Moving-average-200-aex

Moving-average-200-aex

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Opsi pasar saham India-berjangka Online-stock-trading --- td-ameritrade Jp-morgan-online-trading-game Bagaimana-do-you-trade-weekly-options Options-trading-dictionary Sinyal upshot-trading

Dasar-Dasar Perdagangan Algorithmik: Konsep dan Contoh Algoritma adalah seperangkat instruksi yang didefinisikan secara jelas yang bertujuan untuk melaksanakan tugas atau proses. Perdagangan Algoritma (perdagangan otomatis, perdagangan kotak hitam, atau perdagangan algo-trading) adalah proses menggunakan komputer yang diprogram untuk mengikuti serangkaian instruksi yang ditetapkan untuk menempatkan perdagangan agar menghasilkan keuntungan dengan kecepatan dan frekuensi yang tidak mungkin dilakukan. Pedagang manusia Kumpulan aturan yang ditetapkan didasarkan pada timing, price, quantity atau model matematis. Terlepas dari peluang keuntungan bagi trader, algo-trading membuat pasar lebih likuid dan membuat perdagangan lebih sistematis dengan mengesampingkan dampak emosional manusia pada aktivitas perdagangan. Anggaplah seorang pedagang mengikuti kriteria perdagangan sederhana ini: Beli 50 saham dari saham ketika rata-rata pergerakan 50 hari di atas rata-rata pergerakan 200 hari Menjual saham saat rata-rata pergerakan 50 hari di bawah rata-rata pergerakan 200 hari Dengan menggunakan dua instruksi sederhana ini, mudah untuk menulis program komputer yang secara otomatis memantau harga saham (dan indikator rata-rata bergerak) dan menempatkan pesanan beli dan jual saat kondisi pasti terpenuhi. Pedagang tidak perlu lagi berjaga-jaga untuk harga langsung dan grafik, atau dimasukkan ke dalam pesanan secara manual. Sistem perdagangan algoritmik secara otomatis melakukannya untuknya, dengan mengidentifikasi peluang trading dengan benar. (Untuk lebih lanjut tentang moving averages, lihat: Simple Moving Averages Membuat Trends Stand Out.) Algo-trading memberikan keuntungan sebagai berikut: Perdagangan dieksekusi pada harga terbaik Instan dan penempatan order perdagangan yang akurat (sehingga peluang eksekusi yang tinggi pada tingkat yang diinginkan) Perdagangan Berjangka waktu dengan benar dan seketika, untuk menghindari perubahan harga yang signifikan Mengurangi biaya transaksi (lihat contoh penerapan di bawah ini) Pemeriksaan otomatis simultan pada beberapa kondisi pasar Mengurangi risiko kesalahan manual dalam menempatkan perdagangan Backtest algoritma, berdasarkan data historis dan real time yang ada Dikurangi Kemungkinan kesalahan oleh pedagang manusia berdasarkan faktor emosional dan psikologis Bagian terbesar dari perdagangan algo hari ini adalah perdagangan frekuensi tinggi (HFT), yang mencoba memanfaatkan penempatan sejumlah besar pesanan pada kecepatan yang sangat cepat di beberapa pasar dan beberapa keputusan. Parameter, berdasarkan instruksi yang telah diprogram sebelumnya. (Perdagangan valas yang lebih banyak, lihat: Strategi dan Rahasia Perusahaan Perdagangan Frekuensi Tinggi (HFT)) Algo-trading digunakan dalam berbagai bentuk aktivitas perdagangan dan investasi, termasuk: Investor jangka menengah hingga jangka panjang atau perusahaan penjual beli (dana pensiun , Reksadana, perusahaan asuransi) yang membeli saham dalam jumlah banyak namun tidak ingin mempengaruhi harga saham dengan investasi besar dan volume. Pedagang berjangka pendek dan pelaku jualan (pelaku pasar, spekulan, dan arbitrase) mendapat keuntungan dari pelaksanaan perdagangan otomatis di samping itu, alat bantu perdagangan algo untuk menciptakan likuiditas yang cukup bagi penjual di pasar. Pedagang yang sistematis (pengikut tren, pedagang pasang, hedge fund dll) merasa jauh lebih efisien untuk memprogram peraturan perdagangan mereka dan membiarkan program bertransaksi secara otomatis. Perdagangan algoritma menyediakan pendekatan yang lebih sistematis terhadap perdagangan aktif daripada metode yang didasarkan pada intuisi atau naluri pedagang manusia. Strategi Perdagangan Algoritmik Setiap strategi untuk perdagangan algoritmik memerlukan peluang teridentifikasi yang menguntungkan dalam hal peningkatan pendapatan atau pengurangan biaya. Berikut adalah strategi perdagangan umum yang digunakan dalam algo-trading: Strategi trading algoritmik yang paling umum mengikuti tren dalam moving averages. Saluran berjerawat Pergerakan tingkat harga dan indikator teknis terkait. Ini adalah strategi termudah dan paling sederhana untuk diterapkan melalui perdagangan algoritmik karena strategi ini tidak melibatkan prediksi atau perkiraan harga. Perdagangan dimulai berdasarkan terjadinya tren yang diinginkan. Yang mudah dan lugas untuk diimplementasikan melalui algoritma tanpa masuk ke kompleksitas analisis prediktif. Contoh yang disebutkan di atas tentang rata-rata pergerakan 50 dan 200 hari adalah tren yang populer mengikuti strategi. (Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang strategi perdagangan tren, lihat: Strategi Sederhana untuk Memanfaatkan Tren.) Membeli saham yang tercatat ganda dengan harga lebih rendah di satu pasar dan sekaligus menjualnya dengan harga lebih tinggi di pasar lain menawarkan selisih harga sebagai keuntungan bebas risiko Atau arbitrase Operasi yang sama dapat direplikasi untuk instrumen saham versus futures, karena perbedaan harga memang ada dari waktu ke waktu. Menerapkan algoritma untuk mengidentifikasi perbedaan harga tersebut dan menempatkan pesanan memungkinkan peluang menguntungkan secara efisien. Dana indeks telah menetapkan periode penyeimbangan ulang untuk membawa kepemilikan mereka setara dengan indeks benchmark masing-masing. Hal ini menciptakan peluang menguntungkan bagi pedagang algoritmik, yang memanfaatkan perdagangan yang diharapkan yang menawarkan keuntungan 20-80 basis poin bergantung pada jumlah saham dalam dana indeks, sebelum penyeimbangan dana indeks. Perdagangan semacam itu dimulai melalui sistem perdagangan algoritmik untuk eksekusi tepat waktu dan harga terbaik. Banyak model matematis yang telah terbukti, seperti strategi perdagangan delta-netral, yang memungkinkan perdagangan kombinasi pilihan dan keamanan mendasarnya. Dimana perdagangan ditempatkan untuk mengimbangi delta positif dan negatif sehingga delta portofolio dipertahankan pada nol. Strategi pengembalian rata-rata didasarkan pada gagasan bahwa harga aset tinggi dan rendah merupakan fenomena sementara yang kembali ke nilai rata-rata mereka secara berkala. Mengidentifikasi dan menentukan kisaran harga dan menerapkan algoritma berdasarkan pada yang memungkinkan perdagangan ditempatkan secara otomatis saat harga aset turun masuk dan keluar dari kisaran yang ditentukan. Strategi harga rata-rata tertimbang volume memecah pesanan besar dan melepaskan potongan pesanan yang ditentukan secara dinamis dari pesanan ke pasar dengan menggunakan profil volume historis tertentu. Tujuannya adalah untuk melaksanakan order mendekati Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP), sehingga menguntungkan pada harga rata-rata. Strategi harga rata-rata tertimbang waktu mematahkan pesanan besar dan melepaskan potongan pesanan yang ditentukan secara dinamis dari pesanan ke pasar dengan menggunakan slot waktu yang dibagi rata antara waktu mulai dan akhir. Tujuannya adalah untuk melaksanakan perintah mendekati harga rata-rata antara waktu mulai dan akhir, sehingga meminimalkan dampak pasar. Sampai urutan perdagangan terisi penuh, algoritma ini terus mengirimkan sebagian pesanan, sesuai dengan rasio partisipasi yang ditentukan dan sesuai dengan volume yang diperdagangkan di pasar. Strategi langkah terkait mengirim pesanan pada persentase volume pasar yang ditentukan pengguna dan meningkatkan atau menurunkan tingkat partisipasi ini saat harga saham mencapai tingkat yang ditentukan pengguna. Strategi pelemahan implementasi bertujuan untuk meminimalkan biaya eksekusi suatu pesanan dengan melakukan perdagangan dari pasar real-time, sehingga menghemat biaya pesanan dan mendapatkan keuntungan dari biaya peluang eksekusi yang tertunda. Strategi ini akan meningkatkan tingkat partisipasi yang ditargetkan ketika harga saham bergerak dengan baik dan menurunkannya saat harga saham bergerak negatif. Ada beberapa kelas algoritma khusus yang mencoba mengidentifikasi kejadian di sisi lain. Algoritma sniffing ini, yang digunakan, misalnya, oleh pembuat pasar sell side memiliki kecerdasan bawaan untuk mengidentifikasi adanya algoritma pada sisi pembelian dengan pesanan besar. Deteksi seperti itu melalui algoritma akan membantu pembuat pasar mengidentifikasi peluang ketertiban besar dan memungkinkannya mendapatkan keuntungan dengan memenuhi pesanan dengan harga lebih tinggi. Ini terkadang dikenali sebagai front-running berteknologi tinggi. (Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang praktik perdagangan dan penipuan frekuensi tinggi, lihat: Jika Anda Membeli Saham Secara Online, Anda Terlibat dalam HFTs.) Persyaratan Teknis untuk Perdagangan Algoritma Menerapkan algoritma yang menggunakan program komputer adalah bagian terakhir, dipukuli dengan backtesting. Tantangannya adalah mengubah strategi yang teridentifikasi menjadi proses terkomputerisasi terpadu yang memiliki akses ke akun trading untuk menempatkan pesanan. Berikut ini adalah yang diperlukan: Pengetahuan pemrograman komputer untuk memprogram strategi perdagangan yang dibutuhkan, pemrogram yang dipekerjakan atau perangkat lunak perdagangan pra-dibuat Konektivitas jaringan dan akses ke platform perdagangan untuk menempatkan pesanan Akses ke umpan data pasar yang akan dipantau oleh algoritme untuk mendapatkan kesempatan Perintah Kemampuan dan infrastruktur untuk mendukung kembali sistem yang pernah dibangun, sebelum diluncurkan di pasar riil Data historis yang ada untuk backtesting, tergantung pada kompleksitas peraturan yang diterapkan dalam algoritma Berikut adalah contoh komprehensif: Royal Dutch Shell (RDS) terdaftar di Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX) dan London Stock Exchange (LSE). Mari kita membangun sebuah algoritma untuk mengidentifikasi peluang arbitrase. Berikut adalah beberapa pengamatan yang menarik: Perdagangan AEX dalam Euro, sementara perdagangan LSE di Sterling Pounds Karena perbedaan waktu satu jam, AEX dibuka satu jam lebih awal dari LSE, diikuti oleh perdagangan bursa secara simultan selama beberapa jam berikutnya dan kemudian diperdagangkan hanya di LSE selama Jam terakhir saat AEX ditutup Dapatkah kita menjelajahi kemungkinan perdagangan arbitrase pada saham Royal Dutch Shell yang terdaftar di dua pasar ini dalam dua mata uang yang berbeda Program komputer yang dapat membaca harga pasar saat ini Harga feed dari kedua LSE dan AEX Sebuah suku bunga valuta asing untuk Nilai tukar GBP-EUR Ketertiban menempatkan kemampuan yang dapat mengarahkan pesanan ke pertukaran yang benar Kemampuan pengujian kembali pada umpan harga historis Program komputer harus melakukan hal berikut: Baca umpan harga yang masuk dari saham RDS dari kedua bursa Dengan menggunakan kurs valuta asing yang tersedia . Ubah harga satu mata uang ke mata uang lainnya Jika ada selisih harga yang cukup besar (diskonto biaya broker) yang mengarah ke peluang yang menguntungkan, maka letakkan pesanan beli di bursa dengan harga lebih rendah dan pesan jual pada harga yang lebih tinggi. Jika pesanan dieksekusi sebagai Yang diinginkan, keuntungan arbitrase akan mengikuti Simple and Easy Namun, praktik perdagangan algoritmik tidak sesederhana itu untuk dipelihara dan dijalankan. Ingat, jika Anda bisa menempatkan perdagangan yang dihasilkan secara algo, demikian juga para pelaku pasar lainnya. Akibatnya, harga berfluktuasi dalam milenium dan bahkan mikrodetik. Dalam contoh di atas, apa yang terjadi jika perdagangan beli Anda akan dieksekusi, tapi menjual perdagangan tidak seperti harga jual berubah pada saat pesanan Anda menyentuh pasar Anda akan akhirnya duduk dengan posisi terbuka. Membuat strategi arbitrase Anda tidak berharga Ada risiko dan tantangan tambahan: misalnya, risiko kegagalan sistem, kesalahan konektivitas jaringan, kelambanan waktu antara pesanan dan eksekusi perdagangan, dan yang terpenting dari semua algoritma yang tidak sempurna. Algoritma yang lebih kompleks, backtesting yang lebih ketat diperlukan sebelum dilakukan. Analisis kuantitatif kinerja algoritma memainkan peran penting dan harus diperiksa secara kritis. Its menarik untuk pergi untuk otomatisasi dibantu oleh komputer dengan gagasan untuk menghasilkan uang dengan mudah. Tapi kita harus memastikan sistem diuji secara menyeluruh dan batas yang dibutuhkan ditetapkan. Analitik pedagang harus mempertimbangkan belajar pemrograman dan membangun sistem mereka sendiri, untuk yakin tentang pelaksanaan strategi yang tepat dengan cara yang sangat mudah. Penggunaan hati-hati dan pengujian menyeluruh terhadap algo-trading dapat menciptakan peluang yang menguntungkan. Total nilai pasar dolar dari seluruh saham perusahaan yang beredar. Kapitalisasi pasar dihitung dengan cara mengalikan. Frexit singkatan dari quotFrench exitquot adalah spinoff Prancis dari istilah Brexit, yang muncul saat Inggris memilih. Perintah ditempatkan dengan broker yang menggabungkan fitur stop order dengan pesanan limit. Perintah stop-limit akan. Ronde pembiayaan dimana investor membeli saham dari perusahaan dengan valuasi lebih rendah daripada valuasi yang ditempatkan pada. Teori ekonomi tentang pengeluaran total dalam perekonomian dan pengaruhnya terhadap output dan inflasi. Ekonomi Keynesian dikembangkan. Kepemilikan aset dalam portofolio. Investasi portofolio dilakukan dengan harapan menghasilkan laba di atasnya. This.Hypertextual Finance Glossary Hak Cipta salinan 2017. Semua Hak Seluruh Dunia Dilindungi. Jangan mereproduksi tanpa izin eksplisit. Tetap up to date pada istilah keuangan terbaru dengan aplikasi iPhonePhone baru saya Download dari iTunes Pesan buku saya dengan pemenang Pulitzer Prize 2002 untuk penulisan keuangan, Gretchen Morgenson dari Orde New York Times via Amazon Order via Barnes and Noble ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZA Surat kelima dari Simbol saham Nasdaq yang menentukan saham Kelas A. AAII Lihat: Asosiasi Investor Perorangan Amerika ABCP Lihat: Kertas Komersial Beragun Aset (ABCP) ABO Lihat: Akumulasi Kewajiban Manfaat ABS (1) Lihat: Sistem Obligasi Otomatis ABS (2) Lihat: Efek beragun aset ABW Negara ISO 3166 tiga karakter Kode untuk ARUBA Index ABX Index dibuat oleh perusahaan Markit. Hal ini didasarkan pada harga credit default swap pada indeks penyokong hipotek yang didukung sekuritas. Penurunan Indeks ABX mengindikasikan bahwa market associate lebih berisiko terhadap subprime mortgage. ACAT Lihat: Transfer Akun Otomatis Otomatis ACE Lihat: Sistem Penjadwalan Komputer Terkomputerisasi ACH Lihat: Sistem Kliring Pemulihan Otomatis ACI Lihat: Sistem pemulihan biaya yang dipercepat ACU Lihat: Unit mata uang ISO 3166 untuk ANDORRA. ADB (1) Lihat: Saldo Debit yang Disesuaikan ADB (2) Lihat: Bank Pembangunan Asia ADP Lihat: Pengolahan Data Otomatis, Inc. ADR Lihat: American Depositary Receipt ADS Lihat: American Depositary Share AE Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. AED Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Dirham Uni Emirat Arab. AEX See: Amsterdam Exchange AF Kode dua karakter ISO 3166 untuk AFGHANISTAN. AFA Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Afghani Afghanistan. AFG Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk AFGHANISTAN. AFM (1) Lihat: Pasar Keuangan Amman AFM (2) Lihat: Autoriteit Financieumlle Markten. AFS Lihat: Tersedia untuk Dijual AG Kode karakter ISO 3166 dua karakter untuk ANTIGUA DAN BARBUDAAG. Kejagung Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ANGOLA. AI Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ANGUILLAAI. AIA Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ANGUILLAAI. AIBD Association of International Bond Dealers AL Kode ISO-3166 dua karakter untuk ALBANIA. ALA Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ALAND ISLANDS. ALB Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ALBANIA. ALCO See: Komite Kewajiban Aset. SEMUA Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Albania Lek. ALLL Lihat Penyisihan atas kerugian pinjaman dan sewa. Sistem Perdagangan Alternatif ALT. Istilah ini didefinisikan berdasarkan Bagian 301 dari Undang-Undang Efek A.S.. AM Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ARMENIA. AMD Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Armenian dram. AMEX Lihat: American Stock Exchange AMF Lihat: Pemula Autoriteacute des Marcheacutes. AMLF Lihat: Fasilitas Likuiditas Reksa Dana Reksa Dana Pasar Uang Beragun Aset. AMPS Lihat: Auction Market Preferred Stock AN Kode karakter dua negara ISO 3166 untuk BELANDA ANTILLES. DAN Kode tiga karakter ISO 3166 untuk ANDORRA. ANG ISO 4217 kode mata uang untuk Netherlands Antilles rupiah Belanda. ANT Kode negara ISO 3166 tiga karakter untuk BELANDA ANTILLES. AO Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ANGOLA. AOCI See: Akumulasi Penghasilan Komprehensif Lainnya. AON See: All or none order AOR Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Angola Reajustado Kwanza. AOS Lihat: Sistem Pesanan Otomatis APR Lihat: Persentase Persentase Tahunan APT (1) Lihat: Teori Harga Arbitrase APT (2) Lihat: Automated Pit Trading APV Lihat: Nilai Sekarang yang Disesuaikan APY See: Persentase Tahunan Hasil AR 1) Lihat: Auto-Regressive 2) Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ARGENTINA. ARCH See: Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity ADALAH kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. ARG Kode tiga karakter ISO 3166 untuk ARGENTINA. ARM 1) Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ARMENIA. 2) Lihat: Adjustable-rate mortgage ARS Lihat: Auction Rate Securities (ARS) AQ Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ANTARCTICA. AR Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk ARGENTINA. ARG Kode tiga karakter ISO 3166 untuk ARGENTINA. ARS Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Peso Argentina. ARM Lihat: Adjustable-rate mortgage ARMS Lihat: Adjustable-rate mortgage securities ARPS (1) Lihat: Saham preferen dengan suku bunga disesuaikan ARPS (2) Lihat: Tingkat Lelang saham preferen ARR See: Tingkat pengembalian rata-rata SEBAGAI ISO dua karakter 3166 Kode negara untuk AMERICAN SAMOA. ASM Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk AMERICAN SAMOA. ASE Lihat: Bursa Efek Athena. ASX See: Australian Stock Exchange AT Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk AUSTRIA. ATA Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ANTARCTICA. ATF Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES. ATG Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk ANTIGUA DAN BARBUDAAG. ATP Lihat: Program Perdagangan Arbitrase ATS Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Schilling Austria. AU Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk AUSTRALIA. AUD Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk mata uang Dolar Australia. AUM Lihat: Aset yang dikelola AUS Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk AUSTRALIA. AUT Kode tiga karakter ISO 3166 untuk AUSTRIA. AW Dua karakter kode negara ISO 3166 untuk ARUBA. AWG Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Aruban guilder. AX Kode negara ISO 3166 dua negara untuk PULAU ALAND. AZ Kode dua negara ISO 3166 untuk AZERBAIJAN. AZE Kode tiga negara ISO 3166 untuk AZERBAIJAN. AZM Kode mata uang ISO 4217 untuk Azerbaijan Manat. A1 Peringkat tertinggi kelima dalam Moodys Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating. Kewajiban yang dinilai A1 dianggap kelas menengah atas dan memiliki risiko kredit rendah. Peringkat satu takik lebih tinggi adalah Aa3. Peringkat satu tingkat lebih rendah adalah A2 A2 Peringkat tertinggi keenam dalam Moodys Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating. Kewajiban yang dinilai A2 dianggap kelas menengah atas dan memiliki risiko kredit rendah. Peringkat satu takik lebih tinggi adalah A1. Peringkat satu takik lebih rendah adalah A3 A3 Peringkat tertinggi ketujuh dalam Moodys Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating. Kewajiban yang dinilai A3 dianggap kelas menengah atas dan memiliki risiko kredit rendah. Peringkat satu takik lebih tinggi adalah A2. Peringkat satu tingkat lebih rendah adalah Baa1 Aa1 Peringkat tertinggi kedua dalam Moodys Jangka Panjang Penilaian Kewajiban Korporasi. Kewajiban yang dinilai Aa1 dinilai berkualitas tinggi dan memiliki risiko kredit yang sangat rendah. Peringkat satu takik lebih tinggi adalah Aaa. Peringkat satu takik lebih rendah adalah Aa2 Aa2 Peringkat tertinggi ketiga dalam Moodys Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating. Kewajiban yang dinilai Aa2 dinilai berkualitas tinggi dan memiliki risiko kredit yang sangat rendah. Peringkat satu takik lebih tinggi adalah Aa1. Peringkat satu tingkat lebih rendah adalah Aa3 Aa3 Peringkat tertinggi keempat dalam Moodys Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating. Kewajiban yang dinilai Aa3 dinilai berkualitas tinggi dan memiliki risiko kredit yang sangat rendah. Rating satu takik lebih tinggi adalah Aa2. Peringkat satu tingkat lebih rendah adalah A1 Aaa Peringkat tertinggi dalam Moodys Jangka Panjang Penilaian Kewajiban Korporasi. Kewajiban yang dinilai Aaa dinilai berkualitas tinggi, dengan risiko kredit minimal. Peringkat satu takik lebih rendah adalah Aa1. AAA Bank Mengacu pada bank yang diberi peringkat AAA oleh IBCA, Moodys Investor Service dan Standard Poors. Pengabaian Pihak pengendali menyerahkan hak atas properti secara sukarela. Opsi abandonment Opsi untuk menghentikan investasi lebih awal dari yang direncanakan semula. Perjanjian ABC Kontrak antara karyawan dan perusahaan pialang yang menguraikan hak perusahaan yang membeli keanggotaan NYSE untuk karyawan tersebut. Kemampuan untuk membayar Mengacu pada kemampuan peminjam untuk melakukan pembayaran bunga dan pokok hutang. Lihat: Rasio cakupan biaya tetap. Dalam konteks obligasi daerah. Mengacu pada emiten sekarang dan kemampuan masa depan untuk menciptakan pendapatan pajak yang cukup untuk memenuhi kewajiban kontraktualnya. Akuntansi untuk pendapatan kota dan nilai properti. Dalam konteks perpajakan, anggapan bahwa tarif pajak harus ditentukan sesuai dengan pendapatan atau kekayaan. Abnormal returns Komponen pengembalian yang bukan karena pengaruh sistematis (marketwide influence). Dengan kata lain, abnormal return adalah selisih antara return aktual dan yang diharapkan bisa dihasilkan dari pergerakan pasar (return normal). Terkait: kelebihan return. Di atas par Lihat: Par. Keunggulan mutlak Seseorang, perusahaan atau negara memiliki keunggulan absolut jika output per unit input semua barang dan jasa yang dihasilkan lebih tinggi dari pada orang lain, perusahaan atau negara. Bentuk absolut paritas daya beli Suatu teori bahwa harga produk dari dua negara yang berbeda harus sama bila diukur dengan mata uang bersama. Disebut juga hukum satu harga. Kehidupan Fisik Mutlak Periode penggunaan setelah mana aset telah memburuk sedemikian rupa sehingga tidak dapat digunakan lagi. Aturan Prioritas Mutlak dalam proses kebangkrutan yang mewajibkan kreditur senior untuk dibayar lunas sebelum kreditur junior menerima pembayaran apa pun. Terserap Digunakan dalam konteks ekuitas umum. Efek diserap selama ada perintah yang sesuai untuk membeli dan menjual. Pasar telah mencapai titik absorpsi ketika asimilasi lebih lanjut tidak mungkin dilakukan tanpa penyesuaian harga. Lihat: Jual buku. Tempat penampungan pajak yang kasar Kemitraan terbatas bahwa hakim IRS mengklaim potongan pajak secara ilegal. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) Jadwal tarif penyusutan yang diperbolehkan untuk tujuan perpajakan. Klausul akselerasi Suatu kontrak yang menyatakan bahwa saldo yang belum dibayar menjadi jatuh tempo dan terhutang jika tindakan tertentu terjadi, seperti kegagalan untuk melakukan pembayaran sesuai waktu. Akselerasi depresiasi Metode penyusutan yang menghasilkan potongan depresiasi yang lebih besar pada tahun-tahun awal masa aset. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS). Yang merupakan jadwal penyusutan yang diperbolehkan untuk tujuan perpajakan, adalah salah satu contohnya. Akselerasi akuisisi Membeli sebuah perusahaan pada awal siklus hidupnya dan, biasanya, dengan harga murah Perjanjian Persetujuan Penerimaan dihasut ketika draf waktu draft menerima draft dengan menulis kata yang diterima di sana. Daya tariknya bertanggung jawab sebagai akseptor dan pembayaran pada saat jatuh tempo. Lihat: Letter of credit dan bankir penerimaan. Akomodasi Suatu bentuk pinjaman dimana peminjam tidak berkewajiban untuk mengkompensasi pemberi pinjaman. Pinjaman ini sering disertai dengan tagihan akomodasi. Yang menjamin bahwa pihak ketiga mengkompensasi pemberi pinjaman. Haruskah peminjam tidak mampu Lembaga keuangan bermasalah sering menggunakan pinjaman akomodasi. Pinjaman akomodasi Sebuah perjanjian hukum yang ditandatangani oleh dua pihak dimana salah satu penandatangan jaminan kewajiban kredit untuk co-signer lainnya. Akomodasi pinjaman, sering disebut akomodasi dukungan atau tagihan, memungkinkan penjamin untuk menambah kekuatan untuk kelayakan kredit pihak lain. Jika pihak penerima gagal membayar hutangnya. Penjamin kemudian bertanggung jawab atas hutang pihak lainnya. Lihat: Kovenan Kebijakan moneter akomodatif Kebijakan Sistem Federal Reserve untuk meningkatkan jumlah uang yang tersedia bagi bank untuk pinjaman. Lihat: Kebijakan moneter. Account Dalam konteks pembukuan, mengacu pada halaman buku besar di mana berbagai aset. Kewajiban. Pendapatan, dan biaya diwakili. Dalam konteks investment banking. Mengacu pada status sekuritas yang dijual dan dimiliki atau hubungan antar pihak dengan sindikat underwriting. Dalam konteks sekuritas. Hubungan antara klien dan perusahaan agen pialang yang memungkinkan karyawan perusahaan menjadi agen pembelian dan penjualan klien. Lihat: Pernyataan akun eksekutif akun. Account Ad Valorem Duty Sebuah impor barang dagangan pajak dinyatakan sebagai persentase. Saldo akun Kredit minus debit pada akhir periode pelaporan. Account executive Karyawan perusahaan pialang yang menangani pesanan saham untuk klien. Lihat: Pialang. Account in trust Account dikelola oleh pemegang rekening untuk orang lain, disebut beneficiary. Misalnya, akun dibuka oleh orang tua untuk memberi uang kepada anak kecil mereka. Pihak Rekening Pihak yang berlaku membuka bank untuk penerbitan letter of credit. Rekonsiliasi akun Meninjau dan menyesuaikan saldo di buku cek pribadi agar sesuai dengan pernyataan bank Anda. Pernyataan rekening Dalam konteks perbankan, mengacu pada ringkasan semua saldo. Pendapat akuntan Pernyataan yang ditandatangani dari akuntan publik independen setelah pemeriksaan catatan dan akun perusahaan. Pendapat tersebut mungkin tidak memenuhi syarat atau berkualitas. Lihat: Pendapat yang memenuhi syarat. Laba akuntansi Laba perusahaan seperti dilaporkan pada laporan laba rugi. Eksposur akuntansi Perubahan nilai akun perusahaan asing yang didiskreditkan karena perubahan nilai tukar. Bendahara Akuntansi Total kewajiban melebihi total aset. Perusahaan dengan kekayaan bersih negatif bangkrut dalam buku. Akuntansi likuiditas Kemudahan dan kecepatan dimana aset dapat dikonversi menjadi uang tunai. Hutang dibayarkan Hutang kepada pemasok. Piutang Uang yang terhutang oleh pelanggan. Pembiayaan piutang usaha Metode pembiayaan jangka pendek dimana piutang merupakan jaminan uang muka. Lihat: Anjak. Perputaran piutang Rasio penjualan kredit bersih terhadap rata-rata piutang usaha. Yang merupakan ukuran seberapa cepat pelanggan membayar tagihan mereka. Investor terakreditasi Mengacu pada individu yang memiliki kekayaan bersih. Atau kekayaan bersih bersama dengan pasangan, melebihi 1.000.000 atau yang pendapatan perorangannya melebihi 200.000 atau pendapatan gabungan dengan pasangan melebihi 300.000 dalam setiap 2 tahun terakhir dan dapat diharapkan untuk memenuhi pendapatan tersebut pada tahun berjalan. Rincian lebih lanjut tentang definisi bagi investor lain bahwa individu ditemukan dalam Peraturan D Komisi Sekuritas dan Bursa Efek. Accreting Swap) Swap tingkat suku bunga dimana jumlah pokok nosional meningkat dari waktu ke waktu, misalnya dengan pinjaman konstruksi yang diberikan dalam tranche karena setiap tahap proyek telah selesai. Akumulasi (diskonto) Dalam akuntansi portofolio, akumulasi keuntungan linier lurus pada obligasi diskon untuk mengantisipasi penerimaan nominal pada saat jatuh tempo. Akuntansi Akrual Suatu sistem akuntansi yang mencoba menyesuaikan pengakuan pendapatan dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk menghasilkan pendapatan tersebut. Ini mengabaikan waktu arus kas yang terkait dengan pendapatan dan biaya. Dasar akrual Dalam konteks akuntansi, praktik di mana biaya dan pendapatan dicatat karena diperoleh atau dikeluarkan, terlepas atau tidak apakah mereka telah diterima atau dibayar. Antitesis akuntansi basis kas. Ikatan Akrual Suatu ikatan yang dikenakan bunga tetapi tidak dibayarkan kepada investor selama masa akrual. Jumlah bunga yang masih harus dibayar ditambahkan ke sisa pokok obligasi dan dibayarkan pada saat jatuh tempo. Manfaat yang masih harus dibayar Manfaat pensiun yang diperoleh oleh karyawan sesuai dengan masa kerja karyawan. Diskonto yang masih harus dibayar Bunga yang terakumulasi pada obligasi tabungan sejak tanggal pembelian sampai dengan tanggal pelunasan atau jatuh tempo. Mana saja yang lebih dulu Seri A, B, C, D, E, EE, F, I, dan J adalah obligasi diskon atau akrual, yang berarti pokok dan bunga dibayarkan pada saat obligasi tersebut dilunasi. Seri G, H, HH, dan K adalah obligasi pendapatan. Dan bunga setengah tahunan yang dibayarkan kepada pemegangnya tidak termasuk dalam diskonto yang masih harus dibayar. Bunga yang masih harus dibayar Bunga yang telah terakumulasi antara pembayaran terakhir dan penjualan obligasi atau pendapatan tetap lainnya. Pada saat penjualan, pembeli membayar penjual dengan harga obligasi ditambah bunga yang masih harus dibayar, dihitung dengan mengalikan tingkat kupon dengan fraksi periode kupon yang telah berlalu sejak pembayaran terakhir. (Jika pemegang obligasi menerima 40 pembayaran kupon per obligasi semiannually dan menjual obligasi seperempat dari jalan ke periode kupon, pembeli membayar penjual 10 sebagai proporsi bunga yang disepakati.) Potongan harga yang masih harus dibayar Kenaikan di pasar Nilai obligasi diskon karena mendekati jatuh tempo (bila dapat ditukarkan sekilas) dan bukan karena turunnya suku bunga pasar. Akumulasi rekomendasi analis Broker yang bisa berarti hal yang sedikit berbeda tergantung pada brokeranalis. Secara umum, ini berarti meningkatkan jumlah saham dalam sekuritas tertentu dalam waktu dekat. Tetapi tidak untuk melikuidasi bagian lain dari portofolio untuk membeli keamanan yang mungkin meroket. Rekomendasi membeli, tapi bukan pembelian yang mendesak. Akumulasi Kewajiban Manfaat (ABO) Ukuran perkiraan kewajiban program pensiun jika terjadi penghentian pada tanggal perhitungan dilakukan. Terkait: Proyeksi kewajiban manfaat. Akumulasi dividen Dividen yang telah jatuh tempo. Tapi tidak dibayar. Lihat: Saham preferen kumulatif. Akumulasi Penghasilan Komprehensif Lainnya (AOCI) Neraca yang melaporkan total semua item pendapatan komprehensif kecuali Laba Bersih. Akumulasi pajak keuntungan Pajak atas penghasilan yang ditahan di perusahaan sebagai cara bagi para pelaku untuk menunda pajak penghasilan pribadi. Akumulasi Dalam konteks corporate finance. Mengacu pada keuntungan yang ditambahkan ke basis modal perusahaan daripada dibayarkan sebagai dividen. Lihat: Akumulasi pajak keuntungan. Dalam konteks investasi. Mengacu pada pembelian oleh broker institusional sejumlah besar saham selama periode waktu tertentu agar tidak mendorong harga saham tersebut naik. Dalam konteks reksadana. Mengacu pada investasi reguler sejumlah tetap sambil menginvestasikan kembali dividen dan keuntungan modal. Akumulasi daerah Kisaran di mana pembeli mengumpulkan saham. Lihat: On-balance volume dan area distribusi. Rasio uji asam Disebut juga rasio cepat, rasio aset lancar dikurangi persediaan. Akrual. Dan item prabayar menjadi kewajiban lancar. Surplus yang Diperoleh Surplus yang diperoleh saat perusahaan membeli kombinasi penyatuan kepentingan, yaitu nilai bersih yang tidak dianggap sebagai persediaan modal. Acquiree Sebuah perusahaan yang sedang diakuisisi. Acquirer Perusahaan atau individu yang membeli perusahaan atau aset lain. Akuisisi Ketika perusahaan membeli perusahaan lain. Biaya akuisisi Mengacu pada harga (termasuk biaya penutupan) untuk membeli perusahaan atau properti lain. Dalam konteks investasi. Mengacu pada harga plus komisi brokerage. Dari sebuah keamanan Atau biaya penjualan yang diterapkan untuk memuat dana. Lihat: Dasar pajak. Akuisisi aset Penggabungan atau konsolidasi dimana perusahaan pengakuisisi membeli aset perusahaan penjualan. Akuisisi saham Penggabungan atau konsolidasi dimana pengakuisisi membeli saham yang diakuisisi. Acquittance Dokumen tertulis yang melepaskan pihak kedua dari kewajiban finansial atau pertanggungjawaban lainnya. Contoh pembebasan akan menjadi tanda terima yang menunjukkan pembayaran secara penuh. Di seberang papan Gerakan atau tren di pasar saham yang menyebabkan semua saham di semua sektor bergerak ke arah yang sama. Bertindak dalam konser Investor bekerja sama dan melakukan tindakan yang sama untuk mencapai tujuan investasi yang sama. Tindakan doktrin negara Doktrin ini mengatakan bahwa sebuah negara berdaulat di dalam perbatasannya sendiri, dan tindakan domestiknya mungkin tidak dipertanyakan di pengadilan di negara lain. Aktif Sebuah pasar di mana sering ada trading. Akun aktif Mengacu pada akun perantara di mana banyak transaksi terjadi. Perusahaan pialang mungkin mengenakan biaya jika akun menghasilkan tingkat aktivitas yang tidak memadai. Kerangka kerja obligasi aktif Mengacu pada anggota departemen obligasi NYSE yang memperdagangkan obligasi paling banyak. Antitesis kerumunan kabinet. Kotak aktif Efek yang disimpan dalam penyimpanan dan tersedia sebagai jaminan untuk mengamankan posisi broker atau posisi margin nasabah. Komitmen aktif Dalam konteks ekuitas swasta. Komitmen aktif adalah investasi yang belum mencapai akhir masa jabatannya. Pengelolaan dana aktif Pendekatan investasi yang sengaja menggeser dana antara kelas aset (alokasi aset), sektor (rotasi sektor), atau antara sekuritas individual (pilihan keamanan) untuk mendapatkan tingkat pengembalian yang lebih tinggi. Penghasilan aktif Pendapatan dari bisnis aktif yang bertentangan dengan pendapatan investasi pasif sesuai dengan kode pajak A.S. Manajemen Aktif Kebalikan dari manajemen pasif. Manajer pasif meminimalkan kesalahan pelacakan portofolio mereka dan indeks yang terkenal (misalnya reksa dana indeks SampP 500). Manajer aktif akan menyimpang dari bobot acuan dengan (i) memvariasikan bobot dari bobot acuan pada sekuritas (ii) menambahkan sekuritas di luar benchmark atau memilih untuk tidak memasukkan sekuritas yang termasuk dalam tolok ukur dan (iii) alokasi aset yang bervariasi Dimana bobot pada kelas aset tertentu berubah sepanjang waktu. Tujuan pengelolaan aktif adalah menghasilkan return yang melebihi return pasif dengan resiko minimal. Strategi portofolio aktif Strategi yang menggunakan teknik informasi dan peramalan yang tersedia untuk mencari kinerja yang lebih baik daripada portofolio beli dan bertahan. Terkait: Strategi portofolio pasif. Return Aktif Kembali relatif terhadap tolok ukur. Jika portofolio kembali adalah 5, dan tolok ukurnya kembali adalah 3, maka return aktif portofolio adalah 2. Resiko Aktif Resiko (deviasi standar yang disetahunkan) dari return aktif. Juga disebut kesalahan pelacakan. Aktivis Investor Pemegang saham minoritas yang berusaha mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan di perusahaan dengan menyuarakan kekhawatiran, terlibat dalam dialog dengan manajemen, atau melobi pemegang saham lainnya untuk mendapatkan dukungan. Tuntutan tersebut dapat dikaitkan dengan perubahan manajemen, keterwakilan di dewan, akuisisi atau divestasi. Gaji, pembayaran bonus, penggunaan laba ditahan dll. Undang-Undang Kepailitan Suatu tindakan oleh debitur yang dapat menjadi dasar bagi kreditor untuk mengajukan permohonan pailit kepada debitur. Contoh tindakan semacam itu menyembunyikan aset, menipu kreditor, menyukai satu kreditor di atas bank lain, atau mengakui dengan tertulis keinginan untuk diputuskan bangkrut. Actual360 Day count convention untuk menghitung bunga yang terutang pada tagihan Treasury A.S. dan instrumen pasar uang lainnya. Menggunakan jumlah hari sebenarnya dalam sebulan dan 360 hari dalam setahun untuk menghitung pembayaran bunga. Juga lihat konvensi Day count. Konvensi penghitungan Hari Sebenarnya untuk menghitung bunga yang terutang pada obligasi Treasury A.S. Menggunakan jumlah hari sebenarnya dalam satu bulan dan jumlah hari sebenarnya dalam setahun untuk menghitung pembayaran bunga. Juga lihat konvensi Day count. Nilai Tunda Aktual Biaya penggantian properti dengan jenis lain dan pada kondisi yang sama. Dihitung sebagai biaya penggantian dikurangi depresiasi. Pasar aktual Digunakan dalam konteks ekuitas umum. Pasar perusahaan Antitesis Subjek pasar. Aktuaria Komoditas fisik yang mendasari kontrak berjangka. Komoditas tunai Aset fisik A-D Advance-Decline, atau pengukuran jumlah isu perdagangan di atas harga penutupan sebelumnya, kurang jumlah perdagangan di bawah harga penutupan sebelumnya selama periode tertentu. Sebagai ukuran teknis luas pasar. Kecuraman garis AD menunjukkan apakah pasar bull atau bear kuat sedang berlangsung. Pajak ad valorem Jenis pajak dihitung berdasarkan persentase nilai kotor atau yang dinyatakan. Misalnya, PPN. Uji obligasi tambahan Uji untuk memastikan bahwa emiten obligasi dapat memenuhi persyaratan layanan hutang untuk menerbitkan obligasi tambahan baru. Lindung nilai tambahan Perlindungan terhadap risiko kejatuhan pada jaringan pipa hipotek. Kecukupan cakupan Tes yang mengukur sejauh mana nilai aset dilindungi dari potensi kerugian baik melalui asuransi atau lindung nilai. Adjustable rate Berlaku terutama untuk efek konversi. Mengacu pada tingkat suku bunga atau dividen yang disesuaikan secara berkala, biasanya sesuai dengan tingkat pasar standar di luar kendali bank atau lembaga simpan pinjam. Seperti yang berlaku pada obligasi atau notes Treasury. Biasanya, masalah semacam itu memiliki lantai atau plafon yang ditetapkan, disebut topi dan kerah yang membatasi penyesuaian. Adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) Hipotek yang memiliki penyesuaian tingkat suku bunga pinjaman yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya pada interval reguler berdasarkan indeks yang telah ditetapkan. Tingkat bunga disesuaikan pada setiap interval ke tingkat yang setara dengan nilai indeks ditambah spread yang telah ditentukan, atau margin. Di atas indeks, biasanya tergantung pada per interval dan suku bunga pinjaman dan tingkat bunga pinjaman. Adjustable-rate mortgage securities (ARMS) Efek berbasis mortgage yang underlying asset adalah pool of adjustable rate mortgage. Adjustable-rate preferred stock (ARPS) Masalah yang diperdagangkan secara publik yang dapat dijamin dengan hipotek dan metode penyesuaian MBS Adjusted Metode perhitungan biaya keuangan yang menggunakan sisa saldo akun setelah disesuaikan dengan semua transaksi yang diposkan selama periode penagihan yang diberikan sebagai dasarnya. Terkait: Metode saldo rata-rata harian, metode saldo sebelumnya. Metode saldo di masa lalu. Dasar yang Disesuaikan Harga untuk menghitung dan memperoleh keuntungan atau kerugian modal atas penjualan aset. Tindakan akun seperti pemecahan saham yang terjadi sejak pembelian awal harus diperhitungkan. Saldo debit yang disesuaikan (ADB) Saldo akun untuk akun margin yang dihitung dengan menggabungkan saldo hutang ke broker dengan saldo terutang di rekening aneka khusus, dan keuntungan kertas apapun pada akun singkat. Harga latihan yang disesuaikan Istilah yang digunakan dalam opsi kontrak Ginnie Mae (Government National Mortgage Association). Harga pelaksanaan akhir dari akun opsi untuk tingkat kupon yang dibawa pada hipotek Ginnie Mae. Misalnya, jika hipotek GNMA standar memiliki 9 hasil. Harga kolam GNMA dengan 13 hipotek di dalamnya berubah sehingga investor menerima hasil yang sama. Pendapatan kotor yang disesuaikan (AGI) Pendapatan kotor dikurangi penyesuaian yang diijinkan, yang merupakan pendapatan dimana seseorang dikenai pajak oleh pemerintah federal. Nilai sekarang yang disesuaikan (APV) Analisis nilai sekarang bersih dari aset jika dibiayai semata-mata oleh ekuitas (nilai sekarang dari arus kas yang tidak leluasa), ditambah dengan nilai sekarang dari keputusan pembiayaan (arus kas yang tunanetra). Dengan kata lain, berbagai perisai pajak yang disediakan oleh deductibility of interest dan manfaat dari kredit pajak investasi lainnya dihitung secara terpisah. Analisis ini sering digunakan untuk transaksi dengan leverage tinggi seperti pembelian leveraged. Penyesuaian obligasi Suatu obligasi yang diterbitkan dengan imbalan obligasi yang beredar pada saat perusahaan yang menghadapi kebangkrutan direkapitalisasi. Aturan penetapan harga administrasi Aturan IRS digunakan untuk mengalokasikan pendapatan pada penjualan ekspor ke perusahaan penjualan asing. Muka Kenaikan harga pasar saham. Obligasi. Komoditas. Atau aset lainnya. Komitmen sebelumnya Janji untuk menjual aset sebelum penjual telah mengantarkan pembelian aset tersebut. Penjual ini dapat mengimbangi risiko dengan membeli kontrak berjangka untuk memperbaiki harga jual kira-kira. Advance Computerized Execution System (ACES) Mengacu pada Advance Computerized Execution System yang dijalankan oleh Nasdaq. ACES mengotomatisasi perdagangan antara perusahaan pemasar masuk dan pasar yang telah menjalin hubungan dagang satu sama lain. Efek ditentukan untuk eksekusi otomatis. Rasio Tingkat Rugi Awal Rasio jumlah saham yang naik nilainya terhadap jumlah saham yang mengalami penurunan nilai selama periode waktu tertentu. Rasio kenaikan-penurunan yang meningkat mengindikasikan tren bullish sementara penurunan rasio penurunan-awal mengindikasikan tren bearish. Program pensiun yang didanai awal Program pensiun dimana dana disisihkan sebelum tanggal pensiun. Advance refunding Dalam konteks obligasi pemerintah daerah. Mengacu pada penjualan obligasi baru (refunding issue) sebelum tanggal panggilan pertama obligasi lama (masalah yang harus dikembalikan). Masalah pengembalian dana biasanya menentukan tingkat yang lebih rendah daripada masalah yang akan dikembalikan, dan hasilnya diinvestasikan. Biasanya dalam surat berharga pemerintah. Sampai obligasi tingkat tinggi menjadi callable. Lihat: Mengembalikan dana escrow deposit. Pengambilan pajak di muka Sebuah pernyataan tertulis dicari oleh wajib pajak dari otoritas pajak tentang implikasi pajak dari sebuah transaksi. Hal ini sering merupakan prasyarat untuk menutup transaksi karena keputusan pajak yang merugikan dapat membuat transaksi (misalnya penggabungan) secara finansial tidak layak dilakukan. Kemajuan Uang atau harta benda yang diberikan kepada seseorang oleh almarhum sebelum meninggal dan dimaksudkan sebagai uang muka terhadap bagian penerima manfaat dalam surat wasiat tersebut. Pendapat buruk Pendapat auditor independen yang menyatakan bahwa laporan keuangan perusahaan tidak mencerminkan posisi perusahaan secara akurat. Lihat juga: Pendapat yang memenuhi syarat. Pemilihan yang merugikan Mengacu pada situasi di mana penjual memiliki informasi yang relevan yang tidak dimiliki pembeli (atau sebaliknya) tentang beberapa aspek kualitas produk. Memberi saran bank Bank yang sesuai di negara penerima dana dimana bank penerbit mengirimkan letter of credit. Surat Penasehat Newsletter menawarkan nasehat keuangan kepada pembacanya. Affidavit of Loss Pernyataan tersumpah yang menggambarkan kejadian dan keadaan kehilangan sekuritas. Surat pernyataan ini diperlukan sebelum Bond of Indemnity dapat diterbitkan dan surat berharga diganti. Hubungan Afiliasi antara dua perusahaan ketika satu perusahaan memiliki kepentingan substansial, namun kurang dari mayoritas saham pemungutan suara dari perusahaan lain, atau ketika kedua perusahaan tersebut merupakan anak perusahaan dari perusahaan ketiga. Lihat: Anak Perusahaan. perusahaan utama. Perusahaan afiliasi Perusahaan yang merupakan afiliasi dengan perusahaan induk. Orang yang terafiliasi Seseorang yang memiliki cukup pengaruh dan kontrol dalam perusahaan untuk dapat mengubah tindakan perusahaan. Perjanjian afirmatif Perjanjian obligasi yang menentukan tindakan tertentu yang harus dilakukan perusahaan. Kewajiban afirmatif Aturan New York Stock Exchange yang mengatur perilaku spesialis. Kewajiban afirmatif adalah amanat para spesialis untuk masuk dan bertindak baik sebagai pembeli maupun penjual saat pesanan investor publik tidak sesuai secara alami. Juga dikenal sebagai positiveobligation. Terkait: negativeobligation. Indeks keterjangkauan Indeks yang mengukur kemampuan finansial konsumen untuk membeli rumah. Setelah mengakuisisi klausul klausul kontrak dalam perjanjian hipotek yang menyatakan bahwa setiap properti hipotek tambahan yang diperoleh peminjam setelah hipotek ditandatangani akan dianggap sebagai jaminan tambahan untuk kewajiban yang diajukan dalam hipotek. Setelah jam kerja atau perdagangan perdagangan Efek setelah jam perdagangan reguler pada bursa yang terorganisir. Aftermarket See: pasar sekunder. Basis setelah pajak Dasar perbandingan digunakan untuk menganalisis neto setelah pajak pada obligasi kena pajak perusahaan dan obligasi bebas pajak kotamadya. Marjin laba setelah pajak Rasio laba bersih terhadap penjualan bersih. Tingkat pengembalian setelah pajak yang sebenarnya Tingkat pengembalian setelah pajak dikurangi dengan tingkat inflasi. Melawan kotak Lihat: Menjual pendek terhadap kotak. Berusia kecil Gagal Akun antara dua dealer pialang yang masih utuh 30 hari setelah tanggal penyelesaian. Perusahaan penerima harus menyesuaikan modalnya karena tidak dapat lagi memperlakukan akun ini sebagai aset. Agensi Lihat: sekuritas lembaga federal. Badan Dalam konteks ekuitas umum, jual beli untuk akun dan risiko nasabah. Umumnya, agen. Atau broker. acts as intermediary between buyer and seller, taking no financial risk personally or as a firm. and charging a commission for the service. The broker represents a customer buyerseller to a customer sellerbuyer and does not act as principal for the firms own trading account. Antithesis of principal. See: Dealer. Agency bank A form of organization commonly used by foreign banks to enter the US market. An agency bank cannot accept deposits or extend loans in its own name it acts as agent for the parent bank. It is also the financialinstitution that issues ADRs to the general market. Agency basis A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. Agency cost view The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100, debt financing. Agency costs The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal. Agency incentive arrangement A means of compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining commissions or fees. Agency pass-throughs Mortgage pass-through securities whose principal and interest payments are guaranteed by government agencies. such as the Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae). Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac). and Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae). Agency problem Conflicts of interest among stockholders. bondholders. and managers. Agency securities Securities issued by federally related institutions and U.S. government-sponsored entities. Such agencies were created to reduce borrowing costs for certain sectors of the economy, such as agriculture. Agency theory The analysis of principal-agent relationships. in which one person, an agent. acts on behalf of another person, a principal. Agent A party appointed to act on behalf of a principal entity or person. In context of project financing. refers to the bank in charge of administering the project financing. Aggregate exercise price The exercise price multiplied by the number of shares in a put or call contract. The option premium is excluded in the aggregate exercise price. In the case of options traded on debt instruments. the aggregate exercise price is the exercise price of the underlying security multiplied by its face value. Aggregation Process in corporate financial planning whereby the smaller investment proposals of each of the firms operational units are aggregated and effectively treated as a whole. Aggressive Growth Hedge Fund In the context of hedge funds. a style of management that focuses primarily on equities that are expected to have strong earnings growth. Aggressive growth mutual fund A mutual fund designed for maximum capital appreciation that places its money in companies with high growth rates. Aggressively Used in context of general equities. For a customer it means working to buy or sell ones stock. with an emphasis on execution over price. For a trader it means acting in a way that puts the firms capital at higher risk through paying a higher price, selling cheaper, or making a larger short sale or purchase than the trader would under normal circumstances. Aging schedule A table of accounts receivable broken down into age categories (such as 0-30 days, 30-60 days, and 60-90 days), which is used to determine if customer payments are keeping close to schedule. Agreement among underwriters A contract among participating members of a syndicate that defines the members proportionate liability. which is usually limited to and based on the participants level of involvement. The contract outlines the payment schedule on the settlement date. Compare: Underwriting agreement. Agreement corporation Corporation chartered by a state to engage in international banking: so named because the corporation enters into an agreement with the Feds Board of Governors that it will limit its activities to those permitted by an Edge Act Corporation. Ahead of itself In context of general equities, refers to equities that are overbought or oversold on a fundamental basis. Ahead of you Used for listed equity securities. At the same price but entered ahead of your order interest. usually referring to the specialists book. See: Behind, matched orders, priority, stock ahead. AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR) Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise, and update the AIMR Performance Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM) for portfolio performance presentations. Air Freight Consolidator An air freight carrier that does not own or operate its own aircraft but ships its cargo with actual equipment operating carriers. Consolidators issue house air waybills to their customers and receive master air waybills from the actual carriers. Air pocket stock A stock whose price drops precipitously, often on the unexpected news of poor results. ALCO package Reporting package that contains financial information related to the Asset-Liability Committee e.g. yield curve assumptions, net interest income projections, and economic value of equity assessments made by the firms as part of their business planning proce sses. Alien corporation A company incorporated under the laws of a foreign country regardless of where the company conducts its operations. Algo or Algorithmic Trading Refers to computerized trading using proprietary algorithms. There are two types algo trading. Algo execution trading is when an order (often a large order) is executed via an algo trade. The algo program is designed to get the best possible price. It may split the order into smaller pieces and execute at different times. The second type of algo trading is not executing a set order but looking for small trading opportunities in the market. It is estimated that 50 percent of stock trading volume in the U.S. is currently being driven by algo trading. Also known as high-frequency trading. All equity rate The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project, distinct from the effects of financing. All in Refers to an issuers interest rate after accounting for commissions and various related expenses. All-in-rate Rate used in charging customers for accepting bankers acceptances. consisting of the discount interest rate plus the commission. All Ordinaries Index The major stock price index in Australia. The capitalization weighted index is made up of the largest 500 companies as measured by market capitalization that are listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. The index was developed with a base value of 500 as of 1979. All or none order (AON) Used in context of general equities. A limited price order that is to be executed in its entirety or not at all (no partial transaction ), and thus is testing the strengthconviction of the counterparty. Unlike an FOK order. an AON order is not to be treated as cancelled if not executed as soon as it is represented in the trading crowd. but instead remains alive until executed or cancelled. The making of all or none bids or offers in stocks is prohibited, and the making of all or none bids or offers in bonds is subject to the restrictions of Rule 61. AON orders are not shown on the specialists book because they cannot be traded in pieces. Antithesis of any-part-of order. See: FOK order. All-in cost Total costs. explicit and implicit. All-or-none underwriting An arrangement whereby a security issue is cancelled if the underwriter is unable to resell the entire issue. All Risk Insurance Marine cargo insurance which covers most perils except strikes, riots, civil unrest, capture, war, seizure, civil war, piracy, loss of market. and inherent vice. Allied member A partner or stockholder of a firm that is a member of the NYSE. the partner or stockholder is not personally a member of the NYSE. Alligator spread The term used to describe a spread in the options market that generates such a large commission that the client is unlikely to make a profit even if the markets move as the investor anticipated. Allocation-of-income rules US tax provisions that define how income and deductions are to be allocated between domestic source and foreign source income. Allocational efficiency The effectiveness with which a market channels capital toward its most productive uses. Allotment The number of securities assigned to each of the participants in an underwriting syndicate. Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses A contra-account on the balance sheet used for offsetting losses on loan and lease assets. Alpha Measure of risk -adjusted performance. Some refer to the alpha as the difference between the investment return and the benchmark return. However, this does not properly adjust for risk. More appropriately, an alpha is generated by regressing the security or mutual funds excess return on the benchmark (for example SampP 500) excess return. The beta adjusts for the risk (the slope coefficient). The alpha is the intercept. Example: Suppose the mutual fund has a return of 25, and the short-term interest rate is 5 (excess return is 20). During the same time the market excess return is 9. Suppose the beta of the mutual fund is 2.0 (twice as risky as the SampP 500). The expected excess return given the risk is 2 x 918. The actual excess return is 20. Hence, the alpha is 2 or 200 basis points. Alpha is also known as the Jensen Index. The alpha depends on the benchmark used. For example, it may be the intercept in a multifactor model that includes risk factors in addition to the SampP 500. Related: Risk-adjusted return. Alpha equation Regression usually run over 36-60 months of data: Return-Treasury bill alpha beta (SampP 500 - Treasury bill) error. The alpha is the intercept. Note that the benchmark does not necessarily have to be the SampP 500. A mutual fund specializing in international investment might be benchmarked to a broader world market index. such as the MSCI World Index. Alphabet stock Categories of common stock of a corporation associated with a particular subsidiary resulting from acquisitions and restructuring. The various alphabetical categories have different voting rights and pay dividends tied to the operating performance of the particular divisions. See also: Tracking stocks. Alt-A Short for Alternative-A paper. Alt-A are loans that are considered riskier than prime loans but less risky than subprime loans. Generally made to individuals with a good credit score but some aspect of the loan (e.g. limited documentation or high loan-to-value ratio ) makes the loan riskier than prime. Also see A paper. No docs. Alternative investments Usually refers to investments in hedge funds. Many hedge funds pursue strategies that are uncommon relative to mutual funds. Examples of alternative investment strategies are: long- -short equity, event driven, statistical arbitrage, fixed income arbitrage, convertible arbritage. short bias, global macro, and equity market neutral. May also refer to the high frequency style of commodity trading advisors who often employ technical and quantitative tools for intraday investments Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) A federal tax aimed at ensuring that wealthy individuals, estates, trusts. and corporations pay a minimal level income tax. For individuals, the AMT is calculated by adding adjusted gross income to tax preference items. Alternative mortgage instruments Variations of mortgage instruments such as adjustable-rate and variable-rate mortgages, graduated-payment mortgages. reverse-annuity mortgages, and several seldom-used variations. Alternative order Used in context of general equities. Order giving a broker a choice between two courses of action, either to buy or sell, never both. Execution of one course automatically eliminates the other. An example is a combination buy limit buy stop order. where the buy limit is below the current market and the buy stop is above. If the order is for one unit of trading. when one part of the order is executed on the occurrence of one alternative, the order on the other alternative is to be treated as cancelled. If the order is for an amount of more than one unit of trading, the number of units executed determines the amount of the alternative order to be treated as cancelled. Sometimes known as One Cancels the Other. Also see: Either-or order. American Association of Individual Investors (AAII) A not-for-profit organization to educate individual investors about stocks. bonds. reksa dana. and other financial instruments. American Depositary Receipt (ADR) Certificates issued by a US depository bank, representing foreign shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADRs are sponsored , the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may subsidize the administration of the ADR. Unsponsored ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs are subject to the same currency. political, and economic risks as the underlying foreign share. Arbitrage keeps the prices of ADRs and underlying foreign shares, adjusted for the SDR ordinary ratio essentially equal. American depository shares (ADS) are a similar form of certification. American Depositary Receipt Fees Fees associated with the creating or releasing of ADRs from ordinary shares. charged by the commercial banks with correspondent banks in the international sites. American Depositary Receipt Ratio The number of ordinary shares into which an ADR can be converted. American Depositary Share (ADS) Foreign stock issued in the US and registered in the ADR system. American option An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date. Related: European option American shares Securities certificates issued in the US by a transfer agent acting on behalf of the foreign issuer. The certificates represent claims to foreign equities. American Stock Exchange (AMEX) Stock exchange with the third highest volume of trading in the US. Located at 86 Trinity Place in downtown Manhattan. The bulk of trading on AMEX consists of index options (computer technology index. institutional index, major market index) and shares of small to medium-sized companies are predominant. Recently merged with Nasdaq See: Curb. American-style option An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and the expiration date. Most exchange -traded equity options are American style. Amman Financial Market (AFM) Established in 1976, the AFM is the only stock exchange in Jordan. Amman Stock Exchange The only agency authorized as a formal market for trading securities in Jordan. Amortization The repayment of a loan by installments. Amortization factor The pool factor implied by the scheduled amortization assuming no prepayments. Amortizing interest rate swap Swap in which the principal or notional amount declines over time. Amount outstanding and in circulation All currency issued by the Bureau of the Mint and intended as a medium of exchange. Coins sold by the Bureau of the Mint at premium prices are not included uncirculated coin sets sold at face value plus handling charge are included. Amsterdam Exchange (AEX) Exchange that comprises the AEX-Effectenbeurs, the AEX-Optiebeurs (formerly the European Options Exchange or EOE ) and the AEX-Agrarische Termijnmarkt. AEX-Data Services is the operating company responsible for the dissemination of data from the Amsterdam Exchange via its integrated Mercury 2000 system. AMTEL Used in context of general equities. In-house message system entered and displayed through Quotron A page. Analyst Employee of a brokerage or fund management house who studies companies and makes buy -and-sell recommendations on stocks of these companies. Most specialize in a specific industry. And interest An indication that the buyer will receive accrued interest in addition to the price quoted for a bond. Andean Pact A regional trade pact that includes Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Angel An investment-grade bond. Antithesis to fallen angel. In the context of venture capital. the first investor. Angels Individuals providing venture capital. Ankle biter Stock issued with a market capitalization of less than 500 million. Announcement date Date on which particular news concerning a given company is announced to the public. Used in event studies, which researchers use to evaluate the economic impact of events of interest. Annual basis The technique in statistics of taking a figure covering a period of less than one year and extrapolating it to cover a full one year period. The process is known as annualizing. Annual effective yield See: Annual percentage yield. Annual exclusion A tax rule allowing the deduction of certain income from taxation. Annual fund operating expenses For investment companies. the management fee and other expenses , including the expenses for maintaining shareholder records, providing shareholders with financial statements. and providing custodial and accounting services. For 12b-1 funds. selling and marketing costs are also included. Annual meeting Meeting of stockholders held once a year at which the managers of a company report to the stockholders on the years results. Annual percentage rate (APR) In the context of credit cards, the periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1.5 monthly rate has an APR of 18. In the context of consumer lending, the APR takes into account more than the interest rate applied to the principal per period. Under the Truth in Lending Act, it has a specific definition and includes all the costs paid by a non-exempt consumer borrower that are considered a finance charge, including fees paid to third parties by the lender if not properly disclosed and excluded from the finance charge (such as credit insurance). Annual percentage yield (APY) The effective, or true annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually earned or paid in one year, taking into account the effect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking one plus the periodic rate, raising it to the number of periods in a year and then subtracting one. For example, a 1 per month rate has an APY of 12.68 (1.0112 -1). Annual rate of return There are many ways of calculating the annual rate of return. If the rate of return is calculated on a monthly basis, we sometimes multiply this by 12 to express an annual rate of return. This is often called the annual percentage rate (APR ). The annual percentage yield (APY ) includes the effect of compounding interest. Annual renewable term insurance See: Term insurance. Annual report Yearly record of a publicly held companys financial condition. It includes a description of the firms operations, as well as balance sheet. income statement. and cash flow statement information. SEC rules require that it be distributed to all shareholders. A more detailed version is called a 10-K. Annualized gain If stock X appreciates 1.5 in one month, the annualized gain for that stock over a twelve month period is (12 x 1.5) 18. Compounded over the 12 month period, the gain is (1.015)12 -1 19.6. Annualized holding-period return The annual rate of return that when compounded t times generates the same t -period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t . Annualizing See: Annual basis. Annuitant An individual who receives benefits from an annuity. Annuitize To commence a series of payments from the capital that has accumulated in an annuity. The payments may be a fixed amount, for a fixed period of time, or for a lifetime. Annuity A regular periodic payment made by an insurance company to a policyholder for a specified period of time. Annuity certain An annuity that pays a specific amount on a monthly basis for a set amount of time. Annuity due An annuity with n payments, where the first payment is made at time t 0, and the last payment is made at time t n - 1. Annuity factor Present value of 1 paid for each of t periods. Annuity in arrears An annuity with a first payment one full period hence, rather than immediately. Annuity starting date The date when an annuitant starts receiving payments from an annuity. Anticipated holding period The period of time an individual expects to hold an asset. Anticipation Paying what is owed before it is due (usually to save interest charges). Antidilutive effect Result of a transaction that increases earnings per common share (e.g. by decreasing the number of shares outstanding ). Anti-Persistence In RS Analysis. an anti-persistent time series reverses itself more often than a random series would. If the system had been up in the previous period, it is more likely that it will be down in the next period and vice versa. Also called pink noise, or 1f noise. See: Persistence, RS Analysis. Hurst Exponent. Joseph Effect. Noah Effect. Antigreenmail Greenmail refers to the agreement between a large shareholder and a company in which the shareholder agrees to sell his stock back to the company, usually at a premium, in exchange for the promise not to seek control of the company for a specified period of time. Antigreenmail provisions prevent such arrangements unless the same repurchase offer is made to all shareholders or approved by shareholder vote. There are some states that have antigreenmail laws. Antitrust laws Legislation established by the federal government to prevent the formation of monopolies and to regulate trade. Autoriteit Financieumlle Markten (AFM) Dutch supervisory authority for the Dutch financial markets. The Netherlands financial regulator. Any-interest-date A call provision in a municipal bond indenture that establishes the right of redemption for the issuer on any interest payment due date. Any-or-all bid Often used in risk arbitrage. Takeover bid in which the acquirer offers to pay a set price for all outstanding shares of the target company, or any part thereof contrasts with two-tier bid. Any-part-of order In context of general equities, order to buy or sell a quantity of stock in pieces if necessary. Antithesis of an all-or-none order (AON ). A paper Another name for prime paper. Applied mathematics The study of the application of mathematical principles to domains outside of mathematics itself. Although the branches of mathematics within this categorization change with time, applied mathematics typically involves the use of differential equations, numerical analysis, and statistics with areas of knowledge such as engineering, biology, physics, computer science, economics. and finance. Appraisal ratio The signal -to-noise ratio of an analysts forecasts. The ratio of alpha to residual standard deviation. Appraisal rights A right of shareholders in a merger to demand the payment of a fair price for their shares. as determined independently. Appreciation Increase in the value of an asset. Appropriation request Formal request for funds for capital investment project. Approved list A list of equities and other investments that a financial institution or mutual fund is allowed to invest in. See: Legal list. APS Auction Preferred Stock. A type of Dutch Auction Preferred Stock (Goldman Sachs product). Arbitrage The simultaneous buying and selling of a security at two different prices in two different markets. resulting in profits without risk. Perfectly efficient markets present no arbitrage opportunities. Perfectly efficient markets seldom exist, but, arbitrage opportunities are often precluded because of transactions costs. Arbitrage bonds Municipality issued bonds issued intended to gain an interest rate advantage by refunding a higher-rate bond in ahead of their call date. Lower-rate refunding issue proceeds are invested in Treasuries until the first call date of the higher-rate issue. Arbitrage-free option-pricing models Yield curve option-pricing models. Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) An alternative model to the capital asset pricing model developed by Stephen Ross and based purely on arbitrage arguments. The APT implies that there are multiple risk factors that need to be taken into account when calculating risk -adjusted performance or alpha. Arbitrage Trading Program (ATP) See: Program trading. Arbitrageur One who profits from the differences in price when the same, or extremely similar, security. currency, or commodity is traded on two or more markets. The arbitrageur profits by simultaneously purchasing and selling these securities to take advantage of pricing differentials (spreads ) created by market conditions. See: Risk arbitrage, convertible arbitrage, index arbitrage, and international arbitrage. Arbs Short for Arbitrageurs. Are you open Used in context of general equities. Can a new customer still participate on opposing side of the trade from that which the first customer initiated, Inquiring as to whether any portion of that trade is still available See: Open. Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return Arithmetic mean return. Arithmetic mean return An average of the subperiod returns. calculated by summing the subperiod returns and dividing by the number of subperiods. Arizona Stock Exchange A single price auction exchange for equity trading that allows anonymous buyers and sellers to trade at low transaction costs. Arms length price The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to transact or a trade between related parties that is conducted as if they were unrelated, so that there is no conflict of interest in the transaction. Arms index Also known as a TRading INdex (TRIN ). The index is usually calculated as the number of advancing issues divided by the number of declining issues. This, in turn, is divided by the advancing volume divided by the declining volume. If there is considerably more advancing volume relative to declining volume this will tend to reduce the index (i.e. increase the denominator). Hence, a value less than 1.0 is bullish while values greater than 1.0 indicate bearish demand. The index often is smoothed with a simple moving average. Around us Used in context of general equities. See: Away from you. Arranger The senior tier of a syndication. This implies the entity that agreed and negotiated the project financing structure. Also refers to the bank or underwriter entitled to syndicate the loan or bond issue. Also known as the lead underwriter. Arrearage In the context of investments. refers to the amount by which interest on bonds or dividends on cumulative preferred stock is due and unpaid. Articles of incorporation Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose. Artificial currency A currency substitute, e.g. special drawing rights (SDRs). Artificial Intelligence The creation of models that mimic thought processes. See: Neural Networks. Fuzzy Logic. and Genetic Algorithms. Ascending tops A chart pattern that depicts that each peak in a securitys price over a period of time is higher than the preceding peak. Antithesis of descending tops. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Pact (APEC) A loose economic affiliation of Southeast Asian and Far Eastern nations. The most prominent members are China, Japan, and Korea. Asian Currency Units (ACU) Dollar deposits held in Singapore or other Asian centers. Asian Development Bank A financialinstitution established in 1966 to reduce poverty in the Asia-Pacific region. The bank is headquartered in Manila, Philippines and consists of 61 member countries. Asian dollar market Asian banks that collect deposits and make loans denominated in US dollars. Asian option Option based on the average price of the underlying assets during the life of the option. Ask This is the quoted ask, or the lowest price an investor will accept to sell a stock. Practically speaking, this is the quoted offer at which an investor can buy shares of stock also called the offer price. Asked price In context of general equities, price at which a security or commodity is offered for sale on an exchange or in the OTC Market. Asked to bidoffer Used in context of general equities. Usually a seller (buyer ) looking to aggressively sell (buy) stock. usually asking for a capital commitment from an investment bank. Aspirin Australian Stock Price Riskless Indexed Notes. Zero-coupon four-year bonds repayable at face value plus the percentage increase by which the Australian stock index of all ordinaries (common stocks ) rises above a predefined level during the given period. Assay Metal purity test to confirm that the metal meets the standards for trading on a commodities exchange (commodities exchange center). Assessed valuation The value assigned to property by a municipality for the purpose of tax assessment. Such an assessed valuation is important to investors in municipal bonds that are backed by property taxes. Asset Any possession that has value in an exchange. Asset activity ratios Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets. Asset allocation decision The decision regarding how an institutions funds should be distributed among the major classes of assets in which it may invest. Asset allocation mutual fund A mutual fund that rotates among stocks. bonds. and money market securities to maximize return on investment and minimize risk. Asset Backed Commercial Paper (ABCP) Short term debt secured by assets. The Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF) Launched by the Federal Reserve on September 2008, this program was designed to restore confidence to the market for asset-backed commercial paper. Money-market funds, fearing they couldnt sell these securities to meet redemptions, had stopped buying asset-backed commercial paper. Under AMLF, the Fed loaned money to banks to buy up all of the asset-backed commercial paper that a money-market fund wanted to sell. Asset-backed security A security that is collateralized by loans, leases. receivables, or installment contracts on personal property. not real estate. Asset-based financing Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing. Asset classes Categories of assets. such as stocks. bonds. real estate. and foreign securities. Asset-coverage test A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing if the ratio of assets to debt does not fall below a specified minimum. Asset Depreciation Range System A range of depreciable lives the IRS allows for particular classes of assets. Assetequity ratio The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity. Asset for asset swap Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another defaulting borrower. Asset impairment See Impairment. AssetLiability Committee (ALCO) A risk management committee in a bank that evaluates the risk associated with the banks assets and liabilities. It manages interest rate risk while ensuring adequate returns and liquidity. Assetliability management The task of managing the funds of a financial institution to accomplish two goals: (1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested and (2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities. Also called surplus management. Asset management account Account at a brokerage house, bank, or savings institution that integrates banking services and brokerage features. Asset play A company with assets that are not believed to be accurately reflected in its stock price, making it an attractive buy or play. Asset pricing model A model for determining the required or expected rate of return on an asset. Related: Capital asset pricing model and arbitrage pricing theory. Asset stripper A corporate raider (company A) that takes over a target company (company B) in order to sell large assets of company B to repay debt. Company A calculates that the net, selling off the assets and paying off the debt, will leave the raider with assets that are worth more than what it paid for company B. Asset substitution Occurs when a firm invests in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected. Asset substitution problem Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firms existing assets and expropriate value from the debtholders. Asset swap An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institutions assets in order to provide a better match with its liabilities. Asset turnover The ratio of net sales to total assets. Asset value The net market value of a corporations assets on a per-share basis. not the market value of the shares. A company is undervalued in the market when asset value exceeds market value. Assets A firms productive resources. Assets-in-place Property in which a firm has already invested. Assets requirements A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the proposed uses of net working capital. Assets under management The market value of assets that an investment company manages on behalf of investors. For investment managers, assets under management is viewed as a measure of success. Assignment The receipt of an exercise notice by an options writer that requires the writer to sell (in the case of a call ) or purchase (in the case of a put ) the underlying security at the specified strike price. Assignment of proceeds Arrangement that allows the original beneficiary of a letter of credit to pledge or turn over proceeds to another, typically end supplier. Assimilation The public absorption of a new issue of stocks once the stock has been completely sold by underwriter. See: Absorbed. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) A loose economic and geopolitical affiliation that includes Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Future members are likely to include Burma, Laos, and Cambodia. Assumed debt A debt obligation of an acquired company that becomes an obligation of the acquirer. Assumed interest rate Rate of interest used by an insurance company to calculate the payout on an annuity contract. Assumption Becoming responsible for the liabilities of another party. ASX Derivatives and Options Market (ASXD) Options market trading options on more than 50 of Australias and New Zealands leading companies. Asymmetric information Information that is known to some people but not to other people. Asymmetric taxes When participants in a transaction have different net tax rates. Asymmetric volatility Phenomenon that volatility is higher in down markets than in up markets. Asymmetry A lack of equivalence between two things, such as the unequal tax treatment of interest expense and dividend payments. Atfor Used in context of general equities. Paramount terms used to differentiate an offering. Stock is offered at stock is bid for. In an offering. the trading syntax followed is Quantity-at-Price in a bid, the syntax followed is Price-for-Quantity. Athens Stock Exchange Greeces only major securities market. Greek language only. At par A price equal to nominal or face value of a security. See: Par. At risk The exposure to the danger of economic loss. Frequently used in the context of claiming tax deductions. For example, a person can claim a tax deduction in a limited partnership if the taxpayer can show it is at risk of never realizing a profit and of losing its initial investment. See: Value at risk. At the bell In context of general equities, at the opening or close of the market. See: MOC Order. At the close order In the context of securities. an all or none market order that is to be executed at the closing price of the security on the exchange. If the execution cannot be made under this condition, the order is to be treated as cancelled. In the context of futures and options. refers to a contract that is to be executed on some exchanges during the closing period. a period in which there is a range of prices. At the figure In context of general equities, at the whole integer price (excluding the fraction) closest to the side of the market (bid ask) being discussed. At the full. At the full Used in context of general equities. At the figure. At the market See: Market order. At-the-money An option is at the money if the strike price of the option is equal to the market price of the underlying security. For example, if xyz stock is trading at 54, then the xyz 54 option is at the money. At the opening order In context of general equities, market order or limited price order that is to be executed at the opening (and corresponding price) of the stock or not at all, and any such order or portion thereof not so executed is to be treated as cancelled. Attractor In non-linear dynamic series. an attractor defines the equilibrium level of the system. See: Point Attractor. Limit Cycle. and Strange Attractor. Attribute bias The tendency of stocks preferred by the dividend discount model to share certain equity attributes such as low price-earnings ratios. high dividend yield. high book value ratio, or membership in a particular industry sector. Athens Stock Exchange (ASE) Greeces principal stock exchange. Auction Market Preferred Stock (AMPS) A type of Dutch Auction Preferred Stock (A Merrill Lynch product). Auction markets Markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange. Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS) Floating rate preferred stock. whose dividend is adjusted every seven weeks through a Dutch auction. Auction Rate Securities (ARS) Long term bonds whose interest rate may be reset at regular short-term intervals by an auction process Audit An examination of a companys accounting records and books conducted by an outside professional in order to determine whether the company is maintaining records according to generally accepted accounting principles. See: accountants opinion. Audit trail Resolves the validity of an accounting entry by a step-by-step record by which accounting data can be traced to their source. Auditors certificate See: Accountants opinion. Auditors report A section of an annual report that includes the auditors opinion about the veracity of the financial statements. Aunt Millie An unsophisticated investor. Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) Australias major securities market, formed when the six state stock exchanges (Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney stock exchanges) were merged in 1987. Autarky Absence of a cross-border trade in models of international trade. Autex Video communication network through which brokerage houses alert institutional investors of their desire to transact block business (a purchase or sale ) in a given security. Indications transmit small, medium, and large sizes only, with occasional limits mentioned. Supers are messages with specific size and price included. Both indications and supers can be only seen by customers (institutional subscribers to Autex). Trade recaps, advertised block trades entered by the dealer subscribers, are also displayed, but can be seen by both institutions and dealers. See: Expunge. size. Authentication In the context of bonds. refers to the validation of a bond certificate. Authority bond A bond issued by a government agency or a corporation created to manage a revenue-producing public enterprise. The difference between an authority bond and a municipal bond is that margin protections may be incorporated in the authority bond contract as well as in the legislation that enables the authority. Authorized shares Number of shares authorized for issuance by a firms corporate charter. Autocorrelation The correlation of a variable with itself over successive time intervals. Sometimes called serial correlation. Automated bond system (ABS) The computerized system that records bids and offers for inactively traded bonds until they are cancelled or executed on the NYSE. Automated Clearing House (ACH) A collection of 32 regional electronic interbank networks used to process transactions electronically with a guaranteed one-day bank collection float. Automated Customer Account Transfer (ACAT) For transfers of securities from a non-equity trading account to your equity trading account with your broker. Automated Export System Electronic filing of Shippers Export Declaration (SEDs) with US Customs prior to departure. Automated Order System (AOS) Investment bank computerized order entry system that sends single order entries to DOT (Odd-Lot) or to investment banks floor brokers on the exchange. See: Round lot. GTC orders. Automated Pit Trading (APT) Introduced in 1989, APT is the LIFFE screen-based trading system that replicates the open outcry method of trading on screen. APT is used to extend the trading day for the major futures contracts as well as to provide a daytime trading environment for non-floor trading products. Automated teller machine (ATM) Computer-controlled terminal located on the premises of financial institutions or elsewhere, though which customers may make deposits, withdrawals or other transactions as they would through a bank teller. Other terms sometimes used to describe such terminals are customer-bank communications terminal (CBCT) and remote service unit (RSU). Groups of banks sometimes share ATMs. Sometimes called Automated Banking Machines. Automatic Data Processing (ADP), Inc. A company that acts as an intermediary to perform proxy services for several banks and brokers. Distributes proxy material to beneficial owners, tabulates the returned proxies, and provides the Corporation or its tabulator compiled reports of the tabulation results. ADP also distributes quarterly reports and other corporate information to the beneficial owners. ADP also provides timely information on U.S. payrolls. The ADP employment release usual precedes the U.S. Non-Farm Payrolls release by two days. Automatic exercise A protection procedure whereby the Options Clearing Corporation attempts to protect the holder of an expiring in-the-money option by automatically exercising the option on behalf of the holder. Automatic extension An automatic extension of time granted to a taxpayer to file a tax return. Automatic funds transfer A transfer of funds from one account or investment vehicle to another using electronic or telecommunications technology. Automatic investment program A program in which an investor can invest or withdraw funds automatically. A mutual fund. for example, automatically withdraws a pre determined specified amount from the investors bank account on a regular basis. Automatic reinvestment See: Constant dollar plan. Automatic stay The restricting of liability holders from collection efforts related to collateral seizure. Automatically imposed when a firm files for bankruptcy under Chapter 11. Automatic transfer service (ATS) account A depositors saving account from which funds may be transferred automatically to the same depositors checking account to cover a check written or to maintain a minimum balance. Automatic withdrawal A mutual fund that gives shareholders the right to receive a fixed payment from dividends on a quarterly or monthly basis. Autoquote Autoquote indicative prices are generated for many of the financial options contracts traded at LIFFE using standard mathematical models as derived by Black and Scholes and Cox, Ross. Rubinstein. Autoquote calculates prices for all series by processing variables captured in real-time from other systems and trading members each time the underlying price changes. Autoquotes indicate where a series may trade. given the current level of the underlying instrument. Autoregressive Using past data or variable of interest to predict future values of the same variable. Auto-Regressive (AR) Process A stationary stochastic process where the current value of the time series is related to the past p values, where p is any integer, is called an AR(p) process. When the current value is related to the previous two values, it is an AR(2) process. An AR(1) process has an infinite memory. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) A nonlinear stochastic process, where the variance is time-varying, and a function of the past variance. ARCH processes have frequency distributions which have high peaks at the mean and fat-tails, much like fractal distributions. The ARCH model was invented by Robert Engle. The Generalized ARCH (GARCH) model is the most widely used and was pioneered by Tim Bollerslev. See: Fractal Distributions. Autoriteacute des Marcheacutes Financiers (AMF) Frances supervisory authority for the French financial markets. French financial regulator. Availability The period in which the project financing is available for drawdown. Availability float Checks deposited by a company that have not yet been cleared. Available cash flow Total cash sources less total cash uses before payment of debt service. Available for Sale Investment in securities where the intention is not to trade in the short-term and they may or may not be held to maturity. These are usually reported at market value. Unrealized gains or losses on these investments do not appear in Net Income but in the Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income account. Also see Held to Maturity. Trading Securities. Available on the way in In context of general equities, stock is available to new customer as trade initiated by another customer is about to be consummated (on the exchange floor ). Usually said to an inquiring salesperson. See: Open. Aval Term meaning inseparable from the financial instrument. This gives a guarantee and is abstracted from the performance of the underlying trade contract. Article 31 of the 1930 Geneva Convention of the Bills Of Exchange states that the aval can be written on the bill itself or on an allonge. US Banks are prohibited from avalizing drafts. Avalizor An institution or person who gives the aval. Average An arithmetic mean return of selected stocks intended to represent the behavior of the market or some component of it. One good example is the widely quoted Dow Jones Industrial Average. which adds the current prices of the 30 DJIA stocks, and divides the results by a predetermined number, the divisor. Average accounting return The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average book value of the investment during its life. Average (across-day) measures An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a large number of trades. Average age of accounts receivable The weighted-average age of all the firms outstanding invoices. Average collection period, or days receivables The ratio of accounts receivables to sales. or the total amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average ARsales 365). Average cost In the context of investing, refers to the average cost of shares or stock bought at different prices over time. Average cost of capital A firms required payout to bondholders and stockholders expressed as a percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital. Average daily balance A method for calculating interest in which the balance owed each day by a customer is divided by the number of days. See also: Adjusted balance method and previous balance method. Average discount rate Purchasers tender their competitive bids on a discount rate basis. The weighted, or adjusted mean of all bids accepted in Treasury bill auctions. Average down A strategy used by investors to reduce the average cost of shares. in which the investor purchases more shares with a fixed amount of capital as the price of the shares decreases. The investor receives more shares per dollar and decreases the average price per share. Average equity A customers average daily balance in a trading account at a brokerage firm. Average life Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. Average life is computed as the weighted-average time to the receipt of all future cash flows. using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal paydowns. Average maturity The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates have greater impact on funds with longer average maturity. Average rate of return (ARR) The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested. Average tax rate Taxes as a fraction of income total taxes divided by total taxable income. Average up A strategy used by investors to lower the overall cost of shares by buying as many shares with a given amount of capital in an increasing market. Buying 1000 worth of shares at 30, 35, 40, and 45, for instance, will make the average cost of the sharesx 36.65, lower than the average price of 37.50. Averaging See: Constant dollar plan. Avoided cost In context of project financing, the capital and expense that would have to be spent if the project did not proceed. Away A trade. quote, or market that does not originate with the dealer in question, e.g. the bid is 98-10 away from me. Away from the market In context of general equities, out of line with the inside market at this time, such as when a bid on a limit order is lower or the offer price is higher than the current market price for the security held by the specialist for later execution unless FOK. Antithesis of in-line. Away from us Used in context of general equities, to characterize role of a competing broker dealer. Trading away from us signifies that stock is bought andor sold with institutions using other trading firms. Away from you Used for listed equity securities. See: Outside of you. Axe to grind Used in context of general equities. Involvement in a security. whether through a position. order. or inquiry. Copyright copy 2017, Campbell R. Harvey. All Worldwide Rights Reserved. Do not reproduce without explicit permission. Version 8 November 2016. Keep up to date on the latest finance lingo with my new iPadiPhone app Download from iTunes Order my book with the 2002 Pulitzer Prize winner for financial writing, Gretchen Morgenson of the New York TimesThe Technical Analysis page contains the results of 12 common technical analytics over different periods of time. The analytics used are: Moving Average Price Change Percent Change Average Volume The Moving Average is the average price of the security or contact for the Period shown. For example, a 9-period moving average is the average of the closing prices for the past 9 periods, including the current period. For intra-day data the current price is used in place of the closing price. The moving average is used to observe price changes. The effect of the moving average is to smooth the price movement so that the longer-term trend becomes less volatile and therefore more obvious. When the price rises above the moving average, it indicates that investors are becoming bullish on the commodity. When the prices falls below, it indicates a bearish commodity. As well, when a moving average crosses below a longer-term moving average, the study indicates a down turn in the market. When a short-term moving average crosses above a longer term moving average, this indicates an upswing in the market. The longer the period of the moving average, the smoother the price movement is. Longer moving averages are used to isolate long-term trends. The Price Change and associated Percent Change is the difference between the current Last Price, and the Last Price from the Period shown. For Commodities, the Average Volume figure is the average for the individual contract over the specified period of time. Raw Stochastics Stochastic K Stochastics D Average True Range The stochastic values simply represent the position of the market on a percentage basis versus its range over the previous n-period sessions. The percentage scale runs from zero to 100. The Stochastic Indicator shows where a securitys price closed in relation to its price range over the specified time period. There are three primary stochastic values: Raw Stochastic - the most basic value representing the stochastic value for each period. This is also referred to as raw K. K - the first smoothing of the raw stochastic, usually with a 3-period exponential moving average. D - the smoothing of the k value, usually with another 3-period exponential moving average. Also known as slow K. High Average True Range values often occur at market bottoms following a panic sell-off. Low Average True Range values are often found during extended sideways periods, such as those found at tops and after consolidation periods. The True Range indicator is the greatest of the following: The price difference from todays high to todays low. The price difference from yesterdays close to todays high. The price difference from yesterdays close to todays low. Relative Strength Percent R, Historic Volatility and MACD Oscillator (MACD Oscillator is calculated against the 3-Day Moving Average) The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is one of the most popular overboughtoversold (OBOS) indicators. The RSI is basically an internal strength index which is adjusted on a daily basis by the amount by which the market rose or fell. It is most commonly used to show when a market has topped or bottomed. A high RSI occurs when the market has been rallying sharply and a low RSI occurs when the market has been selling off sharply. The RSI is expressed as a percentage, and ranges from zero to 100. Williams Percent R was developed by Larry Williams. It indicates overboughtoversold market conditions, and is expressed as a percentage, ranging from zero to 100. Percent R is the inverse of the Raw Stochastic. Historic volatility is the standard deviation of the price returns over a given number of sessions, multiplied by a factor (260 days) to produce an annualized volatility level. A price return is the natural logarithm of the percentage price changes or lnPtP(t-1). A volatile market therefore has a larger standard deviation and thus a higher historical volatility value. Conversely, a market with small fluctuations has a small standard deviation and a low historical volatility value. Historical volatility is available on a daily chart, and on the Technicals Summary page for an individual ticker symbolcommodity contract. Historical volatility can also be used as a tool by traders who are trading only the underlying instrument. Quantifying the volatility in a market can affect a traders perception of how far the market can move and thus provides some help in making price projections and placing orders. High volatility may indicate a trend reversal as heavy buyingselling comes into the market and may sharp price reversals. The MACD Oscillator is the difference between a short-term and a long-term moving averages. When the MACD Oscillator is above the zero line, conventional wisdom interprets this as a bullish signal, and conversely, when the histogram is below the zero line this is interpreted as a bearish signal. The red line being above the green line reinforces a bullish signal, and the red line below the green line reinforces a bearish signal. Other interpretations use crossovers between the red and green lines as market timing signals if the resulting direction of both lines is the same. Going up is bullish, going down is bearish.
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