Local-exchange-trading-system-nz

Local-exchange-trading-system-nz

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Acak - 15 detik Pra-pembukaan Tahap Pra-pembukaan berlangsung dari jam 7:00 pagi sampai 10:00 pagi, waktu Sydney. Selama Pre-opening: Pialang memasukkan pesanan ke ASX Trade untuk persiapan pembukaan pasar. ASX Trade tidak melakukan order perdagangan. Investor bisa memasukkan pesanan secara on-line. Perintah antri sesuai prioritas harga-waktu dan tidak akan diperdagangkan sampai pasar terbuka. Bermalam dan perdagangan luar negeri dapat dilaporkan sampai pukul 09:45 waktu Sydney. Perdagangan ini harus dilakukan sesuai dengan Aturan Operasi ASX. Membuka Tahap Pembukaan berlangsung pada pukul 10.00 waktu Sydney dan berlangsung sekitar 10 menit. ASX Trade menghitung harga pembukaan selama fase ini. Efek terbuka dalam lima grup, sesuai dengan huruf awal kode ASX mereka: Grup 1 10:00:00 am - 15 detik 0-9 dan A-B, mis. ANZ, BHP Group 2 10:02:15 am - 15 detik C-F, mis. CPU, FXJ Group 3 10:04:30 am - 15 detik G-M, mis. GPT Grup 4 10:06:45 am - 15 detik N-R, mis. QAN Group 5 10:09:00 am - 15 detik S-Z, mis. TLS Waktu dihasilkan secara acak oleh ASX Trade dan terjadi hingga 15 detik di kedua sisi waktu yang diberikan di atas, mis. Kelompok 1 dapat membuka setiap saat antara pukul 09:59:45 dan 10:00:15. Perdagangan Normal Normal Trading berlangsung dari pukul 10.00 sampai 16.00, waktu Sydney. Pialang memasukkan pesanan ke ASX Trade dan ASX Trade sesuai dengan perintah satu sama lain, sehingga menghasilkan perdagangan pada tahap ini ASX Trade secara otomatis sesuai dengan semua perdagangan di PriceTime Priority secara terus menerus. Sebagian besar perdagangan berlangsung selama Perdagangan Normal. Antara pukul 16:00 dan 16:10, waktu Sydney, pasar ditempatkan di Pre-CSPA. Perdagangan berhenti dan broker masuk, mengubah dan membatalkan pesanan dalam persiapan untuk penutupan pasar. Penutupan Lelang Tunggal Single Lelang Harga Penutupan Single berlangsung antara pukul 16:10 dan 16:12, waktu Sydney. ASX Trade menghitung harga penutupan selama fase ini. Acak 60 detik Penyesuaian berlangsung dari pukul 16.15 sampai 17:00, waktu Sydney. Selama fase ini: Pialang dapat membereskan pesanan mereka dengan membatalkan pesanan yang tidak diinginkan, mengubah pesanan, dll. Pesanan baru tidak dapat dimasukkan dan Perdagangan ASX tidak melakukan transaksi. Pialang ingin saling bertukar kontak melalui telepon. Aturan Pasar ASX memastikan bahwa perdagangan berlangsung secara tertib. Perdagangan selama fase Penyesuaian disebut sebagai perdagangan overnight. Keadaan ini sama dengan keadaan sesi ADJUST. Pesanan Purge Orders pesanan yang kadaluarsa, terlalu jauh dari pasar dll akan diproteksi secara terpusat. Administrasi sistem pengaturan sistem administrasi sesi. Tidak ada Pesan Perdagangan yang dapat dimasuki atau diubah dalam Perdagangan ASX dan tidak ada pencocokan atau pelelangan yang dilakukan. Sistem Tidak Tersedia Sistem memproses batch malam selama sesi ini, ini melibatkan pembaharuan dan penambahan sekuritas. Tidak ada Pesan Perdagangan yang dapat dimasuki atau diubah dalam Perdagangan ASX dan tidak ada pencocokan atau pelelangan yang dilakukan. Tabel di bawah menunjukkan jam perdagangan. Semua waktu di Sydney kali. Sesi perdagangan Dana, Waran dan Terstruktur Tidak termasuk Indeks, Wesel Komoditi dan Wesel Pada ambang batas abad kedua puluh kita memasuki periode perubahan sejauh yang dicapai seperti yang telah kita lihat. Sejak revolusi industri orang harus menemukan diri mereka di pusat-pusat besar di mana mereka bisa bekerja dengan orang lain, namun sekarang teknologi baru membuat jarak tidak penting. Keterampilan yang dibutuhkan dalam masyarakat masa depan adalah hubungan yang terkait dengan informasi dan pengetahuan daripada keterampilan industri pada abad kesembilanbelas dan kedua puluh. Mengubah teknologi akan mempengaruhi hampir semua aspek kehidupan kita: bagaimana kita melakukan pekerjaan kita bagaimana kita mendidik anak-anak kita bagaimana kita berkomunikasi satu sama lain dan bagaimana kita dihibur, Maurice Williamson, Menteri Teknologi Informasi, 1 Maret 1996 di pengantarnya kepada ImpacT 2001 . Bagaimana Teknologi Informasi Akan Mengubah Selandia Baru. 1840: S. E Grimshaw menjadi Postmaster pertama di Selandia Baru. Pembayarannya untuk layanan adalah 20 persen dari penerimaan pos. 1858. Undang-Undang Pos Lokal membuka jalan untuk pengangkatan seorang Kepala Postmaster dan Dewan Provinsi yang berwenang untuk mendirikan kantor pos yang akan dikoordinasikan secara nasional. Pada akhirnya Kantor Pos Selandia Baru akan mengendalikan perbankan melalui Bank Tabungan Pos bersama dengan layanan telegraf dan teleks, jaringan telepon untuk panggilan nasional dan internasional dan layanan radio termasuk kontak dengan kapal 1862: Jalur telegraf listrik pertama yang menghubungkan Christchurch dan Lyttleton adalah Katalisator untuk serangkaian konstruksi yang melibatkan jalur telegraf pribadi dan militer antara Auckland, Christchurch dan Dunedin. Kiwi sekarang bisa tetap berhubungan dengan kode Morse. Salah satu pesan pertama yang dikirim adalah kepada Pak Oakes di Christchurch dan baca: quotMr Oakes yang akan datang di sekunar Colleen Baun dengan barang-barang. Anjing Pedro keracunan dan sudah mati. Jaringan kedua dibangun dengan cepat di antara Port Chalmers dan Dunedin. 1863. Postmaster-General mencurahkan satu halaman laporan tahunannya ke telegram tersebut dengan mengatakan bahwa dia ingin melihat jaringan telegraf luas koloni termasuk kabel Selat Cook. Ada sembilan jaringan telegraf independen yang mencakup sebagian besar Pulau Selatan. Pemerintah mendirikan Departemen Telegraf Listrik, segera menempatkan semakin banyak jaringan telegraf independen di bawah kendali terpusat. 1865. Usaha kedua untuk meletakkan kabel di dasar laut Selasar yang kasar pada bulan Agustus terbukti sukses, dan komunikasi antara Kepulauan dimungkinkan dari tanggal 26 bulan itu. Sebuah kantor telegraf didirikan di Picton pada tahun berikutnya yang diikuti oleh Blenheim dan Nelson. 1872: Garis Wellington-Auckland selesai, sekitar 400.000 pesan satu tahun dibawa melalui jaringan yang masih muda 1876: Kabel bawah laut pertama dari Botany Bay di Sydney, ke Cable Bay dekat Nelson tiba di darat pada bulan Februari 1876. Setelah terhubung ke terminal Rumah di Nelson pada tanggal 21 Februari, komunikasi langsung dengan Australia dimungkinkan dan berlanjut ke Asia, Eropa dan Inggris. Departemen Telegraf Selandia Baru mempekerjakan dan melatih operator telekomunikasi pertama yang menggunakan tombol Morse untuk mengirim dan memecahkan kode pesan. 1877-1880: Pada tahun 1877 seorang teknisi listrik Dunedin Charles A. Henry mengorganisir sidang telegraf pertama yang berbicara berdasarkan pemasangan receiver telepon dan pemancar berdasarkan pada apa yang telah dia baca di majalah. Menurut Otago Daily Times sebuah alat telepon dan kawat dilekatkan pada kawat telegraf yang ada di kantor Dunedin Telegraph dan satu lagi di kantor Milton - berjarak 57km. Surat kabar tersebut menggambarkannya sebagai hal yang luar biasa. Ini menulis Sejumlah besar pertanyaan diajukan dan masing-masing langsung dijawab oleh orang di Milton.Not hanya bisa kata-kata yang diucapkan di kedua ujungnya terdengar jelas, namun perbedaan nada suara dapat dengan mudah dibedakan. Kantor telepon pertama dibuka di Port Chalmers pada tahun 1879 dengan hubungan pertama antara Port Chalmers dan Portobello sehingga informasi pengiriman dapat disampaikan ke Dunedin lebih cepat. Nyonya Sheehy, yang menerima telepon dari peternakan Roxburgh pada tahun 1877, adalah orang pertama di Selandia Baru untuk mengadakan percakapan dengan orang lain. Telepon mulai digunakan untuk melengkapi telegraf di kota-kota kecil yang kekurangan keuangan untuk mempekerjakan operator Morse. 1879: Hanya 19 dari 214 stasiun telegraf yang masih beroperasi secara independen, karena Kantor Pos semakin mengambil alih berbagai jaringan telegraf dari Departemen Telegraf Listrik. 1881: Departemen Pos dan Telegraf Selandia Baru menggantikan Departemen Telegraf dan dengan cepat menjadi monopoli negara bagian, atas saran dari pejabat pemerintah, untuk mencegah Perusahaan Telegraf Listrik Chicago, yang merupakan anteseden langsung Ameritech dan Bell Atlantic, membuka sebuah Bertukar di sini Ini akan bertanggung jawab penuh atas perangkat telepon baru yang aneh ini, melatih operator dan mengembangkan jaringan telepon di seluruh negeri. Pertukaran manual pertama dengan pemancar yang dioperasikan dengan baterai dibuka di Christchurch sehingga memungkinkan 30 pelanggan berbicara kepada operator dan satu sama lain. Dalam waktu 10 hari Auckland membuka bursa dengan 26 pelanggan. Banyak kota besar lainnya mengikutinya. Kabel overhead mulai muncul di seluruh negara yang menghubungkan bisnis dan komunitas. Tiang-tiang ini dengan kabel yang menggantung dari mereka sering disebut pohon limau setelah direktur telegraf Dr Lemon. 1892: Operator pertukaran wanita dipekerjakan untuk duduk dalam barisan yang menghubungkan panggilan dengan memasukkan steker ke soket yang terkait dengan nomor yang dipanggil. 1894: Setahun sebelum transmisi nirkabel pertama buatan Marconis di Eropa, Ernest Rutherford lulusan fisika di Canterbury University College, mengirimkan sinyal 18 meter melintasi departemen fisika melalui beberapa dinding menggunakan gelombang Hertzian. Awal 1900-an: Kemajuan teknologi dengan cepat seperti halnya jaringan dengan telekomunikasi menjadi bagian penting dari struktur sosial dan salah satu bentuk pekerjaan komersial pertama. Telepon menghubungkan komunitas lokal dengan keluarga dan layanan penting dan mulai menyentuh kehidupan semua orang Selandia Baru. Hal berubah seiring dengan datangnya pertukaran otomatis dan kapasitas yang meningkat mampu menangani 500 baris sekaligus. 1902: J.L. Passmore, seorang remaja Dunedin, membuat sebuah telegram nirkabel dari instruksi di majalah. Pada 1903, pemain berusia 18 tahun itu bisa mengirim sinyal hingga 10km, dan pada saat itu eksperimen lebih lanjut mungkin telah menimbulkan kemarahan pemerintah yang sekarang memiliki kendali penuh atas perkembangan apapun yang mungkin disebut telepon nirkabel 1903: Selandia Baru Pembuat undang-undang mengenali potensi pengiriman pesan nirkabel melalui radio dengan Undang-Undang Telegraf Nirkabel yang disahkan pada 26 September 1903 di dunia pertama, dan satu tahun menjelang undang-undang setara di Inggris dan dua tahun di depan Australia dan Kanada. Undang-undang tersebut melindungi investasi pemerintah di jaringan telepon kabel dan telegraf baru dan membiarkannya mengelola spektrum radio untuk mencegah gangguan. 1906: Transmisi radio domestik pertama dibuat oleh Marconi Company di Pameran Internasional Christchurch 1906 dan transmisi trans-Tasman pertama dilakukan dari HMS Pioneer di pelabuhan Wellington melalui HMS Powerful di Laut Tasman menuju HMS Psyche di Sydney Harbour pada tanggal 3 Februari. 1908. 1910: Selandia Baru sekarang memiliki telepon kabel pertama mereka yang dioperasikan. 1912: Pemerintah Selandia Baru mengeluarkan Undang-undang Telekomunikasi Negara yang baru. Yang memungkinkan orang-orang di daerah pedesaan membangun jaringan telepon mereka sendiri dan terhubung ke jaringan publik. Peralatan pertukaran otomatis pertama mulai beroperasi di Auckland dan Wellington tahun itu, sebagai pelengkap pertukaran manual di setiap pusat. Kota pertama yang memiliki sistem telepon otomatis adalah Masterton pada tahun 1919 1915: Telepon pertama dipasang di dinding pada tahun 1915, telepon candlestick diperkenalkan. 1921. Konser siaran perdana Zealane yang pertama ditransmisikan dari laboratorium fisika Otago University pada 17 November 1921 oleh Profesor Robert Jack. Dia mengirimkan seri pertama dari serangkaian konser yang mencakup rekaman musik live dan gramofon. Transmisinya terdengar jauh dari Auckland. 1923: Peraturan pertama yang mengatur penyiaran diberlakukan. Siapa pun yang berencana menjadi penyiar harus memiliki karakter yang baik, termasuk materi religius setidaknya tiga jam pada hari Minggu dan membatasi konten dengan karakter edukatif atau hiburan seperti berita, ceramah, informasi bermanfaat, layanan keagamaan, hiburan musikal atau elokusi dan item dari Kepentingan umum yang mungkin disetujui oleh Menteri dari waktu ke waktu. Periklanan tidak terpikirkan dan kontroversi dilarang. 1925: Bursa cabang otomatis swasta pertama (PABX) muncul. Siaran radio pertama dibuat dari Auckland (cek). 1926: Meskipun ada yang relatif, Kabel Selat Cook pertama yang didedikasikan untuk telepon diletakkan dengan mengganti kabel telegraf yang tidak dapat diandalkan yang menghubungkan Kepulauan Utara dan Selatan yang telah dibangun pada tahun 1864. 1927. Layanan telepon transatlantik beroperasi 1929: Sistem carrier diperkenalkan untuk mengirimkan sejumlah suara melalui satu pasang kabel telepon dengan menggunakan frekuensi yang berbeda (multiplexing divisi frekuensi). 1930: Semua pusat utama sekarang menjadi bagian dari jaringan telepon nasional melalui jaringan cabang otomatis swasta, dan penelepon dapat membayar biaya panggilan untuk terhubung antar kota dan kota. Kantor Pos Selandia Baru (NZPO) memiliki sekitar 125.000 pelanggan. Bakelite hitam persegi tetap menjadi ponsel standar. 1930an: Panggilan di luar negeri dimungkinkan dari tahun 1930an. Panggilan internasional pertama dibuat dari Kirkcaldies and Stains di Wellington pada tanggal 25 November 1930 dan mendapat telepon dari Menteri Urusan Pribumi Sir Apirana Ngata dan Perdana Menteri Penjaga Australia Fenton. Ngata membuka dengan sapaan Maori. Tak lama setelah dua panggilan bisnis dikirim ke Sydney dan enam orang dari Australia membunyikan teman di Selandia Baru. Tuduhan untuk telepon adalah satu pon per menit. 1931: Layanan toll internasional diperpanjang ke Inggris dengan biaya telepon enam kilogram dan 15 shilling. Pada tahun pertama ada 312 panggilan ke dan dari Selandia Baru. 1939: Selandia Baru memiliki lebih banyak telepon per kepala penduduk daripada negara manapun kecuali Amerika Serikat. Tarif tol internasional telah menjadi lebih terjangkau dan 3457 panggilan ke dan dari Selandia Baru dicatat. 1945: Pada Konferensi Telekomunikasi Persemakmuran yang diadakan di London, Pemerintah Selandia Baru menandatangani sebuah kesepakatan untuk mengambil alih tanggung jawab atas komunikasi eksternal. Aset Cable and Wireless dibeli dan Kantor Pos Selandia Baru bertanggung jawab atas layanan telekomunikasi eksternal maupun internal. 1950: Ada 348.539 pelanggan layanan telepon. 1953: Panggilan tol pelanggan pertama (STD) diperkenalkan yang memungkinkan orang melakukan panggilan tol langsung. 1959. Sebuah jalan tol telekomunikasi didirikan oleh Kantor Pos untuk panggilan jarak jauh, yang pada awalnya hanya membawa 600 sirkuit antara Wellington dan Auckland. Ini membentuk basis jaringan modern. 1960: Pukul 7.30 petang pada hari Rabu 1 Juni 1960, sebuah saklar dilemparkan ke sebuah bangunan di Shortland Street di pusat kota Auckland dan transmisi televisi resmi Zealane yang pertama dimulai. Selandia Baru adalah seorang yang terlambat memasuki usia televisi. Inggris telah memimpin jalan ketika BBC memulai layanan publik pertama di dunia pada tahun 1936 tiga tahun kemudian NBC mulai menyiarkan di Amerika Serikat dan Australia melakukan stasiun pertamanya yang beroperasi pada tahun 1956. Sebuah komite Pemerintah telah mempelajari media baru ini sejak tahun 1949, dan eksperimental Siaran telah diizinkan dari tahun 1951 (asalkan tidak memasukkan apa pun yang bisa digolongkan sebagai hiburan). Lampu hijau untuk televisi akhirnya diberikan pada bulan November 1959 dengan pengumuman dari Perdana Menteri Selandia Baru saat itu, Sir Walter Nash. Pada tahun 1960 Selandia Baru memiliki 686.021 telepon dan model yang lebih berbentuk estetis mulai menggantikan model bakelite hitam yang keras. Pada bulan November, Departemen Keuangan menyewa mainframe IBM 650, komputer pertama New Zealands. Dalam setahun, Canterbury University dan pabrik biskuit Griffins juga memiliki komputer. Pada tahun 1962, Treasury menganggap IBM 650 ketinggalan zaman. 1962: Pemerintah yang dimiliki oleh New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation (NZBC) mendirikan layanan radio nasional, Radio Selandia Baru. 1963: Telegram Morse terakhir ditulis oleh Gubernur Jenderal Bernard Fergusson ke walikota Eastborne pada bulan Januari 1963, pada bulan Oktober sirkuit Morse domestik terakhir ditutup. 1965: Selandia Baru sekarang berada di urutan ketiga di dunia dengan kepadatan telepon dengan 35 persen populasi berlangganan. Sekitar 77 persen dari semua telepon ada di bursa otomatis. 1969: Buletin Berita Jaringan Pertama dibaca oleh Dougal Stevenson dan diterima bersamaan di seluruh negeri. Interdependensi elektronik baru ini menciptakan kembali citra dunia sebagai sebuah desa global, Marshall McLuhan, Galaksi Gutenberg. 1962 Tahun 1970an: Selandia Baru dengan cepat berkembang dari pedesaan ke industri dan komersial dan jaringan telepon berada di bawah tekanan untuk mengimbanginya. Negara ini bergerak melampaui satu saluran TV, universitas mulai jaringan komputer dan jaringan komunikasi mereka pergi internasional. Jaringan broadband yang disebut sekarang membawa ribuan sirkuit dan STD (telepon pelanggan atau panggilan tol) tersedia di sebagian besar pusat pada tahun 1976. Pelanggan internasional yang menelepon, tanpa harus melalui operator, juga diperkenalkan seperti tombol push and speaker. Telepon. 1970. Kantor Pos Selandia Baru mulai menawarkan layanan Datel (datatelephony) untuk mengirim data komputer dan teleks melalui jalur khusus pada 2400bits per detik. 1971: Stasiun satelit pertama dibuka di Warkworth. Sekarang ada lebih dari satu juta pelanggan telepon. Tautan on-line pertama di luar negeri dibuat oleh American Express untuk terhubung ke jaringan pemesanan hotelnya. Pemerintah, melalui Komite Hibah Wakil Kanselir membuat pengaturan untuk membeli lima merek main anyaman Burroughs 6700 (kemudian Unisys) baru-baru ini untuk universitas negeri dengan maksud agar mereka berjejaring. 1972: Ada 200 komputer bisnis di negara ini, terutama mainframe berat yang membutuhkan kamar ber-AC yang besar untuk dioperasikan. Mereka diberi kartu punch dan meludahkan data mereka tentang printer rencana besar dengan tipe karakter asci biasa. 1973: Rencana pertama kali dibahas untuk menghubungkan mainframe Burroughs B6700 di Universitas Victoria ke Universitas Aloha di Hawaii dengan menggunakan jaringan paket Kantor Pos X.25. Administrator universitas tidak percaya bahwa proyek penelitian itu layak jadi macet. 1975: Selandia Baru sekarang memiliki dua saluran TV dengan kedatangan, tunggu saja. Jaringan Dua. NZBC dibubarkan dan digantikan oleh Televisi Satu, Televisi Dua dan Radio Selandia Baru. Upaya nyata pertama dalam menghubungkan komputer universitas terjadi ketika Universitas Victoria dan Massey University mulai bereksperimen dengan mesin Burroughs mereka, menggunakan sepasang modem sinkron yang beroperasi pada 4800 bitsec. Rencananya untuk berbagi sumber secara on-line optimis dijuluki Kiwinet namun linknya turun lebih dari yang sudah habis. 1976: Pengguna telepon diberi otonomi yang meningkat dengan pergeseran dari jalur partai lama, sistem berbasis operator, ke STD (telepon pelanggan atau panggilan tol) yang tersedia di sebagian besar pusat pada tahun 1976. Pemanggil pelanggan internasional, tanpa harus melalui Operator, juga diperkenalkan seperti tombol push dan speaker phone. Sebuah peningkatan besar jaringan telekomunikasi nasional terjadi pada bulan Maret. Kabel Tasman 1 antara Auckland dan Sydney mulai beroperasi dalam usaha patungan antara Kantor Pos Selandia Baru dan Australias OTC (Komisi Telekomunikasi Luar Negeri). Dasar-dasar untuk jaringan DSIR didirikan dari sekitar bulan April 1976 ketika Laboratorium Fisika dan Teknik DSIR (PEL) menciptakan Bagian Riset Komputer (CRS) di kampus Gracefield di Lower Hutt. Mereka juga membangun jaringan area luas pertama yang berbasis di sekitar minicomputer dan peralatan komunikasi Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11 dan pengontrol komunikasi. Pada bulan Oktober beberapa teknologi, dan banyak pelajaran yang dipetik dari Kiwinet. Memberikan dasar untuk menjadi VicNet. Sebuah jaringan tujuan umum yang dapat menghubungkan mesin-mesin di kampus Universitas Victoria ke Massey Universitys B6700 menggunakan jaringan pengalihan paket Kantor Pos X.25. Ketika mencapai sukses sederhana di kampus Victoria, Massey University kehilangan dana untuk leased line dan tidak pernah berhasil dikaitkan. Pada bulan Maret di Departemen Ilmu Komputer di Waikato. Frustrasi karena tidak diberi sumber daya komputasi yang sesuai dalam belanja besar pemerintah sehingga berkonspirasi dengan sekelompok pengacara untuk membeli DEC PDP-1170 yang baru dengan biaya 548.000 yang kemudian segera dijual ke bank pedagang dan kemudian masuk kembali ke Universitas di sewa untuk membeli kesepakatan Kementerian Pendidikan, sangat marah tapi Ilmu Komputer di Universitas Waikato dengan cepat menjadi topik yang paling banyak dicari. 1977. DSIRnet, jaringan lengan penelitian DSIR pemerintah didirikan dengan menggunakan protokol yang dimodifikasi dari CSIRONET Australia yang setara tahun 1979: Dari Desember 1979 sebuah tautan melalui satelit Intelsat IV, bersamaan dengan peralatan bareng NEC 820 yang baru di Auckland, memungkinkan pelanggan internasional Trunk (ISD) dari Selandia Baru. Sirkuit Intelsat yang disewa ke Organisasi Satelit Maritim Internasional (Inmarsat), yang Selandia Baru telah bergabung pada bulan Juli 1979, berarti pengguna lokal dapat memperoleh akses instan ke Tymnet dan Telenet. Dua jaringan data Amerika Utara yang merupakan bagian dari Oasis (Overseas Access Service for Information Services). Layanan ini terbukti populer di perpustakaan Selandia Baru, karena mereka dapat mengakses database Dialog dengan 18 juta entri bibliografinya. Tahun 1980an: Kurangnya investasi oleh Kantor Pos berarti jaringan tidak berada dalam posisi untuk menangani pertumbuhan yang dibutuhkan untuk layanan generasi berikutnya. Menjelang pertengahan 1980an jaringan kelebihan beban. Ada kemacetan besar. Di Auckland, bursa mencatat runtuhnya dan di seluruh negeri terjadi seringnya terjadi tabrakan jaringan. Kantor Pos, sebuah departemen pemerintah terbatas pada apa yang bisa diinvestasikan, menjadi semakin tidak efisien. Pemerintah mulai melihat masalah dan cara membuat departemen yang lebih efisien dan sebagai bagian dari reformasi ekonominya mulai mencari cara untuk meletakkannya di pijakan komersial. Di bawah Undang-Undang Usaha Milik Negara tahun 1986 ini dibuat beberapa perusahaan perdagangan negara termasuk Telecom. 1980. The Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand (BCNZ) dibentuk untuk menggabungkan saluran TV1 amp TV2 di bawah satu perusahaan. Kantor Pos mendukung sekitar 800 leased line dan 1800 modem. Ketika DARPA membutuhkan tim untuk menerapkan tumpukan protokol TCPIP teranyarnya di VAX di bawah Unix, ia memilih Berkeley Unix sebagai platform utamanya karena kode sumbernya tersedia dan tidak terbebani. Ini adalah titik balik utama dalam evolusi Unix dan berbagai alat yang meningkatkan konektivitas, sehingga menjamin keberhasilan tujuan nasional dan global APRAnet, dan TCPIP sebagai protokol komunikasi untuk masa depan. 1981. Baru Zealands pertama dan hanya sistem komputer rumah adat diciptakan. Poli. Pengembangan Poly dinamai Wellington Polytech dimana dikembangkan menjadi target penggunaan sekolah dengan layar warna dan sistem jaringan berpemilik yang tidak jelas. Aamber Pegasus, mendukung beberapa bahasa komputer dan memiliki versi jaringan yang terhubung ke server. Keduanya berusaha memenuhi persyaratan komputer pemerintah dalam inisiatif sekolah yang tidak pernah menghasilkan pesanan yang cukup besar agar mesin bisa menjadi kenyataan komersial. 1983: United Nations World Communications Year. Merayakan konvergensi dekat komputer dan teknologi komunikasi. Kantor Pos Selandia Baru mulai melakukan uji coba layanan transmisi data berbasis X.25 berbasis peralatan transmisi data (Pacnet) dan memasang kabel serat optik pertama di sistem percontohan 14km antara Wellington dan Lower Hutt dengan membawa beberapa ratus rangkaian telepon. 1984: Layanan biro biro dengan petugas beepers hadir, membiarkan orang-orang sibuk mengetahui kapan mereka dipekerjakan. Universitas Victoria mendirikan jaringan kampus berdasarkan protokol komputer IBM. Divisi Matematika Terapan DSIRs mengakses superkomputer Cyberworld CSIRO Australia 205, untuk pemodelan elemen hingga ladang gas Maui. Akses awalnya melalui link langsung Post Office kemudian melalui layanan packet switching Pacnet-nya. Kabinet telah menyetujui Pacnet pada bulan September 1979 khusus untuk pelanggan bisnis dengan terminal yang tersebar atau teleprinter yang terhubung ke komputer pusat, beroperasi pada 2400bits sampai 48kbitsec. Ini menjadi tersedia secara komersial mulai Agustus 1984 dengan memperluas penggunaan jaringan data kantor Pos (DDN). E lectronic Funds Transfer di Point-Of-Sale (eftpos) muncul di lokasi ritel, hanya lima tahun setelah ATM Bank pertama negara dipasang. Peralihan dan transmisi digital mengambil lompatan besar ke depan pada bulan November 1984 ketika tautan Wellington-Auckland pertama yang menggunakan teknologi kabel mikro dan kabel co-aksial digital berjalan setelah dua tahun perencanaan. Sistem 24 juta telah mengirimkan link digital 640km yang bisa mengirimkan suara dan data pada 140Mbitsec per sirkuit. Pada saat yang sama, pertukaran program terkontrol terkomputerisasi baru terkontrol (SPC) dipotong ke dalam jaringan. Upgrade SPC yang besar dipasang di daerah Auckland dari tahun 1984 setelah kenaikan 20 persen yang besar dalam lalu lintas tol yang disebabkan oleh ledakan tahun pemilihan dan kepercayaan bisnis yang meningkat. Apapun pelanggan terus menghadapi penundaan dan kelebihan beban. 1985: Selandia Baru dibagi menjadi 22 distrik untuk layanan pos, masing-masing berada di bawah kendali kepala sekolah kepala pos dan 17 distrik telekomunikasi, masing-masing berada di bawah kendali insinyur distrik atau regional. Komputer di Pusat Komputasi Universitas Auckland dan kampus Universitas Victoria dihubungkan dengan jalur leased line menggunakan modem 4800bitsec yang dibeli untuk proyek Kiwinet 1975. Kabel serat optik dengan kapasitas jauh lebih tinggi daripada yang diujicobakan pada tahun 1983 digunakan secara luas, membawa ribuan sirkuit telepon lebih dari 50 km tanpa repeater, antara kota-kota utama dan banyak kota. Pusat Layanan Komputer Universitas Canterbury mendirikan koneksi dari komputer Prime 750 ke jaringan Post Office Pacnet X.25 di 10kbitsec dan menyiapkan sistem email mentah untuk masuk ke komputer universitas lain. Robert Biddle Seorang mahasiswa PhD dengan bantuan programmer Ken Lalonde dan Alan Bowler, menggunakan koneksi untuk masuk ke Departemen Matematika di University of Waterloo di Kanada dan sekitarnya. Pertemuan pertama untuk membentuk jaringan tulang punggung yang umum antara universitas dan departemen penelitian diadakan pada bulan Agustus di Konferensi Pengguna Pengguna Telekomunikasi tahunan (TUANZ) dengan perwakilan universitas Selandia Baru, DSIR dan MAF. Departemen pemerintah diundang tapi tidak ada yang muncul. Pertemuan kedua pada bulan November 1985 diminta untuk mengkoordinasikan pengembangan jaringan penelitian nasional. Satu-satunya kesepakatan yang dicapai adalah pada protokol umum, t Colour Book Suite. Pada akhir tahun 1985, John Houlker di Universitas Waikato mengadakan diskusi tentang koneksi ke tulang punggung Internet dengan pendiri CSnet Larry Landweber di University of Wisconsin, sebuah simpul kunci di tulang punggung NSFnet. 1986: Sebuah kesepakatan sekarang berlaku bagi Waikato University untuk terhubung ke tulang punggung CSnet dan bertanggung jawab atas kode negara dot.nz. Meski itu cara yang aneh untuk terhubung, dengan Waikato masih terjebak dalam perpaduan protokol. Setidaknya koneksi yang kuat telah dilakukan langsung ke tulang punggung Internet AS. Faks itu sekarang menjadi alat komunikasi utama, dengan 800 mesin faks beroperasi dibandingkan dengan tahun 200 pada tahun 1984. Kantor Pos mulai beroperasi secara komersial dari layanan surat elektronik Starnet yang memungkinkan pesan ditinggalkan bagi pelanggan bisnis, departemen pemerintah atau universitas di kotak surat elektronik di komputer. . Pengguna akan masuk ke database jauh untuk mendownload atau mengirim pesan melalui jaringan Pacnet. Departemen Ilmu Komputer Universitas Canterbury menghabiskan anggaran furniturnya pada DEC VAX 750, memasang Berkeley Unix (BSD4.2) dan menamai sistem Cantuar. Canterbury berakhir dengan koneksi UUCP ke University of Waterloo di Kanada, Universitas Victoria di Wellington, Universitas Melbourne dan Pusat Matematika di Amsterdam. Universitas Victoria Wellington (VUW) tidak hanya merupakan situs UUCP, namun juga merupakan simpul di jaringan SUN-III Australia, sebuah inisiatif Universitas Sydney dengan protokol homegrown dan tautan X.25. VUW menggunakan koneksi ini untuk mendapatkan berita, dan pada gilirannya Canterbury mendapatkan berita UUCP dari Departemen Ilmu Komputer VUWs. Pada bulan Februari 1986 Victoria mulai menyediakan link ke jaringan DSIR dan Kementerian Pertanian dan Perikanan (MAF). Pada pertengahan tahun Waikato, Universitas Massey dan Canterbury telah bergabung dalam menggunakan tautan AS untuk surat dan akses ke newsgroup. Richard Naylor. Manajer TI di Wellington City Council, mulai mengelompokkan kompleks mainframe IBM dan DEC dalam dewan untuk menciptakan CityNet. Dan memudahkan penggunaan email antar departemen. Ini awalnya dilakukan melalui Telecoms Pacnet sebelum ditemukan bahwa menghubungkan ke alamat tertentu akan mendapatkan keseluruhan dewan di Internet. Setelah membuat email gateway dengan Victoria University, Naylor mulai mencari cara untuk lebih memanfaatkan hubungan serat optik antara gedung dewan dan mempercepat komunikasi, yang pada akhirnya menciptakan jaringan antar dengan Victoria. 1987. Pada bulan Februari, Wakil Direktur Kanselir Selandia Baru untuk Komputasi memutuskan untuk mengikuti preseden internasional dan memiliki tiga domain tingkat kedua di Selandia Baru. Domain dot.ac atau domain akademis akan mencakup universitas, politeknik dan sekolah. Domain dot.govt akan mencakup semua departemen pemerintah dan domain dot.co.nz ketiga akan mencakup semua organisasi komersial. Di bawah Undang-Undang Perusahaan Milik Negara 1986, Kantor Pos Selandia Baru dipecah menjadi perusahaan perdagangan negara termasuk NZ Post, Postbank dan Telecom Corporation. Pada tanggal 31 Maret 1987, Telecom yang baru dibuat menjadi BUMN. Secara historis industri komputer Selandia Baru mungkin telah menjadi salah satu pencipta pekerjaan baru terbesar, dan hubungan antara telekomunikasi dan komputer berjalan beriringan. Pemerintah dapat menghasilkan uang dari Telecom dengan menolak membiarkan orang lain melakukan pekerjaan telepon dan secara besar-besaran melakukan ongkos kirim untuk panggilan tol internal, itulah yang biasa dilakukan Kantor Pos lama. Hal ini tentu saja menghukum, dan secara efektif menyimpangkan industri komputer Selandia Baru, menteri perusahaan milik negara Richard Prebble, Jaringan Dunia Februari-Maret 1990 Telecom Corporation milik pemerintah membeli aset Kantor Pos lama sebesar 3,2 miliar dan mulai memperbaiki Layanan dan jaringan karena pasar telekomunikasi semakin terderegulasi. Sementara Telecom telah meluncurkan Advanced Technology Group yang dipimpin oleh Dr Murray Milner. Yang menggunakan Internet di 2.4kbitsec dari markasnya di Silicon Valley tempat dia belajar, fokus Telecoms tetap berada di X.25. Ini akan menjadi satu dekade lagi sebelum dianggap serius di Internet. Telecom meluncurkan jaringan selular dan jaringan data genggam CDPD 025 dan pada akhir tahun 1987 memiliki 2000 pelanggan. Harganya 2,84 untuk panggilan tol fixed line 3 menit antara Auckland dan Wellington dan 4,20 untuk panggilan off-peak 3 menit ke Australia. Ada 38.000 pelanggan telepon garis partai yang tersisa. All main DSIR sites were now part of the DSIRnet and all universities were connected into SpearNet (South Pacific Educational and Research Network), which used the Janet protocols for mail, file transfer and transport layer with lower layers provided by Telecoms Pacnet X.25 network. Victoria University had managed a connection to North America (University of Calgary) and to Melbourne University using Unix ( UUCP ) protocols and connected to DSIR Applied Maths, Fisheries Research and ICL Computers mainly for USENET and email. Victoria operated a mail gateway between the networks but the different protocols require technical wizardry to negotiate. Sorting through this dilemma ultimately inspired the creation of second level domains service (2lds) in the .nz namespace. While Waikato University was connected to the Internet backbone via CSnet and technically operating the dot.nz country code . it had been convinced by Telecom the way forward was X.25, and was still trying to cobble together an efficient solution to share its store and forward access with other universities. John Houlker from Waikato University and Professor John Hine from Victoria Universitys Computer Science Department, went to the US looking for a better deal. They began negotiating with Tony Villasenor, head of NASAs scientific Internet, and Jim Hart a high performance computing specialist from NASAs Ames research centre, who wanted to get the Internet into the Asia-Pacific region to connect a variety of science projects. They would pay for half the connection to New Zealand but there were details to work out, costs to cover and Australia wasnt happy at the prospect. Closed ISDN trials were planned from 1987 and it was expected that by 1990 a narrowband digital network would be commercially available, enabling users to operate telephone, videotext, packet switching, facsimile and various data networks as one integrated service. In 1990 the hype continued but very little had happened. 1988 : Telecom installs large capacity fibre optic cables with up to 72 fibres around the central business districts of the largest cities. It also delivers international capacity to the Waikato University where the first Internet Exchange ( NZIX ) is created around an Ethernet switch using IGP routing protocols. Victoria University decides to use routers rather than bridges on the new Ethernet LAN that will link the new Computer Science building to the existing Computer Center, purchasing them from an unknown company called Cisco . rather than the better known Wellfleet or Proteon. VUW suggests that ECL (a division of the TV repair people Tisco) become the country agents for Cisco (ECL became Case, then Dowty, and later Logical, purchased by IBM ). Five Cisco MGS routers were ordered, Cisco were unable to deliver them on time and substituted the larger AGS models for three of them. Clear Communications (MCI-Todd Communications) delivers two 512k circuits to Hamilton, terminated at state-of-the-art Cisco 4500 routers. Telecommunications equipment exports total 6.6 million. Telecom raises eyebrows and tempers by hiking the price of its Megaplan (2Mbitsec premium ISDN service) by 114 percent in November (28,000 to 58,000 per month). There are 2300 cellphone (brickphone) subscribers to the Telecom network. 1989 . In April New Zealand becomes the first nation in the Asia Pacific region with a full connection directly into the US Internet backbone. NASA is paying for half the cost of the 9.6kbitsec analogue ANZCAN undersea link from the NSFnet node at Hawaii through to Waikato University. The first IP link out of Waikato was a SLIP connection between Victoria and Waikato running over the DSIRs internal serial network. It was to be another six months before the link between Victoria and Massey University was live and many months later before all universities joined the official New Zealand Internet node. On April 1, the statutory monopoly enjoyed by the old Post Office was axed, allowing anyone to compete with new State-owned enterprise, Telecom . Under new management an extensive restructuring programme was underway, thousands of jobs were axed and outdated systems replaced with modern computerised equipment. However the commercial aggression of the refocused telco surprised many. TUANZ (Telecommunications Users Association) and ITANZ (Information Technology Association) slam Telecom for its huge increase in Megaplan charging and by August the first call for the Commerce Commission to investigate the monopoly telco for making excessive profit and using anti-competitive measures is made. Some were still prepared to pay for the service. The United Building Society connected its Christchurch and Auckland offices, aggregating 30-ISDN channels, with a 500,000 Megaplan 2Mbitsec voice and data link. Competition arrived for state-owned television in the form of TV3. The old BCNZ was disestablished to make way for an autonomous commercial television company, the State Owned Enterprise, Television New Zealand. UHF television frequencies were offered to private enterprise. The new Broadcasting Act resulted in the formation of New Zealand On Air and the Broadcasting Standards Authority. TV3, the first privately owned free-to-air television network, owned by Canwest, debuted. On June 6, New Zealand broadcasting and telecommunications experts engaged in an interactive satellite based videoconference between Wellingtons Victoria University and Ohio State University to discuss the possibilities of life in a deregulated environment . The Wellington students had been exchanging emails with their US counterparts using the BitNet service and voice connections. They were simulating what life might be like if widespread broadband ISDN were available in the electronic communications environment everyone expected would soon be at the heart of university education. Pacsat, the parent company of alternative New Zealand tolls company Telpac, announced it might relocate its Skyswitch and manufacturing plant to New Zealand ahead of its proposed 21 million local network. After registering as a cutprice network operator and months of hype, Telpac manager and fraudster Glen Nicholls . having left a trail of debts behind, disappeared. US network giant Compuserve acquired Applied Computing and established a local base providing information services to subscribers of Telecoms Pacnet service. Handypoint (National and Westpac) and Cashline (ASB and Trustbank) merge into a single eftpos network known as Electronic Transaction Service Ltd . Telecommunications equipment exports had doubled from 1988 to 15.6 million. PacRim . the first step in the worlds longest undersea fibre optic cable was signed off in Auckland in September. The local connection in the 124,000knm 560Mbit link into Hawaii would interconnect with the Tasman 2 cable running to Australia. With Waikato now operating as a gateway for the Internet . the remaining universities take a direct 9600bitsec feed and begin operating as Kawaihiko . expanding their existing relationship with the DSIR networks. The speed of the TCPIP connection with Hawaii had doubled from 2.4kbitsec to 4.8kbitsec. The IT staff at the universities operating routers, switches and other technology required for Internet access now knew more about this technology than most telco engineers. The first Internet service provider (ISP) Actrix began operation in November with a UUCP link to Victoria Universitys Computer Science Department for email and news feeds. Wellington City Council replaced its UUCP link with a direct Internet connection to the Waikato gateway. In the lunatic years of the 1980s no-one listened because so many clever young men in glass towers, moving pieces of paper around, had everyones attention. It is important however, not to loose sight of the fact that no true wealth is ever created until somebody makes something physical. Thats what creates careers and jobs, Electronic pioneer Sir Angus Tait, June 1999. The 1990s: With deregulation in telecommunications, broadcasting and banking creating a more openly competitive environment than anywhere else in the world, the debate is how to maximize those opportunities, particularly as the Internet and the worldwide web shift from arcane terms to mainstream use. The term information superhighway seems to promise an end to the tyranny of distance with telcos and techno visionaries waxing eloquent about a science fictional future where New Zealand could lead the world. Talk of broadband and convergence of computing, broadcasting and telecommunications add to the frustration as the so-called competitive environment fails to deliver. 1990. Pakuranga MP Maurice Williamson became the countrys first Information and Communications Technology minister in Jim Bolgers National government and appoints Reg Hammond and Colin Jackson to his IT Advisory Group. A special unit within the Commerce Commission is working overtime dealing with complaints about Telecom, among them six businesses facing strong opposition as they attempt to compete in the newly deregulated marketplace. Action is bought under Section 36 of the Commerce Act covering anti-competitive activity. The legal battles go on for years. Telecom itself is inundated with complaints from the public about double billing from its locally developed ICMS billing system which at 73 million is already triple the planned cost. Telecom has sacked 10,000 people by March 1990 and made a 300 million profit. It also spent 2 million on a PR campaign to try and ease public concerns. Telecom insists broadbandquot ISDN (30 x 2Mb channels) should be available to all New Zealand homes and businesses by 1995. It never happens. There are now 58,000 mobile or cellular telephone subscribers. Pay TV company Sky Television broadcasting on the UHF band enters the market. In January MCI-Todd Communications. having gained network operator status in New Zealand is battling with Telecom over an interconnection agreement. An in principal agreement is reached by August but six months later final details are still being debated. The consortium involving the local Todd Corporation and the state-owned Railways Corporation in partnership with US telecommunications plans to create a nationwide network using fibre optic cabling that straddles the main railway lines. It becomes known as the Alternate Telecommunications Company and begins private line operations in December. On 1 June Kiwi Cable Company registered as a network operator, later becoming Saturn Communications. Also in June, Telecom is sold to wholly owned subsidiaries of Bell Atlantic and Ameritech for NZ 4,250 million. This is the biggest business deal in New Zealands history and the sixth biggest deal in the world in 1990. The plan is that the sale will help pay of growing public debt and ensure consumers get a much better deal. Public debt and consumer frustration continue to rise. There are now more complaints about Telecom than any other business. KCBBS makes Usenet and email available. There are a total of 386 newsgroups and a full news feed is 9 - 12 Mb. The Kawaihiko universities network upgrades from dial-up to dedicated DDS links and in November the NZGate analog link between Hawaii and Waikato is upgraded with a 14,400bitsec cable link. Initially the cost of the international link was divided equally among six universities but as use proved increasingly disproportionate, volume charging was introduced based on traffic to and from each university, late in 1990. 1991: According to Network Wizards there were 1193 New Zealanders connected to the Internet In 1991, within two years this had rocketed to between 10,000 -15,000, one of the fastest growth spurts in the world. Richard Naylor convinced the Wellington City Council to launch Citynet . a FreeNet-based community network offering every citizen free dial-up access to council information. It is the second local authority outside the US to offer such a service. The council also introduced a Gopher server to publish council information online. In July the Victoria University-Waikato Internet link is upgraded to 48kbitsec to cope with the growth in traffic. Telecoms new owners having learned what they needed about operating in a deregulated environment take the money and run . Telecom was listed on the New Zealand, Australian and New York stock exchanges after Ameritech and Bell Atlantic sold down 724.5 million ordinary shares at NZ2 each. The Alternative Telecoms Company . now owned equally by TVNZ, Todd Corporation, MCI and British Telecom, and becomes Clear Communications Limited offering a full tolls service exactly two years to the day (April 1, 1991) since deregulation. Some issues including rural connection remain outstanding. It begins services in May with 7000 customers claiming to shave 12-15 percent off Telecoms toll charges. Canwest, owners of TV3 launch a second free-to-air channel TV4, Telecom introduces ISDN (integrated services digital network) and on April 5 th local business call charging makes that service impossible expensive as it uses two channels and Telecom charges for both. Telecom also outlines plans for full optical switching, wireless broadband ISDN . metropolitan networks running at hundreds of Mbitsec and on-demand integrated broadband and mobile services over the next decade in its Vision 2000. In August Telecom introduces its Centrex system, a virtual PABX to centralise inbound and outbound calls or diversions to branch offices, cellphones, or voice mail systems. Fujitsu partners with Compuserve . which has 700 users across both countries and plans to set up two large databases in Australia and New Zealand. It hopes to have 100,000 local users within 5-years. Netway Communications managing director Malcolm Dick believes competing with his half owner Telecom is good and healthy. Hes using Aussat for trans-Tasman communication and considering leasing space from Clear Communications. There is talk about the government actually getting involved in helping to fund a science and research network with the National Library joining with the universities Kawaihiko network. Dr Ian Forrester, the first chief scientist of the newly formed Ministry of Science Research and Technology (MoRST), championed the idea but when he left it languished. A bid was then put forward for funding based on a Cabinet directive in 1991 for a nationwide network initiative. All the interested parties got together but then there was a dust up with the DSIR claiming it had developed its own systems and directions which threw a spanner in the works. DSIR then made its own bid to run the network and managing the Internet While some funding for DDI links was made available, failure to agree on a common strategy, meant any government support for a common network turned to custard. 1992: At the peak of bulletin board (BBS) popularity around 1990-1992, there were estimated to be around 150,000 computers in New Zealand homes, over 1 00 BBS and thousands of subscribers . many logging into multiple discussion boards in search of specific information and mental stimulation. In Feb the 14.4kbitsec analogue satellite link to Hawaii was replaced with a 64kbitsec satellite link to NASAs Ames Space Research Centre in California. A nzstatus posting on 3 March 1992 ( Message-ID: lt1992Mar3.110908.6750waikato.ac.nzgt) says gtWe are expecting to have sun outages affect circuits from gtNASA Ames to Australia (AARNet, 139.130 net) and New Zealand (Univ of gtWaikato, net 130.217) for the next 4-5 days (March 1-5, 1992). Victoria University Computer Science Department transformed an unauthourised debt situation . created by the cost of its international connections to keep pace with the Internet evolution, into a quarter of a million dollar revenue stream . It was charging ISPs and businesses for use of its bandwidth. Without any research funding and few who understood what they were up to, they were simply being entrepreneurial . Even Auckland University handed its modems over to Victoria which was also providing services to p ioneering ISP Actrix, run by J ohn Vorstermans and Paul Gillingwater . Soon Actrix was on campus and handling the commercial side of the business. Growing demand from home users wanting access to news groups and email resulted in the Jon Clarkes Status bulletin board system transforming into the Internet Company of New Zealand in 1992 and relocating its equipment from a Parnell garage to Airdale St, opposite the Telecom central Auckland exchange. Soon it was expanding into the business market and one of its first customers was the Pelican bar on Elliot Street, run by brothers Tim and Nick Wood. Meanwhile the Crown Research Institutes Act 1992 split the DSIR into nine Crown Research Institutes (CRIs) from July. MAFnet was also reworked as a profit making enterprise and they all began competing with each other for funding and resources. That delayed the formation of the new Tuianet (sew together or bound together) management group, administered by the Tuia Society . with a mandate for connecting New Zealand to the Internet and the inter-networking of universities, the National Library, the CRIs and the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology. Ultimately the DSIR network became CRInet managed by the newly formed Industrial Research Ltd (IRL) and it was agreed to go with frame relay technology to standardise and speed up the network links across the country. Tuia continued to work behind the scenes to mange domains and cover off all the related administration issues to do with ensuring nationwide coverage, and as demand grew, increase the speed and availability of bandwidth. From late 1992 the more robust network, which now connected all seven universities, began operating at 48kbitsec over Telecoms frame relay network, with digital leased line links to smaller sites. Meanwhile Clear and Telecom finally reached a full agreement on local service interconnection and engage in a price war over toll calls. Wellington City Council upgraded its Internet link to 48kbitsec. In March Telecom switched on the 200 million Tasman 2 submarine fibre optic cable between Australia and New Zealand - the first stage in the massive Pacific Cable network due to ring the Pacific basin by 1994. Telecom introduced the No 7 signaling to add value to 0800, 0900, automated calling card services, Centrex and private networking and e nhanced ISDN services, introducing the concept of the intelligent network. Telecom claimed to have invested 3.3 billion in its infrastructure to date. In the first step toward transparent and open local government using the Internet, IT manager Richard Naylor put the Wellington City Council by-laws on-line. The World Communications Laboratory (WCL) is established to promote New Zealand as a centre of excellence for developing and using broadband connections capable of supporting voice, data, video and graphics. Theres initial funding from government, business and carriers, then after enthusiastic support from science and research leaders and senior ministers, the government and Telecom pulled the funding plug and WCL went down the gurgler. Making sausage and creating a competitive market is not always a pretty thing to watch, Peter Shirtcliffe, chairman Telecom, TUANZ conference, Aotea Centre, Auckland, 11 August 1992. Telecom has become the defacto industry regulator it owns or controls most of the critical inputs, it competes with all the firms to which it supplies those inputs and, by and large, it makes the rules under which competition is permitted to take place, Commerce Commission report, 1992. 1993: Internet governance was at crossroads, it could no longer be contained within the academic world and while the Tuia Society AGM i n 1993 agreed it was no longer representative no other body seemed willing to step up. With Waikato charging Tuinet for international traffic and Tuianet was now being charged by Waikato for international traffic and had to pass on costs to its members . In October Nevil Brownlee from the University of Auckland released his NeTraMet, network traffic meter to help universities and ISPs with IP traffic accounting. The Tuianet members planned to use their collective buying power to force the carriers to deliver a better deal for bandwidth but while they were negotiating the deal, the carriers went to each university separately effectively destroying their collective bargaining stance. Tuianet effectively lost control of the development of networking for research and education in New Zealand because everyone went to different suppliers. The parties rarely met again. The Government had failed to step in and take the lead in creating a framework or funding for this network which was essential to the nations future academic and research capabilities. It took a hands-off approach, leaving it up to commercial interests. And so it was, government rampd was held to ransom by market forces from that day on and demand for Internet services continued to escalate. The increased flow of traffic forced the doubling of capacity from the Warkworth satellite station to NASAs Ames research facility in Californias Silicon Valley to a 128kbitsec satellite circuit. The 500 million PacRim East undersea fibre optic cable between New Zealand and Hawaii, a partnership between Telecom, ATampT, KDD and Telstra, Australia becomes fully operational in June, offering voice, video and data transmission. Victoria University undergraduate Nathan Torkington reckons he was the first to create a real web site in New Zealand with actual useful information on it. He was part of the WWW Talk mailing list where all the software developments were posted and ended up sharing ideas and data with web pioneer Tim Berners Lee and Mosaic founder Mark Andreessen. Torkington became sought after to share his web development skills with Kiwi academics and pulled together everything he knew to created the first Worldwide Web FAQ which was published on 6 April 1993 in the Usenet news groups and was ultimately reprinted in quota ton of booksquot. Colin Jackson is convinced his efforts inside government meant New Zealand was one of the first nations to get an official government web server up and running with help from the experts at Victoria University. His team also ran the first election night web server with real time results which didnt actual melt down. The NASA subsidised Internet satellite connection with the US backbone doubled in July for the third time in three years to 256kbitsec . Rather than the clumsy PACCOM moniker for the access gateway at Waikato, the term NZGate began to be used . In June and again in August S imon Lyalls Internet Access in New Zealand FAQ was posted on Usenet to help bring newbies up to speed on Internet etiquette and how to find their way around. Meanwhile Bellsouth launched the first mobile phone network to compete with Telecom. Telstra purchased 20-year rights to operate a second mobile network then sold its spectrum to Bellsouth in return for mobile services. Ameritech and Bell Atlantic had by this stage reduced their Telecom shareholding to a combined 49.6 percent. According to Statistics New Zealand average residential phone call pricing plummeted 50 percent between 1987 and 1993. In July KCBBS became Internet connected with a 48kbitsec to Auckland University Computer Center. CellularVison . an Auckland based company promises a 49 channel wireless TV and data network which could also be used for phone calls and on-line shopping is promised. Itu tidak akan pernah terjadi. Trevor Rogers MP, introduces Technology and Crimes Reform Bill into Parliament which would have the effect of making ISPs responsible for quotobjectionable materialquot carried by their networks. Itu tidak akan pernah terjadi. There are about 10,000 Kiwi Internet users. 1994: NASA had been scaling back its funding for the international link to Waikato University and the cash ceased to flow from 30 April 1994. However Waikatos controversial volume charging approach ensured there was sufficient cash in the coffers to cover ongoing charges including increases in bandwidth. Later in 1994 Waikatos international link to the West Coast of the US, supplied by ATampT, had an embarrassing outage . It failed during during a demonstration of the commercial possibilities of web connectivity at the Computerworld Expo in Auckland. A technician at the ATampT exchange in San Francisco had accidentally knocked out a plug. It took six hours to sort out. A sort time later the ATampT circuit failed again forcing Waikato to put in a back up circuit to the NASA gateway with Sprint. Clear and Telecom are engaged in major legal battles over competition law ending up with a Privvy Council decision backing Telecoms right to maintain its monopolistic activities. In June Telecom forms a joint venture with Taranaki Polytechnic for a cut-down Internet access product for schools and other special interest groups, called NZ Online . In September Telecoms Netway Communications announces a retail ISP service for corporate customers will launch in six months. It doesnt. BellSouth network is now transmitting data and soon achieves 80 percent coverage. According to Net Wizards and a report by Colin Jackson at the Ministry of Commerce, New Zealands Internet goes through a rapid growth spurt . leading the world in uptake before settling back to normal 80-100 percent growth rates which are now common. In October 1994 Naylor runs a webcast from the Michael Fowler Centre of the Tawa Schools Music Festival. There were 16 viewers in 12 countries but it was something few people had done before. At this stage Mbone tools were just starting to emerge, and the Rolling Stones famous Internet concert was still a month away. The third stage of the Pacific cable network connecting New Zealand and Australia with Asia via Guam comes into operation by the end of the year. Early in 1994 the number of registrations of dot.co.nz exceeded dot.ac.nz registrations. Waikato University was keen to back off from its management role of what was now clearly no longer an academic network but a commercial enterprise. If the trend continued dot.co.nz commercial registrations would overtake the rest in May 1994 and thats exactly what happened. Frank March, John Houlker and others proposed an independent democratic organisation to take over the domain name service. In November, the Tuia Society held a public meeting to establish a new body to manage Internet infrastructure development. 1995: Internet Society of New Zealand (ISOCNZ) was officially incorporated in November and began to take over the responsibilities of manage the dot.nz domain and the business surrounding overall responsibility from Waikato University for Internet development in New Zealand. There were approximately 2000 domain names in the .nz register. The Pacrim West cable (SydneyGuam ) came into service. Since acquiring spectrum in 1989, BellSouth had invested nearly half a billion dollars into building its nationwide cellular network and was pinning its hopes on a new digital mobile technology, known as Global System for Mobile communications, ( GSM ). It now had 95 percent coverage, the same as Telecom. Clear Communications had spent 8 million trying to resolve ongoing disputes over conditions and cost of interconnection before it reached an agreement on local service interconnection. Clear achieved an estimated market share of 23 percent during its four years of operation while Telecom had enjoyed seven consecutive quarters of revenue growth, and an earnings growth rate that ranked it with the top 15 percent of telcos worldwide. In January Telecom was in discussion with Microsoft about a joint venture. Telecom announced plans to construct a hybrid fibre -co-axial cable TV and data network to about 300,000 homes. It begins trialling its First Media programming with more than 20 channels of TV to the Auckland suburbs of New Lynn and Pakuranga promising an extended range of new entertainment and interactive information services are ahead. In April Victoria Universitys Internetworking Group changed its name to NetLink, offering leased-line, dialup and hosting services. By August it had taken over management of university Internet connections. The NZGate link at Waikato was upgraded to 1Mbitsec. Wellington City Councils Citynet stopped accepting new users. After operating alongside Iconz during 1994 Nick Wood moves his business, the Internet Home users Group (Ihug), across town and is soon joined by his brother Tim. In November In November 1995, stiff new competition arrives in the form of Voyager with the full backing of Australias largest ISP, Ozemail. Wellington pioneer Richard Naylor is at it again, positioning a web camera on Mt Ruapehu after it began to rumble and let off a bit of steam. He wrote some software, borrowed Jim Higgins laptop . and a cellphone from Telecom, acquired a Wellington City Council video camera and set it up so a PC server downloaded an image every 15 minutes. The site achieved three million hits in three months . In May 1996 Actrix introduced a 5 monthly community service which gave users free email through the non-profit PlaNet New Zealand network. ISP Cybernet launched as DoS (Denial of service) attack on Iprolinks public demonstration of the Internet in Auckland. Cybernets upstream provider Auckland University responded by disconnecting them. Nick and Tim Wood and their father John form Internet service provider Ihug (Internet home users group) and are quickly pioneering flat rate all you can eat dial up. Voyager launches, offering access for 10hr, and 0800 access. There are an estimated 84,420 modems in use in New Zealand (IDC) with connection capabilities rapidly moving up from 9.6kbitsec to 28.8kbitsec. About 60 per cent of companies now have LANs or WANS. There are 500 domain names in New Zealand registered with the US-based administration body IANA. According to the Statistics Department the telecommunications market is worth around 3.6 billion . Its estimated 23 per cent of New Zealanders have PCs at home. The Ministry of Commerce estimates 60,000 to 100,000 New Zealanders are online . There are about 12 ISPs, the standard fare is 10 per megabyte for downloads. Network Wizards says 53,610 hosts and 9,472,000 worldwide. 1996: Clear, now 100 percent owned by British Telecom, launched its ISDN offering in May and an ISP Clear in November. It had 330,000 customers and 20 percent market share, and reluctantly signed a new interconnection agreement with Telecom for two cents a minute for traffic termination. Telstra entered the market focusing on the corporate customer and began building fibre rings in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Kiwi Cable was investing 40 million in expanding its fibre network to pass 50,000 homes by the end of the year, working in closely with power companies to string up its cable. Telecom establishes an exchange in the US for international traffic. Telecom owned Netway Communications, a joint venture between Telecom and Freightways, began providing bandwidth and Internet-related services to business. Waikato Universitys NZGate stopped reselling international Internet bandwidth from Netway, opening up the wholesale bandwidth market to Clear and later Telstra. NZGate is scaled down and is replaced by the NZIX Internet exchange. Pronet . a cooperative between ISPs Actrix, Iprolink, and Plain Communications begins buying bulk backbone bandwidth from Telecom and Clear for network peering. ISPs are connected via frame relay. Citynet, Wellingtons pioneering experiment in community Internet access is decommissioned. NetLink moves into Christchurch and Dunedin. Telecom extends the rollout of its fibre-coax cable network in parts of Auckland and Wellington for delivery of its First Media pay television content services. Telecom claims 300,000 cellular customers and BellSouth around 40,000 - thats about 11 percent penetration, compared with Australia which has 17 percent. According to Paul Budde Communications, the year ended with cellular market revenue growing 53 percent over 1995 with 380,000 subscribers, up 16 percent. Telecoms ISDN service only has 500 customers growing to 1000 by the end of the year. Theres outrage that its charging too much (500 installation and 120-150 per month). Inevitably the world will be linked by broadband networks and if New Zealand gets a leading edge this could help us move from the traditional primary production sector into value added industries capable of matching international niche market demands. Computing and communications technologies will generate an entirely new way of life where distance and international markets will no longer be an impediment to product development, Dr Ian Forrester, New Zealands chief scientist, January 1992 Competition among ISPs changed dramatically in May-1996 with the entrance of Telecom Online Services (TOLS) which soon changes its name to Xtra . New Zealands Internet uptake is among the highest in the world growing 15 percent per month. There are now about 30 ISPs and more than 160,000 users. The Internet Company of New Zealand ( Iconz ) is top dog with about 12,000 subscribers, Voyager has about 10,000, CompuServe 6000 and Actrix 3000. Xtra is immediately in a commanding position through its access to every town and city and its huge marketing ability. The arrival of Clear communications Clear six months after Xtra again puts the wind up the fledgling market. Voyager halves its hourly rate to 5 and in August Xtra follows suit dropping its hourly rate to 2.50. The price wars take a toll on smaller ISPs with rates down to 1.50 per megabyte and .50 cents for local traffic. ISOCNZ in taking over the administrative role of managing the Internet hadnt entirely bargained on what that might entail. Most New Zealand domain names were still managed and moderated manually at Waikato University by Rex Croft who was considered New Zealands father of DNS. As the pressure came on Waikato began charging for its technical services and set a deadline to hand over the responsibilities. The commercialisation of the domain name space was done in a big bang exercise on July 22, 1996. A fee of 96.75 including GST and administration costs stuck in the craw of Internet users who had been used to getting domain names free. In October 1996 ISOCNZ had, on legal advice, established a subsidiary company, The New Zealand Internet Registry Ltd (trading as Domainz) to run the domain name register. The Internet Service Providers Association (ISPANZ) is formed to represent the interests of ISPs and their customers, largely in response to Xtras price cuts. In June Xtra boss Chris Tyler said Xtra is three months away from delivering an Eft-Pos direct payment service . Itu tidak akan pernah terjadi. A major security issue with Xtra forces Telecom to shut down its mail server in August after it was discovered hackers could easily get access. Customers were advised to change their passwords. Ihug merges with Efficient Software . On October 12 there was Web coverage of the 1996 General Election . New Zealand has an estimated 241,000 pay TV subscribers and 5000 cable TV users and around 30,000 eftpos terminals. In March IT minister Maurice Williamson launches Impact 2001 How IT will change New Zealand. Words like e-commerce, multimedia, convergence and smart cards are now in everyday use. The second annual IT industry survey shows a 61 percent increase in exports of communications hardware to 142 million. A survey of schools shows nearly all schools have fax machines . There is now one computer per 18 students in primary schools and one per 10 students in secondary schools. More than half the computers were older than three years. The percentage connected to a modem in primary schools had increased to 37 (14 in 1993) and secondary schools to 73 percent (44 in 1993) The main obstacles for greater penetration were seen as the high cost and lack of teacher training. 1997: To date 95.7 percent of all New Zealand households have a telephone, comparable to Australia and higher than the US. Clear Communications . which now has an 8 percent market share, begins withholding interconnection fees from Telecom in February, and in July sues the government for failing to act against Telecoms alleged anticompetitive behaviour. By November Clear and Telecom agree on number portability and Clear begins providing local access service to Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Telecom launches its Internet access service I PNet in January as an 0800 gateway for commercial ISPs wanting national Internet access for local call prices. Concerns about the stability of the Internet in New Zealand were further fuelled in May when the main gateway at Waikato University became overloaded shutting down international access for eight hours. More secondary domain name servers ( DNS ) were added to the backbone. Clear pulled MCI circuits back to Auckland, to avoid tromboning international traffic to Waikato and back and Clear. Telecom, Telstra NZ began discussing peering in Auckland with a triangle of 2Mbitsec circuits provisioned between the three telcos as an interim measure. Aucklands iconic Sky Tower was the ideal location for an independent Auckland peering exchange (APE). Saturn Communications (Saturn) entered the residential phone market in Wellington after signing an interconnection agreement with Telecom. The industry complained Telecom was offering better prices for bandwidth to its wholly owned ISP Xtra (which now has 45,000 customers) than other ISPs. The Commerce Commission decides it is within its rights to do so. New Zealand was assured it had all the international communications capacity it would ever need with PacRim East . PacRimWest and Tasman 2 fibre optic undersea cables linking us to the rest of the world. By mid-1997 the entire capacity was booked up largely due to the quotremarkable growth of the Internetquot. In July Telecom New Zealand, Optus and MFS Globenet (later acquired by WorldCom) agree to sponsor the Southern Cross cable . Telecom announces a 5-year 30 million contract with Newbridge-Siemens to futureproof its backbone network with ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) technology. In August, British Telecom increases its stake in Clear to 50 percent taking over MCIs 25 percent shareholding. BellSouth and Singapore Technologies Ventures announced the sale of BellSouth New Zealand to the Vodafone Group for NZ750 million. In October Ihug is the first ISP to launch residential broadband using satellite bandwidth through an arrangement with PanAmSat to providing an additional path for inbound traffic. It serves Auckland customers via a microwave link from the Sky Tower at download speeds of between 256kbitsec and 2Mbitsec and expands to satellite coverage in 1998. After reaching about 30,000 Internet users in New Zealand Ihug ventures across the Tasman, offering bandwidth via satellite in Sydney and Melbourne. quotIm sorry but your call cannot be connected right now because of overloading, please try again later,quot Telecoms phone message that reappeared frequently in the late 90s as the public network was groaning under the weight of exponential Internet growth. Telecom pulls the plug on its HFC cable roll out and First Media content business after passing only 68,000 homes. It claims there are more appropriate technologies to carry fast data and video. It will continue to look at the relevance of fibre to the curb. Telecom and cable partner Ericsson are caught in a slew of law suits with contractors that goes on for another two years. In December Telecom launched a technology trial of DSL (digital subscriber line) technology from the Kandallah exchange in Wellington and hedged its bets upgraded another 11 exchanges for ISDN capability. A Ministry of Commerce report showed its tariffs were between 49-97 higher in many cases than similar markets so Telecom dropped ISDN prices twice, resulting in resulting in much increased uptake. It also reduces prices on the controversial 2Mbitsec Megalink and metropolitan DDS and links at 64kbitsec and above. In November 1997 Telecom announced a 700 million project to upgrade or replace 150 old NEC NEAC digital exchanges which it admitted were the bottleneck in its attempt to meet market demand. A decade later the NEACs in the system were still being blamed for bottlenecks. Telecom withdraws its membership of the Telecommunications Users Association (TUANZ) because of a perceived bias. ISOCNZ established a subsidiary company The New Zealand Internet Registry Ltd (trading as Domainz ) to run the domain name register. ISOCNZ registers 15,000 domain names. Its estimated there are 393,000 Internet users across business, education, government and home, an increase of around 46 percent over the previous year. About 30 percent of New Zealanders now have PCs. The Internal Affairs Departments Government within Reach (GWR) project launched in 1995 took two years to come up with proposals for the way forward, even then most werent acted on because less than one third of government agencies showed any interest. In 1997 the government Internet presence was further reviewed with a mandate to help close the gap between quotinformation haves and have notsquot and ensure equal access to all public data. The assessment was made that by 2002 a maximum of 60 percent of the New Zealand population would have access to the Internet so there was an urgent need for action. The government however still considered it was still too early to commit to a public network to distribute its information. The first hint of digital television becoming a reality for New Zealands free-to-air broadcasters came late in 1997 as Broadcast Communications Limited (BCL), the State-owned infrastructure company began re-broadcasting TV2 in digital format for 10-days from a van moving around Auckland. Over the past five years the New Zealand telecommunications market had stable growth of 8-11 percent per annum and has topped 4 billion for the first time including voice, data networking, mobile services, equipment, directories and related revenues. Mobile revenues overall were 368 million a 4 percent increase, representing a 36 percent growth in subscriber numbers to 520,000. In November the Ministry of Commerce proposed Telecom be required to produce separate financial statements for its local loop and other businesses and to undertake a full economic costing of the Kiwi Share Obligations . A further buy-back of shares by the Telecom in late 1996, meant Ameritech and Bell Atlantic had recovered 85 percent of their original investment. The company was now worth about 7 billion and the investors had graded the bulk of the profit (around 70 percent a year). In November 1997 Bell Atlantic and Ameritech having begun investing in more recently deregulated markets announced they were off. In the words of financial analyst Brian Gaynor . quotTheir combined 90 percent shareholding cost 3.8 billion yet they have received an estimated 5 billion from dividends, a capital repayment, share buyback and the sale of shares in the 1991 float and in 1992 and 1993Thus the two American telecommunication giants will exit New Zealand with an estimated total realisation, including dividends, of 11.5 billion, compared with the original investment of just 3.8 billion.quot 1998: In the past Internet traffic has had to travel to NZGate, sometimes via the US, before being distributed to users across town. Clear, Telecom and Telstra and Auckland and Waikato universities are working on ways to increase performance and improve routing. All traffic currently runs over a 512kbitsec frame relay connection. Some ISPs have alternative access into the US to avoid network congestion. Telecom and Clear take over running NZGate . the main Internet gateway into New Zealand previously managed and maintained by Waikato University with plans to increase its speed and robustness. Telecom is also looking at upgrading its IPNet digital Internet distribution network to more efficiently distribute video and audio to Xtra subscribers. The network operators NZNOG list is created in February and by June has 18 subscribers. There are now 26 companies providing various levels of competitive telecommunications services in New Zealand. In July the Internet Exchange (NZIX) is upgraded from a single Cisco CAT 5000 switch to two fully redundant Cisco WS-2926 switches. Netway Communications is pulled back into the Telecom fold in March to look after fully managed network services. Southern Cross Cables . half owned by Telecom, announces its plans to build a new fibre optic cable linking New Zealand with Australia and North America. Vodafone buys BellSouth which now has about 130,000 mobile customers compared to Telecom Mobiles 500,000. Telecom is involved in a number of legal proceedings including lawsuits mainly bought by Clear relating to Telecoms right to provide pay TV, Internet, bundling practices and terms of interconnection. Clear threatens to withhold billing information from Telecom. It now costs 60 cents for a 3 minute off-peak toll call between Auckland and Wellington (2.84 a decade ago) and 1.46 for a 3 minute off peak call to Australia (4.20 a decade ago). There are only 200 party lines left (38,000 a decade ago). In April the annual NUS International survey found that while New Zealand business local calls were among the cheapest in the world, business line rentals and national toll calls are among the most expensive. ClearNet begins selling international bandwidth on MCIs PacRim East cable to local ISPS. Voyager goes nationwide with its 56k service and has installed a satellite dish for better international links. Ihug now has two 34Mb satellite feeds into Napa Valley in San Francisco to earth stations in Auckland, Sydney, Melbourne, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. It transmits 85 percent of its Internet traffic via satellite and adds Brisbane and Adelaide to its footprint. Iconz buys three new Cisco boxes which each take 120 phone lines. They announce grand plans to become a pseudo-carrier. They already offer videoconferencing and streaming video and are talking about voice over the Internet. By September Ihug and Xtra unable to keep pace with the dialup revolution booked up all new ISDN lines out of Aucklands Mayoral Drive Exchange for the next six months. Saturn Communications begins offering bundled voice, Internet and pay TV in Wellington passing 100,000 homes with 25 percent penetration. Capital Networks a joint venture with the Wellington City Council and 20 shareholders including Clear, Saturn and INL launches a new gigabit Ethernet network over fibre through the city centre. It eventually becomes CityLink which provides connectivity between customers and ISPs and begins organised peering services. The National Library begins peering over the Wellington Internet exchange (WIX) using a 386 notebook with two Ethernet cards running Linux, with Clear, Iconz, Netlink, Paradise, CityLink. Telecoms First Media content service closes and all services stop on July 31.Telecoms commercial trial of DSL fast Internet to 200 customers in Wellington continues. Theres talk of a roll out to exchanges across the country starting in March and services including cheap high speed data and pay-TV. Sky TV introduces its digital satellite service with over 40 channels plus delivering free to air and is the only digital platform in New Zealand. The average PC costs 3400, about 500 more than buyers in the US are paying. Modem speeds are now 56k for dial up access although everyones waiting for digital subscriber line (DSL) to roll out. There are now about 60 ISPs and varying reports about the number of Internet users. IDC estimates ISP revenues mainly from providing access services will reach in excess of 116.7 million by the end of the year. This year IDC downplays Internet user numbers to 315,020, other reports claim 501,256 (an initial projection from IDC used later by Telecom), while AC Nielson says its more like 741,000 largely from what the ISPs claim about their own take-up. Major ISPs make their own claims: Xtra (150,000), Clearnet (70,000), Ihug (about 60,000) Voyager (28,000). Not far behind are Iconz, CompuServe and Iprolink trailed by dozens of smaller players. There are different methodologies in play but the real figure is likely to be around 400,000. Kawaihiko . the defacto science and research network, shuts down at the end of 1998 and former gateway manager John Houlker . having done himself out of a job, joins Telecom International Networks. His first project was to establish new landing points for its international circuits in Los Angeles and at the Palo Alto Internet exchange. quotNew Zealand is an impoverished and undernourished Internet community because of what hasnt come out of Wellington. Were dealing with people in the US who have larger pipes than the whole of New Zealand. We have a controlled situation here where the key players are extracting as much as they can from the Internet community, Scott Mathias, rich media pioneer on moving his business to Australia in 1999. 1999: In December 1998 IPNet had clocked up 87 million call minutes and been through a major upgrade now Telecom used its monopoly position as owner of the local loop to force the entire Internet community to shift across to a new dial-up access network . Telecom claimed its public switched network was creaking under the strain of domestic Internet users hogging the lines and gave ISPs until 1 August 1999 to add an 0867 access number to IPNet or face a two cents per minute charge after an initial 10 hours on-line per month. ISPs were outraged . believing they were being blackmailed as part of a commercial tactic, when they were smack in the middle of a price war over flat rate accounts. The 0867 prefix also by-passed existing interconnection deals, depriving rival carriers of termination fees from Telecom. The deal was rejected by Clear. An inquiry was underway. In March the idea of a neutral peering point in Auckland is discussed. A cabinet and switch are installed on level 48 of the Skytower and the peering point officially referred to as APE (Auckland Peering Exchange) is opened in June (although the first routes arent actually exchanged until August). Later in the year the APE switch is replaced with new hardware donated by Roger de Salis at Cisco . Telecom becomes an Australasian company by buying 78 per cent of AAPT Australias third largest telco. It also signs an outsourcing deal for all its IT systems with EDS worth 1.5 billion over the next 10 years and launches a new nationwide payphone network using smart card technology. In May Xtra . the countrys largest ISP announces flat-rate access to the Internet for 39.95 a month after Clear announced it intended to do the same. Ihug has been offering flat-rate access for several years. In June Vodafone announced it would spend 200 million over two years upgrading its cellphone network to cope with increased demand. In June 1999, Telecom had, undercover of the 0867 confusion, Telecom finally let its fast Internet service out of the bag but the pricing and performance proved disappointing to many business and domestic users. Jetstream used RADSL (Rate Adaptive Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) technology, to compensate for the bad condition of much of our copper cabling, allowing data to be sent down a normal telephone line without impacting normal telephone conversations 69 exchanges were converted. No-one talking about pay-TV over DSL anymore it was simply a data service. The cheapest Jetstream service allows 600Mb of data a month for 89 (including GST). Installation and modem costs are extra. Clears 5.5 million switch, went live in Christchurch as a main switching point for tolls, data and local traffic for its South Island customers, previously, handled in Wellington. BT increases its shareholding in Clear Communications to 100 percent. Clear invests 14 million in fibre backbone technology with Nortel. Telstra buys ISP Netlink from Victoria University. TradeMe launches in March 1999 as a classified auction site like e-Bay, but initially specialising in computer parts and systems. In August Saturn launched its residential Internet access over its cable network through a cable-modem and an Ethernet card in the PC. Telecom plans to replace its mobile network with new cdmaOne digital technology optimised for high-speed mobile data transmission. Its expected to be live by 2001. The 2 billion Southern Cross cable lands on Takapuna beach in Auckland and once its live will be the highest capacity route between Australia, New Zealand and North America. The Government is satisfied with Telecoms initiative to force everyone onto its IPnet . as long as it doesnt charge for the service and quality is maintained. From 1 November, Telecom required all ISPs and Internet customers to use its 0867 prefix and to introduce a 2c a minute dial- up charge for residential line customers after 10 hours use which caused an industry uproar. Telecom customers were not impacted. The Government insisted Telecom must calculate and disclose the net economic cost of complying with Kiwi Share obligations and publish six monthly financial statements that split its operations into a local loop business and other services taking effect from 1 January 2000. Its estimated there are now 862,000 Internet users depending on who you talk to. There are 1.25 million mobile users - 858,000 with Telecom and 397,000 with Vodafone. Overall investment in telecommunications in New Zealand had been below the OECD average for most of the decade - virtually stagnating in 1999 at one percent growth compared with the international average of 7-9 percent. Close to 5 billion had been invested in the telecommunications market since deregulation but little had been done to decentralise the benefits. Neither of the major carriers had plans to move beyond high-density domestic, commercial and industrial areas. Meanwhile Telecom admitted its Internet gateway had reached capacity and added an extra satellite circuit to compensate. That move and plans by other major carriers came too late to prevent both official Americas Cup 2000 Regatta web sites being hosted off-shore and several entrepreneurial web sites relocating their content to the US. And the IPNet - 0867 debacle was far from over. The Commerce Commission complaint became the catalyst to help shift the Labour government from hands-off mode to taking a serious look at the existing deregulation model. It promised a major review of telecommunications market and the Commerce Act which was supposed to cover competition issues. A cheeky claim from Clear Communications that Telecom should be forced to split up its local network for use by competitors, was to also prove strangely prophetic.Whats On Report is the leading source of lsquoon demandrsquo construction intelligence for the commercial, residential and civil building industry sectors across New Zealand and the South Pacific. As the authoritative source of timely and accurate information on construction activity from early planning and planning stages to tender and under construction, consent and statistics. Empowering management and sales teams to work smarter not harder, Whats On Report provides the right intelligence at the right time to make more informed decisions to deliver focused sales opportunities leading to better growth and profitability. The Christchurch City Council, Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment, Te Rnanga o Ngi. 18-Oct-2012 From tomorrow, the Whats On Report will cease to exist and we will henceforth be reporting for B. 18-Oct-2012 The New Zealand Malt Whiskey Company is currently reviewing two historic sites as potential loca. 18-Oct-2012 Hamilton continues to prove itself as a popular place for commercial investors and developers to. 05-Oct-2012 Plans to build a rescue training facility close to the proposed new Wanaka Police Station (see J. 05-Oct-2012 The building contract for the Wiri private-public partnership prison (J112810) in New Zealand ha. 05-Oct-2012 In London Now - Data Poor Here This is the first Thursday in the month so if you have. 05-Oct-2012 Christchurch property developers have described the Governmentrsquos acquisition of land in th. 26-Sep-2012 Resource consent has been issued and plans are now underway for a new Hindu temple at 108 Whiore. 26-Sep-2012 What I worry about and more US money printing. Not everyone wants to read or download. 26-Sep-2012 Wellington is set to get their petrol station back. The site, on the corner of Bute Street and V. 26-Sep-2012 NZD to 82 cents and some US debt thoughts This morning the Reserve Bank surprised no-. 14-Sep-2012 Marketing for a new 59-townhouse development at a one hectare site on Cameron Road in Hamilton i. 13-Sep-2012 Christchurch developer Jamie Thom as, of JGM Group, has revealed plans to build up to 1000 pre-fa. 13-Sep-2012 Gerry Brownlee, Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Minister, announced the Ministry of Healthrsquo. 13-Sep-2012 Revised plans for the Greerton Library redevelopment were released this week on the back of two. 13-Sep-2012 Planning for future development at the Mystery Creek Events Centre is in full swing, as it aspir. 13-Sep-2012 Tuhoe recently announced plans to construct a new 15 million dollar building that will serve as. 13-Sep-2012 Still awaiting news offshore - quiet in NZ This is the first Thursday of the mon. 13-Sep-2012 Buyers Market Prevails - Though Not Everywhere Good morning everyone. Our Sept. 13-Sep-2012 Sentiment steady Good morning everyone. With little fresh news on the state of t. 13-Sep-2012 This yearrsquos top East Coast properties include a new home in Napier and newly-renovated hom. 31-Aug-2012 New Zealandrsquos first centre catering for the countryrsquos Islamic community will be buil. 31-Aug-2012 Aucklandrsquos first six green star-rated building will open its doors next month, The Geyser. 31-Aug-2012 Not much to report this week There have been few new developments locally or offshore. 31-Aug-2012 News from offshore awaited Internationally the week has been all about waiting to see. 31-Aug-2012 After a record Olympic medal haul this year in London (first equal to 1984 campaign), fresh disc. 17-Aug-2012 The courthouse in Masterton will be completely refitted and strengthened, commencing October 201. 17-Aug-2012 After being proposed in 2002, Ashburtons Riverside Sports and Leisure Centre, at last has a des. 17-Aug-2012 Summer holidays offshore keeping things quiet This week offshore apart from some bette. 17-Aug-2012 More than 400 homes valued around or over 1 million each were sold in Auckland during the first. 13-Aug-2012 Healthcare and their nationwide retirement village expansion plans. Lower Hutt Mayor Ray Wallace. 13-Aug-2012 Nothing too major this week This weekrsquos WO is smaller than usual in light o. 13-Aug-2012 Good evening everyone. Our August BNZ-REINZ Residential Market Survey has found that. 13-Aug-2012 After backing from both the Hamilton City Council and central Government, Zeal is set to open it. 13-Aug-2012 The Auckland Council has recently spent 104 million on purchasing the existing ASB headquarters. 07-Aug-2012 Christchurch City Councilrsquos lsquoblueprintrsquo for the earthquake-damaged central bus. 07-Aug-2012 After careful evaluation Watts amp Hughes Construction has been appointed for the AC Baths ref. 07-Aug-2012 A coalition of 18 heritage and resident groups are campaigning for Auckland Council to publicly. 07-Aug-2012 Planning for construction of three considerable developments situated either next to or opposite. 07-Aug-2012 A new survey by Realestate.co.nz suggests that environmentally friendly features, rather than ae. 07-Aug-2012 Resource consent has been approved for the 30 million Pak Nrsquo Save supermarket to be built. 07-Aug-2012 Hamilton City Council has granted land-use consent to SkyCity for a new five-star, three storey. 07-Aug-2012 Confidence steady Good evening everyone. Our monthly survey of BNZ Weekly Overvi. 07-Aug-2012 Structural engineer Peter Johnstone has recently signed off dozens of major central Wellington b. 07-Aug-2012 Many of Christchurchrsquos entertainment venues were deemed unsafe after the September 2010 an. 29-Jun-2012 Tourist hot-spot Rotorua has another attraction to promote after plans were unveiled for a. 28-Jun-2012 Construction activity is far from slowing down in New Zealandrsquos largest city and sustainab. 28-Jun-2012 A recent Statistics New Zealand survey released sees a decline in the building of new homes for. 28-Jun-2012 Christchurch has provided a boost in job growth, particularly for those with construction-relate. 12-Jun-2012 Canterbury builders have submitted the most entries for a region in the Registered Master Builde. 12-Jun-2012 Ronald McDonald House South Island Trust (RMH) has announced plans to build a four-bedroom famil. 12-Jun-2012 The 2.4 million McKenzie Outdoor Pool rebuild is one step closer to reality after public consul. 12-Jun-2012 The newly repaired, earthquake strengthened Fendalton Library in Christchurch was fully opened t. 28-May-2012 The Christchurch Central Police Service will soon have a new multi-million dollar temporary faci. 28-May-2012 Plans for a new 660-seat 35 million theatre project for the Auckland waterfront were furthered. 28-May-2012 A drive to revitalise the CBD in Hamilton has stepped up a gear with Tainui Group Holdings (TGH). 28-May-2012 A 40 million contract for the electric train depot in Auckland has been awarded to Downer. Itu. 18-May-2012 A competition for the opportunity to redevelop the Mystery Creek Events Centrersquos 88ha land. 18-May-2012 World-renowned architect Bill Dunster will open the inaugural Sustainable Housing Summit to take. 18-May-2012 The demolition of Taurangarsquos outdated police station on Monmouth St is nearing completion. 18-May-2012 Construction of a conversion of a six-storey Auckland office block into an apartment complex is. 14-May-2012 Drivers can celebrate with the news that the Waikato Regional Council this week approved a Land. 14-May-2012 For all you building savvy people out there it is your final chance to register for the upcoming. 14-May-2012 Consents for new houses has reached levels not seen since September 2008, showing hopes for furt. 14-May-2012 Four firms have been shortlisted for the design and plan of Christchurchrsquos central-city re. 14-May-2012 An iconic building has been opened in Kaitaia this weekend by the Governor-General Sir Jerry Mat. 08-May-2012 The 16 million restoration and strengthening of Aucklandrsquos Tepid Baths is reportedly a ye. 08-May-2012 Leading property developer Carrus Corporation has taken over the 2000 section residential subdiv. 08-May-2012 Growing demand for new housing in Auckland and Christchurch has helped residential building cons. 08-May-2012 The 13.4 million renovation of Hanson Court in Newtown was officially opened this week by Welli. 27-Apr-2012 The relocation of defence activities at Aucklandrsquos Hobsonville Point has provided an oppor. 27-Apr-2012 Wellington Centralrsquos Lambton Square shopping complex is set to receive an edgy new look, w. 27-Apr-2012 Scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany have developed a type of wallpape. 27-Apr-2012 Arthur Pointrsquos McChesney bridge upgrade is expected to be completed a month ahead of sched. 20-Apr-2012 New Zealandrsquos premier Theme Park is to have a make-over in a bid to boost earnings during. 20-Apr-2012 Plans to redevelop the beachside tourist destination Kaiteriteri (13km north of Motueka) are ste. 20-Apr-2012 The wheels are well and truly in motion for the new Waihi Gold Discovery Centre, with working dr. 20-Apr-2012 Auckland Mayor Len Brown is excited by the fact that work on the City Rail Link is progressing. 12-Apr-2012 New Zealand Speedway Association has recently released the feasibility study for a proposed inte. 12-Apr-2012 Many Wellingtonians wander along the cityrsquos waterfront every day, its vibrant atmosphere. 12-Apr-2012 The 1.6 billion Castle Hill Wind Farm in Wairarapa has been given the go ahead, and will become. 04-Apr-2012 The Home of Cycling is going through the final stages of fundraising for the proposed 28.5 mill. 04-Apr-2012 Housing NZ has asked tenants to leave 156 properties in Glen Innes, as part of their plans for a. 04-Apr-2012 Many schemes have come and gone but a major development of Takapuna could finally be on the card. 04-Apr-2012 Business resilience and quake response were the hot topics of TelstraClearrsquos lsquoSeismi. 29-Mar-2012 A new luxury apartment development to be built on the existing Golden Sands Motel site is curren. 26-Mar-2012 A 1.5million retail development on Mastertonrsquos Queen Street has been given the thumbs up. 26-Mar-2012 A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to walk through Wellingtonrsquos Terrace Tunnel will be avail. 26-Mar-2012 Marketing agents Colliers have already received offers on lots in the Wigram Skies Business Park. 26-Mar-2012 Construction of a new student hub at Victoria University in Wellington is running according to s. 16-Mar-2012 Horsham Downs in Hamilton may house the first meditation pyramid of its kind in New Zealand. Itu. 09-Mar-2012 Collierss latest report on Wellingtons retail property market reveals that businesses prefer t. 09-Mar-2012 An expansion of the Auckland Harbour has been put on hold after an Auckland Council meeting this. 09-Mar-2012 The safety of pupils at Scots College was taken into account when a 14million Creative and Perf. 09-Mar-2012 On March 22, a year and a month after the devastating February 2011 quake, a one day knowledge s. 08-Mar-2012 The Newtown Park Flat upgrades are in full swing with tenants rejoicing after moving into the fi. 02-Mar-2012 In a bid to revive the Tauranga building industry, the council has started to slash develop. 02-Mar-2012 With tremors predicted to rattle Christchurch for years to come, Wellington City councillors are. 02-Mar-2012 The twin Waitaki River bridges between Kurow and Hakataramea that were closed five times in Janu. 02-Mar-2012 A brand new 5-star rating system is being put in place as an easier way of judging how safe a bu. 24-Feb-2012 400,000 houses are expected to be built in Auckland over the next 30 years to cope with the risi. 24-Feb-2012 A plan by the Northern Tauranga Harbour Recreational Users Forum has been released this month. 24-Feb-2012 213 quake-damaged, orange zoned homes have now been red-zoned and will be demolished, with forty. 24-Feb-2012 Irmo Properties director Grant Chirnside has received resource consent approval for his multimil. 20-Feb-2012 Parents and children alike will be pleased to hear that a brand new Chipmunks Playground and Caf. 20-Feb-2012 Residential property remains the overwhelming preference for Auckland investors, as found by Cro. 10-Feb-2012 The relocation of Christchurch Hospitalrsquos Outpatients Unit from the Parkside West Building. 10-Feb-2012 Amesbury School in Wellingtonrsquos Churton Park is now open, and it is most certainly a schoo. 10-Feb-2012 A new 20 million service centre on Port Marsden Highway has recently been granted full consent. 10-Feb-2012 A 19millon revamp to Titirangirsquos Lopdell House Arts Centre has won backing from Auckland. 03-Feb-2012 The Department of Conservation has extended the submission date for the controversial Milford Da. 03-Feb-2012 Plans for a brand new University situated on Durham Street in the Tauranga CBD have recently gai. 03-Feb-2012 The TSB Arena is expecting at least 8,000 visitors come June for the Wellington Home Exhibition. 03-Feb-2012 2012 is set to be a big year for the construction industry with BNZ head of research Stephen Top. 25-Jan-2012 Christmas has come early for cows in the Canterbury Region, with at least twenty new dairy sheds. 25-Jan-2012 Nelson City Council is postponing 4million worth of capital works to make repairs to infrastruc. 25-Jan-2012 Christchurch building company Naylor Love Construction recently won the tender to build Selwynr. 25-Jan-2012 Earthworks are underway at Titanium Park, a 100 million dollar new business park venture situat. 25-Jan-2012 Property developers will be pleased to hear that housing approvals in New Zealand steadily rose. 25-Jan-2012 Construction on what will become one of central Wellingtonrsquos premier apartment and retail. 25-Jan-2012 The 40 million dollar Kopu Bridge has just opened three years ahead of schedule and should make. 19-Dec-2011 The new 35 million dollar Defence Force maintenance support squadron facility in Ohakea has bee. 19-Dec-2011 Christchurch developers are focused on rebuilding the CBD as soon as possible, with the first ma. 19-Dec-2011 In the face of two major earthquakes and countless aftershocks, Christchurch has come a long way. 08-Dec-2011 7th December. 08-Dec-2011
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