Keuntungan dan kelebihan sistem perdagangan multilateral

Keuntungan dan kelebihan sistem perdagangan multilateral

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Kursus Kursus Keuangan Perdagangan Internasional Kursus intensif 2 hari ini telah disesuaikan untuk para profesional di bidang perbankan, perdagangan dan perdagangan dan industri yang perlu mendapatkan pemahaman lebih dekat mengenai Perdagangan Internasional. Kursus ini memberikan landasan menyeluruh untuk semua aspek Keuangan Perdagangan Internasional dalam konteks global yang mencakup konsep utama, praktik dan perkembangan terkini. Kursus ini akan menjadi perhatian khusus bagi profesional perbankan dan komersial, yang ingin memperluas basis pengetahuan mereka, meningkatkan keahlian mereka dan meningkatkan karir mereka ke dalam arena perdagangan internasional. Apa yang Akan Anda Pelajari Pada akhir kursus ini, Anda akan memiliki pemahaman yang baik tentang: Prinsip-prinsip mata uang asing dengan dasar-dasar Operasi dasar dan proses di lingkungan perdagangan internasional Bagaimana pembiayaan perdagangan disediakan Instrumen keuangan perdagangan Pembayaran internasional Keuangan Supply Chain Mendaftar juga untuk Internasional Pembayaran dan simpan pon100 tambahan (total, bukan per mata kuliah). Topik Utama Tercakup Selama Pelatihan ini Perdagangan Terstruktur Keuangan Risiko Valuta Asing Structured vs. Secured Trade Finance Menggunakan agunan untuk mengelola risiko kredit Pra dan pasca pengiriman Instrumen Keuangan Perdagangan Pembayaran Perdagangan Sumber Keuangan Perdagangan Sindikasi Pinjaman Mempersiapkan dokumentasi Instrumen Pembayaran Perdagangan Internasional Sistem Pembayaran Internasional CHIPS Koresponden Perbankan Supply Chain Finance Siapa Yang Harus Hadir Kursus ini akan bermanfaat bagi para profesional di bidang berikut: Bankir komersial dari kantor frontmiddleback Bankir komersial berurusan dengan pasar Forex Praktisi keuangan perdagangan Manajer perusahaan perdagangan, staf senior dan operasi Manajer risiko dan petugas manajemen risiko 27 -28 Mar 2017 Dubai Penawaran spesial sampai 28 Feb 1850. Harga reguler 1995. Diskon kelompok: 5 untuk 2, 10 untuk 3. Keuangan Perdagangan Internasional - Program Kursus 2 Hari Pengantar tentang Perdagangan Keuangan Mengapa pembiayaan perdagangan internasional penting Blok bangunan Internasional Perdagangan Apa yang berbeda dengan manajemen keuangan internasional Risiko Valuta Asing Perusahaan multinasional dan jenisnya Sistem Moneter Internasional Sejarah singkat sistem keuangan internasional Mengambang nilai tukar Sistem nilai tukar Moneter Uni Eropa Tingkat suku bunga Mengelola pelampung Aspek sistem ideal LdquoTrinityrdquo Fixed vs. floating Tingkat Pengantar Keuangan Perdagangan Terstruktur Menggunakan agunan untuk mengelola risiko kredit Mengapa Masalah Keuangan Terstruktur Prinsip-prinsip pembiayaan yang dijamin dengan aman Vs Structured Finance Trade Finance Instruments Bagian ini memperkenalkan dasar-dasar pembiayaan perdagangan. Kami membahas bagaimana teknik tradisional keuangan pra dan pasca pengiriman berhubungan dengan bentuk pembiayaan seperti forfaiting, countertrade, keuangan terstruktur, keuangan Islam, sekuritisasi, dll. Bentuk khas dari trade finance komoditas internasional Pembayaran perdagangan dan perdagangan internasional Peralatan perdagangan internasional Keuangan (meliputi keuangan pra-kiriman dan pasca pengiriman) Instrumen keuangan pra-pengiriman (seperti cerukan bank, pinjaman berjangka, jalur kredit, fasilitas perdagangan dalam mata uang asing, buka perjanjian Letter of Credit, Leasing atau hirepurchase lokal, garansi ) Instrumen keuangan pasca-pengiriman (seperti kredit, draft negosiasi, diskon, Letter of Credit, Koleksi Dokumenter) Mengintegrasikan keuangan pra dan pasca pengiriman Studi Kasus: Menggunakan kertas perdagangan untuk membiayai perdagangan gandum domestik. Sumber Trade Finance Kami memeriksa berbagai sumber keuangan untuk perdagangan internasional termasuk: Supplierrsquos credit Bank ndash lokal amp internasional Buyerrsquos credit Export credit agencies Lembaga keuangan multilateral Pemerintah Perusahaan manajemen investasi Jenis sindikasi Proses sindikasi pinjaman Keuntungan sindikasi pinjaman Contoh Operasi Berbagai Perdagangan Instrumen Keuangan Kami memeriksa contoh kerja terperinci dari berbagai Instrumen Keuangan Perdagangan. Ini termasuk: - Pembiayaan pra-pengiriman jangka pendek (berbasis LC) - Pembiayaan pra-pengiriman jangka menengah tanpa jaminan bank (berbasis kontrak) - Pembiayaan konstruksi untuk pabrik luar negeri yang dikombinasikan dengan agen kredit ekspor - Piutang usaha- Berbasis pembiayaan - Pembiayaan komoditas terstruktur Instrumen pembayaran perdagangan internasional Masalah mendasar dari perdagangan internasional Mekanisme pembayaran perdagangan dan risiko Risiko bagi eksportir dari berbagai persyaratan pembayaran Opsi mekanisme pembayaran Kami memeriksa setiap instrumen secara mendalam tentang apa itu, bagaimana cara kerjanya, kapan harus menggunakan Itu, kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing serta risikonya Buka akun instrumen nyata atau hanya tipuan pemasaran Kasir pembayaran di muka Kerugian pada penjual eksportir Koleksi dokumenter Peran bank Terperinci mengekspos proses Koleksi Dokumenter termasuk diagram alir terperinci Koleksi dokumenter Variasi Kredit dokumenter: Proses Kredit Dokumenter secara rinci Bank dan Documen Kredit tary Penipuan Letter of Credit Country credit lines Peran dokumen yang dimainkan Masalah yang disebabkan oleh dokumen yang tidak benar Kesepakatan Master dan penggunaannya Perundang-undangan Pengambilan Barang Perolehan Bergulir Letter of Credit Letter of Credit costs Stand-By Letters of Credit sebagai instrumen pembayaran Dokumentasi Sistem Pembayaran Internasional Bagaimana internasional Pembayaran dilakukan Tujuan sistem pembayaran Karakteristik pembayaran internasional Proses pembayaran Pembayaran dalam Dolar AS ndash CHIPS Kami mengeksplorasi sistem pembayaran CHIPS dolar itu dari operasi sehari-hari dan permukimannya Survei tentang perbankan koresponden, apa adanya, Operasinya dan bagaimana pembayaran dilunasi CLS dan perannya dalam menyelesaikan pembayaran perdagangan internasional Risiko nilai tukar valuta asing Bagaimana CLS mengoperasikan Supply Chain Finance - Apa itu dinamika pembayaran pemasok pemasok Syarat dan risiko pembayaran Rantai suplai keuangan dalam perdagangan internasional Tantangan Letter of Credit Resiko penyelesaian perdagangan Perdagangan tidak seimbang Istilah Supply C Hain Contoh keuangan Manfaat Pilihan pendanaan Variasi pendanaan dan perkembangan baru Supply Chain Finance Vs Metode tradisional Pembiayaan pra-ekspor Pembiayaan inventaris Pembiayaan pasca-ekspor Pengalaman profesional Richardrsquos terbentang lebih dari 25 tahun. Dia memulai karirnya di Wells Fargo Bank, mengikuti Fundtech dan kemudian beralih ke konsultasi dan konsultasi internasional untuk sektor swasta dan berteknologi tinggi yang memberikan konsultasi tingkat tinggi, analisis bisnis, manajemen proyek dan pelatihan kepada berbagai klien perbankan di seluruh wilayah Dunia. Selama karirnya, Richard terlibat dalam International Trade Finance, Cross Border Payments and Settlements, Operational Risk, AML dan Corporate Governance. Dia telah menghabiskan banyak waktu untuk melayani beragam klien institusional keuangan di banyak negara termasuk: Inggris, Irlandia, China, Singapura, Hong Kong, Filipina, Korea, Malawi, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Afrika Selatan, Polandia, Swedia, Belanda, Yunani , Norwegia, Bermuda dan seluruh Amerika Utara. Klien yang Richard latih diajak berkonsultasi untuk memasukkan: JP Morgan, Bank Umum Abu Dhabi, Bursa Qatar, Otoritas Investasi Abu Dhabi, Bank Sentral Mesir, Irish Gas, UBS, Bank Sentral Irlandia, Bank Sentral Norwegia, Merrill Lynch, PGGM , BP, Asian Development Bank, Bank Pembangunan Afrika, Instinet, Fundtech, Bank Sentral Eropa, Badan Penanaman Modal Brunei, Dana Pensiun Baja Inggris, Salesforce dan Tullet Prebon. Kursus Terbuka Terbuka Terbuka Pembayaran Internasional dan Domestik Pembayaran Mobile dan Elektronik SWIFT Mengelola Risiko Operasional FX Manajemen Proyek untuk Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan Audit e-Banking Anti Pencucian Uang dan Pencegahan Penipuan Manajemen Kesinambungan Bisnis Perencanaan Skenario Perencanaan Mengelola Risiko Sistem Lintas Batas dalam Pembayaran Pengambilan Dan lebih banyak Jika Anda memiliki sekelompok 3 orang atau lebih, kami dapat menyesuaikan salah satu dari 100 program keuangan atau soft skill kami dan mengirimkannya ke lokasi manapun di seluruh dunia. Semua pelatih kami memiliki setidaknya 20 tahun pengalaman praktis dari sektor masing-masing dan memahami dengan baik persyaratan sehari-hari dan tantangan yang dihadapi karyawan Anda. Mereka memiliki kemampuan komunikasi yang hebat dan membawa banyak antusiasme ke kelas. E-mail kami atau hubungi 44 (0) 207 995 8597 untuk mendiskusikan kebutuhan Anda dan kami akan dengan senang hati mempersiapkan program pelatihan yang paling sesuai untuk organisasi Anda. Keuangan Perdagangan Internasional Kursus intensif 2 hari ini telah disesuaikan untuk para profesional di bidang perbankan, perdagangan dan perdagangan dan industri yang perlu mendapatkan pemahaman lebih dekat mengenai Perdagangan Internasional. Ampnbspampnbspltpgt ltdivgt Kursus ini memberikan landasan menyeluruh untuk semua aspek Keuangan Perdagangan Internasional dalam konteks global yang mencakup konsep utama, praktik dan perkembangan terkini.ampnbspltdivgt ltdivgtampn. Dubai Hak Cipta 2013 copy Eureka Financial Ltd. Terdaftar di Inggris Wales, Perusahaan No. 06503410 - all rights reserved. Situs oleh Sistem Seagull Ketika sebuah organisasi telah membuat keputusan untuk memasuki pasar luar negeri, ada beragam pilihan yang terbuka untuknya. Pilihan ini bervariasi dengan biaya, risiko dan tingkat kontrol yang dapat dilakukan terhadap mereka. Bentuk strategi masuk yang paling sederhana adalah mengekspor menggunakan metode langsung atau tidak langsung seperti agen, dalam kasus bekas, atau countertrade, dalam kasus yang terakhir. Bentuk yang lebih kompleks mencakup operasi global yang benar-benar melibatkan usaha patungan, atau zona pemrosesan ekspor. Setelah memutuskan bentuk strategi ekspor, keputusan harus dibuat pada saluran tertentu. Banyak produk pertanian dari bahan mentah atau komoditas yang menggunakan agen, distributor atau melibatkan Pemerintah, sedangkan bahan olahan, walaupun tidak termasuk ini, sangat bergantung pada bentuk akses yang lebih canggih. Ini akan diperluas nanti. Tujuan bab ini adalah: Bab ini dimulai dengan melihat konsep strategi masuk pasar dalam pengendalian bauran pemasaran yang dipilih. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan menggambarkan berbagai bentuk strategi masuk, baik ekspor langsung maupun tidak langsung dan produksi asing, dan kelebihan dan kekurangan yang terkait dengan setiap metode. Bab ini memberikan rincian spesifik tentang quotcountertradequot, yang sangat lazim dalam pemasaran global, dan kemudian ditutup dengan melihat fitur khusus perdagangan komoditas dengan kopling kuotnya antara produksi dan pemasaran. Organisasi yang ingin mengutip internasionalquot menghadapi tiga masalah utama: i) Pemasaran - negara mana, yang melakukan segmentasi, bagaimana mengelola dan menerapkan usaha pemasaran, bagaimana memasukkan - dengan perantara atau secara langsung, dengan informasi apa ii) Sourcing - apakah akan memperoleh produk, Membuat atau membeli iii) Investasi dan pengendalian - usaha patungan, mitra global, akuisisi Keputusan di bidang pemasaran berfokus pada rantai nilai (lihat gambar 7.1). Alternatif strategi atau masukan harus memastikan bahwa aktivitas rantai nilai yang diperlukan dilakukan dan terintegrasi. Gambar 7.1 Rincian fungsi pemilahan rantai nilai Dalam membuat keputusan pemasaran internasional mengenai bauran pemasaran lebih banyak perhatian terhadap detail diperlukan daripada pemasaran domestik. Tabel 7.1 mencantumkan rincian yang diminta 1. Tabel 7.1 Contoh elemen yang termasuk dalam bauran pemasaran ekspor 1. Dukungan produk - Sumber produk - Mencocokkan produk yang ada ke pasar - udara, laut, kereta api, jalan, pengiriman - Produk baru - Manajemen produk - Produk Pengujian - Spesifikasi pabrikasi - Pelabelan - Kemasan - Kontrol produksi - Informasi pasar 2. Dukungan harga - Pembentukan harga - Diskon - Distribusi dan pemeliharaan pricelist - Informasi kompetitif - Pelatihan agen pelanggan 3. Dukungan promosi - Periklanan - Promosi - literatur - Surat langsung - Pameran, pameran dagang - Percetakan - Penjualan (langsung) - Tenaga penjualan - Komisi agen - Penjualan atau pengembalian 4. Dukungan inventaris - Manajemen persediaan - Pergudangan - Distribusi - Bagian persediaan - Otorisasi kredit 5. Dukungan distribusi - Penyediaan dana - Peningkatan modal - Pengolahan pesanan - Persiapan dan dokumentasi ekspor - Pengiriman barang - Asuransi - Arbitrasi 6. Pelayanan Dukungan - Informasi pasar keintiman - Proses penawaran - Bantuan bantuan teknis - Purna jual - Jaminan - Jaminan klaim - Merchandising - Laporan penjualan, literatur katalog - Layanan pelanggan - Anggaran - Sistem pengolahan data - Asuransi - Layanan pajak - Layanan hukum - Terjemahan 7. Dukungan finansial - Penagihan, pengumpulan faktur - Sewa, penyewaan - Perencanaan, penjadwalan data anggaran - Rincian Pengauditan pada elemen sumber telah dibahas dalam bab mengenai analisis dan strategi kompetitif. Mengenai investasi dan pengendalian, pertanyaannya adalah seberapa jauh perusahaan ingin mengendalikan nasibnya sendiri. Tingkat risiko yang terlibat, sikap dan kemampuan untuk mencapai tujuan di pasar sasaran adalah aspek penting dalam keputusan apakah akan memberikan lisensi, usaha patungan atau terlibat dalam investasi langsung. Cunningham 1 (1986) mengidentifikasi lima strategi yang digunakan oleh perusahaan untuk masuk ke pasar luar negeri yang baru: i) Strategi inovasi teknis - produk superior yang dirasakan dan terbukti ii) Strategi adaptasi produk - modifikasi pada produk yang ada iii) Ketersediaan dan strategi keamanan - mengatasi risiko transportasi oleh Melawan risiko yang dirasakan iv) Strategi harga rendah - harga penetrasi dan, v) Strategi adaptasi dan kesesuaian total - produsen asing memberikan salinan langsung. Dalam memasarkan produk dari negara-negara kurang maju ke negara-negara maju poin iii) menimbulkan masalah besar. Pembeli di negara asing yang tertarik biasanya sangat berhati-hati karena mereka melihat masalah transportasi, mata uang, kualitas dan kuantitas. Ini benar, katakanlah, dalam ekspor kapas dan komoditas lainnya. Sebab, pada sebagian besar komoditas pertanian, produksi dan pemasaran saling terkait, infrastruktur, informasi dan sumber daya lain yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun masuk pasar bisa sangat besar. Terkadang hal ini jauh di luar lingkup organisasi swasta, jadi Pemerintah mungkin terlibat. Ini bisa jadi terlibat bukan hanya untuk mendukung komoditas tertentu, tapi juga untuk membantu goodpot kuota. Sementara pembangunan jalan baru dapat membantu transportasi cepat dan cepat dari sayuran, misalnya, dan dengan demikian membantu pemasaran mereka, jalan dapat dimanfaatkan secara lain, untuk keperluan publik yang baik. Selain itu, strategi entry sering ditandai dengan investasi quotlumpyquot. Investasi besar mungkin harus dilakukan, dengan investor membayar harga risiko tinggi, jauh sebelum utilisasi penuh investasi datang. Contoh bagusnya termasuk pembangunan fasilitas pelabuhan atau pengolahan makanan atau fasilitas pembekuan. Selain itu, peralatan tersebut mungkin tidak dapat digunakan untuk proses lain, jadi peralatan spesifik aset, yang dikunci secara khusus, dapat membuat pemiliknya sangat rentan terhadap daya tawar pemasok bahan mentah dan pembeli produk yang memproses produksi atau perdagangan alternatif. pilihan. Zimfreeze, Zimbabwe mengalami masalah tersebut. Ini membangun pabrik pembekuan besar untuk sayuran tapi menemukan dirinya sendiri tanpa kontrak. Saat ini, dipaksa untuk menerima materi produk volume sub opsional hanya agar pabrik tidak berdetak. Dalam membangun strategi masuk pasar, waktu merupakan faktor penting. Membangun sistem intelijen dan menciptakan citra melalui promosi membutuhkan waktu, tenaga dan uang. Nama merek tidak muncul dalam semalam. Investasi besar dalam promosi promosi diperlukan. Biaya transaksi juga merupakan faktor penting dalam membangun strategi masuk pasar dan bisa menjadi penghalang yang tinggi bagi perdagangan internasional. Biaya meliputi biaya pencarian dan tawar menawar. Jarak fisik, hambatan bahasa, biaya logistik dan risiko membatasi pemantauan langsung mitra dagang. Penegakan kontrak mungkin mahal dan lemahnya integrasi hukum antar negara membuat keadaan sulit. Juga, faktor-faktor ini penting saat mempertimbangkan strategi masuk pasar. Sebenarnya faktor-faktor ini mungkin sangat mahal dan berisiko bahwa Pemerintah, bukan individu swasta, sering terlibat dalam sistem komoditas. Hal ini dapat dilihat dalam kasus Dewan Pemasaran Jeruk Israel. Dengan dewan pemasaran ekspor monopoli, keseluruhan sistem dapat berperilaku seperti perusahaan tunggal, yang mengatur perpaduan dan kualitas produk ke pasar yang berbeda dan bernegosiasi dengan para pengangkut dan pembeli. Sementara Dewan ini dapat mengalami skala ekonomi dan menyerap banyak risiko yang tercantum di atas, mereka dapat melindungi produsen dari informasi tentang, dan dari. Pembeli. Mereka juga bisa menjadi tanda kutip dari kepentingan pribadi dan menjadi bersifat politis. Mereka kemudian menghasilkan pengurangan insentif produksi dan tidak lagi menjadi permintaan atau orientasi pasar, yang merugikan produsen. Cara normal untuk memperluas pasar adalah dengan perluasan lini produk, pengembangan geografis atau keduanya. Penting untuk dicatat bahwa semakin banyak lini produk dan jika wilayah geografis diperluas semakin besar akan menjadi kompleksitas manajerial. Peluang pasar baru dapat dibuat tersedia dengan perluasan namun risikonya mungkin lebih besar daripada keuntungannya, sebenarnya lebih baik berkonsentrasi pada beberapa wilayah geografis dan melakukan hal-hal dengan baik. Ini khas industri hortikultura Kenya dan Zimbabwe. Secara tradisional ini telah berkonsentrasi pada pasar Eropa dimana pasarnya terkenal. Cara berkonsentrasi meliputi berkonsentrasi pada area geografis, mengurangi variasi operasional (lebih standar produk) atau membuat bentuk organisasi lebih tepat. Pada akhirnya, usaha dilakukan untuk mengukur penawaran dan organisasi agar sesuai dengannya. Ini berlaku untuk organisasi seperti Coca Cola dan MacDonalds. Strategi global mencakup strategi kuadrat kuotot kuotasi (koordinasi internasional yang sangat terdesentralisasi dan terbatas), pendekatan pasar terbuka (bauran pemasaran yang dikembangkan dengan pasar lokal (asing) yang spesifik) atau pendekatan pasar kuotasi (mengembangkan pasar yang merupakan prediktor terbaik untuk Pasar lain). Pendekatan global memberi skala ekonomi dan berbagi biaya dan risiko di antara pasar. Ada berbagai cara di mana organisasi bisa memasuki pasar luar negeri. Tiga cara utamanya adalah dengan ekspor atau produksi langsung atau tidak langsung di negara asing (lihat gambar 7.2). Mengekspor adalah bentuk operasi yang paling tradisional dan mapan di pasar luar negeri. Pengekspor bisa diartikan sebagai pemasaran barang yang diproduksi di satu negara ke negara lain. Meskipun tidak diperlukan manufaktur langsung di negara lain, diperlukan investasi investasi yang signifikan. Kecenderungannya mungkin tidak mendapatkan banyak informasi pemasaran yang terperinci dibandingkan dengan manufaktur di negara pemasaran, namun hal ini tidak meniadakan kebutuhan akan strategi pemasaran yang terperinci. Gambar 7.2 Cara masuk pasar luar negeri Keuntungan dari ekspor adalah: 183 manufaktur berbasis rumah sehingga, hal ini kurang berisiko daripada di luar negeri berdasarkan 183 memberi kesempatan untuk quotlearnquot pasar luar negeri sebelum berinvestasi di batu bata dan mortir 183 mengurangi potensi risiko operasi di luar negeri. Kerugiannya terutama bahwa seseorang dapat menjadi agen quotmercyquot agen luar negeri dan karenanya kurangnya kontrol harus dipertimbangkan terhadap keuntungannya. Misalnya, dalam mengekspor produk hortikultura Afrika, agen dan pelelangan bunga Belanda berada dalam posisi untuk mendikte produsen. Perbedaan harus ditarik antara ekspor pasif dan agresif. Eksportir pasif menunggu pesanan atau menemukan mereka secara kebetulan, eksportir agresif mengembangkan strategi pemasaran yang memberikan gambaran luas dan jelas tentang apa yang ingin dilakukan perusahaan di pasar luar negeri. Pavord dan Bogart 2 (1975) menemukan perbedaan yang signifikan sehubungan dengan tingkat keparahan masalah ekspor dalam memotivasi tekanan antara pencari kerja dan pencari kerja peluang ekspor. Mereka membedakan antara perusahaan yang usaha pemasarannya dicirikan oleh aktivitas, aktivitas kecil dan aktivitas agresif. Perusahaan-perusahaan yang agresif memiliki rencana dan strategi yang jelas, termasuk elemen produk, harga, promosi, distribusi dan penelitian. Passiveness versus agriveness tergantung pada motivasi untuk melakukan ekspor. Di negara-negara seperti Tanzania dan Zambia, yang telah memulai program penyesuaian struktural, organisasi didorong untuk mengekspor, didorong oleh potensi pendapatan valuta asing, pasar domestik yang jenuh, tujuan pertumbuhan dan perluasan, dan kebutuhan untuk melunasi hutang yang dikeluarkan oleh pinjaman untuk membiayai Programnya. Jenis respons ekspor tergantung bagaimana tekanan dirasakan oleh pembuat keputusan. Piercy (1982) 3 menyoroti fakta bahwa tingkat keterlibatan dalam operasi asing bergantung pada faktor pendorong quotendogenous versus exogenousquot, yaitu apakah motivasi tersebut diakibatkan oleh perilaku aktif atau agresif berdasarkan situasi internal perusahaan (endogen) atau sebagai Akibat perubahan lingkungan reaktif (eksogen). Jika perusahaan mencapai kesuksesan awal dalam mengekspor dengan cepat semua barang, namun risiko kegagalan pada tahap awal tinggi. Efek ekspektasi dalam mengekspor biasanya sangat cepat. Kuncinya adalah mempelajari bagaimana meminimalkan risiko yang terkait dengan tahap awal masuknya pasar dan komitmen - proses keterlibatan inkremental ini disebut komitmen komitmen quotcreeping (lihat gambar 7.3). Gambar 7.3 Jalur ekspor yang agresif dan pasif Metode pengekspor meliputi ekspor langsung atau tidak langsung. Dalam mengekspor langsung organisasi dapat menggunakan agen, distributor, atau anak perusahaan di luar negeri, atau bertindak melalui agen Pemerintah. Akibatnya, Dewan Pemasaran Biji-bijian di Zimbabwe, yang dikomersialkan namun masih memiliki kendali Pemerintah, adalah badan pemerintah. Pemerintah, melalui Dewan, adalah satu-satunya eksportir jagung yang diizinkan. Badan-badan seperti Otoritas Pengembangan Tanaman Hortikultura (HCDA) di Kenya mungkin hanya badan promosi, berurusan dengan periklanan, arus informasi dan sebagainya, atau mungkin aktif dalam mengekspor dirinya sendiri, terutama memberikan persetujuan (seperti HCDA) terhadap semua dokumen ekspor . Dalam mengekspor langsung masalah utama adalah informasi pasar. Tugas eksportir adalah memilih pasar, mencari perwakilan atau agen, menyiapkan distribusi fisik dan dokumentasi, mempromosikan dan harga produk. Pengendalian, atau kekurangannya, adalah masalah utama yang sering berakibat pada keputusan mengenai penetapan harga, sertifikasi dan promosi yang berada di tangan orang lain. Tentu saja, persyaratan fitosanitasi di Eropa untuk menghasilkan hortikultura yang bersumber di Afrika semakin menuntut. Demikian pula, eksportir adalah price taker sebagai produsen yang bersumber juga dari negara-negara Karibia dan Timur. Pada bulan Juni sampai September, Eropa adalah quoton seasonquot karena bisa menumbuhkan produknya sendiri, jadi harganya rendah. Dengan demikian, produsen lebih baik memasok ke pengolah makanan lokal. Dalam harga musim dingin di Eropa jauh lebih baik, namun persaingan produk tetap ada. Menurut Collett 4 (1991)) ekspor membutuhkan kemitraan antara eksportir, importir, pemerintah dan transportasi. Tanpa keempat aktivitas koordinasi ini, risiko kegagalan meningkat. Kontrak antara pembeli dan penjual adalah suatu keharusan. Forwarder dan agen dapat memainkan peran penting dalam prosedur logistik seperti memesan ruang udara dan mengatur dokumentasi. Saluran pemasaran terkoordinasi yang khas untuk ekspor hasil hortikultura Kenya diberikan pada gambar 7.4. Dalam hal ini, eksportir juga bisa menjadi petani dan di musim rendah, kedua eksportir ini dan eksportir lainnya dapat mengirimkan produk ke pengolah makanan yang juga diekspor. Gambar 7.4 Saluran pemasaran ekspor untuk produk hortikultura Kenya. Mengekspor bisa sangat menguntungkan, terutama jika produk bernilai tambah tinggi. Misalnya pada tahun 199293 Zimbabwe mengekspor 5 338,38 ton bunga, 4 678,18 ton produk hortikultura dan 12.000 ton jeruk dengan nilai total sekitar US $ 22.116,56 juta. Dalam beberapa kasus, campuran pengekspor langsung dan tidak langsung dapat dicapai dengan hasil yang beragam. Misalnya, Dewan Pemasaran Jagung Zimbabwe dapat mengekspor gandum secara langsung ke Zambia, atau mungkin menjualnya ke badan bantuan seperti Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, untuk memberi makan pengungsi Mozambik di Malawi. Pengaturan pembayaran mungkin berbeda untuk dua transaksi. Produk Nali di Malawi memberi contoh menarik tentang mode ekspor yang mudah dikenali. KASUS 7.1 Produsen Nali - Malawi Kelompok Nali, sejak awal 1970-an, terlibat dalam tumbuh dan mengekspor rempah-rempah. Rempah-rempah juga digunakan dalam produksi berbagai saus baik untuk pasar lokal maupun ekspor. Keberhasilan utamanya adalah tumbuh dan mengekspor unggas Birdseye. Pada masa awal pengetahuan tentang pasar sangat minim dan oleh karena itu perusahaan memperoleh harga yang sangat rendah. Menjelang akhir tahun 1978, cabai Nali sangat diminati, namun tetap saja perusahaannya, dalam mode pasifnya, tidak sepenuhnya menghargai implikasi kompetitif bisnis ini sampai sejumlah perusahaan, termasuk Lonrho and Press Farming, mulai tumbuh dan mengekspor. Sekali lagi, karena kurangnya informasi, produk kepasifannya, firma tersebut tidak menyadari bahwa Uganda, dengan produk unggulan mereka, dan Papua Nugini adalah eksportir utama, Namun, potensi penuh dari negara-negara ini terhambat oleh kesulitan internal. Nali mampu tumbuh menjadi perusahaan komersial yang sukses. Namun, dengan berakhirnya masalah internal, Uganda pada khususnya, memulai kebijakan ekspor yang agresif, dengan menggunakan undang-undang luar negeri mereka sebagai propaganda komersial. Nali harus merespon dengan operasi pemasaran yang lebih formal dan aktif. Namun saat ini terhambat oleh sejumlah faktor penting dari quotexogenousquot. Masuknya sejumlah petani Malawian baru, dengan produk-produk inferior, telah merusak reputasi cabai Malia, sehingga memiliki kurangnya kebijakan pemerintah yang jelas dan kurangnya pembiayaan bagi para pedagang, petani dan eksportir. Yang terakhir hanya berfungsi untuk menekankan poin yang dibuat oleh Collett, tidak hanya organisasi yang perlu bersikap agresif, mereka juga perlu meminta dukungan dari Pemerintah dan importir. Menarik untuk dicatat bahwa Korey (1986) memperingatkan bahwa mode masuk pasar langsung mungkin kurang dan kurang tersedia di masa depan. Blok perdagangan yang berkembang seperti UE atau EFTA berarti bahwa pembentukan anak perusahaan mungkin merupakan satu-satunya cara maju di masa depan. Menarik untuk dicatat bahwa Korey 5 1986 memperingatkan bahwa mode masuk pasar langsung mungkin kurang dan kurang tersedia di masa depan. Blok perdagangan yang berkembang seperti UE atau EFTA berarti bahwa pembentukan anak perusahaan mungkin merupakan satu-satunya cara maju di masa depan. Metode pengekspor yang tidak langsung mencakup penggunaan perusahaan perdagangan (sangat banyak digunakan untuk komoditas seperti kapas, kedelai, kakao), perusahaan manajemen ekspor, piggybacking dan countertrade. Metode tidak langsung menawarkan sejumlah keuntungan termasuk: 183 Kontrak - di pasar operasi atau di seluruh dunia 183 anggota Komisi memberikan motivasi tinggi (tidak harus loyalitas) 183 Pemberian kredit tidak memerlukan banyak keahlian 183 Penerimaan kredit mengambil beban dari produsen. Piggybacking adalah perkembangan yang menarik. Metode ini berarti bahwa organisasi dengan sedikit keterampilan mengekspor dapat menggunakan layanan dari layanan yang dimiliki. Bentuk lain adalah konsolidasi pesanan oleh sejumlah perusahaan agar bisa memanfaatkan pembelian massal. Biasanya ini berbatasan secara geografis atau dapat dilayani, misalnya, pada rute udara. Pabrik pupuk Zimbabwe, misalnya, dapat mendukung Afrika Selatan yang mengimpor potassium dari luar negara masing-masing. Sejauh ini metode pengekspor tidak langsung terbesar adalah countertrade. Intensitas kompetitif berarti semakin banyak investasi dalam pemasaran. Dalam situasi ini, organisasi dapat memperluas operasinya dengan beroperasi di pasar di mana persaingan kurang kuat namun pertukaran berbasis mata uang tidak memungkinkan. Juga, negara-negara mungkin ingin berdagang meskipun tingkat persaingannya, tapi mata uang kembali adalah masalah. Countertrade juga dapat digunakan untuk merangsang industri rumah tangga atau dimana bahan baku kekurangan pasokan. Ini juga bisa memberi dasar untuk perdagangan timbal balik. Perkiraan bervariasi, namun akun countertrade untuk sekitar 20-30 perdagangan dunia, melibatkan sekitar 90 negara dan antara nilai 100-150 miliar AS. PBB mendefinisikan countertrade sebagai transaksi komersial yang ketentuannya dibuat, dalam satu dari serangkaian kontrak terkait, untuk pembayaran dengan pengiriman barang dan atau layanan di samping, atau di tempat, penyelesaian keuangan. Countertrade adalah bentuk barter modem, kecuali kontrak tidak legal dan tidak ditutup oleh GATT. Ini bisa digunakan untuk menghindari kuota impor. Countertrade bisa mengambil banyak bentuk. Pada dasarnya dua kontrak terpisah dilibatkan, satu untuk pengiriman dan pembayaran barang yang dipasok dan yang lainnya untuk pembelian dan pembayaran barang yang diimpor. Kinerja satu kontrak tidak bergantung pada yang lain meskipun penjual tersebut pada dasarnya menerima produk dan layanan dari negara pengimpor secara parsial atau total penyelesaian untuk ekspornya. Ada kesepakatan luas bahwa countertrade bisa mengambil berbagai bentuk pertukaran seperti barter, counter purchase, switch trading dan compensation (buyback). Sebagai contoh, pada tahun 1986 Albania mulai menawarkan barang-barang seperti air mata, jus tomat dan bijih krom dengan imbalan kontrak untuk membangun 60 juta pupuk dan kompleks metanol di AS. Informasi tentang pertukaran potensial dapat diperoleh dari kedutaan besar, misi dagang atau meja perdagangan UE. Barter adalah pertukaran langsung dari satu kebaikan yang lain, walaupun valuasi masing-masing komoditas itu sulit, jadi mata uang digunakan untuk mendukung nilai barang. Barter dapat mengambil sejumlah format. Barter sederhana adalah bentuk perdagangan bilateral dan non-monetaris paling kompleks dan tertua. Seringkali disebut quotstraightquot, quotclassicalquot atau quotpurequot barter. Barter adalah pertukaran langsung barang dan jasa antara dua pihak. Harga bayangan diperkirakan untuk produk yang mengalir ke kedua arah. Umumnya tidak ada perantara yang terlibat. Biasanya kontrak tidak lebih dari satu tahun disimpulkan, namun, jika untuk rentang hidup yang lebih lama, ketentuan disertakan untuk menangani fluktuasi nilai tukar ketika harga dunia berubah. Transaksi barter akhir yang ditutup adalah modifikasi dari barter lurus karena pembeli ditemukan untuk barang yang diambil dalam barter sebelum kontrak ditandatangani oleh dua pihak perdagangan. Tidak ada uang yang terlibat dan risiko yang terkait dengan kualitas produk berkurang secara signifikan. Clearing account barter, also termed clearing agreements, clearing arrangements, bilateral clearing accounts or simply bilateral clearing, is where the principle is for the trades to balance without either party having to acquire hard currency. In this form of barter, each party agrees in a single contract to purchase a specified and usually equal value of goods and services. The duration of these transactions is commonly one year, although occasionally they may extend over a longer time period. The contracts value is expressed in non-convertible, clearing account units (also termed clearing dollars) that effectively represent a line of credit in the central bank of the country with no money involved. Clearing account units are universally accepted for the accounting of trade between countries and parties whose commercial relationships are based on bilateral agreements. The contract sets forth the goods to be exchanged, the rates of exchange, and the length of time for completing the transaction. Limited export or import surpluses may be accumulated by either party for short periods. Generally, after one years time, imbalances are settled by one of the following approaches: credit against the following year, acceptance of unwanted goods, payment of a previously specified penalty or payment of the difference in hard currency. Trading specialists have also initiated the practice of buying clearing dollars at a discount for the purpose of using them to purchase saleable products. In turn, the trader may forfeit a portion of the discount to sell these products for hard currency on the international market. Compared with simple barter, clearing accounts offer greater flexibility in the length of time for drawdown on the lines of credit and the types of products exchanged. Counter purchase, or buyback, is where the customer agrees to buy goods on condition that the seller buys some of the customers own products in return (compensatory products). Alternatively, if exchange is being organised at national government level then the seller agrees to purchase compensatory goods from an unrelated organisation up to a pre-specified value (offset deal). The difference between the two is that contractual obligations related to counter purchase can extend over a longer period of time and the contract requires each party to the deal to settle most or all of their account with currency or trade credits to an agreed currency value. Where the seller has no need for the item bought he may sell the produce on, usually at a discounted price, to a third party. This is called a switch deal. In the past a number of tractors have been brought into Zimbabwe from East European countries by switch deals. Compensation (buy-backs) is where the supplier agrees to take the output of the facility over a specified period of time or to a specified volume as payment. For example, an overseas company may agree to build a plant in Zambia, and output over an agreed period of time or agreed volume of produce is exported to the builder until the period has elapsed. The plant then becomes the property of Zambia. Khoury 6 (1984) categorises countertrade as follows (see figure 7.5): One problem is the marketability of products received in countertrade. This problem can be reduced by the use of specialised trading companies which, for a fee ranging between 1 and 5 of the value of the transaction, will provide trade related services like transportation, marketing, financing, credit extension, etc. These are ever growing in size. Countertrade has disadvantages: 183 Not covered by GATT so quotdumpingquot may occur 183 Quality is not of international standard so costly to the customer and trader 183 Variety is tow so marketing of wkat is limited 183 Difficult to set prices and service quality 183 Inconsistency of delivery and specification, 183 Difficult to revert to currency trading - so quality may decline further and therefore product is harder to market. Figure 7.5 Classification of countertrade Shipley and Neale 7 (1988) therefore suggest the following: 183 Ensure the benefits outweigh the disadvantages 183 Try to minimise the ratio of compensation goods to cash - if possible inspect the goods for specifications 183 Include all transactions and other costs involved in countertrade in the nominal value specified for the goods being sold 183 Avoid the possibility of error of exploitation by first gaining a thorough understanding of the customers buying systems, regulations and politics, 183 Ensure that any compensation goods received as payment are not subject to import controls. Despite these problems countertrade is likely quotto grow as a major indirect entry method, especially in developing countries. Besides exporting, other market entry strategies include licensing, joint ventures, contract manufacture, ownership and participation in export processing zones or free trade zones. Licensing: Licensing is defined as quotthe method of foreign operation whereby a firm in one country agrees to permit a company in another country to use the manufacturing, processing, trademark, know-how or some other skill provided by the licensorquot. It is quite similar to the quotfranchisequot operation. Coca Cola is an excellent example of licensing. In Zimbabwe, United Bottlers have the licence to make Coke. Licensing involves little expense and involvement. The only cost is signing the agreement and policing its implementation. Licensing gives the following advantages: 183 Good way to start in foreign operations and open the door to low risk manufacturing relationships 183 Linkage of parent and receiving partner interests means both get most out of marketing effort 183 Capital not tied up in foreign operation and 183 Options to buy into partner exist or provision to take royalties in stock. The disadvantages are: 183 Limited form of participation - to length of agreement, specific product, process or trademark 183 Potential returns from marketing and manufacturing may be lost 183 Partner develops know-how and so licence is short 183 Licensees become competitors - overcome by having cross technology transfer deals and 183 Requires considerable fact finding, planning, investigation and interpretation. Those who decide to license ought to keep the options open for extending market participation. This can be done through joint ventures with the licensee. Joint ventures can be defined as quotan enterprise in which two or more investors share ownership and control over property rights and operationquot. Joint ventures are a more extensive form of participation than either exporting or licensing. In Zimbabwe, Olivine industries has a joint venture agreement with HJ Heinz in food processing. Joint ventures give the following advantages: 183 Sharing of risk and ability to combine the local in-depth knowledge with a foreign partner with know-how in technology or process 183 Joint financial strength 183 May be only means of entry and 183 May be the source of supply for a third country. They also have disadvantages: 183 Partners do not have full control of management 183 May be impossible to recover capital if need be 183 Disagreement on third party markets to serve and 183 Partners may have different views on expected benefits. If the partners carefully map out in advance what they expect to achieve and how, then many problems can be overcome. Ownership: The most extensive form of participation is 100 ownership and this involves the greatest commitment in capital and managerial effort. The ability to communicate and control 100 may outweigh any of the disadvantages of joint ventures and licensing. However, as mentioned earlier, repatriation of earnings and capital has to be carefully monitored. The more unstable the environment the less likely is the ownership pathway an option. These forms of participation: exporting, licensing, joint ventures or ownership, are on a continuum rather than discrete and can take many formats. Anderson and Coughlan 8 (1987) summarise the entry mode as a choice between company owned or controlled methods - quotintegratedquot channels - or quotindependentquot channels. Integrated channels offer the advantages of planning and control of resources, flow of information, and faster market penetration, and are a visible sign of commitment. The disadvantages are that they incur many costs (especially marketing), the risks are high, some may be more effective than others (due to culture) and in some cases their credibility amongst locals may be lower than that of controlled independents. Independent channels offer lower performance costs, risks, less capital, high local knowledge and credibility. Disadvantages include less market information flow, greater coordinating and control difficulties and motivational difficulties. In addition they may not be willing to spend money on market development and selection of good intermediaries may be difficult as good ones are usually taken up anyway. Once in a market, companies have to decide on a strategy for expansion. One may be to concentrate on a few segments in a few countries - typical are cashewnuts from Tanzania and horticultural exports from Zimbabwe and Kenya - or concentrate on one country and diversify into segments. Other activities include country and market segment concentration - typical of Coca Cola or Gerber baby foods, and finally country and segment diversification. Another way of looking at it is by identifying three basic business strategies: stage one - international, stage two - multinational (strategies correspond to ethnocentric and polycentric orientations respectively) and stage three - global strategy (corresponds with geocentric orientation). The basic philosophy behind stage one is extension of programmes and products, behind stage two is decentralisation as far as possible to local operators and behind stage three is an integration which seeks to synthesize inputs from world and regional headquarters and the country organisation. Whilst most developing countries are hardly in stage one, they have within them organisations which are in stage three. This has often led to a quotrebellionquot against the operations of multinationals, often unfounded. Export processing zones (EPZ) Whilst not strictly speaking an entry-strategy, EPZs serve as an quotentryquot into a market. They are primarily an investment incentive for would be investors but can also provide employment for the host country and the transfer of skills as well as provide a base for the flow of goods in and out of the country. One of the best examples is the Mauritian EPZ 12. founded in the 1970s. CASE 7.2 The Mauritian Export Processing Zone Since its inception over 400 firms have established themselves in sectors as diverse as textiles, food, watches. And plastics. In job employment the results have been startling, as at 1987, 78,000 were employed in the EPZ. Export earnings have tripled from 1981 to 1986 and the added value has been significant- The roots of success can be seen on the supply, demand and institutional sides. On the supply side the most critical factor has been the generous financial and other incentives, on the demand side, access to the EU, France, India and Hong Kong was very tempting to investors. On the institutional side positive schemes were put in place, including finance from the Development Bank and the cutting of red tape. In setting up the export processing zone the Mauritian government displayed a number of characteristics which in hindsight, were crucial to its success. 183 The government intelligently sought a development strategy in an apolitical manner 183 It stuck to its strategy in the long run rather than reverse course at the first sign of trouble 183 It encouraged market incentives rather than undermined them 183 It showed a good deal of adaptability, meeting each challenge with creative solutions rather than maintaining the status quo 183 It adjusted the general export promotion programme to suit its own particular needs and characteristics. 183 It consciously guarded against the creation of an unwieldy bureaucratic structure. Organisations are faced with a number of strategy alternatives when deciding to enter foreign markets. Each one has to be carefully weighed in order to make the most appropriate choice. Every approach requires careful attention to marketing, risk, matters of control and management. A systematic assessment of the different entry methods can be achieved through the use of a matrix (see table 7.2). Table 7.2 Matrix for comparing alternative methods of market entry Details of channel management will appear in a later chapter. As has been pointed out time and again in this text, the international marketing of agricultural products is a quotclose coupledquot affair between production and marketing and end user. Certain characteristics can be identified in market entry strategies which are different from the marketing of say cars or television sets. These refer specifically to the institutional arrangements linking producers and processorsexporters and those between exporters and foreign buyersagents. Institutional links between producers and processorsexporters One of the most important factors is contract coordination. Whilst many of the details vary, most contracts contain the supply of creditproduction inputs, specifications regarding quantity, quality and timing of producer deliveries and a formula or price mechanism. Such arrangements have improved the flow of money, information and technologies, and very importantly, shared the risk between producers and exporters. Most arrangements include some form of vertical integration between producers and downstream activities. Often processors enter into contracted outgrower arrangements or supply raw inputs. This institutional arrangement has now, incidentally, spilled over into the domestic market where firms are wishing to target higher quality, higher priced segments. Producer trade associations, boards or cooperatives have played a significant part in the entry strategies of many exporting countries. They act as a contact point between suppliers and buyers, obtain vital market information, liaise with Governments over quotas etc. and provide information, or even get involved in quality standards. Some are very active, witness the Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) of Kenya and the Citrus Marketing Board (CMD) of Israel, the latter being a Government agency which specifically got involved in supply quotas. An example of the institutional arrangements 13 involved is given in table 7.3. Table 7.3 Institutional arrangements linking producers with processorsexporters XX Dominant linkage Once again, it can not be over-emphasized that the smooth flow between producers, marketers and end users is essential. However it must also be noted that unless strong relationships or contracts are built up and product qualities maintained, the smooth flow can be interrupted should a more competitive supplier enter the market. This also can occur by Government decree, or by the erection of non-tariff barriers to trade. By improving strict hygiene standards a marketing chain can be broken, however strong the link, by say, Government. This, however, should not occur, if the link involves the close monitoring and action by the various players in the system, who are aware, through market intelligence, of any possible changes. Having done all the preparatory planning work (no mean task in itself), the prospective global marketer has then to decide on a market entry strategy and a marketing mix. These are two main ways of foreign market entryeither by entering from a home market base, via direct or indirect exporting, or by foreign based production. Within these two possibilities, marketers can adopt an quotaggressivequot or quotpassivequot export path. Entry from the home base (direct) includes the use of agents, distributors, Government and overseas subsidiaries and (indirect) includes the use of trading companies, export management companies, piggybacking or countertrade. Entry from a foreign base includes licensing, joint ventures, contract manufacture, ownership and export processing zones. Each method has its peculiar advantages and disadvantages which the marketer must carefully consider before making a choice. 1. Review the general problems encountered when building market entry strategies for agricultural commodities. Give examples. 2. Describe briefly the different methods of foreign market entry. 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of barter, countertrade, licensing, joint venture and export processing zones as market entry strategies 1. General problems: i) Interlinking of production and marketing means private investment alone may not be possible, so Government intervention may be needed also e.g. to build infrastructure e.g. Israeli fresh fruit. Method of foreign operation whereby a firm in one country agrees to permit a company in another country to use the manufacturing, processing, trademark, knowhow or some other skill by the licensor. ii) quotLumpy investmentquot building capacity long before it may be currently utilised e.g. port facilities 183 entry point with risk reduction, 183 benefits to both parties, 183 capital not tied up, 183 opportunities to buy into partner or royalties on the stock. iii) Time - processing, transport and storage - so credit is needed e.g. Argentina beef. iv) Transaction costs - logistics, market information, regulatory enforcement. 183 limited form or participation, 183 potential returns from marketing and manufacturing may be lost, 183 partner develops knowhow and so license is short, 183 partner becomes competitor, 183 requires a lot of planning beforehand. v) Risk - business, non-business iv) Joint ventures - An enterprise in which two or more investors share ownership and control over property rights and operation. vi) Building of relationships and infrastructural developments quotcorrect formatsquot 2. Different methods These are either quotdirectquot, quotindirectquot or quotforeignquot based. 183 sharing of risk and knowhow, 183 may be only means of entry, 183 may be source of supply for third country. Direct - Agent, distributor, Government, overseas subsidiary 183 partners do not have full control or management, 183 may be impossible to recover capital, 183 disagreement between purchasers or third party - served markets, 183 partners have different views on exported benefits. Indirect - Trading company, export management company, piggyback, countertrade v) Export processing zones - A zone within a country, exempt from tax and duties, for the processing or reprocessing of goods for export Foreign - Licensing, joint venture, contract manufacture, ownership, export processing zone. Students should give a definition and expand on each of these methods. 183 host country obtains knowhow, 183 capital, technology, employment opportunities 183 foreign exchange earnings 183 quotreputationquot, quotinternationalisationquot. Direct exchange of one good for another. (may be straight or closed or clearing account method) 183 short term investments, 183 capital movements, 183 employment movements, 183 transaction costs and benefits, 183 not part of economy so alienisation, 183 labour laws may be different, 183 bureaucracy creation. 183 simple to administer, 183 no currency, 183 commodity based valuation or currency based valuation. 183 risk of non delivery, 183 poor quality, 183 technological obsolescence, 183 unfulfilled quantities, 183 risk of commodity price rise thus losing out on an increased valuation, 183 depressed valuation, 183 marketability of products. Customer agrees to buy goods on condition that the seller buys some of the customers own products in return (may be time, method of financing, balance of compensation or pertinence of compensating product based) 183 method of obtaining sales by seller and getting a slice of the order, 183 method of breaking into a quotclosedquot market. 183 not covered by GATT, 183 so dumping may occur, 183 usuality differences, variety differences, 183 difficult to set price and service quality, 183 inconsistency of delivery and specification, 183 difficult to revert to currency trading. Exercise 7.1 Market entry strategies Take a major non-traditional crop or agricultural product which your country produces with sales potential overseas. Devise a market entry strategy for the product, clearly showing which you would use and justify your choice indicating why the method chosen would give benefits to your country and the intended importing country(s). 1. Cunningham, M.T. quotStrategies for International Industrial Marketingquot. In D.W. Turnbull and J.P. Valla (eds.) Croom Helm 1986, p 9. 2. Pavord and Bogart. quotQuoted in The Export Marketing Decisionquot S.A. Hara in S. Carter (Ed) quotExport Proceduresquot, Network and Centre for Agricultural Marketing Training in Eastern and Southern Africa 1991. 3. Piercy, N. quotCompany Internationalisation: Active and Reactive Exportingquot. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1982, pp 26-40. 4. Collett, W.E. quotInternational Transport and Handling of Horticultural Producequot in S. Carter (ed.) quotHorticultural Marketingquot. Network and Centre for Agricultural Marketing Training in Eastern and Southern Africa, 1991. 5. Korey, G. quotMultilateral Perspectives in International Marketing Dynamicsquot. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1986, pp 34-42. 6. Khoury, S.J quotCountertrade: Forms, Motives, Pitfalls and Negotiation Requisitesquot. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 12, 1984, pp 257-270. 7. Shipley, D.D. and Neale, C.W. quotSuccessful Countertrading. Management Decisionquot, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp 49-52. 8. Anderson, E. and Coughlan, A.T. quotInternational Market Entry and Expansion via Independent or Integrated Channels of Distributionquot. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51. January 1987, pp 71-82. 9. Keegan, W.J. quotGlobal Marketing Managementquot, 4th ed. Prentice Hall International Editions, 1989. 10. Khoromana, A.P. quotThe Experience and Problems in Exporting Spicesquot. In S. Carter (ed.) Export Procedures Network and Centre for Agricultural Marketing Training in Eastern and Southern Africa, August 1991. 11. Basche, J.R. Jr. quotExport Marketing Services and Costsquot. New York: The Conference Board, 1971, p4. 12. Bheenich, R. and Shapiro, M.O. Mauritius: quotA Case Study of the Export Processing Zone. In Successful African Developmentquot, EDI Development Policy Case Series, No. 1, 1989, pp 97-127. 13. Jaffee S. quotExporting High Value Food Commoditiesquot. quotWorld Bank Discussion Paperquot pp 198, 1993.The Fur Trade Era of the 1800s: - Could you imagine going school clothes shopping, walking into Abercrombie Fitch or Hollister, and seeing a normally 60 dollar sweatshirt for about 200 dollars. Well this is what it was like for the people who were also into the popular clothing back in the 1800s where fur was the thing. Due to the furs amazing qualities, the poor animals were over hunted because there were no game management laws. The beaver and otter furs were in such a high demand that their population went down and the competition went up. tags: U.S. History . 6 Works Cited 1393 words (4 pages) Women In the Fur Trade - Aboriginal women had occupied an essential position in the fur trade of the North American region from its birth during the 17th and 18th centuries. Even though this is true, the role of women, especially those of the Native American society, has been ignored a great deal in the entire history of fur trade. Contrary to the belief that the whole fur trade activity was only male-dominated, it very much depended upon Native women and their participation and labor in order to ensure survival as well as economic success. tags: Interracial Marriage, Pemmican . 9 Works Cited 2974 words (8.5 pages) The Oregon Fur Trade - The Oregon Fur Trade In 1808 Simon Fraser, employed by the Northwest Company, made his way across the Rockies and came down what is known now as the Fraser River to the Columbia. The next to come along was David Thompson, who was also employed by the Northwest Company. He too crossed the Rockies and made his way to the Pacific Ocean by way of the Columbia River. He reached the ocean in 1811 and found an American fur-trading company. This was the Pacific Fur Trading Company. It was the first permanent Euro-American settlement at Astoria. tags: Free Essays 409 words (1.2 pages) Fur Trade - The first company to set up a trading post on the Pacific Northwest coast was the Pacific Fur Company. John Jacob Astor, a wealthy New York fur merchant, decided to organize the Pacific Fur Company to open up the unexplored territory west of the Rocky Mountains. Astors fur enterprises were well established east of the Rockies. He hoped to gain control over the entire American fur trade. In September, 1810, two parties, representing Astors Pacific Fur Company, set out to establish the first trading post on the Columbia River. tags: Economics 1419 words (4.1 pages) French Fur Trade - The French Fur Trade Beginning in the mid sixteenth century, French explorers were able to establish a powerful and lasting presence in what is now the Northern United States and Canada. The explorers placed much emphasis on searching and colonizing the area surrounding the St. Lawrence River which gave access to the Great Lakes and the heart of the continent(Microsoft p). They began exploring the area around 1540 and had early interactions with many of the Natives, which made communication easier for both peoples when the French returned nearly fifty years later. tags: essays research papers 916 words (2.6 pages) The Fur Trade Period in the Indian Territory - The Fur Trade Period in the Indian Territory Images of rough faced, Grizzly Bear fighting, firewater drinking, yarn spinning, frontiersmen form in the minds eye. Wild men for wild times. To a degree this image is true, but the fur trade was more than wild men. The fur trade was a business, conducted by businessmen. The wilder men living on the frontier chose trapping. Fashion created the fur trade as businessmen sought to satisfy the tastes of designers and customers back east and in Europe, where furs and hides were necessities for fashionable clothing and accessories. tags: Papers 832 words (2.4 pages) The Barbarian Practice of Killing Animals for Fur - Ms. Harrison run into little Timmy- her neighbor, seven years old- one Saturday morning at the store wearing her brand new fur coat. Little Timmy, surprised by the size of the thing asked Ms. Harrison what that was. She said it was her very expensive coat that she bought the other day hoping that little Timmy was going to admire her good taste in fashion. When little Timmy asked what was that made from, she replied fur hoping that he was not going to be able to put the pieces together, but when little Timmy asked Fur, from who. tags: fur, fashion, death, 1581 words (4.5 pages) Animal Cruelty in Factory Farms, the Clothing Trade, Laboratories, and the Entertainment Industry - Animal rights is the viewpoint that animals have rights corresponding to the way humans do. Animal cruelty is a worldwide social problem that is multidimensional. Animals are generally abused in four major areas: factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry (PETA.org). Factories often conceal their harmful acts to avoid animal welfare laws imposed by the government. In a household, people isolate or physically abuse their animals, which can also be linked to family abuse. tags: Animal Rights, Social Issue . 3 Works Cited 910 words (2.6 pages) Evolving Trade Policy: The Benefits of Fair Trade Over Free Trade - Trade Policy is a crucial part of our society in the United States, along with many others across the globe, that greatly depend on the profits and materials accessible due to the transfer of goods, ideas, and other materials between countries. Currently the trade policy that seems to dominate the trade market is Free Trade which tends to leave the larger, wealthier counties with the most benefits while the developing countries are struggling to compete due to the lack of materials and workspace. tags: fair trade, free trade, trade market . 5 Works Cited 1070 words (3.1 pages) Krugmans Is Free Trade Passe - Krugman writes that in the decade preceding his article Is Free Trade Pass international trade theory underwent radical change from the traditions of constant returns and perfect competition to include new models emphasizing increasing returns and imperfect competition (1987, p. 131). Comparative advantage is no longer accepted as a means to explain in totality what actually happens in trade, and extraneous factors indicate that free trade may not be in the best interest of individual nations. tags: International Trade Theory, Free Trade . 1 Works Cited 1098 words (3.1 pages) Is it Possible to Harmonise International Trade - For many years, there have been several attempts in the harmonisation of international trade. Unfortunately, sales of international goods are very complex and this leads to great difficult in unifying trade law. People have tried to create universal laws to mend shipping issues, seller to buyer relationships and fraud, however, there is still no global international trade law. So far, with every attempt, it becomes clearer that nations have conflicting ideologies or viewpoints and hinders the progression of global harmonisation of international trade. tags: Goods, Sales, Trade . 19 Works Cited 1988 words (5.7 pages) Pakistan Should Be Open to Trade with Inida - Trading is a process of buying, selling and exchanging of necessities within a country or between different countries. Trading helps in boosting of the economy of a country and fulfils the requirements which the country lacks. It also makes it possible for a country to sell its surplus product the in international market, thus act as an income source for a country. Most Favoured Nation is a trading status that one country gives to another by virtue of which trade is enhanced with that country. This status is enforced by World Trade Organization and it provides the country which is being favoured with several advantages as it makes the product easily reachable to that country and it lowers th. tags: World Trade Organization, International Trade . 9 Works Cited 1870 words (5.3 pages) The Theory of International Trade - Free Trade The concept of that all countries will be benefited from the international, no matter what the circumstances are, that was one of the facts that all economists have been talking about. The theory of international trade relied on comparative advantage the well-known feature that advantages countries took a part in the commercial trade. But the traditional theory of international trade, forced some of restricted conditions to the analysis of the international trade, for example, the concept of perfect competition and constant returns. tags: monopoly, free trade . 4 Works Cited 860 words (2.5 pages) Protectionist Policies and Canadian Trade - Should We Use Protectionist Trade Policies to Help Shield Canadian Industries from Foreign Competition. Over the last decade, whether or not we should use policies that shield our domestic businesses from the foreign competitors became a concerned issue for Canadians. Some believe that these policies are to be not to be used in Canada, while others think the opposite. Personally, I believe that Canada should terminate protectionism. First, it will decrease Canadas competitiveness, second, protectionism has already failed, and lastly, even though free trade makes some Canadians lose jobs now, it prevents a worldwide depression. tags: International Trade, Canada 515 words (1.5 pages) Openess Trade and Growth - The economic growth story is as long as the history of economic thought. Since the early classics like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus studied the issue of growth or introduced fundamental concepts such as diminishing returns and their relationship with the accumulation of physical or human capital, the relationship between technological progress and labor specialization or focus competitive analysis tool dynamic equilibrium. As part of these theories appears arises that relationship between trade openness and economic growth is positive. tags: Economic Development, Trade Liberalization 1085 words (3.1 pages) The Political Economy in International Trade - The Political Economy in International trade focuses on understanding the many causes of economic growth in developing and transition economies, the different role of international trade in increasing economic welfare around the globe, and the many different impacts of the international financial system on the global economy. As we take a look at the United States and Poland different economic systems and understand how these two countries are effected by the political economy in international trade, we will become familiar with how both are able to become skilled at improving their economic conditions in the globalized world economy. tags: development, global, free trade agreements 802 words (2.3 pages) Understanding International Trade - We know that, international relations or affairs among nations could mean many things. It certainly is managed and achieved, through different means or set of rules. There are negotiations, world crises, humanitarian intervention, global warfare, globalization, nuclear arms races and moneyeconomics. Money or international trade to be more specific certainly plays a major role, among the relationships that nations form. In addition, it has a huge political and economic impact, on those decisions that governments chose to engage in, for the betterment of their citizens and country. tags: free trade, restricted trade, negotiations . 3 Works Cited 2210 words (6.3 pages) End the Global Slave Trade - Ask almost any Westerner about slavery, and the response is likely going to be, Slavery ended in the mid-eighteenth century. The mention of sex trafficking or forced labor brings ponderous comments about the horrors endured by the populations of third-world countries, how people over there have it so badly. The truth is, human trafficking is a worldwide problem. Illegal trade of humans is not only happening over there in a few marginalized third-world countries. Trade in persons is one of the largest criminal rings on the planet. tags: sex trafficking, victims, slave trade . 6 Works Cited 1501 words (4.3 pages) International Trade and Wages - We are in a fast changing technologically advanced world. Each day new innovations and inventions come up. Many more discoveries have been carried out in different parts of the world. People are still excavating new ideas, new products, new life style, new trends, new designs, new business tactics, new motives, new policies, new customers, new expectations, new demands, etc. Trade makes way for all these to happen. Moreover, International trade does make a valuable contribution in making a new world- a new outlook. tags: foreign trade, wages, economic welfare . 15 Works Cited 1855 words (5.3 pages) Trade Policy of Sweden - Introduction Trade policy of Sweden has the dominant role in the development of the country. The policy has taken the Sweden on a path where it has emerged as an industrial society from its traditional image as rural society. Sweden now has a significant standard of living which is one of the highest in the world, and imports and exports have a very important role in it. Therefore it is fair to say that trade policy made it possible that many of Swedish brands and industries are successful in their domestic as well as in global market. tags: industrial society, trade relations, EU . 7 Works Cited 2308 words (6.6 pages) The Kiss of the Fur Queen - Thomson Highways The Kiss of the Fur Queen has a core theme of art. In this novel, art is integrated into the lives of the characters. The modernist movement would indicate that art has the ability to plainly exist art of arts sake. Peter Lamarque notes To value a work for its own sake is to value it for what it is in itself, not for the realization of some ulterior ends. (par. 19) This commonly accepted view, that art is valued because it is great art, not for the role or function that it has in society, restricts arts impact. tags: Art, Education, Highway 1383 words (4 pages) Kiss of the Fur Queen - In Kiss of the Fur Queen, the story begins with forty-three year old Cree hunter Abraham Okimasis winning the 1951 Millington Cup World Championship Dog Derby. (6) The victory is seen to have a significant effect on the Cree hunters Native identity, as he becomes the first-ever Indian to succeed in the Derby. As time goes by, Abraham becomes the father of two sons, Jeremiah and Gabriel. When the Cree brothers leave their small northern Manitoba village and enter the hostile environment of a residential school, their lives take a turn for the worse. tags: Character Analysis, Abraham Okimasis 1142 words (3.3 pages) Role of the World Trade Organization in Multilateral International Trade: An Evaluation. - Introduction Until the end of twenty century, multilateral international trade was functioning without an international organization that coordinate between countries. Some people might justify the role of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in multilateral trade since the GATT has been providing the rules for the international trading system before the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, GATT was only a set of rules set by its trading nations with no institutional foundation, and it did not have the same international influence as other international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank (Krueger Aturupane 1998. tags: trading system, fair and free trade . 8 Works Cited 889 words (2.5 pages) International Trade Simulation - Every economy can count on two things there will always be supply and there will always be demand. For some countries, supply cannot keep up with the demands for the economy and when that happens, international trade is sometimes an only option. As with anything in life, there are advantages and disadvantages to international trade. One of the major advantages to international trade is that it allows countries with a surplus of supply to trade with another country that may have a shortage of that same supply. tags: Economics, International Trade . 2 Works Cited 1297 words (3.7 pages) Financing Interna tional Trade - 1. Introduction The MNEs engage in foreign or international trade which involves the exchange of goods and services across national frontiers. Globalization has encouraged more firms to participate in trading at the international level. Financial resources are required to finance this exchange of good and services and the choice of finance depends on the firms and the environment the trade is taking place. 2. Literature Review The choices available to the MNEs in financing international trade include cash in advance, letter of credit, documentary collection and open account terms (Shenkar and Luo, 2008, pp. tags: International Trade Essays . 4 Works Cited 557 words (1.6 pages) Why Free Trade is Good for the Economy - Why Free Trade is good for the Economy What is free trade. Free trade is international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. As of right now the United States and China are guilty of not trading freely however, most of the blame could be put on the United States for putting tariffs on certain products that come from China. For many years free trade has been scrutinized on whether it is actually beneficial to the economy or harmful to the economy. Many economists have different views on free trade and some big controversies have come from the arguments they have made to each other. tags: United States, China, Free Trade . 5 Works Cit ed 1958 words (5.6 pages) The North American Free Trade Agreement - The North American Free Trade Agreement was created with the intentions of making North America as a whole a more competitive player in the global marketplace. Canada, America, and Mexico all share the same hope that NAFTA will be a strong outlet in supporting economic activity and promoting social cohesion between one another. Has NAFTA done this thus far. Most Americans, specifically economic patriots, would probably say that it has not because in their eyes free trade has taken away American jobs and has put America in a financial downturn. tags: nafta, free trade, global market 1125 words (3.2 pages) Fair Trade - Introduction The concept of Fair Trade originated in the 1950s and developed for three decades with the intent of aiding the impoverished in developing countries (Gendron, Bisaillon and Rance, 2009). The debut of the Fair Trade label in 1988 was a prominent initiative to the Fair Trade campaign (Mohan, 2010). The (FLO) charges producers a certification fee in order to receive the Fair Trade label and benefits (Booth and Whetstone, 2007). Fair trade is a social organisation with the purpose of assisting producers in developing countries to improve trading conditions and encourage sustainability (Hayes and Moore, 2005). tags: developing countries, trade unions . 7 Works Cited 1494 words (4.3 pages) Trade system - Contents Introduction to International Trade 3 History and Evololution of International Trade 3 Trends in International Trade 3 Theories of International Trade 5 Absolute Advantage by Adam Smith 5 Comparative Advantage by David Ricardo 6 Gravity Model by Tinbergen 7 Benefits form trade for the poorest of nations 8 Conclusion and Recommendations 9 Bibliography 10 Introduction to International Trade International trade is an activity wherein there is an exchange of goods, services, and capital for a consideration that happens across the national borders of a nation. tags: international trade, business merchandise . 12 Works Cited 2248 words (6.4 pages) Trade Facilitation - International trade plays crucial role in the development of any country. And Trade facilitation can be define as a procedure to make international trade possible in a best and efficient way. In which transaction cost of trade is minimum and goods transfer from one country to other in shortest time. According to WTO, Trade facilitation is defined as a procedure and controls for the movement of the good from one country to another can be reduce cost and burden. And also find the efficient flow of goods. tags: International Trade, WTO 1309 words (3.7 pages) The World Trade Organization and The Theory of Absolute and Comparative Advantage - Why the famous theory of absolute and comparative advantages did not work when the GATT and WTO were created. In the world of internationalization and globalization, which worships money and encourages ever growing trade, it is very difficult to find a model and further implement it into the modern system so that it would be efficient, eco-friendly and yet economically viable for all participants. Most suggested models are in my opinion out of date and do not answer the current world trends and challenges. tags: money, trade, GATT, globalization . 7 Works Cited 2185 words (6.2 pages) Analysis of Arguments For and Against U.S. Trade Protection - In this paper I will summarize the arguments for and against trade protection for United States industries. Among the measures that can be used to restrict foreign trade are tariffs and trade quotas. Industries can also get nontariff barriers, miscellaneous legislation which give domestic products an advantage. In general, experts agree that restricted foreign trade benefits workers and domestic businesses, while under free trade consumers have a greater quantity and quality of choices available to them. tags: Economics, International Trade . 7 Works Cited 1024 words (2.9 pages) Anti-dumping is a Necessary Part of International Trade Legislation - Processes of cooperation and integration between countries are very important in the modern world. At the present time, a profound influence and an interrelation between countries is noticeable. The result of these processes in the future should be a fully free transmission of goods, services and subjects of intellectual property, capitals and human resources. At the same time, there is still a big gap in the level of economic development of countries in the world. This imbalance creates a collision between two different policies of world trade. tags: international relations, world trade . 6 Works Cited 1228 words (3.5 pages) Role of Women in Kiss of the Fur Queen - I will begin with the role of women in Kiss of the Fur Queen. There are two distinct classes of women in the novel, the women of the city and the women of Northern Manitoba. The women of the city are without a cultural safety net and are in danger nearly every night. Women of Northern Manitoba are in between cultures, having their traditional ways coupled with Catholic Church teachings. When an individual belongs to two different disadvantaged classes, the risk of abuse and discrimination multiplies. tags: Womens Rights 744 words (2.1 pages) Fair Trades Market Based Approach to Poverty Alleviation - People have been trading since the beginning of time. The exchange of goods is why humans have strived to make new discoveries and why we attach value to goods and services. This has gone on to evolve over time to encapsulate a global system of trade which we are now dependent on to meet our needs. Unfortunately, the system is capitalised on. David Ricardos concept of comparative advantages has brought about true Globalisation, affecting every man and woman on the planet with the fluctuation of prices in raw materials. tags: fundamentalism, neoliberal market, world trade . 18 Works Cited 1992 words (5.7 pages) The U.S. - China Trade Imbalance, Blame for Who - Made in China is a label we can find nearly every product in the U.S. consumer market, furthermore the world market. The products that are made-in-China replaced the made-in U.S.A. gradually and nowadays it is hard to find the products which are not made in China, anywhere in the world. The biggest supporter of the growth in Chinese economy and the National power is the U.S unintentionally. China was able to take over worlds processing industry because America was the one gave up the industry. tags: trade deficit, market, export, import . 5 Works Cited 1243 words (3.6 pages) Free Trade and the Economy of Canada - Free Trade and the Economy of Canada Free trade is the act of exchanging goods or services between countries for minimal tariffs or fees. Between countries, this is a method of exchange that is gaining more and more popularity. By importing and exporting for low fees, free trade is an efficient way to cover up weaknesses in the country and gain on strengths. Free trade is a very controversial topic that is viewed upon differently by many people in many different countries. Some oppose free trade they feel it will cause production losses or low employment in their country. tags: Economics Globalization International Trade . 6 Works Cited 2500 words (7.1 pages) History of Trade Unions and NTUC - History of Trade Unions and NTUC A trade union is an organized group of employees in a particular sector, whose aim is to negotiate with employers over pay, job security, working hours by using the collective power of the members. They are funded by subscriptions from union members, and often offer legal advice and strike pay during disputes when members refuse to work. In general, the union is there to represent the interests of its members, and may even engage in social and political activities where legislation affects their members. tags: History Trade Unions 1794 words (5.1 pages) The Politics Of Trade In Steel - The Politics of Trade in Steel 1. Does the World Trade Organization in this case represent a loss of U.S. national sovereignty. Why do you think the WTO sided with the European Union. I dont think the Work Trade Organization represents a loss of U.S. national sovereignty. The WTO in this case is simply doing its job overseeing international trade and enforcing the agreement that all the WTO member nations including the United States signed. I think the World Trade Organization might have sided with the European Union because they felt that the U.S. tags: Steel Industry Trade Production 1335 words (3.8 pages) Globalization: A Free Trade Phenomenon - Globalization is the integration of states through increasing contact, communication and trade to create a holistic, single global system in which the process of change increasingly binds people together in a common fate (Carey 2002). Some economists recognize globalization as being in the best interest of all states. While others believe that increasingly liberated trade and global economic interaction is necessary in many ways. While globalization marks a move toward a more open world-trading regime, it can also be linked to strains on sovereignty, workers rights, and the environment. tags: Outsourcing, Offshoring, Free Trade 882 words (2.5 pages) Security Threats and Trade Barriers - Security Threats and Trade Barriers As defence, however, is much more important than opulence. In 1776, even as Adam Smith was championing the ideals of a free market economy, he recognized that the interests of national security far outweighed the principles of free trade. More then two centuries later, that sentiment proves to still be accurate and in use. Since the early 1900s, the United States has used this precept to defend its position on trade barriers to hostile nations, and through the majority of the century, that predominantly referred to the Soviet Union and its allies. tags: Economics Globalization Trade Papers . 13 Works Cited 7504 words (21.4 pages) Trade Agreements Between the European Union and Developing Countries - The Uruguay Round Agreements and the establishment of the World Trade Organisation, have strengthened the Multilateral Trading. At the same time, there has been more agreements in the world economy. The European Union has been major driving force behind the force of such agreements This report evaluate and explores the complex structures of recent free trade agreements between the European Union and developing countries, the main factors determining their economic effects, and presents quantitative simulations of the effects of these agreements. tags: market barriers,world economy, free trade . 13 Works Cited 2052 words (5.9 pages) Trade Between Australia And China - Many products we use today are made in China. Trade between Australia and China has heightened in the last couple of years. China has one of the worlds largest economies. It has an increasing role in shaping the world economy, accounting for a third of the increase in the worlds gross domestic product and imports for the period 2000 to 2003 (The Economist 2004). It is also home to a population of 1.3 billion inhabitants, consuming a variety of goods from food items to luxury commodities, toys, clothing, gifts, most car parts and many more things Australia benefits from. tags: International Trade Economics 1876 words (5.4 pages) The Differences Between Foreign Trade and Foreign Direct Investment - Foreign trade Foreign trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, it represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). (yourarticlelibrary) It is a trade between two or more countries and we can separate into three parts. Import- Affluent countries import resources and commodities when they find comparative advantages in sourcing from foreign locations. (Holt, Wigginton, 2002) Export involves selling domestically produced products in foreign market through brokers or overseas distribution centres. tags: foreign trade, direct investment, global economy . 12 Works Cited 879 words (2.5 pages) Global Trade and Addiction during the Age of Exploration - Maritime advances of the 1500s made Western Europes ambitions for global trade feasible and thus gave birth to Europes Age of Exploration. Through the combined use of caravels, compasses, and astrolabes, Europeans stumbled upon commodities in foreign lands known as drug foods. Consequently, this introduction would have a lasting impact on the Europeans, they became drug addicts. Furthermore, this addiction, the demand for these drugs, became permanently embedded into European culture. To please an everlasting demand, Europeans had to decide on how to frugally acquire these commodities. tags: Global Trade, Addiction, Age of Exploration, food, 749 words (2.1 pages) Globalization and International Trade - International Business is a term used to collectively describe topics relating to the operations of firms with interests in several countries. International trade occurs because no single country has the resources to produce everything well. Nations specialize in the production of certain goods and trade with other nations for those they do not produce. More and more companies are recognizing that pursuing opportunities in the global marketplace is the key to their present and future success. There are many advantages of going global such as, new markets, new sources of capital abroad, swifter technological advancement, and more choices for consumers, just to name a few. tags: Outsourcing, Offshoring, Free Trade 1834 words (5.2 pages) The World Trade Organization - The World Trade Organization Nobody will deny if I say that in our modern world it is very important to control the relationship between different countries. There are different organizations nowadays. They control different aspects of our everyday life. I would like to speak about world trade organization. It deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. First of all I would like to give some facts about the creation and location of WTO. tags: WTO World Trade Organization 1741 words (5 pages) The Exchange Rate and International Trade - I. INTRODUCTION Objective The general objectives of this study are to describe recent trade problems and examine why these problems are related to, and affected by exchange rates. The study first examines the exchange rate and how it is determined. The study will explore, in detail, the agencies that determine these rates. This study will also present the pros and cons of different prices of goods and services in different countries. Specifically, this paper: (1) defines recent trade problems and how they are affected by the exchange rate (2) describes the steps taken within the agencies that determine the exchange rates (3) examines the impact of these rates, both g. tags: Finance Trade Money Economics Essays 3298 words (9.4 pages) Analysis Of The Us-China Trade - Analysis of the US-China Trade The U.S. trade deficit has risen more or less steadily since 1992. In the second quarter of 2004, the trade deficit relative to GDP surpassed the 5 percent mark for the first time. Many economists already considered trade deficits above 4 percent of GDP dangerously high. The fear is that continued growth in this external imbalance of the U.S. economy will ultimately spook overseas investors. americanprogress.orgissues200409b193700.html The United States and China share the most imbalanced bilateral trade relationship in the world. tags: Trade Deficit Economics Analysis China 1570 words (4.5 pages) Measuring the Effect of Regional and Preferential Trade Agreements on Multilateral Trading Systems - Introduction World trade has been an ever evolving phenomenon and the agreements made to govern this have also been evolving. In order to stabilise and centralise trade agreements, multilateral trading system came into being and people thought that this is an ultimate solution to facilitate trade among different nations and take care of any issues emerging thereby. As the time passed by, many countries started to feel the need to have a close agreement within a concentrated setting and as a result regional trade agreement (RTA) and preferential trade agreements (PTA). tags: World Trade Organization, Global Superpower . 13 Works Cited 3415 words (9.8 pages) Fur Is Dead Research Paper - The grade I recieved for this paper was an A, just incase you were wondering. Fur is Dead Taking a look into a once strong industry, shocking facts are revealed. The fur industry brings in an average of 1.5 billion in sales each year. Furs were considered a beautiful and feminine version of clothing by many women, until the public became aware of the horrors that accompany the industry. Activists have been a voice for animals tortured for their fur, making the public aware, and diminishing the old view of fur. tags: essays research papers fc . 1 Works Cited 919 words (2.6 pages) World Trade - Traditional and most developed form of international relationships is world trade. World trade is around 80 percent of all international economical relationships. International trade is a form of communications between manufactures of different countries that comes out as a result of world labor division, and express mutual economic dependence. Wild, in his book gives us a definition of world trade as: The purchase, sale, or exchange of goods and services across national borders induced by sellers, buyers and intermediary in different countries. International trade includes import and export of goods and services ratio between them is called trade balance. tags: International Trade 1303 words (3.7 pages) The Pros and Cons of Free Trade - The Pros and Cons of Free Trade Free trade is exchange of goods and commodities between parties without the enforcement of tariffs or duties. The trading of goods between people, communities, and nations is not an innovative economic practice. Nations are however the main element within a free trade agreement. By examining free trade through three different political ideologies: Liberal, Nationalistic, and Marxist approaches, the advantages and disadvantages will become apparent. Theses three ideologies offer the best evaluation of free trade from three different perspectives. tags: Free Trade Tarriff Duty Trading Goods Ideology 928 words (2.7 pages) The Central American Free Trade Agreement - The Central American Free Trade Agreement CAFTA is a proposed international free trade agreement between the United States and numerous countries within Central America. Some of the nations who could potentially participate in this treaty are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. This proposed agreement stems primarily from the fact the United States relies on Central America as a primary export market. In fact, it is believed this area of world is Americas 18th largest export target. tags: CAFTA International Trade Essays 1177 words (3.4 pages) The Canada-U.S. Trade and Economic Relationship - The Canada-U.S. Trade and Economic Relationship The United States is Canadas largest trading partner and is the largest market for Canadian goods. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (1989) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (1994) have both been crucial to increasing market opportunities for Canadian exporters in the U.S. Ultimately, however, it is Canadian exporters of all sizes and in all industries that make this relationship as successful as it is. In 2003, Canada exported approximately C365 billion worth of goods and services to the U.S. while it imported nearly C280 billion from its southern neighbour. tags: Canada US Trade Business 1583 words (4.5 pages) Oloudah Equianos The Slave Trade - Oloudah Equianos The Slave Trade Olaudah Equiano was born in 1745 in an area of Africa which is now Nigeria. At the age of eleven he was captured and brought into slavery. In his book, The Slave Trade, Equiano describes the slave trade during this time. He illustrates how he became a slave and how slaves were treated. Through his descriptions of his homeland and other aspects of his life, we gain insight into the state of world trade at that time. Equianos description of his homeland exemplifies the Columbian Exchange in operation. tags: Equiano Slave Trade Slavery History Essays 944 words (2.7 pages) World Trade Organization - World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO), is an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade. The WTO came into being on January 1, 1995, and is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was created in 1947, and continued to operate for almost five decades as a de facto international organization. The World Trade Organization deals with the rules of trade between nations at a near-global level it is responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements, and is in charge of policing member countries adherence to all the WTO agreements, signed by the bulk of the worlds trading nations a. tags: Free Trade International 1690 words (4.8 pages) International Trade Negotiations - What are the main obstacles to a successful completion of the current round of negotiations on international trade (the Doha Development Round) and how could they best be resolved from the perspective of developing countries The current W.T.O trade round was launched, November 2001 in Doha Qatar. Amid much hype and fanfare, it was hailed as a development round of negotiations. Launched less than two months after the September 11th attacks the talks began with high hopes all round. The mere fact the talk took place at all was an achievement in itself, considering the debacle that was the 1999 talks in Seattle which collapsed amid anti-globalisation protests and rioters being tear gassed. tags: Trade Dosha Development Round 1844 words (5.3 pages) The Evidence Surrounding the 911 World Trade Center Attacks, and Subsequent Tower Collapse - On September 11, 2001 four passenger commercial jet airliners were hijacked and as a result approximately 3,000 human lives were lost. When asked about 911, many can recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news that a plane crashed into one of the World Trade Center (WTC) buildings and many Americans can tell you how it all unfolded and the reason behind such a travesty. The official story provided by officials, and restated by Sofia Shafquat, producer of 911 Mysteries: Demolitions say that four passenger planes were hijacked and taken radically off course, within an hour, two of the planes had flown into the enormous steel towers of the World Trade Center, creating f. tags: Evidence, 911, World Trade Center, terrorism, USA . 6 Works Cited 1806 words (5.2 pages) All Fur - All Fur is a 19th century German tale written by the Brothers Grimm. The tale deals with incest and how a young lady can escape an abusive father. When the Kings wife dies it becomes imperative that he was to marry again. However, he would not settle on any woman unless she was as beautiful as his late wife was. Ironically, the only woman in the kingdom that possesses the beauty of his wife is his daughter, with whom he becomes obsessed. In the tale it is said that, quotIn every respect she was like his dead wifequot suggesting the projection of an anima ideal. tags: essays research papers 763 words (2.2 pages) Europes New World - Growing Trade Intertwined with Imperialism - Europes New World - Growing Trade Intertwined with Imperialism The distinction of white linen, the rare treat of sweetness, the still rarer taste of coffee that made its drinkers sparkle, and the cravings theyve inspired. Limited access to water influenced drinking habits, cooking, hygiene, and sartorial (tailoringclothing) practices. Housewives and laundresses coped with mountains of dirty linen by the river or by the pond. The great sent their laundry to the American islands for a whiter wash the poor rioted for soap as well as bread. tags: History Imperialism Trade 1008 words (2.9 pages) Regional Analysis: North American Free Trade Agreement - Regional Analysis: North American Free Trade Agreement In todays globalized economies, virtually every country in the world belongs to some form of regional integrated trade organization whether by direct membership, bilateral or multilateral agreement. Regional integration is a process by which sovereign states in a particular region enter into an agreement to promote economic growth through the reduction of barriers to trade restrictions and safeguard common interests such as the environment. tags: Free Trade Economics 1492 words (4.3 pages) The Economic System of Slavery: As Told in A Respectable Trade and Amistad - The Economic System of Slavery: As Told in A Respectable Trade and Amistad The economic system of slavery is an all-encompassing system that effects the mentalities of all who participate in the system. People in a slave society are shaped differently than people influenced by other economic systems, as this system classifies people as property, inherently going against all aspects of human nature. We see how slavery has come to shape individuals, and indeed, entire societies both in Amistad and A Respectable Trade. tags: Amistad Respectable Trade Papers 1836 words (5.2 pages) North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA - NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began on January 1, 1994, and is one of the United States most significant regional trade agreements. The final provisions of the NAFTA were fully implemented on January 1, 2008. With full implementation, the last remaining trade restriction on a handful of agricultural commodities such as U.S. exports to Mexico of corn, dry edible beans, nonfat dry milk and high fructose corn syrup and Mexican exports to the United States of sugar and certain horticultural products are now removed. tags: Economics International Trade 1702 words (4.9 pages) Trade in China and the Success of its Economy - Trade in China and the Success of its Economy China has come to the forefront of the international finance scene following the East Asian financial crisis for two reasons. First, the post reform Chinese economy closely resembles the other East Asian countries. China experienced significant levels of growth led by exports, with a rapid expansion in labor-intensive exports in its early stage of development. Rapid growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in domestic savings and massive inflows of foreign capital (Perkins, 1986). tags: Economics China Trade Currency Money Essays . 14 Works Cited 4758 words (13.6 pages) Fair Trade Will Put an End to World Poverty - Fair Trade Will Put an End to World Poverty Why isnt the world equal. Our world is divided in to two those who have and those who do not. Globally this division exists between the rich countries in the north and poor countries in the south. Within this broad division between the rich and the poor we find that in each country we have similar division. Even in the richest country in the World, the United States of America, there are people, although small in number, who live in abject poverty. tags: Globalization Free Trade 2067 words (5.9 pages) Dream Of A Long Fur Coat Judg - Judgment on a Past Time In reading the selection Dream of a Long Fur Coat, by Barbra Drews, I noticed that not all people view the world the same way. In this selection the author feels that animals that are trapped or raised in pins are being wrongly killed for the use of their fur. She justifies her reasons for feeling this way by over exaggerating the events that lead to the processing of fur. Barbra Drews clearly explains how iron traps, the most common traps used by trappers, do their part in killing the animal. tags: essays research papers 638 words (1.8 pages) Fair Trade and Free Trade - Introduction The idea of fair trade was founded in the 1950s, and it has become more prevalent in the 1980s. (Mohan, 2010) Fair trade is trade between developed and developing countries where suppliers in the developing countries are protected to ensure a fair trade. (Hayes and Moore, 2005) Suppliers usually benefit from guaranteed minimum price and the social premium. On the other hand, free trade does not have a fixed price, and it has low government intervention such as tariffs on imported goods. tags: overdependence, competitiveness . 6 Works Cited 1265 words (3.6 pages) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in E-Commerce - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in E-Commerce The US is seeking to extend the duty-free status of international online transactions to protect the development of global electronic commerce, the Clinton administration said yesterday. Susan Esserman, deputy US trade representative, said the US wanted the World Trade Organization to agree at the earliest possible date to extend the current moratorium on customs duties for electronic trade. In testimony to the Senate foreign relations sub-committee on Europe, Ms Esserman said duty-free cyberspace was particularly valuable to US software companies that were seeking to distribute their products electronically. tags: Trade Economy Electronic Commerce Essays 4203 words (12 pages) The Negative Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement - The Negative Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement In January 1994, the United States, Mexico, and Canada implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), forming the largest free trade zone in the world. The goal of NAFTA is to create better trading conditions through tariff reduction, removal of investment barriers, and improvement of intellectual property protection. NAFTA continues to gradually reduce tariffs on set dates and aims to eliminate all tariffs by the year 2004. tags: Economics Agriculture Business Trade Essays . 3 Works Cited 1167 words (3.3 pages) The World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) - The World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Before I took this class I would have never fathomed the fact that an organization such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) existed. Im interested in the fact that the whole world takes part in the WTOS dealing with rules of trade between all of the different nations. The World Trade Organization is located in Geneva Switzerland with about 147 countries in association with the organization. It was established on January 1st 1995 in an effort to forum for trade negotiations, handle international trade disputes, and monitor national trade policies and administering WTO trade agreements. tags: Globalization World Trade 430 words (1.2 pages) The European Union (EU) vs the North American Free Trade Agreement - The European Union (EU) vs the North American Free Trade Agreement Introduction The European Union (EU) is the organization which integrates the countries listed below, both politically and economically. It is a customs union, which is an agreement amongst a group of countries to eliminate trade barriers between them on the movement of goods, services, labor and capital, and also to establish a common external tariff on goods and services coming into the union. The EU evolved from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was formed in 1951 as a response to the First and Second World Wars to try to ensure future peace in Europe. tags: Political Politics International Trade . 20 Works Cited 2970 words (8.5 pages) Malaysia United States Free Trade Agreement - A free trade agreement between Malaysia and US means that there are no barriers to trade between each other and goods and services are allowed to move freely between countries. However, this FTA has its advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed further. In 2005, Malaysia had an annual US23 billion trade surplus with the US. By using FTA, Malaysia might obtain extra market access in the US, but the structural and legal rules by the US Trade Representative might limit the access. For example, according to the rules of origin like the yarn forward rule makes it difficult for Malaysia to export its textiles to the US even if the tariffs for it are lowered. tags: Economic Free Trade Agreement Analysis America 797 words (2.3 pages) Free Trade Vs Fair Trade - Introduction Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, shows support for free trade and emphasises it as a trade policy which ought to be adopted. Krugman and Obstfeld back Smiths support by stating that the efficiency of trade is increased by free trade and accumulates the national income of countries. Free trade is a theory which suggests that each nation benefits in specialising in an economic activity from which it gains absolute advantage, enjoying absolute superiority over other nations in a specif economical activity (Peng). tags: Economics . 26 Works Cited 2355 words (6.7 pages) You Can Shave the Beast, But Will the Fur Grow Back - You Can Shave the Beast, But Will the Fur Grow Back. I live in Brooklyn, New York City. I was born and bred there. I am one of eight million New Yorkers. New York City is sometimes described as a melting pot, meaning we are like different Kool-Aid powders that dissolve into a uniform color and flavor. My view differs, though. I think we are eight million different insoluble liquids layered one on top of the other, appearing like oil floating on water. When stirred these liquids are rustled from their respective positions, almost coming together, only to revert to their original separated composition a second later. tags: Personal Narrative New York City Papers 1934 words (5.5 pages) Restraint of Trade -. For example, there would have a clause stated that the employee cannot work for the employers competitors for 3 years. In the following discussion, there had an addition doctrine that might make the clause valid. The law illustrated that restrictive covenants might only valid when it is reasonable between the parties in the contract and reasonably concerning to the public interest. If there is found that the restrictive covenants included the restraint of trade clauses, thus the clause would be void. tags: employment, contracts, proprietary 1258 words (3.6 pages) Trade in Singapore - Singapore is a small island in the south of Malaysia, and in relation with other islands it is more urbanized. It has an area of 7232 square kilometers. Most of its land was reclaimed from its sea, hills and the neighboring areas. It is 15 meters above sea level on most parts of its territory and 165 meters above the sea level on Bukit Timah region that comprises of igneous rocks and granite (Bowen, 1993). Despite the absence of any natural lake, the country has good supply of water from its constructed reservoirs. tags: economy,island,malaysia . 7 Works Cited 1901 words (5.4 pages) Cap and Trade - The population of man continues to dramatically rise around the world. This unabated growth has steadfastly encroached upon the environment, placing the environment under distress and placing increasingly larger demands on supplies of natural resources. The environment has been affected by the modernization of populations across the globe resulting in more and more pollution being introduced into the environment as result in increased usage of natural resources such as fossil fuels. Of major concern to present populations are the pollutants introduced into the earths atmosphere from continued use and dependency of fossil fuels. tags: Economics . 3 Works Cited 2097 words (6 pages) Opium and Trade - The thought of opium as a topic of conversation in China throughout the late eighteenth century and nineteenth century brought about discussions that varied from arguments for its legalization and praise of its distributors to the complete ban of the drug and punishment for all users and smugglers. For those who acted as proponents of the narcotic, they sincerely believed that this necessary evil was one of the only aspects of the economy that could effectively propel China into the same class as that of the worlds supreme powers (Janin 6). tags: Economics . 9 Works Cited 1118 words (3.2 pages) Indigenous Economic, Philosophical, and Innovative Contributions to Canadian Society - Many individuals still harbor attitudes of racism towards Indigenous People, forcing them into the margins of society. They are painted in a negative light, instead of being recognized for their achievements. Indigenous Peoples have made major contributions to the economy of Canada, in addition to sharing their beliefs and inventions. Aboriginal people are not acknowledged for their substantial contributions to Canadian society, at least not to the degree that is deserved. There is a fair amount of qualitative research written about Indigenous Peoples, so why have their efforts not received merit. tags: indigenous people, Canada, economy . 14 Works Cited 2112 words (6 pages)
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