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Perdagangan dengan Forex Copy, MQL5, atau Zulutrade Bagus Anda malas menganalisa pasar. Sehingga anda ingin memiliki lisensi yang lain atau suatu signal provider yang notabene katanya adalah 8220orang sukses8221 atau 8220juaranya trading8221, tapi apakah benar bisa Zulutrade atau Forex Copy adalah suatu fitur di dunia forex yang dimana kita dapat mengikuti jejak perdagangan dari orang lain Signal provider dan meng-copy nya ke akun kita trading kita. Beberapa varian penyedia copy trade ini adalah: Memang hal seperti Zulu atau semacam Trade Copy ini merupakan salah satu fitur yang menarik, jangan terus anda berimbas dengan Zulu atau Forex Copy maka anda bisa sukses pula. Itu anggapan yang salah dan bisa menjerumuskan jika tidak mengerti sistemnya secara mendetail. Beberapa seminar forex atau workshop forex, orpun perusahaan broker belaka ada yang meng agregul dan imbuhnya fitur cara copy ini dengan slogan promosinya sedang mengikuti ajang juara trading, tapi ini pasti akan semakin menjerumuskan JIKA anda tidak mengetahui track record dan cara kerja secara pasti , Karena pada prakteknya tidak semudah janji-janjinya, dan TIDAK MENJAMIN pasti sukses. Yang tambah runyam pun juga lebih banyak (belum lagi harga seminarnya yang selangit. Tentu tidak sebanding dengan apa yang didapat, selain itu ada pula yang ada tambahan biaya komisi untuk menggunakan fitur ini) Bila anda lebih tertarik pada penyedia sinyal di Zulutrade Forex Copy yang lain, yang banyak yang trade di Zulu atau Forex Salin itu adalah para trader yang menggunakan akun demo dan kemudian memberikan sinyal untuk diikuti oleh orang lain berdasarkan akun demonya tsb, jadi bisa anda dijamin bahayanya. Dan mereka bisa saja berhasil, sementara di beberapa hari beberapa bulan kedepan. Apalagi jika sang signal ini menggunakan suatu metode scalping atau martingale (lot melipat) yang anda tidak bisa mengikutinya. Selain itu, jika anda amati, maka sering juga terjadi perpindahan dari Rank yang lebih bawah di beberapa hari kemudian bahkan menghilang karena loss dan margin call. Hal ini terbukti ketidak-konsistenan dari cara trade para signal provider tersebut, belum lagi faktor slippage, interkoneksi, dan broker yang juga turut memajukan perdagangan anda. Anda boleh-boleh saja menggunakan seperti Zulu atau sejenis Forex Copy ini, tapi hal itu tidak semudah membalik telapak tangan. Dan bila anda awam akan trading forex, maka bangun belajarlah dengan cepat dengan tekun dan kuasailah dunia trading forex ini sebelum anda menggunakan fitur yang aneh-aneh. Disamping itu, perhatikan juga akan faktor komisi trading atau biaya tambahan yang dikenakan di Zulu or Forex Copier ini bila anda terbiasa. Jadi jika anda menderita rugi atau untung maka komisi tersebut akan tetap berjalan, jadi anda harus merenungkan hal ini pula. Hal-hal yang perlu diwaspadai saat menggunakan Forex Copy ini: Ketidak konsistenan suatu sinyal providernya (bulan ini bagus, belum tentu besok dia bagus terus) Perampokan komisi dari penyedia sinyal yang tidak benar yang mana ada beberapa signal provider yang terakhir ini sengaja diperdagangkan secara membabi Buta untuk 8220merampok8221 komisi dari para followernya, setelah itu dia non-aktif, dan atau berganti nama untuk mencari mangsa baru Faktor kecepatan interkoneksi yang mana bisa menghalangi penyampaian order dari sinyal master ke followernya Faktor dari broker bandar yang sengaja bisa memutuskan interkoneksinya dari si Sinyal master ke beberapa followernya agar kalah. Pilihan broker yang benar dan kredibel juga sangat penting Account trading anda adalah pasrah penuh Signal Providernya, jadi jika anda ingin berhenti maka benar-benar ketetapan berhenti, atau uang anda dapat tersedot terus dan habis tergerus komisinya Waspada dengan penyedia sinyal yang menggunakan teknik scalping TPSL kecil-kecil), karena hal itu akan susah diikuti, tunggu bisa terjadi faktor delay di eksekusi ordernya Jangan sinyal provider yang menggunakan suatu teknik penggandaan atau pelipatan volume lot (martingale), karena anda tidak akan bisa mengikutinya dengan baik. Penggunaan volume banyak dari suatu sinyal provider sebelum anda mengikutinya Waspada dengan penyedia sinyal yang menggunakan demo akun, karena haluaran penyimpangan lebih baik anda telah mengenal si signal ini atau cara melakukannya terlebih dahulu, maka barulah anda mengikutinya. Intinya kenalilah dahulu sinyal tersebut, atau test dulu di demo account selama beberapa bulan sebelum diaplikasikan ke real account. Dan yang dimaksud dengan sukses bertrading adalah BUKAN karena faktor meng - copy trading orang lain. Faktor lain, faktor kunci untuk sukses itu adalah di faktor Risk Managementnya (Manajemen Uang) dan Pengetahuan Trading Yang Baik dan Berpengalaman. Anda boleh saja mencoba menggunakan Zulu atau Forex Copy ini agar bisa mengetahuinya, karena kalau tidak 8220mencicipi8221 maka juga tidak akan tahu suka dukanya. Dan kami informasikan dengan fitur seperti Zulutrade, eToro, PAMM, Mirror, Copy Trader, Social Trade, Sirix Trader, atau Forex Copy ini tidak menjamin anda pasti sukses ya, dan jangan percaya dengan perkataan gombal di seminar forex atau promo yang terlihat menggiurkan. Dan tidak masuk akal ya. (Pikir logis dan tidak terbawa emosi dan nafsu) Diterbitkan oleh maaf mas. Mau nanya, pekan lalu sy ditwari sm teman auto copy trade, yg mungkin sm dgn zulu trade, tp kayaknya di padukan dgn sistem MLM, coba mas lihat di mocaz dan triplelinefx, tolong di infokan mas sistem yg dia mau jual, trus terang sy masih Trading dengan analisa tekhnikal Mskipun masih sering los tp sy rasa ada kpangan sendiri krn sambil belajar, hanya sy sy masih trus blajar dengan analisa berita (fundamental), mudah2an bisa dipadukan, terima kasih mas atas info2x yg brmanfaat di web ini, yg banyak mmbrikan pencerahan ke kpd kami smua trkhusus Sprti kami yg pemula, salam sukses Wah hati2 loh, karena sistemnya tidak tahu bisa dipercaya atau tidak, karena kami lihat mereka itu yang terdaftar di British Virgin Island. Maka mocaz ini nge-charge kita komisi besar agar bisa dibagikan ke jaringan MLM nya, nah ngapain jadi Pak, sebab kita trading disini tujuannya untuk cari biaya serendah2nya agar bisa profit maksimal, nah kalau ada charge besar ngapain Pak. Kemudian sinyal provider mereka tidak sebanyak dan sesolid seperti tampilan Zulu loh. Beda kalau dengan zulutrade yang benar2 terlisensi dan lebih murah dari mocaz, dkk nya tsb. Kalau kita pribadi sih tidak cepat karena trading itu ya trading, ga bisa digabung dengan MLM, sebab kalau digabung dengan MLM Pasti Trader akan terbebani dengan biaya besar yang dimana tidak ada gunanya. Master saya mau tanya: 1. apa itu ROI forex 2. dengan modal 1000 berapa ideal lot setiap transaksinya, keluarkan saya hanya 1 kali buka per transaksinya agar tida cepat terkena margin call 3.kalau di fxdd ada feenya tidak per transaksinya 4.saya baru Mencoba demo akun fxdd, kalau mau live acount apa saja yang perlu disiapkan agar tidak langsung terkena margin call. 5.saya minta saran master, pair mana yang dipilih gbpusd atau eurusd, keluarkan saya strategi strategi buy bottom sell top sory master banyak pertanyaan karena masih belajar, he..hee 1. Return On Investment, yaitu rasio nilai pengembalian modal 2. itu tergantung Strategi trading anda 3. kami juga trading di sana melalui keuntungan dan tidak ada biaya 4. pahami dulu cara bertrading dan kuasai dulu di strategi trading forex dan hambatan. Jadi harus menjadi ahlinya dulu ya. Kalau mau ngawur2 dan sembarangan ya sekejap saja akan rugi terus 5. semua pasang itu bagus pak, tergantung kamu cocok yang mana dan siapa yang mana. Gak bisa semudah yang tinggal anda beli buy top, itu dimana2 juga maunya sangat hehe, tapi implementasinya tidak akan bisa mudah ini sudah bottom atau top harganya Copy trading sama dengan bettinggambling apapun kedoknya 1 triliun tidak jelas. (Saya sudah sekali coba Di eToro). Mending juga kalo rugi trading sendiri bisa pengalaman bikin sih sih (walaupun stress juga heheh ..) dan paling top memang trading di economic news (peluangnya jelas aja tiap waktu). Nggak usah ngoyo8230.dulu saya pakai 5 indikator yang lebih pusing lagi ngentot nomor keriling8230sekarang nggk perlu banyak2 saja 2 saja..kadang malah tanpa indikator lagi karena peraturannya sudah sangat jelas, ikuti saja hasil berita ekonomi, jadi cukup santai tradingnya. Mantap Brokerforex kasih ilmu gratis. Bertemu siang Master8230. Mau usul neh8230. 1. Gimana kalau Master bikin signal untuk kita-kita ini, biar bisa kita ikuti trading nya Master, meski tentu kami tetap juga melakukan analisa sendiri seperti yg ajarkan sbg perbandingan dan untuk lebih mendalami lagi karena kami sangat percaya sama Master. 2. Seandainya Master mau kasih menginvestasikan password nya, pasti kami akan sangat senang deh hehe8230. Maaf ya Guru, ini simpel aja lo, maaf lagi kalau tau saya ini ngawur dan lancang y8230.terimakasih .. 1. kita tidak bisa bikin signal, karena bisnis kita bukan di penyedia signal, dan juga jam online kami di situs ini juga Tidak menentu, jadi kami rasa susah. Semoga web ini tidak bisa komersil dan kami juga tidak mau menjadi harus memberikan sinyal tersebut. Selain itu, kami juga telah memberikan 8220cara memancing ikannya8221 kan. 2. Hal ini juga tidak bisa, karena bisa membahayakan keluarga kita dari ancaman para mafia2 tersebut. Web blog kami ini juga sudah diserang berkali2 oleh hacker dan sudah tidak lagi lagi ancaman2 jahat yang kami terima atas keselamatan kami akibat melawan mereka. Jadi mohon maaf Pak. Mungkin lain kali tahu siapa ya. Tapi untuk saat ini kami tidak berani, karena ancaman2 tersebut. Dan yang hanya bisa kita lakukan adalah berbagi ilmu mengenai cara trading kami, dan kami rasa itu lebih berharga ya Ok Master, terimakasih8230.saya sangat memakluminya8230.maju terus Master8230.sekali lagi maaf atas keinginan saya yg terlalu berlebihan8230 .. Sistem Komprehensif Baru untuk Entry Express November 10, 2016 Imigrasi, Pengungsi dan Kewarganegaraan Kanada (IRCC) telah mengubah Sistem Peringkat Komprehensif (CRC) untuk sistem seleksi imigrasi Express Entry. Perubahan, yang telah diperkirakan selama beberapa waktu, akan berpengaruh besar pada calon imigrasi ke Kanada melalui tiga program federal yang dikelola melalui Entry Express, yaitu Kelas Pekerja Terampil Federal. Kelas Perdagangan Terampil Federal. Dan Kelas Pengalaman Kanada. Instruksi baru tentang Entri Ekspres, yang diterbitkan dalam Lembaran Berita resmi pemerintah Kanada, mulai berlaku pada tanggal 19 November 2016. Perubahan signifikan pada tawaran pekerjaan adalah: Penawaran pekerjaan yang memenuhi syarat sekarang bernilai 200 poin jika penawaran tersebut dalam Pekerjaan yang terkandung dalam Kelompok Utama 00 dari Klasifikasi Pekerjaan Nasional (posisi tingkat manajerial senior). Pekerjaan ini adalah: 0011 Legislator 0012 Manajer dan pejabat pemerintah senior 0013 Manajer senior 8211 keuangan, komunikasi dan layanan bisnis lainnya 0014 Manajer senior 8211 layanan kesehatan, pendidikan, sosial dan kemasyarakatan dan organisasi keanggotaan 0015 Manajer senior 8211 perdagangan, penyiaran dan layanan lainnya yang tidak ada di tempat lain. rahasia. 0016 Manajer senior 8211 konstruksi, transportasi, produksi dan utilitas Tawaran kerja kualifikasi saat ini bernilai 50 poin jika tawaran tersebut merupakan tawaran kualifikasi lain untuk pekerjaan yang diatur. Sebelumnya, tawaran pekerjaan kualifikasi didukung oleh Penilaian Dampak Pasar Tenaga Kerja senilai 600 poin di bawah CRS. Pada tanggal 19 November, kandidat dengan tawaran pekerjaan kualifikasi akan diberikan 200 atau 50 poin. Tergantung posisi. Selain itu, pemegang ijin kerja tertentu dapat diberikan poin untuk tawaran pekerjaan mereka walaupun mereka belum memperoleh LMIA (catatan: pemegang LMIA juga akan terus diberi poin untuk tawaran pekerjaan). Selain pemegang LMIA, peraturan baru tersebut juga memungkinkan individu berikut diberi poin untuk tawaran pekerjaan yang memenuhi syarat: Individu dengan ijin kerja yang dikeluarkan berdasarkan kesepakatan internasional, seperti Perjanjian Perdagangan Bebas Amerika Utara (NAFTA). Individu dengan izin kerja yang dikeluarkan berdasarkan manfaat signifikan terhadap kriteria Kanada, seperti Transfer Intra-Perusahaan. Dalam kedua kasus di atas, pekerja tersebut pasti sudah bekerja di Kanada paling sedikit satu tahun dan tawaran pekerjaan harus dilakukan oleh majikan yang sama yang disebutkan pada izin kerja. Daftar lengkap dapat ditinjau dalam tabel di bawah ini. Akhirnya, persyaratan durasi penawaran kerja juga telah berubah dari waktu yang tidak ditentukan hingga setidaknya satu tahun lamanya. Pekerja yang saat ini berada di Kanada: Apakah izin kerja Anda dapat diterima untuk Entri Ekspres Tabel di bawah ini menunjukkan bahwa pekerja asing di Kanada mungkin dapat memperoleh poin untuk tawaran pekerjaan. Studi di Kanada sekarang merupakan faktor Poin yang ditugaskan untuk mendapatkan kredensial pendidikan Kanada adalah sebagai berikut: 0 poin. Jika warga negara asing memiliki mandat pendidikan sekolah menengah 15 poin. Jika warga negara asing memiliki mandat yang memenuhi syarat dari program pasca-sekolah satu tahun atau dua tahun dan 30 poin. Jika orang asing memiliki: mandat yang memenuhi syarat dari program pasca-sekolah menengah tiga atau lebih, mandat yang memenuhi syarat dari program tingkat universitas di tingkat master atau pada tingkat gelar profesional masuk ke praktik Pekerjaan yang tercantum dalam matriks Klasifikasi Pekerjaan Nasional di Tingkat Keterampilan A yang memerlukan lisensi oleh badan pengawas provinsi, atau kredensial yang memenuhi syarat dari program tingkat universitas di tingkat doktor. Poin hanya diberikan untuk pengalaman belajar di Kanada jika, untuk mendapatkan kredensial, warga negara asing: yang belajar di Kanada di sebuah institusi pendidikan Kanada didaftarkan dalam studi atau pelatihan penuh waktu setidaknya selama delapan bulan dan hadir secara fisik di Kanada Setidaknya selama delapan bulan. Sebelum perubahan ini, tidak ada poin tambahan yang tersedia bagi siswa internasional yang telah menyelesaikan program studi di Kanada. Perubahan tersebut mencerminkan tujuan pemerintah untuk menyediakan jalur yang lebih sederhana ke penghuni permanen kepada siswa dan lulusan internasional di Kanada. Undangan untuk Menerapkan Calon yang menerima Undangan untuk Terapkan (ITA) untuk tinggal permanen akan memiliki waktu tambahan untuk menyerahkan aplikasi lengkap ke Imigrasi, Pengungsi dan Kewarganegaraan Kanada (IRCC). Padahal sebelumnya ITA berlaku selama 60 hari, calon akan memiliki waktu 90 hari untuk mengajukan permohonan setelah mereka menerima ITA. Konsekuensi untuk calon di kolam renang Pada tanggal 19 November, IRCC secara otomatis dapat menerapkan perubahan ini untuk profil yang sudah ada di kolam Entry Express. Dalam banyak kasus, kandidat mungkin memperhatikan bahwa jumlah poin CRS yang diberikan kepada mereka belum naik. Namun, kandidat tanpa tawaran pekerjaan secara khusus harus mencatat bahwa profil mereka meskipun hal tersebut mungkin menyebutkan jumlah poin yang sama seperti sebelumnya sebelum menjadi lebih kompetitif, terutama di samping kandidat dengan tawaran pekerjaan berbasis LMIA yang melihat skor mereka turun hingga 550 Poin. Kolam Entry Entry adalah lingkungan yang kompetitif, di mana profil kandidat8217 berada di peringkat satu sama lain dan kandidat dengan peringkat tertinggi berada dalam posisi yang lebih kuat untuk menerima ITA saat undian dibuat. Pada tanggal 19 November, nilai tawaran pekerjaan akan turun dari 600 poin menjadi 200 atau 50 poin (tergantung pada posisi yang ditawarkan). Laporan Express Express tahunan IRCC8217 untuk tahun 2015. dirilis awal tahun ini, menunjukkan bahwa dari 31.063 ITA yang dikeluarkan tahun lalu, 14.465 (46,6) dikeluarkan untuk kandidat yang mendapat tawaran pekerjaan yang didukung oleh LMIA. Akibatnya, efek dari perubahan terbaru pada CRS dapat secara signifikan mengubah susunan kolam dan tingkat kandidat dengan tawaran pekerjaan yang melanjutkan untuk menerima ITA. Meskipun kandidat dengan tawaran pekerjaan akan terus mendapat sejumlah besar poin (50 atau 200, tergantung pada posisi), kandidat tanpa tawaran pekerjaan dapat melihat peluang keberhasilan mereka meningkat. Program Nominee Provinsi (PNPs) Sekarang Faktor yang Paling Berharga Perlu dicatat bahwa kandidat yang mendapatkan sertifikat nominasi yang disempurnakan melalui kategori Nominal Programme (PNP) akan memperoleh penghargaan 600 poin. Selain itu, kandidat harus mencatat bahwa Rencana Imigrasi yang baru-baru ini diterbitkan oleh IRCC8217 mengungkapkan bahwa pemerintah Kanada bertujuan untuk menyambut sekitar 51.000 imigran baru melalui PNP tahun depan, meningkat tujuh persen pada target tahun 2016. Dengan pembukaan kategori PNP yang lebih ditingkatkan Perubahan dari waktu ke waktu, ini bisa dibilang lebih penting daripada sebelumnya bagi kandidat untuk selalu mengikuti program imigrasi ini. Kalkulator CRS Baru Tersedia Kandidat di kolam Entry Express, serta individu yang berpikir untuk menciptakan profil Entri Ekspres, dapat menggunakan Kalkulator CRS yang baru dan lebih baik untuk mengetahui skor mereka di bawah sistem poin baru. CATATAN: Artikel ini akan diperbarui secara konsisten saat kami mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang perubahan CRS. Untuk mengetahui apakah Anda memenuhi syarat untuk berimigrasi ke Kanada secara permanen, isi formulir penilaian online gratis. 2016 CICNews All Rights Reserved 13 November 2016 Saya menerima lmia saya minggu lalu, dan saya telah mengirimkan kolam catatan pada hari jumat. Saya kira mengharapkan ITA lebih cepat pada minggu depan, karena undangan terakhir dibuat oleh 2nov. Apakah menurutmu akan ada satu putaran undangan sebelum nov19 itu berita buruk bagiku. Tidak penting mengatakan 15 November 2016 Tahukah Anda berapa banyak siswa yang menghabiskan setidaknya 50.000 untuk pendidikan 2 tahun di Kanada Tahukah Anda berapa banyak siswa setelah itu bekerja di pekerjaan perkantoran minimal 1 tahun dan semua siswa ini dapat memperoleh undangan. Ini adalah FAIR Sekarang 17 November 2016 Memang ya Cheers Trudeau 15 November 2016 Sama disini. Saya juga telah mengirimkan EE Jumat lalu. Jika tidak ada lagi undangan sebelum Nov 19 I8217m kembali. 11 November 2016 Je m8217appelle. Mjd Alani Ne a Damas le 10 Oktober 1992 Je suis diplme de la Facult de Pharmacie de l8217Universit de Damas en 20152016 avec une moyenne 80,25 menyebutkan trs bien. Jais passe l8217examen de magister avec une moyenne 82. J8217ai passe une periode trs difficile qui m8217a empch de raliser mes objectifs a cause de difficults de mouvement et la dtrioration de mon tat de sant. J8217ai des problmes lis aux nerfs, je souffre de l8217existence d8217une grande masse dans ma colonne vertbrale. J8217ai subi plusieurs oprations menuangkan radiqu la masse mais penyebab de sa grosseur et l8217endroit difficile. Kausan yang paling tinggi akan menyebabkan komplikasi nombreus. Perawat dan pembantu rumah tangga bertindak sebagai ajudan. Ainsi que des symptmes neurologiques comme: l8217incontinence urinaires et la perte de sensation et d8217autres .. Je veux immigrer au canada pour que je puisse continuer mes tudes en master et suivre mon cas de sant, et tre une perssone rentable dans la socit avec mes capacit . Palak shah mengatakan 11 November 2016 saya memiliki pengalaman atasan 1 tahun di kanada. Dan saat ini bekerja di posisi yang sama sehingga saya hanya akan mendapatkan 50 poin karena tidak berada dalam pekerjaan manajerial 00 tetapi jika saya mendapatkan tawaran pekerjaan untuk posisi manajerial saya akan memenuhi syarat untuk 200 poin 12 November 2016 saya juga memiliki keraguan yang sama. Saya bekerja sebagai supervisor layanan makanan dan saya berencana melamar untuk masuk dalam kategori CEC pada akhir bulan ini tapi sekarang saya tidak dapat memproses surat-surat saya becoz dari sedikit poin. Perubahan peraturan ini AKAN MEMPENGARUHI SEMUA ORANG YANG BEKERJA DI CANADA DALAM PROGRAM PEKERJA LUAR NEGERI DAN benar-benar mengecewakan dari sudut pandang saya8230 .. Sebenarnya pemerintah ini berusaha memberi prioritas lebih kepada siswa internasional dan itu sangat dihargai namun pada saat bersamaan. Orang-orang seperti kita yang bekerja di bawah program TFWs harus dipertimbangkan juga. 11 Desember 2016 Saya pikir siswa internasional yang belajar di Kanada, setelah mendapatkan ijin kerja terbuka mereka, mereka juga dianggap sebagai pekerja sementara sementara mereka 17 November 2016 Harus posisi manajerial tingkat senior tanpa tanggal akhir kontrak Palak Shah, dari yang akan Anda dapatkan 200 poin Joanne Marsden mengatakan 11 November 2016 saya baru saja kembali dari Kanada. Saya telah mengunjungi selama lebih dari 20 tahun kakak perempuan saya tinggal di sana 11 tahun dan merupakan warga negara Kanada, anak saya ada di sana untuk visa kerja 2 tahun. Saya tinggi Di penjara Inggris sebagai manajer selama 18 tahun. Saya ingin melihat anak saya yang berusia 21 tahun dan saya melamar tinggal permanen di Kanada. Tolong beritahu bagaimana saya melakukannya? 11 Desember 2016 Anda seharusnya tidak memiliki masalah untuk mendapatkan tempat tinggal permanen seusia Anda, pengalaman akan membawa Anda pada tingkat peluang bersaing yang baik untuk diundang. Hanya membuat profil Anda pada awal tahun 2017 untuk pergi ke kolam berikutnya saat mereka meningkatkan pekerja asing menjadi penduduk tetap oleh 22 parmar chintan mengatakan 11 November 2016 saya adalah pekerja lapangan yang terampil dan tawaran kerja penuh waktu hanong sebagai teknisi kontrol di toronto. Apakah itu menghitung Major Group 00 dari National Occupational Classification. Saya tidak tahu apa itu kelompok mayor oo NOC. Tolong bantu saya Terima kasih jimmy singh says November 11, 2016 November 11, 2016 Saya bekerja di Toronto Ontario di bawah izin kerja transfe8221r perusahaan 8220. Memiliki izin kerja yang benar dengan nama perusahaan yang sama. Juga di Kanada lebih dari 2,5 tahun di perusahaan yang sama dan jenis ijin kerja yang sama. Ketika saya datang ke Kanada, perusahaan saya memberi saya surat penanggalan yang dapat dianggap sebagai surat penawaran, apa lagi bukti yang perlu saya tunjukkan untuk tawaran pekerjaan untuk transfer perusahaan Intra 14 November 2016 Saya memiliki situasi Sanjay yang sama dengan satu pengecualian yang saya miliki. Pekerjaan penuh waktu yang dibayar dengan majikan yang sama selama 2,5 tahun terakhir (penerima transfer intra perusahaan) 8211 memiliki pengalaman kerja 6 tahun di luar negeri dengan atasan yang sama. Saya berada di tengah mengajukan permohonan untuk LMIA tapi sekarang saya sedikit bingung, ketika mereka mengatakan bahwa saya dapat mengajukan permohonan tanpa LMIA dan masih dapat diberikan 8220points8221, saya tidak mengerti seberapa banyak poinnya meskipun 8220508221 dari 82206008221 Jika LMIA tidak Lagi diberikan 600 poin maka saya kira tidak ada gunanya melanjutkannya, pikiran Anda tolong 21 November 2016 Tidak yakin8230 tapi Anda bisa mengirimkan pertanyaan Anda di link di bawah ini. 11 November 2016 Kanada sebagian besar dibangun atas kerja keras imigran yang datang ke Kanada. Saya berada dalam posisi keuangan yang nyaman tapi saya bertanya-tanya mengapa kita mencari begitu banyak orang manajemen di Kanada. Apakah kita tidak memiliki warga yang dapat mengambil pekerjaan itu Mungkin mereka perlu pindah ke AS di mana Trump akan memberi mereka kesempatan. Dan warga AS yang ingin pindah ke Kanada 8211 adalah sistem demokrasi mereka yang memilih Trump. Mungkin mereka harus mencoba untuk bekerja di rumah sebelum meninggalkan saya telah 5 tahun mensponsori istri saya sebagai penduduk tetap dan segera sebagai warga negara. Dia hanya seorang penjahit rendah sehingga saya menduga dia akan tertinggal di belakang garis. Setiap orang harus diterima. Kami adalah negara yang kuat karena keragaman kami, tapi aturannya harus sama untuk semua. 12 November 2016 saya lulus kuliah 2yrs dan sedang bekerja di Kanada bersama PGWP sampai Februari 2017. Dan saya memperoleh LMIA dan segera mendapatkan ITA. Begitu saya menyampaikan profil tanpa visa LMIA, hanya disampaikan surat positif LMIA pada akhir Oktober 2016. dan sekarang masih diproses. Saya pikir itu hampir Tapi dari 19 November, jika sistem berubah bagaimana kasus saya akan Siapa pun plz membalas dalam kasus ini. 12 November 2016 19 November 2016 Yang menyedihkan adalah siswa internasional tidak dapat memperoleh 50 atau 200 poin meskipun mereka memiliki pekerjaan tetap penuh waktu yang terampil (tanpa LMIA) di Kanada. Karena mereka semua bekerja di tempat kerja terbuka izin izin kerja kelulusan. Semua yang bisa mereka dapatkan dengan peraturan baru yang diperbarui adalah 15 atau 30 poin tambahan berdasarkan jenis pendidikan mereka di Kanada. Pasca sarjana pascasarjana dari perguruan tinggi hanya bisa mendapatkan 15 poin. Begitu menyedihkan Misalnya jika mereka mendapat 410 poin sebelumnya, dengan perubahan terbaru mereka akan mendapatkan 425. Tidak seperti perbedaan besar. Steeja Thomas mengatakan 20 November 2016 CRS Point baru saya sama seperti yang lama, haruskah saya memperbarui profil saya dengan perhitungan baru, saya tidak mempunyai tawaran pekerjaan dan pendidikan Kanada 20 November 2016 Hai teman-teman, saya tidak melihat ekspresiku Profil masuk semakin diperbaharui dengan poin tambahan baru seperti yang dinyatakan oleh IRCC. Saya berada di kategori CEC (4yr work exp) dan memiliki ijin kerja yang benar (LMIA dikecualikan dan mengontrak perusahaan Intra NOC-A). Saya memperbarui profil saya kemarin dengan tawaran pekerjaan karena Ya dan LMIA tidak diperlukan. Tolong beritahu saya jika ada profil yang diperbarui Ada yang bisa membantu saya di sini tentang cara menambahkan 50 poin itu. Terimakasih Rocco Cambareri mengatakan 23 November 2016 saya menghadapi masalah yang sama. Skor saya tidak berubah setelah 19 November. Apakah Anda mendapatkan berita bantuan akan sangat dihargai. NADIR MOMIN mengatakan 24 November 2016 Apa yang Harus Dilakukan Selanjutnya Jika kandidat berpikir bahwa mereka terpengaruh oleh perubahan tersebut, IRCC menginstruksikan agar mereka: Masuk ke akun online mereka dan perbarui profil Entry Express mereka dengan menjawab pertanyaan baru yang telah ditambahkan IRCC ke sistem. Setelah profil diperbarui, skor CRS kandidat dapat diperbarui. IRCC juga menyatakan bahwa putaran undangan akan dimulai lagi dalam beberapa minggu mendatang. Ini akan memberi mereka yang terpengaruh oleh perubahan waktu untuk memperbarui profil Entri Ekspresinya. Semua nilai CRS akan diperbarui sebelum putaran undangan berikutnya. Instruksi menyatakan bahwa jika calon tidak berpikir bahwa mereka terpengaruh oleh perubahan pada sistem Entry Express, mereka tidak perlu melakukan apapun. Pentingnya Memperbarui Profil Anda Jika seorang kandidat tidak segera memperbarui profilnya, dia mungkin berisiko kehilangan ITA dalam undian masa depan. Hampir setengah dari semua individu yang diundang untuk mendaftar sejauh ini pada tahun 2016 mendapat tawaran kerja yang memenuhi syarat. Sekarang tawaran pekerjaan diberikan lebih sedikit poin, calon di kolam renang tanpa tawaran pekerjaan mungkin mendapati diri mereka berada pada posisi yang lebih kuat untuk menerima ITA. Selain itu, nominasi provinsi sekarang merupakan satu-satunya faktor yang paling berharga dalam sistem Entry Express. Sertifikat nominasi dari Program Nominee Provinsi (PNP) masih diberikan 600 poin, seperti yang terjadi sebelum perubahan sistem baru-baru ini. Mempertahankan profil yang diperbarui dan tetap mengikuti perkembangan bukaan PNP lebih penting daripada sebelumnya terhadap peluang kandidat untuk mendapatkan ITA. Penting untuk dicatat bahwa orang-orang yang telah menerima ITA, termasuk mereka yang menerima ITA dalam undian terbaru pada tanggal 16 November 2016, tidak terpengaruh oleh perubahan yang mulai berlaku pada tanggal 19 November 2016. Orang-orang ini akan Melihat aplikasi mereka diproses sesuai dengan kondisi di tempat pada saat mereka menerima ITA mereka. 21 November 2016 Tolong tuntun saya dalam kebijakan baru apa masa depan Mahasiswa Internasional setelah dua tahun gelar atau diploma. Apakah dia memenuhi syarat untuk mengajukan permohonan kepada PR Thx 2 Desember 2016 Setiap lulusan internasional yang mengalami masalah menerima 1530 poin tambahan sebelum pembaruan tersebut membulatkan skor saya adalah 444. Dengan memperbarui gelar UBC saya memberi saya tambahan 30 poin, yang seharusnya memberi saya 474. Saya telah memperbarui bagian pendidikan saya tentang profil Entry Express dan poin saya tetap menjadi 444. Saya bahkan membuat Profil EE baru dari awal hanya untuk tetap menerima 4448230 Siapa pun yang memiliki masalah yang sama Setiap resolusi 3 Desember 2016 saya telah melihat masalah serupa Tentang memperbarui skor Meski tidak terpengaruh oleh perubahan 19 Nov, saya memperbarui hasil IELTS saya hari ini yang seharusnya meningkatkan skor saya dengan 50 poin. Tapi skornya tidak diperbarui sejauh ini. Jadi saya berpikir sistem mungkin turun untuk saat ini. 15 Desember 2016 Saya telah memperbarui profil saya karena saya memiliki tawaran pekerjaan LMIA-dikecualikan (NAFTA) untuk pekerjaan tetap yang telah saya lakukan selama 2 tahun, jadi sebaiknya menerima tambahan 50 poin. Sampai saat ini skor saya belum terupdate. Ini sangat menegangkan karena Anda tidak tahu apakah itu masalah dengan sistem atau apakah Anda telah membuat semacam kesalahan. Saya mungkin sudah membuka dan dua kali mengecek jawaban saya 15 kali sejak 19 November. Tahun ini membuat frustrasi. I8217m seorang insinyur senior dari AS tapi memiliki kualifikasi di bawah sistem ini. 5 Desember 2016 Dapatkah seseorang tolong bantu saya mengenai 15 poin tambahan yang Anda dapatkan untuk pendidikan Anda di Kanada yang tidak saya dapatkan untuk itu. Saya hanya memiliki 98 poin untuk diploma 2 tahun saya. Saya percaya ada 15 poin lagi yang Anda dapatkan untuk pendidikan di Kanada sesuai peraturan baru. Dapatkah seseorang membantu saya bekerja di BC selama satu tahun terakhir dan saya telah mengirimkan profil saya untuk mendapatkan PR. Saya hanya memiliki 444 poin. Saya bekerja di sini sebagai Intra Company Transfer dan perusahaan basis saya adalah Wipro Technologies (di India) Apakah saya berhak atas 50 poin ekstra sesuai pertanyaan di bawah ini, dapatkah saya memberikan ya untuk ini juga jika saya dapat memberikan ya apa dokumennya? Saya perlu mengirimkan jika saya mendapatkan ITA Apakah Anda memiliki tawaran pekerjaan yang valid yang didukung oleh Penilaian Dampak Pasar Tenaga Kerja (jika diperlukan) Mostafizur Rahman mengatakan Saat ini saya sedang dalam izin kerja pascasarjana di AB dan baru-baru ini mendapat AINP. Saya mendapat persetujuan untuk izin kerja di bawah perjanjian provinsi dan teritorial Kanada. Saya berharap untuk tahu, menerima ijin kerja tertutup di bawah perjanjian teritorial provinsi Kanada dengan pembebasan lmia t13 akan memungkinkan saya untuk mendapatkan poin tambahan karena menentang pemegang lmia Tolong saran faiza kashif mengatakan 25 Januari 2017 tolong bantu saya canada menunjuk visa96311: Human Perdagangan dan Eksploitasi Hari ini, beberapa label perdagangan manusia sebagai bentuk perbudakan modern, dan seringkali, perdagangan manusia dikaitkan dengan pekerjaan seks dan pelacuran, walaupun ada bentuk lain dari perdagangan manusia, seperti kerja paksa dan pekerjaan rumah tangga. Perdagangan manusia bisa melibatkan perempuan, pria, dan anak-anak. Korbannya mengalami sejumlah masalah psikologis, termasuk stres pasca trauma, ketidakberdayaan, dan depresi, karena penganiayaan fisik, seksual, dan psikologis yang mereka alami. Kursus ini mencakup gambaran umum tentang perdagangan manusia. Kursus ini akan mencoba untuk memberi gambaran sekilas tentang realitas kehidupan korban perdagangan manusia dan pelecehan fisik, psikologis, sosial, dan seksual yang mereka alami. Intervensi dan tanggapan khusus tercakup, termasuk kesehatan mental, layanan sosial, pendidikan, pencegahan, dan upaya hukum. Akhirnya, bagi praktisi yang bekerja dengan korban perdagangan manusia, korban emosional yang dibutuhkan praktisi akan dibahas. The course ends with an array of resources, including organizationsagencies, books, and filmsdocumentaries focusing on the issue of human trafficking. This course is designed for physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, therapists, mental health counselors, and other members of the interdisciplinary team who may intervene in suspected cases of human trafficking andor exploitation. Accreditations amp Approvals NetCE is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. NetCE is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Centers Commission on Accreditation. NetCE has been approved by NBCC as an Approved Continuing Education Provider, ACEP No. 6361. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. NetCE is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs. NetCE, 1092, is approved as a provider for social work continuing education by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) aswb.org through the Approved Continuing Education (ACE) Program. NetCE maintains responsibility for the program. ASWB Approval Period: 03132016 to 03132019. Social workers should contact their regulatory board to determine course approval for continuing education credits. This program is approved by the National Association of Social Workers (Approval 886531582-9661) for Social Work continuing education contact hours. NetCE is accredited by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). NetCE complies with the ANSIIACET Standard, which is recognized internationally as a standard of excellence in instructional practices. As a result of this accreditation, NetCE is authorized to issue the IACET CEU. NetCE SW CPE is recognized by the New York State Education Departments State Board for Social Work as an approved provider of continuing education for licensed social workers 0033. This course is considered self-study, as defined by the New York State Board for Social Work. This course is approved by the Association of Social Work Boards - ASWB NJ CE Course Approval Program Provider 14 Course 299. Materials that are included in this course may include interventions and modalities that are beyond the authorized practice of licensed master social work and licensed clinical social work in New York. As a licensed professional, you are responsible for reviewing the scope of practice, including activities that are defined in law as beyond the boundaries of practice for an LMSW and LCSW. A licensee who practices beyond the authorized scope of practice could be charged with unprofessional conduct under the Education Law and Regents Rules. Social workers will receive the following type and number of credit(s): General Social Work Practice 5 for the approval period starting 04232015 and ending 04232017. Designations of Credit NetCE designates this enduring material for a maximum of 5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s). Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 5 ANCC contact hour(s). NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 6 hours for Alabama nurses. NetCE designates this continuing education activity for 2 NBCC clock hour(s). Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 5 MOC points in the American Board of Internal Medicines (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity providers responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit. Completion of this course constitutes permission to share the completion data with ACCME. Social workers participating in this intermediate to advanced course will receive 5 Clinical continuing education clock hours, in accordance with the Association of Social Work Boards. AACN Synergy CERP Category B. NetCE is authorized by IACET to offer 0.5 CEU(s) for this program. Individual State Nursing Approvals In addition to states that accept ANCC, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by: Alabama, Provider ABNP0353, (valid through December 12, 2017) California, BRN Provider CEP9784 California, LVN Provider V10662 California, PT Provider V10842 Florida, Provider 50-2405 Iowa, Provider 295 Kentucky, Provider 7-0054 through 12312017. Individual State Behavioral Health Approvals In addition to states that accept ASWB, NetCE is approved as a provider of continuing education by the following state boards: Alabama State Board of Social Work Examiners, Provider 0515 Florida Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy and Mental Health Counseling, CE Broker Provider 50-2405 Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Social Workers, License 159.001094 Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Licensed Professional and Clinical Counselors, License 197.000185 Illinois Division of Professional Regulation for Mar riage and Family Therapists, License 168.000190 Texas State Board of Social Worker Examiners, Approval 3011 Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors, Approval 1121 Texas State Board of Examiners of Marriage and Family Therapists, Approval 425. Special Approvals This activity is designed to comply with the requirements of California Assembly Bill 1195, Cultural and Linguistic Competency. Course Objective As human trafficking becomes an increasingly more common problem in the United States, healthcare and mental health professionals will require knowledge of human trafficking patterns, the health and mental health needs of human trafficking victims, and successful interventions for victims. The purpose of this course is to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about human trafficking and exploitation so health and mental health professionals can identify and intervene in cases of exploitation. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this course, you should be able to: Define human trafficking. Identify the forms of human trafficking. Identify economic, political, social, and cultural factors that contribute to human trafficking. Describe methodological and research barriers to the study of human trafficking. Compare the different perspectives that have been used to frame the problem of human trafficking. Analyze the trafficking experience, including how traffickers recruit and the financial implications of trafficking. Explain the psychological, health, and social consequences of human trafficking. Utilize interviewing strategies to assess and identify victims and promote the ethical treatment of trafficking victims. Describe various educational, prevention, mental health, legal, and social services interventions and responses targeted to human trafficking victims. Discuss the countertransference and secondary traumatization practitioners experience when working with victims of human trafficking and the importance of self-care. Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, received her Masters in Social Work from Columbia University, School of Social Work. She has clinical experience in mental health in correctional settings, psychiatric hospitals, and community health centers. In 1997, she received her PhD from UCLA, School of Public Policy and Social Research. Dr. Yick Flanagan completed a year-long post-doctoral fellowship at Hunter College, School of Social Work in 1999. In that year she taught the course Research Methods and Violence Against Women to Masters degree students, as well as conducting qualitative research studies on death and dying in Chinese American families. Previously acting as a faculty member at Capella University and Northcentral University, Dr. Yick Flanagan is currently a contributing faculty member at Walden University, School of Social Work, and a dissertation chair at Grand Canyon University, College of Doctoral Studies, working with Industrial Organizational Psychology doctoral students. She also serves as a consultantsubject matter expert for the New York City Board of Education and publishing companies for online curriculum development, developing practice MCAT questions in the area of psychology and sociology. Her research focus is on the area of culture and mental health in ethnic minority communities. Faculty Disclosure Contributing faculty, Alice Yick Flanagan, PhD, MSW, has disclosed no relevant financial relationship with any product manufacturer or service provider mentioned. Division Planners John M. Leonard, MD Jane C. Norman, RN, MSN, CNE, PhD 96311: Human Trafficking and Exploitation INTRODUCTION Human trafficking is not a new social problem it has always existed. In the United States, it has historically been referred to as white slavery, although it involves people of all races and ethnicities 1. Even in the last three decades, human trafficking has continued to be an issue. In the 1970s, there was an increased number of foreign-born sex workers in Europe, with a large percentage originating from Southeast Asia. By the 1980s, more women from Africa and South America were entering into the sex work trade in Europe 1. However, it was not until the 1990s that human trafficking gained global media attention, particularly as it related to women from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. One reason it is believed the public embraced this social problem at that time was because the victims were depicted as white and innocent, women whose lack of education and socioeconomic advantages made them prey to human traffickers. Portrayed in this manner, there was public sympathy and outcry to provide assistance 1. Fears of white slavery in the 19th century stemmed from anxieties about outside intrusion. Today, human trafficking, a modern-day slavery, evokes fear stemming from multiculturalism. For those in developing countries, it symbolizes the encroachment of Western values 2 . Although human trafficking has always existed, it has begun to garner increased attention as a result of awareness and outreach efforts. All social problems compete for attention, and various groups will make compelling claims about social problems using persuasive rhetoric and dramatic statistics 3. More than just a human rights issue, it has garnered attention from feminists, religious conservatives, labor activists, immigration specialists, and the mental health professions 22. Furthermore, attention will be drawn from the media, politicians, organizations, and public, all of whom will respond to the gravity of the condition. It is through this process of claims-making and counter claims-making that conditions that may not necessarily have initially attracted attention can develop into a recognized social problem 3. How the problem is described or constructed will influence public opinion, which will then ultimately facilitate action from governmental agencies, social service organizations, and international agencies 4, 5 . This course will provide a basic overview of human trafficking (e.g. the scope, definitions and frameworks, contributing factors, different forms). The course will attempt to provide practitioners a glimpse of the lives of human trafficking victims, including physical, psychological, social, and sexual abuse that human trafficking victims experience and the types of control tactics perpetrators use. Specific interventions and responses will be covered, including mental health, social services, educational, prevention, and legal efforts. Finally, for practitioners who do work with human trafficking victims, the emotional toil that it takes upon practitioners as well as the importance of self care will be discussed. The course will end by offering an array of resources. Practitioners will be encouraged to view films and documentaries about human trafficking, as this is one way to enter the lives of human trafficking victims and better understand the dynamics of the complex world of human trafficking. SCOPE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING As the issue of human trafficking is so complex, it is difficult to determine the scope of the problem. Many scholars and researchers believe that published estimates are just educated guesses. On a global level, the United Nations has estimated that 4 million people are trafficked every year, but has since stated that this estimate may not be methodologically sound 31, 108. In 2015, nearly 6,000 cases of human trafficking were reported in the United States, though the actual number of victims is believed to be much greater 107. Overall, it is estimated that 27 million men, women, and children are being trafficked globally at any given time 27 . The estimates for the United States are equally unclear, but some approximate that 14,500 to 17,000 individuals are illegally transported to the United States every year for the purpose of exploitation 31. Weitzers content analysis of websites and publications about human trafficking found that human trafficking is portrayed as an epidemic, growing at alarming rates, with some government reports estimating 40,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked in the United States each year 33. Weitzer argues that many of the reports have overestimated the scope of the problem and points out that the estimates fluctuate drastically year to year 29. The U.S. Department of Justice reported 161 convictions for human trafficking-related crimes in 2013, including forced labor and sex trafficking of adults and minors. This was an increase of more than 13 over the number reported in 2010 32 . DEFINITIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING The United Nations defines human trafficking as 6 : The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. In essence, this definition involves three elements: the transport of the person, the force or coercion of the victim, and the abuse and exploitation 47. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime divides the definition of human trafficking into three sections: the act, means, and purpose 7. The act, or what is done, generally refers to activities such as recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons. The means of trafficking consists of threats or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim. Finally, these acts are carried out for the purpose of exploitation, which includes prostitution, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or forced servitude, and the removal of organs 7. It is important to remember that human trafficking is not human smuggling. Human smuggling involves an individual being brought into a country through illegal means and is voluntary. The individual has provided some remuneration to another individual or party to accomplish this goal 8 . This video provides a snapshot of modern slavery, including the economics of slavery worldwide. For more information, visit Free the Slaves at freetheslaves . In many cases, women and children are considered the typical victims of human trafficking. Hart posits that women are more vulnerable to trafficking due to the lack of social safety nets in many developing countries 9. Coupled with womens subordinate social statuses in many cultures, this leads to the feminization of poverty. Although the social conditions may make women and children more vulnerable to human trafficking, the reality is that men are also victims of human trafficking. FORMS OF TRAFFICKING CHILD LABOR Child labor can be viewed as a specific form of bonded labor or forced labor. However, not all child laborers have been trafficked. Child labor is defined by International Labour Organization (ILO) as economic labor performed by a child younger than 15 years of age. Child labor is deeply rooted in poverty and the infrastructure and political stability of the country as well as market forces 18. The ILO estimates that there are 168 million child laborers in the world 48. Between 2000 and 2012 there was a nearly 33 decrease in the number of children in child labor. The reduction was greater for girls (40) than for boys (25). The largest numbers of child laborers are found in Asia and the Pacific region 48 . The definition of child labor is controversial because the definitions for work and childhood are ambiguous and often culturally defined 20. On a conceptual level, work may be beneficial for the socialization and educational processes of children 20, 56. So, it is important to differentiate between child work and child labor. Child work has been defined as activities that are supervised by an adult and that promote the development and growth of the child, while child labor does not benefit the child 18. Many definitions of child labor create a dichotomy whereby child work is considered not harmful while child labor has negative emotional, intellectual, and social consequences 21. Work that is exploitive for children has been defined as working long hours at a young age, work that is poorly compensated, and work that produces physical, social, and psychological stress that will hamper development, access to education, and self-esteem 23. The ILO adds that child labor is work that interferes, deprives, and interrupts schooling and places children in the position of trying to balance school and long work hours 56 . CHILD CONSCRIPTION In some cases of trafficking, children are kidnapped and trafficked to serve as soldiers. It is estimated that at any one time 250,000 to 300,000 children younger than 18 years of age are currently serving as child soldiers 24, 72. Traffickers prefer to recruit children to serve as soldiers because they are inexpensive and more easily molded and shaped to comply and obey without question 25. They are also more likely to kill fearlessly and recklessly. Child soldiers are treated as adults, without any regard to how the physical and psychological rigors of war will affect them psychologically and developmentally. In Uganda, where children are kidnapped or recruited as child soldiers relatively often, the Lords Resistance Army has been known to initiate new child soldiers in brutal ritualized killings of others so as to terrorize them into submission and annihilate any moral conscience they may have about killing 25 . It can be difficult to comprehend the atrocities that these children witness and experience. Bayer, Klasen, and Adam conducted a study involving 169 former Ugandan and Congolese child soldiers who were an average of 15.3 years of age 26. Almost all (92.9) reported having witnessed a shooting, 89 witnessed someone wounded, and 84 witnessed someone seriously beaten. A total of 54.4 reported having killed someone, and 27.8 reported that they were forced to engage in sexual activity 26. In another study, the researchers found that the experience of conscription among children produced significant emotional and psychological traumas and a host of cognitive and behavioral problems 27. In this study of 19 child soldiers, 18 had volunteered to join the army and one had been abducted. Although most of the children volunteered into the army, their participation became involuntary. Some tried to run away or disobey, which resulted in beatings and imprisonment. If captured, they were told to commit suicide 27. The reintegration of child soldiers is not easy. Many are stigmatized when they return to their home villages, as their families and friends fear that these former child soldiers may be violent 72. Girls as young as 9 years of age may be abducted or given to serve as soldiers, sex slaves, cooks, andor wives for soldiers an estimated 40 of child soldiers are girls 19. These children are also stigmatized, perhaps even more so given the cultural value placed on female virginity before marriage. These young girls may have committed acts of violence, experienced sexual abuse, andor been pregnant 74. As a result, they are often rejected by their families if they return home 72 . Listen to a National Public Radio interview with Ishmael Beah, a former child soldier, at npr.orgtemplatesstorystory.phpstoryId7519542 . HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE The human rights perspective focuses on the link of human trafficking to historical forms of slavery and the denial of human rights and dignity. Human rights are often considered the natural and universal rights or laws for human beings 81. However, the issue is not this simpleit is important to consider what these universal conditions are and to what extent Eurocentrism is instilled in the work of human rights activists 81 . As with slavery in the 18th and 19th centuries, trafficking victims today have no choice over their abusive and exploitive conditions. Unlike the older forms of slavery, this modern form is an outcome of globalization 28. The human rights perspective also argues that, to some extent, the general public indirectly contributes to the problem of human trafficking as consumers in the global market 28. In a study of how human trafficking is socially constructed, the videos being examined portrayed general consumers and corporations as perpetrators of human trafficking in addition to pimps, crime organizations, and middlemen recruiters 40 . LABOR RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE The labor rights perspective is concerned with the rights of illegal migrant workers in the United States. This perspective incorporates elements of the human rights, feminist, and migrationlabor perspectives however, the difference is that this perspective encompasses all forms of labor and frames sex work as an economic activity 34. For example, some women engage in sex work intermittently to supplement their income while others rely on sex work for their main or sole income 86. Advocates in this camp fight for laws and policies that create rights to protect migrant workers and lift the legal restrictions on illegal immigration 34 . These wide-ranging perspectives help to frame the problem and influence public response. When human trafficking is framed as an illegal immigration activity, the public response is generally unsympathetic 1. When human trafficking is viewed as a cultural remnant of patriarchy and inherent to the institutional landscape and when victims are portrayed as young women and girls, the public may be more sympathetic to their plight. It is important to remember that each perspective will also highlight the different victims involved. For the most part, the media does not portray trafficked victims to include agricultural workers, domestic workers, or factory workers 47 . THE TRAFFICKING EXPERIENCE Five stages of the trafficking experience have been identified 41, 87 : Pre-departure stage: The period before the victim becomes involved in the trafficking situation. This may include recruitment and preparing for travel. Travel and transit stage: The time after recruitment during which the victim agrees or is coerced into the trafficked situation. This phase also includes the journey whereby the trafficker(s) brings the victim(s) to their work destination. It is important to remember that this stage can be very dangerous and can involve numerous transit points. Destination stage: This is the period during which the victim arrives at the intended destination. This stage is marked by exploitation, abuse, victimization, and coercion. One way to control the victims is to continually inflate their debt so they have to constantly work to pay it off. Detention, deportation, and criminal evidence stage: If a victim is arrested by the police or immigration authorities, victims are held in legal proceedings and they often fear deportation, andor retaliation from the trafficker(s). Integration and re-integration stage: During this stage, government and nongovernment agencies provide services to victims that involve a long process of attempting to reintegrate the victim back into hisher community. TRAFFICKERS: AN OVERVIEW Much attention has been focusing on victims of trafficking however, it is important to also understand the perpetrators. Methods of Recruitment It has been suggested human traffickers employ five general strategies to recruit and traffic victims 42, 88 : Kidnapping: Traffickers may kidnap their victims. They may lure them with food or treats or take them by force. Victims with few if any social ties are highly vulnerable, as no one will miss them or report their disappearance. Targeting poor families: Traffickers may convince families to sell their children (often daughters). Because many families in developing countries live in abject poverty, traffickers will stress to victims families how the money will help them to survive. Other traffickers may tell families that selling their daughter will provide her with more promising opportunities. Fake storefronts: Some employment, modeling, or marriage agencies are fronts for illegal trafficking operations. A potential victim might be lured with the promise of employment, a lucrative modeling contract, or an arranged marriage in the United States. After victims have been lured in, traffickers come to assess their product. Legal storefronts: Some legal businesses in the tourism, entertainment, and leisure industries integrate trafficking activities into their business structure. Recruiting local prostitutes: Traffickers might purchase prostitutes working in local night clubs from brothel owners or simply lure prostitutes by promising them a more affluent future. In some cases, the perpetrators are family members, friends, or acquaintances of the victims and families. In a study focused on child trafficking in Albania, interview participants indicated that some trafficking recruiters were individuals known to the families 43. They would tell stories of better opportunities, such as jobs andor education for the child and the ability of the child to send money back to their family, in order to recruit new victims. Recruiters or pimps are often women who had been lured into the sex industry themselves. One study found that 60 of the perpetrators were female who reported that they felt the only way to survive and even possibly escape was to lure other young women 89. This is a particularly common practice in Thailand 87 . The Financial Profits Unfortunately, human trafficking can be a lucrative business. According to the ILO, profits from forced labor, trafficking, and modern slavery are estimated to be 150 billion annually 90. The majority of this total is attributable to commercial sexual exploitation (99 billion) followed by constructionmanufacturingmining (34 billion), agriculture (9 billion), and domestic work (8 billion) 90 . The receiving country and location of trafficking will affect the profits. For example, if a girl is kidnapped from a village in Nepal and taken to India, she can be sold in India for 1,000 42. If she is then trafficked to the United States, she could be sold for 20,000. Interestingly, the cost of a slave has not risen over time. According to Bales, the cost of obtaining a slave to work in the agriculture sector in 2007 was about 100 in 1850, this same slave would cost the equivalent of 40,000 in 2007 currency 44 . CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING: IMPACT ON VICTIMS The social realities of victims of human trafficking are difficult to comprehend, and some may wonder why victims remained silent and complied with their traffickers. The Silence Compliance Model was created to explore the factors that promote victims seeming willingness to comply to their traffickers demands 91. This model has three categories: coercion, collusion, and contrition. Victims are coerced, brutalized, and threatened, and basic necessities of life are withheld from them. This serves to silence victims and create a sense of helplessness. Victims are then forced to collude with the traffickers as a result of their relative isolation, fear, false sense of belonging, and complete dependence on the trafficker. Finally, victims feel contrite, ashamed, stigmatized, and remorseful of the things they have been made to do 91 . PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES Victims of trafficking experience a host of psychological, mental health, and emotional distress. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common given the trauma many victims experience, including physical andor sexual violence and abuse victims forced into prostitution experience continual, daily sexual assault 49. In a study of 192 European women who were trafficked but who managed to escape, the overwhelming majority (95) disclosed that they experienced physical and sexual violence during the time of their trafficked experience 50. More than 90 reported sexual abuse, and 76 reported physical abuse. Trafficked victims experience fear from the start of their capture through the transit phase and after they arrive at their destination. During the transit stage, many victims experience dangerous border crossings, risky types of transports, injury, beatings, and sexual assault 41. Upon arrival to their destination, many trafficking victims have been socially isolated, held in confinement, and deprived of food. All sense of security is stripped from themtheir personal possessions, identity papers, passports, visas, and other documents 41. The continual fear for their personal safety and their families safety and the perpetual threats of deportation ultimately breed a sense of loss of control and learned helplessness. It is not surprising that depression, anxiety, and PTSD are common symptoms experienced by trafficked victims. In a study of 164 survivors of human trafficking who returned to Nepal, the authors examined the extent to which they experienced PTSD, depression, and anxiety 51. All of the survivors experienced some level of these disorders, but the survivors who were trafficked for sex experienced higher levels of depression and PTSD compared to those who were not trafficked for sex. In a study with Moldovan survivors of human trafficking, researchers found that six months after their return, 54 had diagnosable mental health issue. Specifically, 35.8 met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 12.5 met the criteria for major depression, and 5.8 were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder 92 . There is also some evidence that trafficked victims may experience complex PTSD, a type of PTSD that involves an acute change of the victims sense of self, their relationship with others, and their relationship with God or higher being 93. These persons direct anger inwardly (toward themselves) in addition to toward their perpetrators, which results in a loss of faith in themselves and the world 93 . Substance abuse is also common among victims. In interviews, trafficked women discussed how traffickers forced them to use substances like drugs andor alcohol so they could work longer hours, take on more clients, andor perform sexual acts that they could not normally 41. Other victims used substances as a means to cope with their situations. Children forced into labor experience grueling hours and are frequently beaten by their owners. According to Clawson and Goldblatt, underage victims of domestic sex trafficking fluctuate through a range of emotions from despair, shame, guilt, hopelessness, anxiety, and fear 52. Depending upon the level of trauma, some engage in self-destructive behaviors like self-mutilation or suicide attempts. For some, their ambivalence toward the perpetrators may be confusing. On the one hand, they want to escape the abuse, yet simultaneously, they may have a sort of traumatic bond with the perpetrators 52 . Children forced into conscription will also experience a host of psychological symptoms. In a study comparing former Nepalese child soldiers and children who were never conscripted, former child soldiers experienced higher levels of depression, anxiety, PTSD, psychological difficulties, and functional impairments 53. In another study of former children soldiers from the Congo and Uganda, one-third met the criteria for PTSD 26. The researchers found there was a relationship between greater levels of PTSD symptoms and higher levels of feelings of revenge and lower levels of openness to reconciliation 26. In-depth narrative interviews of former child soldiers from northern Uganda found that the children spoke of the violence and atrocities they witnessed without any emotion, as if they had removed themselves from their experiences 94. This speaks to how the victims have to numb themselves psychologically in order to cope. The researchers also found that the children who lost their mothers were more traumatized by this experience than the violence they witnessed as soldiers. Some have argued that the diagnostic criteria of PTSD may not be easily applied to those from different cultures. As a result, it is important to assess for other psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Japan, for example, never used the PTSD diagnosis prior to 1995, despite the fact that they have a large and intricate mental health system 54. Ultimately, PTSD cannot be universally applied to every culture and for every humanitarian crisis therefore, if a human trafficking victim does not necessarily fall within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for PTSD, one cannot necessarily conclude that they have not experienced trauma or are not traumatized 54 . SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES When rescued and attempting to reintegrate into their communities, victims of human trafficking often experience stigma, ostracism, and marginalization 53. For example, in Nepal, community members perceived returning child soldiers who had performed acts such as carrying dead bodies or coed sleeping as in violation of Hindu cultural norms 53. One documentary following former child soldiers living in a refugee camp in northern Uganda found that preconceived notions and myths about children soldiers often led to ridicule and ostracism after they were liberated from the army and returned home. However, girls who were recruited as soldiers, who were forced to have sex, or who return with children appear to be the most marginalized group 55. In a qualitative study of former girl soldiers in Sierra Leone, researchers found that, compared to returning boy soldiers, girls were perceived to have violated gender norms and values about sexuality. Although psychologically and developmentally they were still children, the community perceived and treated them as damaged or unclean women. Their communities were not able to integrate them back in despite the victimization they experienced. These girls lacked voice and experienced shame, marginalization, poverty, and powerlessness upon their return 55 . HEALTH CONSEQUENCES In one study of trafficked women, headaches, fatigue, dizziness, back pain, pelvic pain, stomach pain, and gynecological infections were common, generally the result of continual physical, psychological, and sexual abuse 50. It is important to remember that some of these somatic complaints, such as headaches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems, may be underlying symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress 50. Some cultural groups might not use the terms depression, sad, or anxious, but may use metaphors and somatic symptoms to describe their pain, all of which are embedded within cultural ideologies. The most common culture-based idioms of distress are somatic symptoms. Some groups tend not to psychologize emotional problems instead, they experience psychological conflicts as bodily sensations (e.g. headaches, bodily aches, gastrointestinal problems, and dizziness). Using an in-depth, direct interview survey designed to explore each stage of the trafficking experience, a multi-country European study identified a range of aversive health, sexual, and reproductive consequences common among women and adolescent victims of human trafficking 41 : Pre-departure stage: All victims reported having had limited knowledge of the health implications of having sex with strangers, and only 1 in 25 felt well-informed regarding the risks of acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel and transit stage: Half of those interviewed reported having been confined, beaten, andor raped during the journey. Destination stage: A large majority reported having been intentionally hurt (as evidenced by contusions, lacerations, loss of consciousness, and signs of head trauma) subjected to solitary confinement and deprived of human contact and adequate food and nutrition subject to a variety of physical ailments, including headache, fever, undiagnosed pelvic pain, urinary tract infection, STIs, rashscabies, and oraldental health issues. All had experienced repeated sexual abuse or coercion, and 1 in 4 reported at least one unintended pregnancy (often involving negative outcomes of abortions performed in unsafe and unhealthy conditions). The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV has identified trafficked womencommercial sex workers as a group vulnerable to sexual violence. Inquiries about such vulnerabilities will help to identify those in need of additional support and help to facilitate appropriate referrals to mental health services, general practitioners, and support agencies. Access to interpreter and advocacy services may be helpful. Level of Evidence: Expert OpinionConsensus Statement In the context of forced prostitution among trafficked victims, safeguards against infection (e.g. regular condom use), early diagnosis, and adequate antimicrobial treatment are inconsistently employed or absent entirely 41. Consequently, in addition to unwanted pregnancy, the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility is relatively high. Moreover, the relationship between forced prostitution and HIV infection is stronger when sexual violence is involved. Women who are forced into prostitution are 11 times more likely to become HIV-infected than women who entered prostitution voluntarily 95. Sexual violence may increase the transmission risk as a result of open abrasions and injuries to the vagina. Furthermore, sexual violence can negatively impact self-esteem, which could then deter victims from advocating more strongly for condom use 95 . Among child victims of human trafficking, healthy growth and development is especially problematic. Malnourishment and poor hygiene often lead to delayed bone growth, poorly formed teeth, and early dental caries 59. The intense nature of child labor also has severe negative physical and health consequences. Children working in unsafe conditions without protection, such as in mines or mills, can lead to respiratory problems such as asthma and bronchitis 57. A study of adult and child laborers on tobacco farms in Kazakhstan found that the workers were unaware that exposure to tobacco and pesticides could affect their health. Protective garments were also rare, which many children not even having gloves 96 . Under normal circumstances, young children are still developing physically however, such adverse conditions can halt their development. The lungs of adolescent boys typically experience the most rapid growth around 13 to 17 years of age working in conditions characterized by excessive toxic dust or unclean air makes them more vulnerable to developing silicosis and fibrosis 57. In the United States, young children participating in agricultural work are at risk of the major traumas associated with farm work, such as injuries caused by tractors or falling from heights, in addition to those injuries associated with repetitive stress and exposure to toxins. Children have thinner layers of epidermis, which make them more vulnerable to the toxicity of pesticides, and this can ultimately increase their risks for certain cancers 57. Children working in gold mines do intensive digging, lifting, and transporting and mix mercury with the crushed ore, often with their bare hands. Mercury toxicity can lead to neurological symptoms such as loss of vision, tremors, and memory loss 96 . IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT Healthcare providers are often the most likely to encounter a victim of human trafficking under circumstances that provide an opportunity to intervene. Because human trafficking and exploitation are, by nature, covert processes, the identification and rescue of the victim can be difficult. Traffickers move victims from one area to another to reduce the risk of identification, and one of the main problems with the assessment of such individuals is that practitioners may only have a one-time encounter with the victim 98. Bruises, scars, and other signs of physical abuse may be missed on examination, as victims are often beaten in areas hidden by clothing (e.g. the lower back) so as not to affect the victims outer appearance. In a survey of 110 emergency department physicians, nurses, and physician assistants, the majority (76) reported having a knowledge of human trafficking, but only 13 felt equipped to identify a trafficking victim and only 22 were confident in their ability to provide satisfactory care for such patients 106. Less than 3 had ever received any training on this topic. In a separate survey of healthcare and social service providers, only 37 had ever received training on identification of trafficking victims 109. With regard to episodic clinical encounters, recommendations for providing safe assessments in a culturally sensitive manner are lacking. The Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families maintains a useful website that addresses practical issues of human trafficking for allied professional groups, known as the Rescue and Restore Campaign 59. Included are diagnostic and interviewing tips to help healthcare providers recognize, intervene, and refer trafficking victims. Emergency and primary care providers should be cognizant of clues that a patient may be the victim of trafficking and prepared to engage in greater depth of inquiry with special attention to the following indicators 59, 65, 97. Does someone, other than family, who behaves in a controlling manner, accompany the patient Traffickers attempt to guard and control most every aspect of the victims life, while maintaining isolation from family, friends, and other common forms of human interaction. Does the patient speak English If not, has he or she recently been brought to this country, and from where Many victims of human trafficking have recently been trafficked from other countries. As discussed, common sending countriesregions include Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa, India, and Russia. If the patient is accompanied by someone other than a family member, who does the talking, and why Attempt to interview and examine the patient separately and alone, using an interpreter if necessary. Probe in a sensitive manner for detailed information on the situation and relationship. Does the patient show signs of psychosocial stress (e.g. appears withdrawn, submissive, fearful, anxious, depressed) Can the individual account for this Are there visible signs of physical abuse (e.g. bruises, lacerations, scars) How does the individual explain these Does the patient lack a passport or other immigration and identification documentation (e.g. drivers license, social security number, visa) If so, what explanation is given To control victims movements, traffickers often take away passports and any legal identification documents. What is the patients home and work situation Basic questions about what they eat, where they live and sleep, who else lives with them, and what work they do can be revealing. For example, Can you leave your work or job situation if you wish or When you are not working, can you come and go as you please Is the explanation given for the clinical visit consistent with the patients presentation and clinical findings If answers to these questions indicate that an individual may be a victim of human trafficking, one should contact the National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1-888-373-7888. Under the child abuse laws, practitioners who are mandated reporters and who are suspicious that a minor is being abused should immediately report the abuse. For more information regarding specific states reporting requirements, please visit childwelfare.govtopicssystemwidelaws-policiesstate . INTERVIEWING TRAFFICKED VICTIMS: BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES According to the World Health Organization, a minimum condition for healthcare providers to ask women about violence is that it is safe to do so (i.e. the perpetrator is not present) they must be trained on the correct way to ask and on how to respond to women who disclose violence. Level of Evidence: Expert OpinionConsensus Statement Service providers should repeatedly weigh the risks and benefits of various actions when interviewing human trafficking victims 88, 99, 100. The following interviewing recommendations were published by the World Health Organization to encourage service providers to continually and ethically promote human trafficking victims safety during every phase of the interviewing process 66. Each victim and trafficking situation should be treated as unique there are no standard templates of experiences. Listen carefully to the victims story. Each story told is unique, and each patient will voice distinctive concerns. Believe each story, no matter how incredible it may seem. As rapport and trust build (perhaps very slowly), accounts may become more extensive. Always be safe and assume the victim is at risk of physical, psychological, social, and legal harm. Evaluate the risks and benefits of interviewing before starting the interviewing process. The interviewing process should not invoke more distress. In other words, the interviewing process should not end up re-traumatizing the victim. Provide referrals for services where necessary however, it is necessary to be realistic and not make promises that cannot be kept. Trust is vital because it has been severed on so many levels for trafficking victims. Victims readiness to change will not be based on what societal defines as ready or social expectations. Some victims will eagerly grasp new opportunities, while others may be fearful of potential traffickers threat and be less receptive to help. Determine the need for interpreters and if other service providers should be present during the interviewing phase. Ensure that everyone involved is adequately prepared in their knowledge about human trafficking, how perpetrators control their victims, and how to ask questions in a culturally sensitive manner. Keep in mind that often times, traffickers will offer to help with the interpreting. All involved should be prepared for an emergency plan. For example, is there a set plan for a victim who indicates heshe is suicidal or in danger of being hurt Always be sure to obtain informed consent. Remember the informed consent process is going to be unfamiliar to many victims. In addition, self-determination and autonomy have been compromised by continual threatens and being forced to commit dehumanizing acts. Avoid using legal and technical jargon. Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act In May 2015, the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act (JVTA) became law, allowing survivors formal input in federal anti-trafficking policy and providing incentives for states to enact laws to prevent the prosecution of child victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to trafficking. The JVTA provides additional bases of criminal liability for those who patronize or solicit trafficking victims for commercial sex and creates a new offense prohibiting the advertising of sex trafficking activity. It also clarifies that traffickers in child sex trafficking cases who had a reasonable opportunity to observe the victim can no longer claim ignorance about a victims age as a defense 27 . Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act A wide range of laws have been established to protect human trafficking victims and to prosecute perpetrators. A general knowledge of these laws is helpful when caring for victims and seeking appropriate social services. The VTVPA was enacted in 2000 and reauthorized in 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2013 by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Acts 27. It emphasizes the three Ps: prevention, protection, and prosecution 102. The prevention component consists of training and awareness the protection dimension gives trafficked victims the ability to receive services using federal funds like other refugees and the prosecution component focuses on laws and policies for the prosecution of traffickers. Because victims of trafficking are often viewed as criminals, this law states that victims of severe trafficking should not be penalized for any illegal behaviors or acts they engaged in as a result of being trafficked, including entering the United States with false documents or no documentation or working without appropriate paperwork 42. This law also allows T Nonimmigrant Status (T visas) to be granted to victims of trafficking so they may remain in the United States with the purpose of collaborating with the federal authorities to prosecute the perpetrators. During this time, victims are offered a range of benefits and services, including access to the Witness Protection Program 42. After three years, victims can apply for permanent resident status 8 . One of the criticisms of the Act is that it places the burden of demonstrating innocence and coercion on the victim 34. The Act also fails to recognize the complex dynamics of human trafficking. Many victims have been abused and terrorized by the perpetrators, who they must now provide information and evidence against to stay in the country. Victims are continually fearful that they will be deported 34 . Victims who are of minor age are eligible for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors programs, the Childrens Health Insurance program, and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families 58. Furthermore, victims between 16 and 24 years of age are eligible for work permits and can apply for the Job Corps program 58. However, it is important to remember that the key to this law is that the victim must have experienced a severe form of trafficking and the victim must be willing to assist in the apprehension and prosecution of the perpetrator to receive services 31 . Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act was introduced and signed into law in 2013. It allocated 5 million in 2009, 7 million in 2010, 7 million in 2011, and 8 million annually through 2017 to provide services to victims and to prevent human trafficking 12, 64, 110. It amends the VTVPA and assists foreign governments to implement programs to prevent human trafficking. Victims of human trafficking in other countries are also eligible for assistance through organizations that have grants from the U.S. government 64. Greater monitoring of trafficking trends through databases will also be implemented. The Act also declares that it is not a defense that a defendant is not criminally liable or is subject to reduced criminal liability due to acceptance of the illicit conduct in the foreign jurisdiction. The Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act The Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act was enacted in 2003. This law maintains that all sexual activity with minors, within or outside the United States, is illegal. American citizens who engage in sex with minors in any country and who are caught will be prosecuted in the United States 42 . As of 2012, all 50 states have enacted criminal anti-trafficking laws. In addition, very state has a law on labor trafficking, and all but two states have passed criminal statutes for sex trafficking 103 . COUNTERTRANSFERENCE, SECONDARY TRAUMATIZATION, AND SELF CARE INTERNATIONAL AND POLITICAL COUNTERTRANSFERENCE International and political countertransference can occur when practitioners work with patients from other countries and cultural groups 67. This is manifested on several levels. First, practitioners may assume that what works in the United States can be applied to immigrants and refugees. This enthnocentric view presupposes that Western paradigms about healing and well-being are universal to all cultures. Second, the Western construct of the healthcare or social service provider as an expert may promote unequal power relationships 67. These attitudes can be quickly picked up by victims of human trafficking, which can negatively impact the rapport and trust building phases of the therapeutic relationship. The most prevalent assumption is that because the victim has been abused and has undergone dehumanizing treatment, he or she will want to leave. Yet, trafficked victims have been known to miss their traffickers, have ambivalent feelings about leaving their situation, or feel that sex work is the only viable option for them 99. This can be difficult for practitioners to accept. Practitioners may be, consciously or unconsciously, affected by media depictions of particular cultural groups and the social problem of human trafficking 67. Media portrayals can mold social norms and beliefs, which can then translate into ethnocentric, imperialist, or negative reactions and responses toward the victim. For example, human sex trafficking and prostitution are often linked by the media, and the practitioners beliefs about prostitution can affect his or her relationship with the victim. A common instinctive reaction to prostitution is to remove the individual from the situation, with force if necessary 67. Similarly, the media often shows young female human trafficking victims being collected by police officers. This may cause practitioners to believe on some level that victims of human trafficking are criminals. In many cases, the media perpetuates racialized and colonizing views of women of color who are victims of sex trafficking 34. The colonizing depictions reinforce the myth that women from developing countries are helpless and powerless, deserving of our protection and worthy of being saved 34. To what extent have these messages been internalized and how might these messages ultimately affect practitioners attitudes and beliefs systems about human trafficking victims SECONDARY TRAUMATIZATION The terms secondary traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, secondary victimization, vicarious traumatization, and compassion fatigue refer to the psychological impact of being in close contact with those who are directly affected by trauma and helping or wanting to help the victim. Figley has defined secondary traumatic stress as, the natural, consequent behaviors and emotions resulting from knowledge about a traumatizing event experienced by a significant other 68. Vicarious traumatization consists of a transformation of the inner experience of the therapist that comes about as a result of empathic engagement with patients trauma material 69. Vicarious traumatization can include emotional and cognitive arousal symptoms such as increased emotional sensitivity, lack of well-being, intrusive thoughts, and difficulty concentrating 70 . Secondary trauma can affect practitioners beliefs about the world, others, and self 71. For example, humans have beliefs about safety, trust, sense of control, intimacy, and sense of esteem and competence 71. But trauma, even indirect trauma, can disturb these beliefs. Trauma that is caused by another human (e.g. abuse) may be more difficult for practitioners to cope with because it is related to the issue of human evilness. Human trafficking certainly raises questions about how one human can inflict such terror upon another. Ultimately, this profoundly affects existing beliefs, more so than trauma caused by natural events (e.g. natural disasters) 71 . PRACTITIONER SELF CARE In a study of clinicians who work with sexual abuse survivors, clinicians were asked what parts of their work were enjoyable. They indicated that they enjoyed being part of the journey and process of patients growing, healing, and changing. Witnessing patients resilience and strength also spurs clinicians own personal growth. However, one cannot ignore that when practitioners who work with victims of trauma, including human trafficking, they enter the world of victimization, horror, and abuse through their patients detailed and graphic stories. As a result of building a rapport and relationship with their patients, practitioners share their emotional burden. This can affect clinicians socially, psychologically, spiritually, andor interpersonally. Self care is integral to the prevention of negative symptoms such as burnout, secondary traumatization, and compassion fatigue. Practitioners education, training, and licenses do not necessarily provide effective shields to these types of stressors 73. To some extent, practitioners might be more vulnerable to neglecting self care because rigorous academic studies and early professional training may have overlooked this aspect of professional life 73 . Self care can consist of an array activities that touch on the following domains: physical (e.g. exercise, nutrition, sleep), recreational (e.g. play activities, vacation time, hobbies), social support (e.g. interaction with friends, family members), and spiritualreligious (e.g. prayer, meditation) 70. Self-care activities exist along a continuum, with proactive planning and reactive intervention on either end 70. Practitioners should determine where along this continuum they will implement self-care activities. To be most effective, self care should be viewed as proactive rather than reactive when a specific stressor occurs. Practitioners should spend some time asking themselves about the specific behaviors they are currently engaging 70. For example, what type of exercise regimen is the practitioner currently engaged in How frequently How often does the practitioner interact with friends (with whom specifically) 70. A self-care plan might also include cognitive and stress management techniques, such as biofeedback, hypnosis, and other cognitive strategies. A self-care plan could also actively incorporate rest into day-to-day practice. Committing time daily to a meditation or deep breathing practice can be beneficial 104 . Practitioners are often told to leave their work at work, but this is often not as simple as it sounds. A ritual may be needed to make a concrete transition from work to home, such as walking in silence around the block for 5 minutes before getting into the car to drive home 104 . The monitoring of self care is as important as establishing a plan. Self-care check-ins can be established, whereby practitioners are assigned to peers so they can hold each other accountable to their self-care plans 75. Or if a practitioner is comfortable, a supervisor can incorporate this monitoring into hisher regular supervision. When providing education and interventions to practitioners about self care and secondary traumatization, a message of blaming the victim (practitioner) can inadvertently be conveyed 76. Practitioners may feel that they are perceived as weak because they are encouraged to take care of themselves. Along the same lines, organizations should determine if their culture and climate may implicitly convey a message that hinders practitioners from engaging in self-care activities. For example, is taking vacation time implicitly associated with a lack of commitment or dedication If practitioners do not work overtime, do they feel they will be perceived as less motivated than their colleagues who are working overtime 77. Is there space in the work environment for practitioners to relax Ensuring that there is a designated space for practitioners to take breaks after emotionally difficult meetings with patients and their families can encourage self-care behaviors 77 . POST-TRAUMATIC GROWTH Victims of tremendous trauma may experience PTSD and a range of negative consequences socially, emotionally, and relationally. However, post-traumatic growth can also occur. Post-traumatic growth refers to a set of positive changes that develop in response to trauma 105. Some will grow relationally, with enhanced relationships with others and a greater sense of compassion for others. Some will grow in terms of seeing themselves in a new way and developing a stronger sense of identity. Others will acquire a new personal life philosophy of life and greater appreciation for life 105. Practitioners witnessing post-traumatic growth may also experience a positive impact in their professional and personal lives. CONCLUSION Human trafficking is a severe human rights violation. Because the roots of human trafficking are multifaceted, no one solution exists to eliminate this problem. Unfortunately, as the problem grows, practitioners will be confronted with the issue in their patient populations. Practitioners should be committed to the collaboration amongst disciplines to address poverty, racism, discrimination, and oppression in order to reduce the vulnerable positions of human trafficking victims and their families. Because of the social justice component in the codes of ethics of professionals such as physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, and counselors, all practitioners can play a key role in the individual, community, and systemic levels to help address this gross abuse of power. One way to begin is to educate oneself and ones respective disciplines about the global nature of human trafficking and the complex dynamics of the problem. This video is California Attorney General Kamala Harriss keynote address at Examining the Roots of Human Trafficking and Exploitation, the 20142015 UCLA School of Law Symposium. This recording from the January 2015 University of California Los Angeles Law Review Symposium is provided with permission from the University of California Los Angeles, School of Law.
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