di wilayah yang sekarang disebut Bertie County. Ini adalah daerah yang sudah ditempati oleh Tom Blunt, dan ditetapkan sebagai 56.000 hektar (227 km) Tom Blunt, yang telah mengambil nama Blount, sekarang diakui oleh Legislatif Carolina Utara sebagai Raja Tom Blount. Sisa Tuscarora Selatan dipindahkan dari rumah mereka di Sungai Pamlico dan pindah ke Bertie. Pada tahun 1722 Bertie County disewa, dan selama beberapa dekade berikutnya, sisa tanah Tuscorara yang tersisa terus berkurang karena dijual dalam kesepakatan yang sering dirancang untuk memanfaatkan penduduk asli Amerika. Sebagian besar Tuscarora berpihak pada negara Oneida melawan sisa Liga Enam Negara dengan memperjuangkan pemerintah Amerika Serikat selama Perang Revolusi Amerika. Mereka yang tetap menjadi sekutu Crown Inggris kemudian akan mengikuti Joseph Brant ke Ontario. Pada tahun 1803, kontingen terakhir Tuscarora bermigrasi ke New York untuk bergabung dengan suku tersebut di reservasi mereka di Niagara County, di bawah sebuah perjanjian yang disutradarai oleh Thomas Jefferson. Pada tahun 1831 Tuscarora menjual sisa hak atas tanah mereka di North Carolina. Pada titik ini, 56.000 hektar telah dikupas sampai 2000 hektar belaka. Skarure, bahasa Tuscarora berasal dari kelompok bahasa Iroquoian bagian selatan. Iroquois Clans meliputi: Wolf, Bear, Turtle, Snipe, Deer, Beaver, Heron, Hawk Anggota League berbicara bahasa Iroquoian yang sangat berbeda dengan speaker Iroquoian lainnya. Ini menunjukkan bahwa sementara suku-suku Iroquoian yang berbeda memiliki asal sejarah dan budaya yang sama, mereka menyimpang sebagai masyarakat yang cukup lama sehingga bahasa dan budaya mereka menjadi berbeda, dan mereka membedakan diri mereka sebagai orang yang berbeda. Bukti arkeologi menunjukkan bahwa nenek moyang Iroquois tinggal di wilayah Finger Lakes setidaknya dari 1000. Setelah bersatu di Liga, Iroquois menyerang Lembah Sungai Ohio di Kentucky sekarang untuk mencari tempat berburu tambahan. Menurut salah satu teori sejarah pra-kontak, Haudenosaunee sekitar 1200 mendorong suku-suku lembah Sungai Ohio, seperti Quapaw (Akansea) dan Ofo (Mosopelea), keluar dari wilayah tersebut dalam sebuah migrasi ke arah barat Sungai Mississippi. Tapi, Robert La Salle mendaftarkan Mosopelea di antara masyarakat Lembah Ohio yang dikalahkan oleh Iroquois pada awal 1670-an, pada saat kemudian Beaver Wars. Pada tahun 1673, kelompok-kelompok Siouan telah menetap di Midwest, menetapkan apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai wilayah historis mereka. Sama seperti orang-orang Siouan yang digantikan oleh Iroquois, mereka memindahkan suku-suku yang kurang kuat yang mereka temui di sebelah barat Mississippi, seperti Osage, yang bergerak lebih jauh ke barat. Liga Iroquois didirikan sebelum kontak utama Eropa. Kebanyakan arkeolog dan antropolog percaya bahwa Liga tersebut terbentuk sekitar tahun 1450 dan 1600. Beberapa klaim telah dibuat untuk tanggal yang lebih awal. Sebuah studi baru-baru ini berpendapat bahwa Liga tersebut dibentuk tak lama setelah gerhana matahari pada tanggal 31 Agustus 1142, sebuah kejadian Yang sepertinya berhubungan dengan tradisi lisan tentang asal-usul Liga. Antropolog Dean Snow berpendapat bahwa bukti arkeologi tidak mendukung tanggal lebih awal dari tahun 1450, dan klaim baru-baru ini untuk tanggal yang lebih awal mungkin untuk tujuan politik kontemporer. Menurut tradisi, Liga ini dibentuk melalui usaha dua orang pria, Dekanawida, kadangkala dikenal sebagai Perambak Besar, dan Hiawatha. Mereka membawa sebuah pesan, yang dikenal sebagai Great Law of Peace, ke negara-negara Iroquoian yang bertengkar. Bangsa-bangsa yang bergabung dengan Liga adalah Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga dan Seneca. Begitu mereka menghentikan sebagian besar pertengkaran mereka, Iroquois dengan cepat menjadi salah satu kekuatan terkuat di Amerika Utara timur laut abad ke-17 dan ke-18. Hiawatha (juga dikenal sebagai Ayenwatha, Aiionwatha, atau Haienwatha Onondaga) adalah pemimpin Amerika Asli legendaris dan pendiri konfederasi Iroquois. Bergantung pada versi narasi, Hiawatha tinggal di abad ke-16 dan merupakan pemimpin Onondaga atau Mohawk. Hiawatha adalah pengikut The Great Peacemaker, seorang nabi dan pemimpin spiritual, yang mengusulkan penyatuan orang-orang Iroquois, yang memiliki bahasa serupa. Hiawatha, seorang orator yang terampil dan karismatik, berperan penting dalam membujuk Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, dan Mohawks, untuk menerima visi Perdamaian Besar dan bergabung bersama untuk menjadi Lima Negara dari konfederasi Iroquois. Kemudian, bangsa Tuscarora bergabung dengan Konfederasi untuk menjadi Negara Keenam. Menurut legenda, kepala suku Onondaga yang jahat bernama Tadodaho adalah orang terakhir yang diubah menjadi cara damai oleh The Great Peacemaker and Hiawatha. Dia menjadi pemimpin spiritual Haudenosaunee. Hal ini dikatakan telah terjadi di Danau Onondaga dekat Syracuse, New York. Judul Tadodaho masih digunakan untuk pemimpin spiritual liga, kepala kelima puluh, yang duduk dengan Onondaga di dewan. Dia adalah satu-satunya dari lima puluh yang telah dipilih oleh seluruh orang Haudenosaunee. Tadodaho saat ini adalah Sid Hill dari Onondaga Nation. Dalam Reflections in Bulloughs Pond, sejarawan Diana Muir berpendapat bahwa pre-contact Iroquois adalah budaya imperialis dan ekspansionis yang penggunaan kompleks pertanian cornbeanssquash memungkinkan mereka mendukung populasi yang besar. Mereka berperang melawan orang-orang Algonquia. Muir menggunakan data arkeologi untuk menyatakan bahwa perluasan Iroquois ke daratan Algonquia diperiksa oleh adopsi pertanian Algonquian. Hal ini memungkinkan mereka untuk mendukung populasi mereka sendiri yang cukup besar untuk memiliki cukup pejuang untuk mempertahankan diri dari ancaman penaklukan Iroquois. Iroquois mungkin adalah Kwedech yang dijelaskan dalam legenda lisan bangsa Mikmaq di Kanada Timur. Legenda-legenda ini menceritakan bahwa Mikmaq pada akhir masa pra-kontak secara bertahap mendorong musuh mereka - Kwedech - ke arah barat melintasi New Brunswick, dan akhirnya keluar dari wilayah Lower St. Lawrence River. Mikmaq menamai tanah Gespedeg yang terakhir kali ditaklukkan atau kehilangan tanah, yang mengarah ke kata Prancis Gaspe. Kwedech umumnya dianggap sebagai Iroquois, khususnya Mohawk pengusiran mereka dari Gaspe oleh Mikmaq telah diperkirakan terjadi seperti ca. 1535-1600. Sekitar tahun 1535, Jacques Cartier melaporkan kelompok berbahasa Iroquoian di semenanjung Gaspe dan di sepanjang Sungai St. Lawrence. Arkeolog dan antropolog telah mendefinisikan St. Lawrence Iroquoians sebagai kelompok yang berbeda dan terpisah (dan mungkin beberapa kelompok diskrit), tinggal di desa Hochelaga dan tempat-tempat lain di dekatnya (dekat Montreal sekarang), yang telah dikunjungi oleh Cartier. Pada tahun 1608, ketika Samuel de Champlain mengunjungi daerah tersebut, bagian lembah Sungai St. Lawrence tidak memiliki permukiman, namun dikuasai oleh Mohawk sebagai tempat berburu. Di semenanjung Gaspe, Champlain bertemu dengan kelompok berbahasa Algonquian. Identitas yang tepat dari kelompok-kelompok ini terus diperdebatkan. Iroquois mulai dikenal di selatan saat ini. Setelah pemukiman Inggris pertama di Jamestown, Virginia (1607), banyak akun abad ke-17 menggambarkan orang-orang kuat yang dikenal oleh Konfederasi Powhatan sebagai Massawomeck, dan orang Prancis sebagai Antouhonoron. Mereka dikatakan berasal dari utara, di luar wilayah Susquehannock. Sejarawan sering kali mengidentifikasi Antouhonoron Massawomeck sebagai orang yang benar-benar Iroquois. Kandidat Iroquoian lainnya termasuk Erie, yang dihancurkan oleh Iroquois pada 1654 karena persaingan untuk perdagangan bulu. Selama bertahun-tahun 1670-1710, Lima Negara telah mencapai dominasi politik sebagian besar wilayah barat Virginia di garis jurang dan berlanjut ke lembah Sungai Ohio di West Virginia saat ini. Mereka mencadangkannya sebagai tempat berburu dengan hak penaklukan dan terus mengklaimnya sampai 1722, saat mereka mulai menjual tanah di daerah tersebut ke sekutu Inggris mereka. Beaver Wars Dimulai pada 1609, Liga terlibat dalam Perang Beaver dengan Prancis dan sekutu Huron berbahasa Iroquoian mereka. Mereka juga memberi tekanan besar pada orang-orang Algonquia di pesisir Atlantik dan wilayah perisai Kanada Boreal, dan tidak jarang juga bertempur dengan koloni Inggris. Selama abad ke-17, mereka dikatakan telah memusnahkan Bangsa Neutral. Dan Erie Tribe ke barat. Perang adalah cara untuk mengendalikan perdagangan bulu yang menguntungkan, walaupun alasan tambahan sering diberikan untuk perang ini. Pada tahun 1628, Mohawk mengalahkan Mahia untuk mendapatkan monopoli dalam perdagangan bulu dengan Belanda di Fort Orange, New Netherland. Mohawk tidak mengizinkan orang Indian Kanada berdagang dengan Belanda. Pada tahun 1645, perdamaian tentatif ditempa antara Iroquois dan Hurons, Algonquin dan Prancis. Pada tahun 1646, misionaris Yesuit di Sainte-Marie di antara Hurons pergi sebagai utusan ke tanah Mohawk untuk melindungi kedamaian yang rapuh pada saat itu. Sikap Mohawk terhadap kedamaian memburuk sementara para Yesuit bepergian dan partai tersebut diserang oleh prajurit Mohawk dalam perjalanan. Para misionaris dibawa ke desa Ossernenon (Auriesville, N.Y.), di mana klan kurus dan Wolf yang moderat merekomendasikan agar para imam bebas. Marah, anggota klan Bear membunuh Jean de Lalande dan Isaac Jogues pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1646. Gereja Katolik telah memperingati dua pastor Prancis tersebut di antara delapan Martyr Amerika Utara. Pada tahun 1649 selama Perang Beaver, Iroquois yang digunakan baru-baru ini membeli senjata Belanda untuk menyerang Hurons. Dari tahun 1651 sampai 1652, Iroquois menyerang Susquehannocks, tanpa keberhasilan yang berkelanjutan. Pada awal abad ke-17, Iroquois berada di puncak kekuasaan mereka, dengan populasi sekitar 12.000 orang.27 Pada tahun 1654, mereka mengundang orang Prancis untuk mendirikan sebuah pemukiman perdagangan dan misionaris di Onondaga (di negara bagian New York sekarang) . Tahun berikutnya, Mohawk menyerang dan mengusir orang Prancis dari pos perdagangan, mungkin karena kematian mendadak dari 500 orang India dari epidemi cacar, penyakit menular Eropa yang tidak mereka imunitas. Dari tahun 1658 sampai 1663, Iroquois sedang berperang dengan Susquehannock dan sekutu Delaware dan Province of Maryland mereka. Pada tahun 1663, sebuah pasukan invasi Iroquois besar dikalahkan di benteng utama Susquehannock. Pada tahun 1663, Iroquois sedang berperang dengan suku Sokoki dari Connecticut River atas. Cacar menyerang lagi dan melalui efek penyakit, kelaparan dan perang, Iroquois terancam oleh pemusnahan. Pada tahun 1664, sebuah partai Oneida menyerang sekutu Susquehannock di Chesapeake Bay. Pada tahun 1665, tiga dari Lima Bangsa berdamai dengan orang Prancis. Tahun berikutnya, Gubernur Kanada mengirim resimen Carignan di bawah Marquis de Tracy untuk menghadapi Mohawk dan Oneida. Mohawk menghindari pertempuran, namun Prancis membakar desa dan tanaman mereka. Pada tahun 1667, dua negara Iroquois yang tersisa menandatangani sebuah perjanjian damai dengan Prancis dan setuju untuk mengizinkan misionaris mereka mengunjungi desa mereka. Perjanjian ini berlangsung selama 17 tahun. Sekitar tahun 1670, Iroquois mengendarai suku Siunan Mannahoac dari wilayah Piedmont Virginia utara. Mereka mulai mengklaim kepemilikan wilayah dengan hak penaklukan. Pada tahun 1672, Iroquois dikalahkan oleh partai perang Susquehannock. Beberapa sejarah lama menyatakan bahwa Iroquois mengalahkan Susquehannock selama periode ini. Karena tidak ada catatan kekalahan yang ditemukan, sejarawan telah menyimpulkan bahwa tidak ada kekalahan yang terjadi. Pada tahun 1677, Iroquois mengadopsi mayoritas Susquehannock berbahasa Iroquoian ke dalam negara mereka. Pada 1677, Iroquois membentuk aliansi dengan Inggris melalui sebuah perjanjian yang dikenal sebagai Rantai Kovenan. Bersama-sama, mereka berjuang terhenti oleh orang Prancis, yang bersekutu dengan Huron. Orang-orang Iroquoian ini adalah musuh tradisional dan bersejarah Konfederasi. Iroquois menjajah pantai utara Danau Ontario dan mengirim pihak yang merampok ke arah barat sampai ke Illinois Country. Suku-suku di Illinois akhirnya dikalahkan, bukan oleh Iroquois, melainkan oleh Potawatomis. Pada 1684, Iroquois menyerang wilayah Virginia dan Illinois lagi, dan tidak berhasil menyerang pos-pos Prancis di wilayah tersebut. Belakangan tahun itu, Koloni Virginia setuju di Albany untuk mengenali hak Iroquois untuk menggunakan jalur Utara-Selatan yang berada di sebelah timur Blue Ridge (kemudian Old Carolina Road), asalkan mereka tidak mengganggu permukiman Inggris di sebelah timur garis gugur . Pada tahun 1679, Susquehannock, dengan bantuan Iroquois, menyerang Marylands Piscataway dan sekutu-sekutu Mattawoman. Perdamaian tidak sampai pada tahun 1685. Dengan dukungan dari Prancis, negara-negara Algonquia mengusir Iroquois keluar dari wilayah utara Danau Erie dan barat Cleveland sekarang, daerah-daerah yang telah mereka taklukkan selama Perang Beaver. Pada tahun 1687, Jacques-Rene de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville, Gubernur New France dari tahun 1685 sampai 1689, berangkat ke Fort Frontenac dengan sebuah kekuatan yang terorganisir dengan baik. Di sana mereka bertemu dengan 50 sacral herediter Konfederasi Iroquois dari pemadam kebakaran Onondaga, yang berada di bawah bendera gencatan senjata. Denonville merebut kembali benteng tersebut untuk New France dan merebut, merantai, dan mengirim 50 kepala Iroquois ke Marseilles, Prancis, untuk digunakan sebagai budak dapur. Dia menghancurkan tanah Seneca, mendaratkan armada Prancis di Teluk Irondequoit, menyerang langsung ke kursi kekuatan Seneca, dan menghancurkan banyak desa mereka. Melarikan diri sebelum menyerang, Seneca bergerak lebih jauh ke barat, timur dan selatan menyusuri Sungai Susquehanna. Meskipun kerusakan besar terjadi di tanah Seneca, militer Senecas mungkin tidak begitu lemah. Konfederasi dan Seneca pindah ke sebuah aliansi dengan Inggris di timur penghancuran tanah Seneca membuat marah Konfederasi Iroquois. Pada tanggal 4 Agustus 1689, mereka membalas dengan membakar tanah Lachine, sebuah kota kecil yang bersebelahan dengan Montreal. Lima belas ratus prajurit Iroquois telah melecehkan pertahanan Montreal selama berbulan-bulan sebelum itu. Mereka akhirnya kelelahan dan mengalahkan Denonville dan pasukannya. Masa jabatannya diikuti dengan kembalinya Frontenac, yang menggantikan Denonville sebagai Gubernur selama sembilan tahun ke depan (1689-1698). Frontenac telah menyusun rencana serangan baru untuk mengurangi dampak Iroquois di Amerika Utara. Realizing the danger of holding the sachems, he located the 13 surviving leaders and returned with them to New France that October 1698. During King Williams War (North American part of the War of the Grand Alliance), the Iroquois were allied with the English. In July 1701, they concluded the Nanfan Treaty, deeding the English a large tract north of the Ohio River. The Iroquois claimed to have conquered this territory 80 years earlier. France did not recognize the validity of the treaty, as it had the strongest presence of colonists within the area in question. Meanwhile, the Iroquois were negotiating peace with the French together they signed the Great Peace of Montreal that same year. French and Indian Wars After the 1701 peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral even though during Queen Annes War (North American part of the War of the Spanish Succession) they were involved in some planned attacks against the French. Peter Schuyler, mayor of Albany, arranged for three Mohawk chiefs and a Mahican chief (the Four Mohawk Kings) to travel to London in 1710 to meet with Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life. In the first quarter of the 18th century, the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora fled north from the pressure of British colonization of North Carolina and intertribal warfare. They petitioned to become the sixth nation of the Confederacy. This was a non-voting position but placed them under the protection of the Haudenosaunee. In 1721 and 1722, Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia concluded a new Treaty at Albany with the Iroquois, renewing the Covenant Chain and agreeing to recognize the Blue Ridge as the demarcation between Virginia Colony and the Iroquois. But, as European settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the 1730s, the Iroquois objected. Virginia officials told them that the demarcation was to prevent the Iroquois from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it did not prevent English from expanding west of them. The Iroquois were on the verge of going to war with the Virginia Colony, when in 1743, Governor Gooch paid them the sum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by the Iroquois. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold Virginia all their remaining claims on the Shenandoah Valley for 200 pounds in gold. During the French and Indian War (North American part of the Seven Years War), the Iroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquian allies, both traditional enemies of the Iroquois. The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. Few Iroquois warriors joined the campaign. In the Battle of Lake George, a group of Catholic Mohawk (from Kahnawake) and French ambushed a Mohawk-led British column. After the war, to protect their alliance, the British government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, forbidding white settlements beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists largely ignored the order and the British had insufficient soldiers to enforce it. The Iroquois agreed to adjust the line again at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768), whereby they sold the British Crown all their remaining claim to the lands between the Ohio and Tennessee rivers. American Revolution During the American Revolution, the Iroquois first tried to stay neutral. Pressed to join one side or the other, many Tuscarora and the Oneida sided with the colonists, while the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to Great Britain, with whom they had stronger relationships. It was the first political split among the Six Nations. Joseph Louis Cook offered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as a Lieutenant Colonel- the highest rank held by any Native American during the war. The Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant, other war chiefs, and British allies conducted numerous operations against frontier settlements in the Mohawk Valley, destroying many villages and crops. The Continentals retaliated and in 1779, George Washington ordered the Sullivan Campaign, led by Col. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan, against the Iroquois nations to not merely overrun, but destroy, the British-Indian alliance. They burned many Iroquois villages and stores throughout western New York refugees moved north to Canada. By the end of the war, few houses and barns in the valley had survived the warfare. After the war, the ancient central fireplace of the League was reestablished at Buffalo Creek. Captain Joseph Brant and a group of Iroquois left New York to settle in Quebec (present-day Ontario). As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River. Brants crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brants ford. By 1847, European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford. The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location still favorable for launching and landing canoes. In the 1830s many of the Onondaga, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga and Tuscarora relocated into the Indian Territory, the Province of Upper Canada and Wisconsin. Melting Pot The Iroquois are a melting pot. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through captives taken in the Mourning War. Raids were conducted to take vengeance on enemies and to seize captives to replace lost compatriots. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers notions of combat. The captives were generally adopted by families of the tribes to replace members who had died. The Iroquois worked to incorporate conquered peoples and assimilate them as Iroquois, thus naturalizing them as full citizens of the tribe. Cadwallader Colden wrote, It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war. By 1668, two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven. They also adopted European captives, as did the Catholic Mohawk in settlements outside Montreal. Population History The total number of Iroquois today is difficult to establish. About 45,000 Iroquois lived in Canada in 1995. In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United States claimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background. Tribal registrations among the Six Nations in the United States in 1995 numbered about 30,000 in total. Prominent Individuals The Iroquois people lived in villages of longhouses, which were large wood-frame buildings covered with sheets of elm bark. Iroquois longhouses were up to a hundred feet long, and each one housed an entire clan (as many as 60 people.) Here are some pictures of Indian longhouses like the ones Iroquois Indians used, and a drawing of what a longhouse looked like on the inside. Today, Iroquois families live in modern houses and apartment buildings, just like you. Iroquois men wore breechcloths with long leggings. Iroquois women wore wraparound skirts with shorter leggings. Men did not originally wear shirts in Iroquois culture, but women often wore a tunic called an overdress. Iroquois people also wore moccasins on their feet and heavy robes in winter. In colonial times, the Iroquois adapted European costume like long cloth shirts, decorating them with fancy beadwork and ribbon applique. Here is a webpage about traditional Iroquois dress, and here are some photographs and links about American Indian clothes in general. The Iroquois didnt wear long headdresses like the Sioux. Iroquois men wore a gustoweh, which was a feathered cap with different insignia for each tribe (the headdress worn by the man in this picture has three eagle feathers, showing that he is Mohawk.) Iroquois women sometimes wore special beaded tiaras. Iroquois warriors often shaved their heads except for a scalplock or a crest down the center of their head (the style known as a roach, or a Mohawk.) Sometimes they augmented this hairstyle with splayed feathers or artificial roaches made of brightly dyed porcupine and deer hair. Here are some pictures of these different kinds of American Indian headdresses. Iroquois Indian women only cut their hair when they were in mourning, wearing it long and loose or plaited into a long braid. Men sometimes decorated their faces and bodies with tribal tattoos, but Iroquois women generally didnt paint or tattoo themselves. Today, some Iroquois people still wear moccasins or a beaded shirt, but they wear modern clothes like jeans instead of breechcloths. and they only wear feathers in their hair on special occasions like a dance. Transportation The Iroquois used elm-bark or dugout canoes for fishing trips, but usually preferred to travel by land. Originally the Iroquois tribes used dogs as pack animals. There were no horses in North America until colonists brought them over from Europe. In wintertime, Iroquois people used laced snowshoes and sleds to travel through the snow. Weapons and Tools Iroquois hunters used bows and arrows. Iroquois fishermen generally used spears and fishing poles. In war, Iroquois men used their bows and arrows or fought with clubs, spears and shields. Other important tools used by the Iroquois Indians included stone adzes (hand axes for woodworking), flint knives for skinning animals, and wooden hoes for farming. The Iroquois were skilled woodworkers, steaming wood so they could bend it into curved tools. Some Iroquois people still make lacrosse sticks this way today. The Iroquois were a mix of farmers, fishers, gatherers and hunters, though their main diet came from farming. The main crops they farmed were corn, beans and squash, which were called the three sisters and were considered special gifts from the Creator. These crops are grown strategically. The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade of their broad leaves. In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. The food was stored during the winter, and it lasted for two to three years. When the soil eventually lost its fertility, the Iroquois migrated. Gathering was the job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered in the summer. During spring, maple syrup was tapped from the trees, and herbs were gathered for medicine. The Iroquois hunted mostly deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter. Fishing was also a significant source of food because the Iroquois were located near a large river (St. Lawrence River). They fished salmon, trout, bass, perch and whitefish. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice. Women in Society When Americans and Canadians of European descent began to study Iroquois customs in the 18th and 19th centuries, they learned that the people had a matrilineal system: women held property and hereditary leadership passed through their lines. They held dwellings, horses and farmed land, and a womans property before marriage stayed in her possession without being mixed with that of her husband. They had separate roles but real power in the nations. The work of a womans hands was hers to do with as she saw fit. At marriage, a young couple lived in the longhouse of the wifes family. A woman choosing to divorce a shiftless or otherwise unsatisfactory husband was able to ask him to leave the dwelling and take his possessions with him. The children of the marriage belonged to their mothers clan and gained their social status through hers. Her brothers were important teachers and mentors to the children, especially introducing boys to mens roles and societies. The clans were matrilineal, that is, clan ties were traced through the mothers line. If a couple separated, the woman kept the children. The chief of a clan could be removed at any time by a council of the women elders of that clan. The chiefs sister was responsible for nominating his successor. Spiritual Beliefs The Iroquois believe that the spirits change the seasons. Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar, including a harvest festival of thanksgiving. The Great Peacemaker (Deganawida) was their prophet. After the arrival of the Europeans, many Iroquois became Christians, among them Kateri Tekakwitha, a young woman of Mohawk-Algonkin parents. Traditional religion was revived to some extent in the second half of the 18th century by the teachings of the Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake. The two most important Iroquois instruments are drums and flutes. Iroquois drums were often filled with water to give them a distinctive sound different from the drums of other tribes. Most Iroquois music is very rhythmic and consists mostly of drumming and lively singing. Flutes were used to woo women in the Iroquois tribes. An Iroquois Indian man would play beautiful flute music outside his girlfriends longhouse at night to show her he was thinking about her. The Iroquois tribes were known for their mask carving, which is considered such a sacred art form that outsiders are still not permitted to view many of these masks. Beadwork and the more demanding porcupine quillwork are more common Iroquois crafts. The Iroquois Indians also crafted wampum out of white and purple shell beads. Wampum beads were traded as a kind of currency, but they were more culturally important as an art material. The designs and pictures on Iroquois wampum belts often told a story or represented a persons family. Iroquois Council of Chiefs had declared all Iroquois false face masks to be sacred objects whose images should not be disseminated among non-Indians. They also called for the return of all masks from museums and other collections, claiming that the misuse and distribution of these objects interfered with traditional Iroquois medicine practices. The Iroquois Winter Dream Festival The tribes of the Iroquois League of the Six Nations (Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Cayuga, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) have been united for centuries in their celebration of great festivals, at which occur numerous ceremonies of significance to both the spiritual and physical life of the tribes. Sacred ceremonies include feather dances, drum dances, the rite of personal chant, the bowl game, and Sun ceremonies. Hiawatha (also known as Ha-yo-went-ha) who lived around 1550, was variously a leader of the Onondaga and Mohawk nations of Native Americans. Hiawatha was a follower of Deganawidah, a prophet and shaman who was credited as the founder of the Iroquois confederacy, (referred to as Haudenosaune by the people). If Deganawidah was the man of ideas, Hiawatha was the politician who actually put the plan into practice. Hiawatha was a skilled and charismatic orator, and was instrumental in persuading the Iroquois peoples, the Senecas, Onondagas, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Mohawks, a group of Native Americans who shared a common language, to accept Deganawidahs vision and band together to become the Five Nations of the Iroquois confederacy. (Later, in 1721, the Tuscarora nation joined the Iroquois confederacy, and they became the Six Nations). According to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Song of Hiawatha is based on Schoolcrafts Algic Researches and History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Schoolcraft seems to have based his Hiawatha primarily on the Algonquian trickster-figure Manabozho. There is none, or only faint resemblance between Longfellows hero and the life-stories of Hiawatha and Deganawidah see Longfellows Hiawatha vs. the historical Iroquois Hiawatha. Those who joined in the League were the Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga and Mohawks. Once they ceased (most) infighting, they rapidly became one of the strongest forces in 17th and 18th century northeastern North America. The League engaged in a series of wars against the French and their Iroquoian-speaking Wyandot (Huron) allies. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast and what is now subarctic Canada and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well. According to Francis Parkman, the Iroquois at the 17th century height of their power had a population of around 12,000 people. League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the Mourning War, raids intended to seize captives and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers notions of combat. In 1720 the Tuscarora fled north from the European colonization of North Carolina and petitioned to become the Sixth Nation. This is a non-voting position but places them under the protection of the Confederacy. In 1794, the Confederacy entered into the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States.Erie - With French contact limited to one brief meeting, very little is known for certain about the Erie except they were important, and they were there. The Dutch and Swedes also heard about them through their trade with the Susquehannock. but never actually met the Erie. All information about their social and political organization has come from early Jesuit accounts of what they had been told by the Huron. Eyak - The Eyak, literally quotinhabitants of Eyak Villagequot are a Native American indigenous group traditionally located on the Copper River Delta and near the town of Cordova, Alaska. The Eyaks territory reached from present day Cordova east to the Martin River and north to Miles Glacier. The Eyak initially moved out of the interior down the Copper River to the coast. There they harvested the rich salmon fishing grounds. When the Russians arrived they recognized the Eyak as a distinct culture and described their territory on their maps. They also traded with the Eyak and sent them missionaries. Because of their small population they were often raided and their territory boundaries were under pressure from the Chugach to the west. The Tlingit, on the east side, had better relations with the Eyak and this led to intermarriage and assimilation of many Eyak. This pushed the Eyaks territorial boundary further west and contributed to the Eyaks decline. When the Americans arrived they started canneries and competed with the Eyak for salmon. This combined with integration with, and diseases introduced by non-native settlers led to the further decline. As populations decreased the remaining Eyak began to congregate near the village of Orca. In 1880 the population of the village of Alaganik was recorded at 117 and by 1890 it had declined to 48.In 1900 total population was estimated at 60. As more settlers arrived this last village became the town of Cordova. As of 1996 there were 120 living, partial Eyak descendents. The last full blood Eyak died in 2007. Eno - A tribe associated with the Adshusheer and Shakori in North Carolina in the 17th century, historians belive it doubtful that the Eno and the Shakori where of Siouan stock, as they seem to have differed in physique and habits from their neighbors. However, their alliances were all with Siouan tribes. Little is known of them as they disappeared from history as tribal bodies about 1720, having been incorporated with the Catawba on the south or with the Saponi and their confederates on the north, although they still retained their distinct dialect in 1743. The Eno and Shakori were first mentioned in 1654, when the Tuscarora tirbe described them as living next to the Shakori, a great nation by whom the northern advance of the Spaniards was valiantly resisted. The next mention of these two tribes was in 1672 stating they lived south of the Occaneechi about the headwaters of Tar and Neuse rivers. The general locality is still indicated in the names of Eno River and Shocco Creek. In 1701, the Eno and Shakori confederated and the Adshusheer united with them in the same locality. Their village, called Adshusheer, was on Eno River, about 14 miles east of the Occaneechi village, which was near the site of present-day Hillsboro. Esselen - A tribe of Californian Indians, constituting the Esselenian family, most of its members who were on the founding of Carmelo mission, near Monterey, California in 1770, which resulted, as was the case with the Indians at all the Californian missions, their rapid decrease A portion of the tribe seems to have been taken, to the mission at Soledad, for Arroyo de la Cuesta in 1821 says of an Esselen vocabulary obtained by himself, Huelel language of Soledad it is from the Esselenes, who are already few. The original territory of the Esselen lay along the coast south of Monterey, though its exact limits are diversely given. Experts estimate there were about 500 to 1200 individuals living in the steep, rocky region at the time of the arrival of the Spanish. Almost nothing is known of the mode of life and practices of the Esselen, but they were certainly similar to those of the neighboring tribes. What little is known in regard to the Esselen language shows it to have been simple and regular and of a type similar to most of the languages of central California, but, notwithstanding a few words in common with Costanoan, of entirely unrelated vocabulary and therefore a distinct stock. About 460 individuals have identified themselves as descendants of the original Esselen people and banded to together form a tribe. The Department of the Interior has set aside 45 acres of Fort Ord that the tribe can use to build a cultural center and museum. But they must first obtain federal recognition. In 2010 the Esselen Nation petitioned the federal government for recognition as a tribe but the Bureau of Indian Affairs said they didnt meet the says the formal criteria. Eyeish - A tribe of the Caddo confederacy, they spoke a dialect, now extinct, very different from the dialects of the other tribes hence, it is probable they were part of an older confederacy which was incorporated in the Caddo when the latter became dominant. The early home of the tribe was on Eyeish Creek between the Sabine and Neches Rivers of East Texas. Spanish explorer Luis de Moscoso Alvarado led his troops through their country in 1542, encountering herds of buffalo. According to early documentation, the Eyeish were not on good terms with the tribes west of them on the Trinity River, nor with those on Red River in the north at the time the French entered their country late in the 17th century. The mission of Nuestra Seora de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans who accompanied Don Domingo Ramon on his tour in 1716-17. They were, however, not open to Spanish influence, for after 50 years of missionary effort, the mission register showed only 11 baptisms, 7 interments, and 3 marriages performed at the mission, although the tribe had not been backward in receiving material aid from the missionaries. Father Gaspar Jos de Sols reported in 1768 that this tribe was the worst in Texas: drunken, thievish, licentious, impervious to religious influence, and dangerous to the missionaries. Their villages were not far from the road between the French post at Natchitoches and the Spanish post at Nacogdoches, and the tribe was thus exposed to the contentions of the period and to the ravages of small-pox, measles, and other new diseases introduced by the white race. In the latter part of the 18th century the Eyeish were placed under the jurisdiction of the officials residing at Nacogdoches and in 1779, it was reported there were some 20 families and that they were hated by both Indians and Spaniards. In 1785 there were reported to have been 300 people living on the Atoyac River, opposite the Nacogdoches river. In 1805 John Sibley stated that only 20 members of the tribe were then living but in 1828 they were said to number 160 families between the Brazos and Colorado Rivers. These differences in the estimates would seem to indicate that the Eyeish were considerably scattered during this period. Those who survived the vicissitudes which befell the Caddo in the 19th century joined with their kindred on the Wichita Reservation in Oklahoma. Nothing definite is known of their customs and beliefs, which, however, were probably similar to those entertained and practiced by other tribes of the confederacy, and no definite knowledge of their divisions and totems has survived. Fox - An Algonquian tribe, they were so named, because once while some Wagohugi, members of the Fox clan, were hunting, they met the French, who asked who they were. The Indians gave the name of their clan, and ever since the whole tribe has been known by the name of the Fox. Their own name for themselves is M283shkwakih365g, which means red-earth peoplequot because of the kind of earth from which they are supposed to have been created. They were known to the Chippewa and other Algonquian tribes as Ut365gamig, or quotpeople of the other shorequot. Fremont - The Fremont people lived throughout Utah and adjacent areas of Idaho. Colorado and Nevada from 700 to 1300 AD. The culture was named for the Fremont River and its valley in which many of the first Fremont sites were discovered. Lebih. . Gros Ventre. aka: Ahe, Aaninin, Ahahnelin, Aane, Atsina - Pronounced quotGrow Vaunt,quot the word means quotbig bellyquot in French. No one knows exactly why the French called them this. The Gros Ventre were kinfolk of the Arapaho. and called themselves Aaninin, the White Clay People. The Gros Ventre were probably original residents of Minnesota and North Dakota. but, as European expansion pushed them westward, the tribe migrated to Montana. where most of their descendants still live today. Guale - Guale was an historic Native American chiefdom of Mississippian culture peoples located along the coast of present-day Georgia and the Sea Islands. Spanish Florida established its Roman Catholic missionary system in the chiefdom in the late 16th century. During the late 17th century and early 18th century, Guale society was shattered by extensive epidemics of new infectious diseases and attacks by other tribes. Some of the surviving remnants migrated to the mission areas of Spanish Florida while others remained near the Georgia coast. Joining with other survivors, they became known as the Yamasee, an ethnically mixed group that emerged in a process of ethnogenesis. See More HERE . Hidatsa - Also known as the Minitari and a band of the Gros Ventre, the Hidatsa spoke a Siouan language. Occupying several agricultural villages on the upper Missouri River in North Dakota. they were in close alliance with the Arikara and the Mandan tribes. Hidatsa villages, with circular earth lodges, were enclosed by an earthen wall. Their survival depending upon the cultivation of corn and an annual organized buffalo hunt. They had a complex social organization and elaborate ceremonies, including the sun dance. After the smallpox epidemic of 1837, they moved up the Missouri River and established themselves close to the Fort Berthold trading post. Together with the Arikara and Mandan. many Hidatsa reside on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. Lebih. . Hohokam - Around 400 B.C. these Indians migrated from northern Mexico and settled at a place now called Snaketown, near Phoenix, Arizona. This group, who lived in pit houses, wisely invented an early form of irrigation, digging canals up to ten miles in length, then damming and directing the water through rows of crops. They made pottery using a unique dye from the saguaro cactus. Their culture lasted almost 2,000 years and are most likely the ancestors of the Pima and Papago tribes . Hopi - The Hopi occupancy of Arizona makes it the longest authenticated history of occupation of a single area by any Native American tribe in the United States. The Hopi located their villages on mesas for defensive purposes but land surrounding the mesas was also utilized by clans, families, medicinal and religious purposes. While the majority of its land was appropriated by the federal government, they retained 9 of their original holdings which is today the Hopi Reservation. Encompassing some 1.6 million acres, the Hopi headquarters is at Kykotsmovi, Arizona. Lebih. Houma - Originally the Houma were from east central Mississippi and were of the Chakchiuma. By 1682 the Houma had separated from the Chakchiuma and were living a few miles inland from the east bank of the Mississippi River just below the present border between Mississippi and Louisiana. Over time, they drifted south into Terrebonne and Lafourche Parishes southwest of New Orleans. Most of their descendents are still there today and live in or in the vicinity of Montagne, Golden Meadow, and Dulac-Grand Caillou. Hualupai, aka: Walapai - The Hualapai, meaning quotPeople of the Tall Pine,quot have lived along the Colorado and the Grand Canyon for centuries. The Hualapai are descendants of the quotPai,quot whose earliest physical remains have been found along the Willow Beach bank near the Hoover Dam, dating back as early as A.D. 600. Traditional hunters and gatherers, they were first discovered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. From 1865-1868, the Hualapai were involved in the Hualapai War. as a result of encroaching settlers upon their lands. The Hualapai Reservation was established by an executive order in 1883, when the tribe numbered around 700. Today, the Hualapai live on a reservation encompassing a million acres along 108 miles of the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. Their tribal capital is located at Peach Springs. Arizona. with a total population of some 1,600 members. Their economy is based on tourism, river-rafting, cattle-ranching, hunting expeditions, and timber-cutting, as well as crafting of traditional and modern folk arts. Huron - Many people today do not realize that Huron and Wyandot are the same people. Originally, more than a dozen Iroquoian-speaking tribes of southern Ontario, they referred to themselves as Wendat meaning quotisland peoplequot or quotdwellers on a peninsula.quot Rendered variously as: Guyandot, Guyandotte, Ouendat, Wyandot. and Wyandotte. The French, however, called members of a four-tribe confederacy Huron, a derogatory name derived from their word quothurequot meaning rough or ruffian. This has persisted as their usual name in Canada. lllinois Illini - The destruction of the Illini after contact with white settlers is one of the great tragedies in North American history. By the time American settlements reached them during the early 1800s, the Illini were nearly extinct and replaced by other tribes. For the most part, the blame for this could not be placed on a war with the Europeans or the Illini refusal to adapt themselves to a changing situation. Actually, few tribes had adapted as much or attached themselves more closely to the French. This made it easy to place responsibility for the fate of the Illini on their native enemies, or perhaps even nature itself. The story of the Illinis decline is a chilling indication of how the European presence, regardless of purpose or intention, unleashed destructive forces upon North Americas native peoples which reached far beyond the immediate areas of their colonization. InuitEskimo - The Inuit are the indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Alaska, Greenland, and Canada, with close relatives in Russia. They are united by a common cultural heritage and a common language. They have over the years been called Eskimo, but prefer to becalled by their own name quotInuit,quot meaning simply quotpeople.quot Traditionally, they have relied on fish, sea mammals, and land animals for food, heat, light, clothing, tools, and shelter. According to archaeological research, the origins of the Inuit lie in northwestern Alaska where they lived in houses made of driftwood and sod. Beginning about a thousand years ago, the Inuit began to move eastward into Arctic Canada. Within a few hundred years, they had replaced the earlier inhabitants of the region, a now-extinct people known as Tunit. By about 1250 AD, the first Inuit had entered Greenland through the Smith Sound area in the far northwest of the island. Here, they may have first encountered Viking hunters coming from the Norse colonies in southwest Greenland. In many areas, the old sod and whalebone winter houses were abandoned in favor of houses made of blocks of snow. They were easier to build as they could be put up anywhere, even on the sea ice, and required only an hour or two to construct. Today, the Inuit continue to live in the arctic regions, working in all sectors of the economy, though many still supplement their income through hunting. Tourism is a growing industry as guides take tourists on dogsled and hunting expeditions, and work with outfitting organizations. IowaIoway - Iowa, or Ayuwha, was a term borrowed by the French from the Dakota that signifies quotSleepy-ones.quot The Iowa people are of Sioux stock and closely related to the Otoe and Missouri tribes. They moved about a great deal, mostly in the states of Iowa and Minnesota. Through various treaties with the U.S. Government they lost their lands in Minnesotaq, Iowa and Missouri. The Ioway practiced farming and lived in villages however, bands that lived farther west adopted more of the customs of the Plains Indians. In 1836, another treaty assigned part of them a reservation along the Great Nemaha River in present-day Brown County, Kansas and Richardson County, Nebraska. Lebih. Innu - The Montagnais and Naskapi have different tribal names but consider themselves part of the same culture, Innu. The Innu are indigenous people of eastern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. Most Innu people still live in their traditional territory today, which they call Nitassinan . Iroquois - The Iroquois Indians lived in the Northeastern of the United States, in what is now New York. The Iroquois Indians were actually a quotnationquot of Indians made up of five tribes. including the Seneca. Onondaga. Oneida, and Mohawk. These tribes were hostile and war-like among each other until they joined together to become the quotLeague of the Five Nations.quot When they were not at war with each other, their primary occupation was clearing fields and building villages. The men carefully removed all facial hair and wore their hair in a Mohawk style. Tattoos were common for both sexes. The Iroquois often practiced torture and ritual cannibalism. There are some 80,000 people in the United States today that claim an Iroquis heritage.1600 to 1699 Settlement, Fur Trade War Introduction Beaver hats became the fashion rage in Europe in the early 17th century, and no self-respecting European was without one. This began a rush by both French and English merchants to establish control over the fur trade in the New World. Trading companies, including the Hudsons Bay Company (which still exists today) spang up almost overnight and many towns grew up around them. For the first time in history, hostilities between England and France washed over into the colonies. Land and ownership would change quickly and often, and the Native Peoples were caught in the middle. Enterprising trappers and traders became coureurs des bois (runners of the woods, or bush-lopers as they would be called by the British). Skilled paddlers became voyageurs who were hired to paddle huge canoes wherever their employers wished to go. Missionaries flooded the New World. The King of France payed for young women to move to the colonies in order to marry the male colonists already there. People with dreams of a new life became settlers and merchants. Others with a thirst for adventure became explorers and coureurs des bois. However, not only did the Europeans bring settlers and treasure hunters and new religion to the New World, they also brought alcohol, disease, and weapons which would change the lives of the Natives forever. Note: Clicking following an event opens a New Window containing more detailed information concerning that event. Related stories are linked in sequence. 1600 - Fur Trade the First Unofficial Settlement --- Beaver hats became the fashion rage in Europe and the demand for beaver pelts increased enormously. One single pelt was valued more than a human life. --- Franccedilois Grave du Pont (a.k.a. Pontgrave) and Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit sailed to Tadoussac and established the first unofficial settlement in Canada . Since they were Huguenot (French Protestant), the settlement was never officially recognized by the Catholic Church. 1602 - The Canada and Acadia Company --- Aymar de Clermont de Chaste was appointed Vice-Admiral of France by King Henri IV. He was commissioned to colonize New France and was granted a fur trade monopoly. To those ends, he created The Canada and Acadia Company . 1603 - Samuel de Champlain --- Franccedilois Grave du Pont was appointed de Chastes representative in New France. Samuel de Champlain sailed with him on his first voyage in March to New France. --- Samuel de Champlains first voyage under the authority of The Canada and Acadia Company to set up fur trade and to enforce a fur trade monopoly. --- May 13 - Aymar de Clermont de Chaste died. Pierre du Gua de Monts replaced him as Lieutenant General of Acadia and took over the fur trade monopoly. --- May 27 - Champlain was told by the Montagnais and Algonkins that they had attacked an Iroquois village near the Iroquois River and massacred and scalped over 100 Iroquois. Champlain suspected exaggeration, but noted that it was an attempt by the Natives to show that they were seeking an alliance with the French. 1604 - Champlain and the Iroquois --- Champlains second voyage . Champlain encountered the warring Iroquois near Cape Cod with disasterous results. He returned to the Bay of Fundy on the western shore of Nova Scotia. 1605 - Champlain - First Permanent Settlement in Canada --- Champlain founded Port-Royal (present-day Annapolis, Nova Scotia) which ultimately became the first permanent settlement in Canada. (see Champlain Details, 1604) --- The Canada and Acadia Company went bankrupt. The de Monts Trading Company was formed by de Monts, Champlain, and Pontgrave. (see Champlain Details, 1604) 1608 - Champlain - Queacutebec Conspiracy --- July 8 - Champlain founded Kebec (Queacutebec - hereafter spelled Quebec) . the name deriving from the Algonkin word for where the river narrows. Traitors, hired by the Spanish and Basque, conspired to murder Samuel de Champlain. Champlain discovered the conspiracy and his drastic actions ultimately sealed an alliance with the natives of Huronia. 1609 - Champlain - Battle of Ticonderoga --- June 5 - A relief ship from France arrived in Quebec to find only 8 of the original 28 colonists left alive. The others had died of scurvy and winter. --- Eacutetienne Brucircleacute was sent by Champlain to live among the Hurons as a truchement (embassador) (see 1610). Nicolas du Vignau was sent to live among the Algonquins on the Ottawa River. Savignon, son of the Algonquin chief Iroquet, was sent to live in France. The exchange was a great success. --- Champlain allied with the Natives north of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River against the Iroquois to the south in the Battle of Ticonderoga . The battle would introduce European guns to the Iroquois with deadly results. --- Arms trade following the Battle of Ticonderoga. --- Writer Marc Lescarbot . who sojourned with Champlain, became the first historian of Canada with his book A History of New France. --- Henry Hudson was commissioned by King James I of England to locate the Northwest Passage . (see 1610) --- The fur trade monopoly granted to The de Monts Trading Company was not renewed. The Company folded and de Monts formed a partnership with the Rouen Merchants. 1610 - John Guy - First English Settlement in Canada --- April 26 - The first Jesuits arrived in Quebec. They were not well-received in New France. Their ambiguous beliefs and anti-Christian actions were matters of great contention throughout their time in the New World. --- May 2 - The Company of Adventurers and Planters of London and Bristol (a.k.a. The New Found Land Company) was established with the intent to colonize Newfoundland. --- John Guy and 39 colonists settled Cupers Cove (present-day Cupids Cove, Newfoundland) under King James I of England. Cupers Cove became the first English settlement in Canada . --- Eacutetienne Brucircleacute became the first coureur de bois . His life among the Huron would lead him to adventure and, eventually, death. --- Henry Hudson explored Hudson Bay . mistaking it for the Pacific Ocean, and became icebound in James Bay. (see 1611) 1611 - Henry Hudson - Mutiny --- The crew of the Discovery mutinied when Henry Hudson wanted to continue his search for the Northwest Passage. Hudson, his son, and 7 others were set adrift in Hudson Bay. No trace of them was ever found. (see Henry Hudson Details, 1610) 1612 - John Guy and The Beothuk --- John Guy discovered the reclusive Beothuk, which would ultimately be the first and only recorded encounter with the Beothuk . (see John Guy Details, 1611) --- With Englands first settlement, Cupers Cove (present-day Cupids Cove), failing, John Guy resigned as Governor and returned to England. The settlement at Cupers Cove was abandoned shortly thereafter. (see John Guy Details, 1611) --- Samuel Argall, a pirate based in Virginia, attacked, looted and destroyed Port-Royal (present-day Annapolis, Nova Scotia). --- The Beothuk vanished from the New World. (see also 1823) 1615 - Champlain and The Black Robes --- The name given to the missionaries by the Natives, there were 3 main groups of Black Robes: The Jesuits, the Reacutecollets, and the Suplicians. --- Three Reacutecollet friars who were under directions from France and with orders to convert the Natives to Catholicism accompanied Champlain on his first journey into Huronia. --- Champlain accompanied a Huron invasion party in an attack against the Iroquois. Champlain was wounded in battle. --- Father Joseph le Caron celebrated the first mass in what is present-day Ontario . --- Schools were opened in Trois-Riviegraveres and Tadoussac to teach Native children. More than teaching them, though, the French hoped to convert the children to Christianity. --- Louis Heacutebert became the first true permanent settler in Canada (one who supported his family from the land and not with supplies from the homeland). --- Fort Trois-Riviegraveres became a trading post. --- With France in civil war, King James I of England commissioned William Alexander to reclaim New France and Acadia under authority of John Cabots claim in 1497. --- Henri II, Duc de Montmorency, was named Viceroy of New France. Samuel de Champlain was appointed his lieutenant. De Montmorency began building Fort Saint Louis on the cliffs at Quebec. He formed the Compagne de Montmorency (Montmorency Company) and was granted an 11-year fur trade monopoly. --- June 3 - The cornerstone of the first stone church in Quebec . Notre Dame des Anges, was laid by the Reacutecollets. --- The coureurs des bois (free fur traders) founded a trading post at Hochelaga (present-day Montreal) and named it Palace Royal. The coureurs des bois were considered pirates by the Church, so many of their accomplishments were attributed to either the priests or to other Frenchmen. --- King Louis XIII of France merged the Compagne de Montmorency and the Compagne des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo. --- Henri II, Duc de Montmorency, established the feudal land system in Canada by granting the fief of Sault au Matelot to Louis Heacutebert, Canadas first permanent settler. (see 1617) --- The French established a peace treaty with the Wendat (Hurons), Algonkins (Algonquins) and the Iroquois. --- Armand-Jean de Plassis, Cardinal Richelieu . became Chief Minister to the French Crown and became the absolute master of New France . He imposed a monopoly on all commerce and proclaimed that all baptized (i.e. Catholic) colonists and Natives would receive equal rights. This action would create a caste system in Canada which would remain to present times. --- Henri II, Duc de Montmorency, resigned as Viceroy of New France. His nephew, Henri de Levis, Duc de Vantadour, took his place. Champlain remained as de Vantadours lieutenant. --- Jesuit missionaries from the Society of Jesus began working amongst the Indians around Quebec to convert the Natives to Christianity. Jean de Breacutebeuf founded Jesuit missions in Huronia, near Georgian Bay. --- The Iroquois destroyed the Mohicans and dominated all of eastern North America south of the St. Lawrence. They set their sights to the north. --- January 25 - Louis Heacutebert, Canadas first permanent settler, died after a serious fall on the ice. --- April 29 - The Company of One Hundred Associates (a.k.a. the Company of New France), organized by Armand-Jean de Plassis, Cardinal Richelieu . was given a fur-trade monopoly to all the lands claimed by New France. Champlain was named Lieutenant to the Viceroy of Canada and commissioned to establish a permanent colony of at least 4,000 people before 1643, which they failed to do. (see 1628) --- Meanwhile, hostilities between England and France continued to grow. 1628 - The Kirke Brothers --- The French ships carrying colonists to Quebec were intercepted by the Kertk (Kirke) brothers . ultimately resulting in the surrender of Quebec. (see Details, 1627) --- July 19 - Louis Kirke attacked and took over Quebec in Britains name. Champlain would work for the next 3 years to overturn the conquest of New France. (see Details, 1627) --- It is quite likely that the family of Louis Heacutebert (see 1617) swore allegiance to England in order to retain their property and belongings rather than to be deported as were many other French families following the fall of Quebec to the British. --- The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye returned Quebec to France under the condition that King Louis XIII pay the dowry of one million livres to England. Champlain returned to rebuild the colony. (see Details, 1627) --- Eacutetienne Brucircleacute was murdered by the Hurons, either for trading with the Iroquois or for his sexual improprieties. The Hurons feared that Champlain would seek retribution, but Champlain, who now considered Brucircleacute a traitor, promised the Hurons that no action would be taken against them. 1634-1649 - Smallpox and the End of the Hurons --- With the coming of the White Man came also White Mans diseases: Measles, Influenza, and Smallpox to name just a few. Thousands of Hurons died and, by 1649, the Iroquois had all but wiped out those who survived. Forty years after meeting Samuel de Champlain, the Huron Nation ceased to exist. --- December 25 - Samuel de Champlain died on Christmas Day in Quebec. --- Sir Louis Kirke (knighted in 1633) was made the first governor of Newfoundland . --- Jesuits founded the Jesuit College in Quebec . --- Jacques Marquette (of Marquette and Jolliet) was born in France. (see 1666) 1639 - Marie de lIncarnation the Ursuline Convent --- Marie de lIncarnation embarked for New France, arriving on August 1. She became the first female missionary in Canada . Thanks to her frequent correspondence with her son, Claude, we have a unique glimpse into Canadas pioneer history. --- Marie de lIncarnation founded the Ursuline Convent in Quebec and became the first Mother Superior of New France . --- Catholic militants, The Mystics . founded Ville Marie (present-day Montreacuteal, hereafter spelled Montreal) . led by Jeacuterocircme le Royer de la Dauversiegravere and his wife, Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve (soldier and commander), and a nurse, Jeanne Mance (aged 34). Considered a foolhardy enterprise by Governor Montmagny, the Society was doomed to failure. --- (circa 1641) Meacutedard Chouart des Grosseilliers (of Radisson and Grosseilliers) arrived in New France. He spent several years in Huronia before meeting his future partner and brother-in-law, Pierre-Esprit Radisson. (see also 1651 and 1654) 1642-1667 - Iroquois Invasions --- For 25 years, New France was under almost constant siege by the Iroquois. Using guerrilla raids instead of outright invasions, the Iroquois brought fur trade to a complete standstill. Anyone venturing out of the safety of Montreal, Quebec, or Trois-Riviegraveres, even to gather fire wood, did so at extreme risk. Smaller settlements were massacred. Dozens of Jesuit missionaries were brutally murdered and the missions destroyed. Many other missions were abandoned. The Iroquois destroyed what remained of the Huron Nation. These invasions ultimately resulted in a declaration of war by France against the Iroquois. --- Jesuit Isaac Joques . attempting to convert Iroquois to Christianity, was captured and tortured the first time. He returned in 1645, but on October 18, 1646, Joques was hacked to death by the Iroquois. He was only 39 years old. --- November 21 - Reneacute-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle was born in Rouen, Normandy. He would come to be known as the Mad Explorer . Through trickery and some devious manipulations, la Salle would ultimately explore the Mississippi River and claim the entire Mississippi basin for France. (see 1667) --- Louis Jolliet (of Marquette and Jolliet) was born near Quebec in September. (see 1655) --- Pierre-Esprit Radisson (of Radisson and Grosseilliers) arrived in Trois-Riviegraveres with his family. He was captured by the Iroquois with whom he lived for a time, escaped, and then made his way back to New France where he became partners with Meacutedard Chouart des Grosseilliers. (see also circa 1641 and 1659) --- Iroquois defeated the Petun and Ottawa nations, gaining control of the entire St. Lawrence region. --- Louis Jolliet (of Marquette and Jolliet) was enrolled in the Jesuit college in Quebec at the age of 10 where he began his study for the priesthood. (see 1667) 1659 - Radisson and des Grosseilliers --- Following the loss of trade with the demise of the Huron Nation, the King of France commissioned Pierre-Esprit Radisson and his brother-in-law Meacutedard Chouart des Grosseilliers to explore westward and set up trade relations with any natives they discovered. During their voyage, they discovered the headwaters of the Michissipi River . The reactions to their return to Quebec would cause them to change allegiance to England (see 1665) and ultimately create the Hudsons Bay Company for England. (see 1669). --- Franccedilois de Laval arrived in Quebec as the Vicar General of the Pope in June. --- In May, about 500 Iroquois Natives attacked Long Sault. Defended by only about 60 people, including Adam Dollard des Ormeaux, Long Sault was able to withstand the attack. Because of this battle, tradition holds that the Iroquois were so impressed with the efforts of the small band of Frenchmen that they decided not to attack Montreal as originally planned. 1661 - King Louis XIV War against the Iroquois --- The Prime Minister of France died and Pierre Boucher was sent from Trois-Riviegraveres to France to beg help from 22-year-old King Louis XIV. Louis dreamed of ruling a huge empire and found Bouchers reports disturbing. He didnt want to begin his reign by losing New France to the Iroquois. King Louis XIV dismissed royal administration in the colony and appointed a governor and intendant and promised significant military support. War was declared on the Iroquois. --- February 23 - The first concerns over the trade of alcohol for furs were met with a decree which made the sale of alcohol to natives illegal under threat of excommunication. (see 1679) 1663-1673 - Filles de Roi (Daughters of the King) --- Over 800 Filles de Roi (Daughters of the King) were sent to New France for the purpose of settling there and marrying the many single male settlers. Unlike other women who had been brought to New Fance at the expense of the colonists, the Filles de Roi were sponsored by King Louis XIV of France. 1663 - Royal Province of Quebec --- Quebec became a royal province and Laval organized the Seacuteminaire du Queacutebec . (Originally a theological college, the Seacuteminaire would eventually become the Universiteacute de Laval in 1852.) 1664-1671 - Engageacutes and Voyageurs --- Over 1,000 engageacutes (indentured servants) settled in New France, hired by colonial farmers, merchants, religious people, etc. Contracts lasted 3 years, during which time the engageacutes were denied citizenship, marriage, and were prohibited from becoming involved in fur trade. For their work, the engageacutes were paid 75 livres per year minus food, lodging and clothing. Their contracts could be bought or sold at any time without their consent. At the end of their tenure, the engageacutes had only the clothes on their backs, a few coins in their pockets, perhaps a gun if they were lucky enough, and their freedom. Most returned to France but many remained and became voyageurs . which were, essentially, canoeists for hire. --- Hans Bernhardt became the first recorded German immigrant. 1665 - Radisson des Grosseilliers Change Allegiance --- Following the fines and confiscation of their furs in 1660, Radisson and des Grosseilliers secretly sailed to England where they switched their loyalties and began the process of forming the Hudsons Bay Company, a company which still exists in Canada. (see 1669) --- Jean Talon became Quebecs first intendant (an administrative officer who oversaw agriculture, education, justice, trade, etc.). Talon arrived with the Carignan-Saliegraveres Regiment (1,200 soldiers who had been sent by King Louis XIV to deal with the Iroquois situation) and other representatives to the crown Governor Daniel de Remy de Courcelle, and the Commander of the troops, the Marquis of Tracy. (see 1666) 1666 - War without a War --- France launched its war against the Iroquois . Oddly enough, there would not be a single encounter, yet the war would end with a significant loss of life. --- Jacques Marquette (of Marquette and Jolliet) arrived in New France . --- Canadas first census . counting 3,215 non-native inhabitants. --- Radisson and des Grosseilliers, having failed to secure a new commission from France, gained sponsorship from Prince Rupert, cousin of King Charles II of England. --- Louis Jolliet renounced his clerical vocation and left the Jesuit college at the age of 23 in order to become a coureur de bois . --- Reneacute-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle . who had also renounced his Jesuit vows 2 years earlier, arrived in New France, his first step on the road to becoming The Mad Explorer . (see 1669) --- The Carignan-Saliegraveres Regiment was recalled to France. Several hundred, however, chose to remain in New France. --- Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette (of Marquette and Jolliet) arrived on assignment in Sault Ste. Marie where he met Louis Jolliet . Jolliet was well-aquainted with the Great Lakes region and could speak 5 indigenous native languages. (see 1673) --- Radisson and des Grosseilliers sailed to Hudson Bay on their first voyage under the British flag. This voyage would confirm the creation of the Hudsons Bay Company (see 1674). During the voyage, Radissons ship became damaged in a storm and he was forced to return to England. Des Grosseilliers continued on the Nonsuch . returning later with a shipload of furs. He was richly rewarded and was dubbed Knight of the Garter by King Charles II. --- La Salles first voyage to the Mississippi River proved his incompetence as an explorer. (see 1673) --- The Suplician missionaries of Montreal discovered that the Great Lakes were all linked on their first and only voyage into the Upper Country. 1670 - Hudsons Bay Company --- May 2 - The Hudson Bay Company was founded by King Charles II . Underwritten by a group of English merchants, the royal charter granted trade rights over Ruperts Land to the company. (Ruperts Land included all the land draining into Hudson Bay. At its most powerful, the Hudsons Bay Company owned 10 of the entire land surface of the earth.) --- June 4 - Simon Daumont de Saint-Lusson formally took possession of the western interior of North America by declaration at Sault Ste. Marie. Effectively, the declaration claimed all the land from Sault Ste. Marie north to Hudson Bay, west to the Pacific Ocean, and south to the Gulf of Mexico. --- Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac became the Governor-General of New France . His first administration would last 10 years. Despite his haughtiness, Frontenac would accomplish much in New France before being recalled to France in 1682. --- April 30 - Marie de lIncarnation died in Quebec, never having returned to France and never having seen her son again. She was 72. --- Jesuit Father Charles Albanal travelled up the Saguenay River and reached Hudson and James Bays. --- Marquette and Jolliet were commissioned by Frontenac to explore the Michissipi (Mississippi) River to determine if it flowed into the Pacific Ocean (as hoped) or into the Gulf of Mexico (as feared). --- La Salle constructed Fort Cataracoui (also Cataraqui, present-day Kingston, Ontario) . In France, la Salle began his lifestyle as a shrewd con man in order to further his wealth and historical prominence. (see 1678) --- Radisson and des Grosseilliers renounced their allegiance to England and returned to France to explore and trade under the French flag. --- Laval became the first Bishop of Quebec . --- Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette died at Green Bay from illnesses acquired during his trip down the Mississippi River. Louis Jolliet returned to Quebec where he was married. He became a renowned merchant who was often consulted by the colony officials when important trade and settlement decisions had to be made. (see also 1679) 1676 - End of the Coureurs des Bois --- April 15 - King Louis XIV signed a decree banning fur trade from private traders and trappers, the coureurs des bois . The decree forced the natives to travel to specific trading posts on specific days to trade their furs and the coureurs des bois eventually passed into history. Using bribery and deception, la Salle secured a commission from King Louis XIV to explore the Mississippi River. (see 1682) --- Reacutecollet priest Louis Hennepin became the first person to describe and to draw Niagara Falls. --- King Louis XIV signed another decree preventing the sale of alcohol outside any French dwelling and banned transportation of alcohol to any Native village under threat of severe penalty. --- Louis Jolliet was commissioned to travel to Hudson Bay in order to assess the expansion and success of the Hudsons Bay Company. --- Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye . friend to Pierre-Esprit Radisson, formed the Compagnie Franccedilaise de la Baie dHudson (a.k.a the Northern Company) in an effort to compete with the Hudsons Bay Company of England. Radisson and des Grosseilliers were hired by the Company to reclaim the trading posts on Hudson Bay. This would ultimately be the final, tragic, and disturbing chapter in the Radisson and des Grosseilliers saga. 1682 - La Salle. the Mad Explorer --- April 9 - Reneacute-Robert Cavelier de la Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi River after 4 years of exploring the length of the river. He claimed the entire Mississippi basin in the name of France and named it Louisiana after King Louis XIV. (see 1684) --- King Louis XIV revolked the title of Governor-General granted to Louis de Buade, Compte de Frontenac in 1672 and recalled him to France. 1684 - La Salle and Louisiana Using altered maps, la Salle tricked the King of France into believing that Louisiana was rich in silver and that the mouth of the Mississippi River would be an ideal place for a colony and fort in order to stave off Spanish incursions from the south. The King named la Salle commander of all Louisiana and commissioned him to start a colony on the Mississippi Delta. La Salles haughty, self-serving nature would ultimately result in his assassination. (see 1687) --- March 19 - La Salle was ambushed and shot in the head by Pierre Duhault. Mortally wounded, la Salle was stripped naked by his men. All his belongings were taken away and la Salle was left where he had fallen. 1689 - English Invasion --- May - France and England declared war. English colonists in New York heard the news first and convinced their Iroquois allies to attack the French. Most French colonies were unfortified. Their vast expansion had not allowed them to defend them properly. --- August 5 - 1,500 Iroquois attacked Lachine near Montreal, which became known as the Lachine Massacre . Of the 375 inhabitants, 24 were killed and 76 others were taken prisoner. Fifty-six of the 77 buildings were razed to the ground. --- October - Frontenac was renamed Governor of New France. He would come to be known as the Saviour of New France . 1690 - French Retaliation King Williams War --- Following the Lachine Massacre, Frontenac ordered a retaliatory attack on Albany in the British colony of New York. This war, the first in the British and French colonies, would come to be known as King Williams War . --- February - Frontenac began his invasion. One hundred and sixteen militiamen and 96 Indian allies were placed in the charge of coureur de bois Nicolas DAilleboust de Manthet and brothers Jacques le Moyne de Sainte-Heacutelegravene (see October 16, 1690) and Pierre le Moyne dIberville (see 1696). They reached the fort at Schenectady and massacred 60 settlers. --- May 11 - Sir William Phips . (sent by Massachusetts) captured Port-Royal (Annapolis, NS). --- October 16 - Admiral Phips approached Quebec with 34 ships, including 4 warships. Phips sent Major Thomas Savage to demand the surrender of Quebec and the entire French colony. Frontenacs reply was: The only answer I have for your general will come from the mouths of my cannon and muskets. Frontenac had been forewarned of the invasion and had secretly gathered 3,000 militiamen and natives. When Phips attempted a landing, he was surprised by resistance from Jacques le Moyne de Sainte-Heacutelegravene and the invasion was repulsed. le Moyne died in battle. --- October 24 - With many of his ships seriously damaged by artillery fire from Quebec, Phips weighed anchor and returned to Boston. --- Louis Jolliet was commissioned to explore and map the coastline of Labrador and to assess the trade possibilities there. 1696 - Les Canadiens British Surrender --- France and England were at war yet again. Pierre le Moyne dIberville became the most famous Canadien . (colony-born soldier). He ejected the British from Hudson Bay and, in November, led 120 militia and Mikmaq warriors and attacked British fishing outposts on Newfoundland before attacking the settlement and fort at St. Johns. In the attack on the settlement, dIberville had the homes torched, then scalped a prisoner named William Drew and sent the scalp into the fort with a demand for surrender. The British surrendered and abandoned St. Johns to the French. --- For his efforts, dIberville was dubbed Chevalier de lOrdre de Saint Louis, the highest military distinction in the kingdom of France. --- The Treaty of Ryswick assured that all lands captured during the struggles between the English and French were returned. --- November 28 - Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac died at Quebec. He was 76.
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