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145 file web tentang Wilayah Bermuda Bermuda yang diatur sendiri secara internal di dalam Lembaran Informasi yang komprehensif dan terus diperbarui. Akomodasi, penerbangan, bandara, Piala Amerika 2017, apartemen, seni, daftar penerbangan, bank, pantai, kewarganegaraan Bermuda oleh Status, Dolar Bermuda, Pemerintah Bermuda, perusahaan internasional dan lokal Bermuda, Bermudian, buku dan publikasi, jalan lintas, amal, Gereja, kota Hamilton, perdagangan, masyarakat, kartu kredit, kapal pesiar, budaya, masakan, mata uang, bea cukai, aksesibilitas cacat, Devonshire, distrik, galangan kapal, ekonomi, pendidikan, pengusaha, pekerjaan, hiburan, lingkungan, pelaksana dan perkebunan, fauna , Feri, flora, bekas pangkalan militer, benteng, kebun, geografi, berkeliling, rumah tamu, golf, pemerintahan, rumah tamu, sejarah, file sejarah, rumah, Hamilton, majelis, perumahan, hotel, imigrasi, bea impor, Perusahaan asuransi dan reasuradur, bisnis internasional, akses internet, pulau, hukum, sistem hukum, legislasi, legislator, lokasi, jalan utama, majalah, perkawinan, media, anggota parlemen, moto Kendaraan bermotor, kota, musik, daratan terdekat, pendatang baru, surat kabar, organisasi, paroki, taman, Paget, Pembroke, penduduk tetap, pensiun, partai politik, perangko, hari libur, transportasi umum, jalur kereta api, agama, pengecer, Dockyard, Sandys, Smiths, Somerset, Southampton, Pulau St. Davids, St Georges, lansia, pengiriman registri, Somerset, Spanish Point, Kolam Spittal, olahraga, pajak, telekomunikasi, zona waktu, tradisi, pariwisata, Kota St. George , Tuckers Town, utilitas, olahraga air, Warwick, cuaca, margasatwa, izin kerja. Iklim dan Cuaca Bermudas Cuaca dan cuaca sepanjang tahun dan badai, lebih dingin di musim dingin daripada di Karibia 1.000 mil selatan Oleh Keith Archibald Forbes (lihat Tentang Kami) secara eksklusif untuk Bermuda Online Iklimnya sub-tropis, ringan di musim dingin, musim semi dan musim gugur (musim gugur) , Tapi dari akhir Mei hingga Oktober, panasnya tidak nyaman dan dengan kelembaban tinggi. Bagian terpanas tahun ini adalah dari bulan Mei sampai pertengahan Oktober, ketika suhu berkisar antara 75F 23C dan 85F 29C. Kelembaban, seringkali lebih dari 85, berada pada titik tertinggi dari bulan Juli sampai pertengahan Oktober. Meskipun memiliki garis lintang dan bujur - dan lokasinya sejauh utara Karibia, hampir seribu mil di sebelah utara itu sebenarnya - Bermuda bebas dari embun beku, bebas salju dan bebas es. Mengapa Karena perairan hangat Gulf Stream lewat di dekat Bermuda. Namun, bisa menguntungkan penderita demam. Gulma gulma tidak ada di Bermuda dan serbuk sari dari gulma lainnya cepat-cepat meledak ke laut. Tapi perhatikan itu untuk mereka yang alergi. Iklim yang selalu lembab melahirkan jamur, lumut dan tungau. Beberapa obat-obatan yang tersedia tanpa resep di tempat lain memerlukan resep di Bermuda dari dokter umum setempat yang terdaftar. Tidak semua toko obat di Bermuda berlisensi mengeluarkan apotek. Anda harus mengunjungi salah satu yang terakhir di Kota Hamilton atau Kota St. George untuk mendapatkan sesuatu yang diresepkan secara lokal tapi mungkin tidak dibawa oleh apotek hotel. Bermudas angin laut yang marah oleh Gulf Stream, tapi ketika angin selatan menang, kelembaban naik dan kadang-kadang terjadi badai petir. Bulan kelembaban tertinggi adalah bulan Juli dan Agustus. Suhu jarang turun di bawah 55 derajat F atau melebihi 90 derajat F. Suhu udara terendah yang pernah tercatat adalah 43.6F. Yang tertinggi adalah 94F. Suhu air selama bulan-bulan musim dingin sama seperti suhu udara, mulai dari sekitar 66F (pada bulan Januari) sampai 75 jam sampai akhir musim semi. Cukup curah hujan tahunan adalah salah satu alasan mengapa Bermuda biasanya subur di dedaunan dan kehijauan meski tanah alkalinya sangat dangkal. Tidak ada musim hujan atau musim hujan karena Bermuda tidak berada di Karibia, namun beberapa bulan cenderung lebih basah daripada yang lain. Tapi yang lain bisa jadi tidak memiliki banyak hujan. Juga, beberapa - seperti akhir Juni, Juli dan Agustus pada khususnya dan awal September - dapat sangat (dan tidak menyenangkan) lembab. Jika ini mempengaruhi Anda dengan buruk, dan Anda tidak keberatan dengan air dingin untuk berenang, cobalah May atau Juni atau akhir September sampai Oktober. Untuk prakiraan cuaca, periksa halaman Dinas Cuaca Bermuda. Ini adalah layanan Pemerintah Bermuda, yang disediakan oleh Departemen Transportasi Departemen Operasi Udara. Suhu rata-rata dan curah hujan di bulan Juni menunjukkan angka rata-rata (rata-rata tinggi dan rendah bulan), lebih dingin di musim dingin daripada di Karibia atau Florida. Angka harian rata-rata. Mereka dapat bervariasi secara substansial dari bulan ke bulan. Tapi pada basis tahun-ke-tahun, angka akumulasi tidak banyak berbeda. Hujan dan badai hujan hanya menghasilkan pasokan air tawar. Tidak ada pipa pusat-dalam persediaan air kecuali beberapa tempat saja. Bila hujan tidak mencukupi, air diperintahkan dan dibayar dari waduk pemerintah atau pabrik penyulingan air laut dan dikirim oleh pengemudi truk air. Di luar rumah pada bulan Desember-Februari kadang-kadang bisa dingin, terutama pada musim dingin yang sering terjadi. Di dalam ruangan, kebanyakan Bermudian tidak memiliki pemanas sentral di rumah mereka seperti yang Anda lakukan di Amerika Serikat, Kanada, Eropa dan Inggris, namun kebakaran terbuka di satu ruangan atau pemanas listrik. Bawa beberapa pakaian wol di musim dingin. Variasi Suhu Bermuda. Rata-rata kelembaban sepanjang tahun rata-rata adalah 77. Tapi di bulan Mei sampai Oktober, ini jauh lebih tinggi. Ini adalah energi yang melemahkan, melemahkan, kronis, dengan kebutuhan untuk mengganti pakaian tiga kali sehari. Sebagian besar warga utara Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Eropa dan Kanada tidak diberitahu tentang hal itu dan beberapa bisa mendapatkan ruam panas dan kelembaban yang sangat parah darinya. Bagi mereka yang berpotensi terkena dampak buruk oleh kombinasi panas dan kelembaban tinggi, disarankan agar saat Anda berlibur di Bermuda, Anda datang di musim dingin lainnya - musim dingin ketika kelembaban lebih rendah. Badai Waspadai Buku Badai oleh penulis Bermudian akhir Terry Tucker. 2016. 12 Agustus. Warga mungkin harus bersiap menghadapi badai dahsyat lainnya setelah peramal AS meramalkan bahwa tahun ini bisa menjadi musim badai Atlantik tersibuk sejak 2012. Menurut Associated Press, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations diperbarui prospek menunjukkan 12 sampai 17 badai bernama, termasuk lima sampai delapan badai dua sampai empat di antaranya bisa menjadi besar. Rata-rata, AS mendapat 12 badai bernama Atlantik dalam satu musim, termasuk enam angin topan, tiga di antaranya besar. Efek El Nio di Pasifik yang cenderung mengurangi aktivitas badai Atlantik kini mereda. Gerry Bell, dari Pusat Prediksi Iklim NOAA, mengatakan fenomena yang berlawanan, La Nia, dapat terbentuk sebagai puncak musim enam bulan, namun seharusnya tidak memiliki dampak yang signifikan. 2016. 28 Mei. Administrasi Oseanik dan Atmosfer Nasional yang berbasis di Amerika Serikat telah memperkirakan musim badai Atlantik mendekati rata-rata, namun mencatat ketidakpastian dalam sinyal iklim biasa. Dalam sebuah pernyataan kemarin NOAA memperkirakan kemungkinan 70 persen bahwa Atlantik mengalami sepuluh sampai 16 badai bernama. Dari mereka yang bernama badai, empat sampai delapan bisa menjadi angin topan sementara satu sampai empat bisa menjadi topan besar, mencapai kekuatan Kategori 3 atau lebih. Sementara musim mendekati normal kemungkinan besar terjadi dengan peluang 45 persen, ada juga peluang 30 persen musim di atas normal dan peluang 25 persen pada musim di bawah normal, pernyataan berlanjut. Pernyataan tersebut juga mencatat bahwa Badai Alex, yang melanda Atlantik Utara pada bulan Januari, termasuk dalam perkiraan. Gerry Bell, peramal musiman terkemuka dengan Pusat Prediksi Iklim NOAAs, mengatakan: Ini adalah prospek musim badai yang lebih menantang daripada kebanyakan karena sulit untuk menentukan apakah akan ada pengaruh iklim yang menguatkan atau bersaing pada perkembangan badai tropis. Namun, prediksi yang mendekati normal untuk musim ini menunjukkan bahwa kita dapat melihat lebih banyak aktivitas badai daripada yang terlihat dalam tiga tahun terakhir, yang berada di bawah normal. Pernyataan tersebut mencatat, bagaimanapun, ada tingkat ketidakpastian mengenai status Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation, pola suhu samudera yang diyakini menyebabkan meningkatnya aktivitas badai selama fase hangatnya, dan La Nia, sistem cuaca yang terkait dengan peningkatan Aktivitas badai Pernyataan tersebut muncul saat tubuh tersebut mengamati sistem subtropis di sebelah barat daya Bermuda yang diperkirakan akan menjadi badai bernama 2016 yang kedua. James Dodgson, direktur penyelenggara Dinas Cuaca Bermuda, mengatakan bahwa sementara beberapa faktor penyebabnya membuatnya sulit untuk memperkirakan secara akurat bagaimana Sibuk musim akan, bahkan badai tunggal bisa memiliki dampak yang besar. Saran terbaik yang dapat diberikan oleh BWS, terkait dengan ramalan musiman ini, apakah mereka menyarankan tahun aktif atau tidak aktif, harus selalu siap, tidak peduli apa yang dikatakan oleh angka tersebut. Ini hanya membutuhkan satu siklon tropis (badai tropis atau angin topan) untuk menjadikannya musim sibuk bagi Bermuda, dengan potensi dampak signifikan. Badai lepas Bermuda Dalam hal ramalan badai, lihat tautan Hurricane khusus ke Pusat Badai Nasional di AS atau Saluran Cuaca. Beberapa hotel Bermuda dan properti tamu memiliki Jaminan Hurricane, yang menjamin tunduk pada kondisi tertentu bahwa jika mereka membatalkannya karena badai yang menghalangi mereka untuk datang, tidak ada hukuman yang dilampirkan. Studi yang dilakukan oleh Dinas Cuaca Bermuda menemukan bahwa dari tahun 1609 sampai sekarang, badai dahsyat mempengaruhi Pulau setiap enam sampai tujuh tahun. Topan tropis, atau angin topan, musim ini adalah dari bulan Mei sampai November, dengan rata-rata satu badai melewati 180 mil laut Pulau setiap tahunnya. Badai adalah badai subtropis atau tropis yang parah dengan hujan lebat dan angin kencang yang meniup gerakan melingkar yang besar di seputar pusat kutipan. Angin Musim badai di Atlantik secara resmi berlangsung selama enam bulan, mulai 1 Juni sampai 30 November. Sebagian besar badai terjadi pada bulan Agustus, September dan Oktober. Bermuda biasanya terlindungi dengan baik oleh terumbu karangnya namun ombak tinggi di atas gelombang badai dapat menyebabkan masalah di daerah dataran rendah yang dekat dengan laut. Badai tidak begitu lazim di sini seperti di Karibia, tapi terkadang mereka mengunjungi pulau kami setiap tujuh tahun sekali. Saat badai menyerang, kerusakan hotel dan rumah tinggal pribadi seringkali dangkal dibandingkan tempat lain. Salah satu alasan utamanya adalah karena secara hukum semua bangunan harus kokoh dibangun dari batu kapur atau blok beton Bermuda. Bandingkan dengan daerah pesisir Amerika Serikat di mana kayu, bukan batu, mendominasi. Sementara semua Bermuda adalah pesisir - tidak ada bagian dari Bermuda yang berjarak lebih dari 1,5 mil dari laut - Bermuda tidak memiliki lereng bawah laut secara bertahap, yang merupakan penyebab utama gelombang badai yang parah. Tapi Flora bunga Bermudas, bunga, tumbuh-tumbuhan dan sejenisnya - dan fauna tidak terlindungi dari angin topan dengan cara banyak bangunan berada. Bermuda sering mengalami gangguan listrik akibat angin kencang. Ini berarti tidak ada kekuatan untuk kadang-kadang berjam-jam atau berhari-hari atau berminggu-minggu - dan karena pemadaman listrik tidak ada air yang bisa ditarik, kecuali secara manual dalam ember jika tersedia, dari tangki bawah tanah di rumah-rumah lokal. Satu-satunya cara mereka mendapatkan air untuk baskom, bak mandi, bak cuci, pancuran dan toilet adalah dengan pompa listrik dari tangki air dari masing-masing properti. Tidak ada pasokan air bawah tanah pusat. Juga, telepon bisa keluar selama berminggu-minggu - dan TV kabel selama lebih dari sebulan, seperti pada bulan September 2003. Badai terbaru terjadi pada tahun 2014. Badai yang mempengaruhi Bermuda, kepulauan Karibia, Amerika Utara, dan lain-lain dulunya dinamai menurut nama orang-orang kudus , Menurut buku Hurricanes, oleh Ivan R. Tannehill. Badai Santa Ana menyerang Puerto Riko pada tahun 1825, dan dua badai San Felipe mencapai pulau itu pada tahun 1876 dan 1928. Pusat Badai mulai memberi nama orang-orang badai Atlantik pada tahun 1953, ketika AS meninggalkan sebuah rencana untuk menamai mereka setelah alfabet militer fonetiknya, Seperti Mampu, Baker dan Charlie. Organisasi Meteorologi Dunia yang berbasis di Jenewa sekarang mempertahankan daftar Atlantik dan yang untuk tiga wilayah Samudra Pasifik dua bagian di Samudera Hindia dan Filipina, Papua Nugini, Fiji dan wilayah Australia. Daftar tersebut digunakan kembali pada interval yang berbeda dan berisi nama asli, seperti nama Thailand Prapiroon. Semua nama itu womens sampai 1978, saat mens disertakan untuk beberapa badai Pasifik. Pada tahun 1979, nama-nama pria ditambahkan ke dalam daftar untuk wilayah Atlantik dan Teluk Meksiko, yang dikenal sebagai Cekungan Atlantik. Nama alternatif antara laki-laki dan perempuan dan juga antara bahasa Inggris, Perancis dan Spanyol. 2017 Badai Nama Berikut adalah badai bernama yang mungkin terbentuk di Atlantik Utara pada tahun 2016: Diikuti oleh alfabet Yunani, jika diperlukan. Nama diberikan pada badai tropis, yaitu angin yang bertiup setidaknya 39 mil per jam. Saat angin bertiup kencang pada jarak 74 mil per jam atau lebih, badai menjadi badai. Badai sejarah (a) 1609-1962 yang mempengaruhi Bermuda 1609. Bermuda dijajah pada bulan Juli sebagai akibat langsung dari sebuah topan. Pada tanggal 24 Juli, sebuah badai menenggelamkan satu kapal dan melemparkan Kapal Laut andalan sejauh ini sehingga terjatuh di terumbu karang di Bermuda pada tanggal 28 Juli. Semua 150, termasuk John Rolfe dan istrinya yang sedang hamil diselamatkan. Tapi Mrs. Rolfe dan putrinya Bermuda meninggal di Bermuda. Penjajah membangun kembali dua kapal dari reruntuhan. Lihat Admiral Sir George Somers menjajah Bermuda. 1619. 1619 November. Satu dekade setelah badai Sea Venture, badai lain melanda pulau itu, mengirim kapal Earl of Warwicks, Warwick. Ke dasar dangkal Castle Harbour. 1620. Setelah digulingkan oleh angin topan, Moores Mount dibangun kembali setelah Paskah oleh Gubernur Butler sebagai karya segitiga. 1629. Di St. Georges, menara pengawas Butler dilemparkan menuruni bukit dengan badai yang lewat. 1689. Gubernur Richard Coney mengeluh kepada Lords of Council di London betapa besar badai yang terus-menerus membuatnya dan keluarganya berlindung di rumah tetangga. 1712. 8 September. Yang pertama dari dua topan parah menabrak Pulau. Banyak bangunan bersejarah Bermudas, termasuk Gereja St. Peters di St. Georges, rusak. Sejak pemukim pertama Bermudas telah membangun hampir semua barang dari kayu aras, termasuk bangunan komersial dan gereja, banyak yang hancur. Itu sebagai akibat langsung dari badai-badai ini bahwa keputusan diambil untuk membangun bangunan dari batu kapur, berlawanan dengan kayu dan dengan demikian menahan angin topan dengan lebih baik. Metode konstruksi baru dikembangkan untuk memotong batu dari lereng bukit untuk menciptakan bangunan batu kapur yang kokoh dimana banyak masih ada. 1780. 10 Oktober. Salah satu badai topan yang pernah tercatat melanda Bermuda. Lima puluh kapal diangkut ke darat, dengan banyak kerusakan. Rumah hancur. Pohon-pohon palem dirobek secara jasmani oleh akar-akarnya. Gelombang pasang naik tinggi. Ini dikenal sebagai "The Great Hurricanequot" yang sebelumnya telah memukul Barbados dengan angin di atas 200 mil per jam dan menyebabkan kematian dan kerusakan yang meluas, sebelum membawa rantai Hindia Barat dan seterusnya ke Bermuda. Jumlah korban tewasnya belum terlampaui. 1831. 11 Agustus, 12, 13. Bermudian kagum melihat matahari dengan penampilan yang jelas biru, mengeluarkan cahaya biru yang mengerikan saat menerangi ruangan dan tempat-tempat tertutup lainnya. Kapal-kapal di laut sejauh Cape Hatteras melaporkan bahwa layar putih quottheir tampak berwarna biru muda.quot Sebulan kemudian diketahui bahwa sinar matahari biru yang menakjubkan telah bertepatan dengan badai dahsyat yang menyebabkan 1.477 orang kehilangan nyawa mereka. Diasumsikan bahwa badai cukup intensif untuk menyebabkan gangguan yang tidak biasa pada strata atmosfir yang lebih tinggi, dan pembiasan, difraksi atau penyerapan sinar cahaya, sehingga menyebabkan pantulan biru. 1832. Juni. Angin kencang menyapu Bermuda. 1839. September Badai menyebabkan kerusakan besar. Itu terjadi saat Sir William Reid berada di sini sebagai Gubernur, yang memberinya wawasan lebih jauh tentang badai, di mana dia telah menerbitkan buku ilmiah pertama tentang topik badai seperti tahun sebelumnya. 1880. quotReidsquot Badai melanda. 1889. 1212 September, sebuah badai menghancurkan Causeway yang menghubungkan Pulau St. Georges ke Pulau Utama. Itu harus dibangun kembali. Yang juga hancur adalah Breakwater di Dockyard, yang harus diperbaiki. 1900. 17 September. Angin dengan kekuatan angin topan. Nyaris. 1915. Pada tanggal 34 September, sebuah badai menyebabkan kapal uap Pollokshield dirusak di terumbu pantai selatan. Sang tuan kehilangan nyawanya. Hujan deras dan angin 82 mph. 1916. Badai pada tanggal 23 September. 1917. 4 September, badai dengan pasang surut yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya. 1918. 45 September. Angin topan langsung. 1921. 15 September. Badai langsung terserang, dengan hembusan 120 mph. 1922. Badai langsung dipukul pada 21 September. Angin sampai 120 mph dan gelombang badai 8 kaki. 1923. 30 September. Storm melintas ke NW dengan angin sampai 62 mph. 1 926. 22 Oktober. Havana-Bermuda Hurricane Category 4 langsung dipukul. Angin 114 mph Ini membunuh 88 di Bermuda, menyebabkan kerusakan paling parah di Bermuda sampai saat ini dan menyebabkan 100 juta kerusakan. Kategori Empat. Saat melewati langsung ke Pulau, ada hembusan angin hingga 143 knot. Dua kapal perang Inggris, Calcutta dan Valerian tenggelam dan 88 yang tewas dalam badai ini adalah semua pelaut dan perwira di kapal Valerian. Ini pada akhirnya bertanggung jawab atas total 738 kematian, termasuk 650 orang di Kuba. Lihat di bawah tanggal ini di bermuda-online.orghistory1900-1951.htm 1932. 12 November. Storm melewati 100 mil ke timur. Dengan hembusan angin sampai 91 mph. 1 939. 16 Oktober. Badai melewati 50 mil timur, angin mencapai 100 mph dengan hembusan 131 mph. Hujan deras. 1 947. 20 Oktober. Badai 40 mil ke NW dengan angin sampai 100 mph. 1948 (i). 13 September. Badai 50 mil ke barat, 800-100 mph angin, telepon dan pemadaman listrik. 1948 (ii). 7 Oktober. Badai langsung terpukul. Angin 110 mph. 1953 (i). 5 September. Badai Carol melintas 200 mil ke barat, memberi angin Bermuda 50-60 mph. 1953 (ii). 12 September. Badai Tropis Dolly berlalu, tapi hanya dengan hujan dan angin sepoi-sepoi. 1953 (iii). 17 September. Badai Edna berlalu dalam jarak 50 mil dengan angin 120 mph, hujan lebat dan banyak kerusakan pada atap. Tiga orang terluka. 1958. 28 September. Badai 230 mil jauhnya. Dengan angin 30 mph tapi ombak berdebar. 1961. 67 Oktober. Badai Frances membelok menjauh, angin kecil tapi ombak berdebar kencang. 1962. 6 Oktober. Badai Daisy merosot sejauh 120 mil, melaju ke 66 mph dengan ombak berat. Sejarah badai (b) 1963-sekarang yang mempengaruhi Bermuda 1963. 9 Agustus. Badai Arlene bertabrakan langsung dengan angin hingga 90 mph, banyak kerusakan pada vegetasi. Dia telah mengancam Pulau ini hampir seminggu sebelum dia tiba di darat. Di belakangnya dia meninggalkan ratusan kapal, rumah dan daerah vegetasi yang luas hancur atau rusak. Ini adalah pertama kalinya dalam satu dekade bahwa badai tidak membalikkan arahnya dari Pulau. 1 964. Band-band terluar Badai Gladys mengecam Bermuda dengan angin tapi sedikit kerusakan jika ada yang dilaporkan secara resmi. Namun, hal itu menimbulkan beberapa masalah. Di Pangkalan Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat, Bermuda. Stasiun tugas darurat untuk personil militer yang berbasis di sana adalah kolam motor, yang pada waktu itu terletak di gerbong pesawat amfibi lama. Mereka cukup aman, tapi pada dasarnya terjebak tanpa makanan. Beberapa mencoba untuk mencapai dapur untuk persediaan namun terdorong oleh badai. Pada satu titik mata langsung melewati dasar. Mereka melompat ke beberapa kendaraan dan berlari ke aula mess untuk menyiapkan makanan dan berlari kembali ke gantungan baju saat mata lewat dan badai kembali. Selain pangkalan Angkatan Laut AS yang disebutkan di atas di Paroki Southampton, yang memiliki rumah kekuasaan dan utilitas bawah tanahnya, satu-satunya cahaya yang terlihat dari pangkalan adalah Mercusuar Gibbs Hill. 1965. Badai Anna bukan ancaman langsung bagi Bermuda. 1966. 31 Agustus. Fringe of Hurricane Faith. Hujan deras dan angin sampai 62 mph. 1971. 23 September. Badai Jahe lewat di selatan Bermuda, dengan ombak yang deras dan angin kencang selama 17 jam. Tapi tidak ada korban jiwa atau kerusakan. Bagian badai gagal meredakan kondisi kekeringan yang terus-menerus. Namun, ancaman tersebut menyebabkan kehadiran Angkatan Laut Kerajaan di Bermuda untuk mengevakuasi sebuah kapal, militer AS mengevakuasi beberapa pesawat terbang dan dua kapal pelayaran yang dikunjungi berangkat lebih awal untuk menghindari ancaman tersebut. 1 973. 34 Juli. Badai Alice, minimal 26 mil jauhnya, tapi hujan deras. 1975. 26 September. Badai Faye berjarak 40 mil, angin kencang, hujan deras. 1977. 27 September. Badai Dorothy sejauh 60 mil ke SE, hujan deras. 1981. 7 September. Badai Emily lewat, hanya dengan angin 35 mph. 1987. 25 September. Badai Emily. Hanya Kategori Satu, bergerak tak terduga dengan cepat, menyebabkan tornado, kekacauan dan banyak kerusakan. Dengan hembusan angin yang direkam hingga 125 mph, banyak yang tertangkap basah karena badai diperkirakan akan melewatkan Pulau ini. Kecil, tapi ganas dan bertelur beberapa tornado, Emily menimbulkan kekacauan dan kerusakan yang meluas - terutama pada mobil dan kapal, meskipun rumah-rumah mengalami kerusakan parah selama perjalanan badai juga. St Georges dipukul keras, begitu juga hotel Hamilton Princess saat semua 80 jendela hancur berantakan. Lebih dari 100 orang dirawat di King Edward VII Memorial Hospital karena patah tulang akibat puing-puing yang terbang dan sebagian atap rumah sakit hancur. Akhirnya Emily menyebabkan 35 juta orang merusak Pulau. N o satu terbunuh tapi Emily adalah topan terkuat yang menabrak Bermuda sejak 1948. 1989. 4 Agustus. Badai Tropis Dekan 23 mil dengan angin 90 mph. 1991. Oktober 2729. Badai Grace terbentuk di daerah Bermuda, melayang, memberi lautan masif. 1995. 14 Agustus. Badai Felix 50 mil jauhnya, angin mencapai 75 mph, ombak berdebar selama 3 hari di South Shore. Felix diperkirakan akan menempuh jarak 14 mil dari Bermuda namun tiba-tiba berbelok menjauh, menyelamatkan Pulau dari dampak langsungnya. Meskipun demikian, Bermuda merasakan angin badai selama lebih dari delapan jam, dan referendum Kemerdekaan yang telah lama ditunggu harus ditunda. Badai tersebut mengurangi kekuatan hingga sekitar 18.000 rumah dan menyebabkan sekitar 2,5 juta di antaranya mengalami kerusakan. 1996. 20 Oktober. Badai Lily 140 mil ke SE, hujan dan angin kencang 42 sentimeter. 1997. 89 Oktober. Badai Erika 300 mil jauhnya, tidak ada kerusakan. 1998 (i). 23 September. Badai Danielle 200 mil NW. Hujan, badai petir, angin hingga 46 mph. 1998 (ii). September 2122. Badai Karl terbentuk di dekat Bermuda. Angin mencapai 44 mph dengan hujan deras dan hujan deras. 1 998 (iii). 6 November. Badai Mitch. Kerusakan yang luas di luar Bermuda tapi hujan deras dan angin kencang di Bermuda sampai 69 mph. 1999. 21 September. Badai Gert melewati 120 mil sebelah timur Bermuda. Angin kencang hingga 75 mph, banyak pantai yang rusak. 2000. 16 September. Hurricane Florence berjarak 60 mil. Angin sampai dengan 50 knot. 2001 (i). 9 September. Badai Erin berada 90 mil ke E. Tapi dengan hanya angin badai tropis yang menyebabkan gelombang pemukulan dan beberapa erosi pantai. 2001. (ii) 7 Oktober. Badai Tropis Michelle mengancam namun gagal dalam pendekatan. Sedikit kerusakan 2001. (iii). Oktober. Meski Karen tidak menjadi topan sampai dia sudah pindah dari Pulau, sistem ini mengejutkan Bermuda. Dengan cepat membangun dari gangguan tekanan rendah ke badai tropis di depan pintu rumah kami. Angin mencapai 74mph, status mendekati badai, menghancurkan vegetasi dan menenggak saluran listrik, menyebabkan lebih dari dua pertiga Pulau tanpa daya. 2002. 30 September. Badai Kyle datang dalam jarak 100 mil laut ke selatan. Tapi dengan sedikit efek. 2003. 5 September. Badai Fabian melanda Bermuda. Itu adalah badai terkuat yang melanda pantai Bermudas dalam empat dekade. Ini dimulai dengan sedikit saat Bermuda terbangun dengan angin yang berkobar antara 25 mph dan 37 mph karena Badai Fabian memunculkannya di Bermuda. Badai tersebut mendekati Pulau dari selatan, barat daya dan bergerak ke utara. Mata badai, yang berjarak 50 mil dari utara ke selatan dan 30 mil dari timur ke barat, lalu berjalan melintasi Pulau yang membawa angin tertinggi. Dinding mata membelok ke Barat duduk di Pulau selama sekitar tiga jam di kuadran timur laut, yang secara tradisional merupakan bagian terkuat dari badai. Dengan 5,55 p.m. Ketika angin kencang setinggi 150 mph, pulau itu telah kehilangan empat nyawa di Causeway. Mereka semua meninggal saat mereka tersapu dari Causeway saat topan. P.C. Stephen Antoine Symons, 37, P.C. Nicole OConnor, 29, Petugas Tugas Stasiun, Gladys Saunders, 48, terjebak di jembatan dengan satu mobil. Stephen Antoine Symons Chicken, 37, adalah satu dari dua petugas yang mengawal Petugas Lapangan Tugas Gladys Saunders, kembali ke rumahnya di Ducks Puddle, Hamilton Parish. Seorang warga sipil, Manuel Pacheco, 23, seorang karyawan Corporation of Hamilton, terjebak dalam perawatan kedua di belakang mereka sekitar pukul 2.30 malam. Dia kembali ke rumah setelah mengamankan kapalnya di St. Davids. Meskipun upaya dilakukan untuk menyelamatkan mereka, petugas pemadam kebakaran, petugas polisi dan pekerja konstruksi harus membatalkan misinya saat badai menjadi sangat buruk. Tubuh P.C. Symons ditemukan dua hari kemudian dan korban lainnya tidak pernah terlihat lagi. Pada hari Fabian ada hembusan dilaporkan lebih dekat ke 160 mph, namun, sekitar 4.55 p.m. Peralatan pemantauan Cuaca Bermuda Services telah disingkat saat air melonjak delapan kaki di atas permukaan laut dan rekaman berhenti selama dua jam. Kru Layanan Cuaca beruntung masih memiliki peralatan untuk dipantau setelah ahli meteorologi mereka Brian Kolts mengatakan kepada Royal Gazette bahwa lima simpul lagi akan memadamkan atap dari tempat penampungan militer buatan militer mereka yang tahan bom. Sekitar pukul 6.55 sore. Mata itu berada di utara Bermuda dan angin beralih arah untuk datang dari arah barat ke sisi badai yang relatif lebih lemah. Dan pada pukul 11.55 malam berikutnya, angin topan secara resmi telah melewati Pulau, dengan kecepatan 40 knot (46 mph) yang terus berlanjut sampai 52 knot (60 mph) yang menabrak Pulau. Sejak saat itu, terjadi penurunan kecepatan angin yang stabil saat Fabian meniupkan angin ke Atlantik ke utara, dan pada 4,55 pagi pada hari Sabtu, Pusat Cuaca hampir tidak mendaftarkan kondisi badai tropis, dengan angin yang bertahan pada 36 knot (41 mph). Tapi apa yang tersisa di belakangnya hanyalah ketenangan. Diperkirakan biaya kerusakan akibat badai berlari di wilayah 300 juta. Sekitar 25.000 dari 32.000 rumah dan bisnis dibiarkan tanpa kekuasaan, meski pada siang hari pada hari Minggu, BELCO melaporkan bahwa 11.000 rumah memiliki kekuatan mereka untuk dipulihkan. Tim 20-kuat dari Asosiasi Listrik Karibia, di Cayman, tiba pada hari Selasa untuk menawarkan bantuan di tempat yang mereka bisa. East End of the Island, bagaimanapun, terputus berhari-hari setelah Causeway tidak bisa dilewati. Beberapa hari kemudian itu terbuka untuk lalu lintas satu arah, tapi masih tutup pada malam hari dan akhirnya pada bulan Oktober, arteri utama Pulau itu berjalan seperti biasa. Hotel Bermudas menderita, dengan mayoritas atap Hotel Sonesta Beach terbang dan Fairmont Southampton juga berjuang untuk mengganti atapnya. Fabian dengan mudah memukul pada awal tahun ajaran dan berarti pembukaan sekolah Pemerintah ditunda seminggu dan mereka tidak dibuka sampai 15 September. Persiapan di St. Georges menghabiskan waktu berbulan-bulan untuk pulih setelah badai yang mendatangkan malapetaka di gedung tersebut dan dua tahun kemudian Badai Fabian menghancurkan Pulau Departemen Taman dan Kementerian Pekerjaan dan Teknik mulai memperbaiki jalan masuk ke Church Bay, yang rusak parah. Kemudian, pada tanggal 5 September Foundation, sebuah badan amal terdaftar, mendirikan sebuah bangku peringatan di Kindley Field Park, di dekat lokasi tragedi tersebut. Yayasan tersebut sejak menciptakan dana beasiswa bagi anak-anak korban Fabian. 2006. September. Badai Florence hanya menyebabkan kerusakan dangkal secara keseluruhan. 23.000 dari 68.500 penduduk mengalami pemadaman listrik. Hanya satu hotel yang rusak, dengan pantai yang lain telah lenyap. Surat kabar Amerika dan Kanada, layanan Internet dan sumber berita lainnya memberikan cakupan topan yang luas namun tidak disebutkan di BBC Inggris atau surat kabar atau setara dengan Eropa. 2010. 19 September. Badai Igor. Diprediksi akan menjadi badai raksasa sebuah Kategori 500-nautical-mile-wide Kategori tiga sistem runtuh sebelum mendarat, namun menyapu pulau di malam hari dengan angin kencang, ombak, hujan dan beberapa banjir di beberapa tempat. Namun, tidak menyebabkan kematian atau luka serius. Kerusakan sebagian besar dangkal karena rumah dan hotel terbuat dari batu, bukan kayu. Tapi pohon jatuh ke jalan dan listrik, TV kabel, radio, televisi dan gangguan internet terjadi. Tidak disebutkan di Inggris. Badai itu dikurangi menjadi badai Kategori Satu pada saat mendekati Pulau, dan tidak sampai sedekat yang diantisipasi. Namun badai masih menyebabkan banjir di Somerset dan St Georges dan merobek beberapa kapal dari tambatan mereka, termasuk tender Pemerintah Bermudian. Sekitar 80 persen pelanggan Belco, 28.700 rumah dan bisnis, kehilangan kekuatan. Listrik dikembalikan ke semua tapi 5.600 rumah keesokan harinya. 2012. 5 September. Badai Tropis Leslie menjadi ancaman namun tidak bertahan lama. 2014. 12 Oktober. Bermuda terkena pukulan keras oleh Badai Tropis Fay yang telah diramalkan oleh sumber-sumber AS untuk menyeberang ke timur hanya sebagai badai tropis atau kategori satu Badai. Sebaliknya, hal itu menguat tiba-tiba dan langsung melewati Bermuda tanpa ada peringatan sebelumnya. Warga yang mengalami angin kencang 80-120 mph kemudian dilaporkan memuncak pada 155 mph. Pohon kelapa dan pohon lainnya roboh, menghalangi akses ke rumah. Banyak atap yang rusak. Semua sekolah ditutup dan satu atapnya hilang. Dua pertiga rumah kehilangan listrik saat saluran listrik di atas ditiupkan. Pemadaman listrik tidak berarti listrik, tidak ada air mengalir, tidak ada toilet pembilasan, tidak ada lemari es atau AC, tidak ada radio atau TV atau Internet. Banyak kapal rusak dan kontainer pengiriman ditiupkan dari Pelabuhan Hamilton ke pelabuhan. Ini adalah badai yang cepat, marah tapi singkat. 2014. 17 Oktober. Bermuda mendapat pukulan langsung dari Hurricane Gonzalo hanya seminggu setelah kejadian terakhir, namun karena peringatan sebelumnya, kali ini sudah dipersiapkan dengan baik. Airlines berhenti terbang sebelumnya untuk durasi dan kapal pesiar, yang ditujukan untuk Bermuda, mengunjungi pelabuhan lain. Sekali lagi pohon kelapa dan pohon lainnya roboh, menghalangi akses ke rumah. Beberapa atap rusak atau hilang. Semua bisnis dan sekolah tutup lebih awal. Dua pertiga rumah kehilangan listrik. Pemadaman listrik tidak berarti listrik, tidak ada air mengalir, tidak ada toilet pembilasan, tidak ada lemari es atau AC, tidak ada radio atau TV atau Internet. Beberapa kapal rusak. Britains Royal Navy mengirim sebuah kapal perang untuk membantu upaya pemulihan dan pemasok listrik dari Karibia (dari 900 mil jauhnya) siaga. 2015. 4 Oktober. Badai Joaquin lewat dalam jarak 75 mil dari Bermuda. Memukul pulau dengan hujan deras. Tapi tidak ada kerusakan besar. 2016. 24 September. Badai Tropis Karl melewati pulau dengan dampak minimal, namun lebih dari 800 pelanggan Belco tidak memiliki kekuatan dan Department of Parks menasihati perenang untuk menghindari perairan di semua pantai South Shore, karena lonjakan tetap tinggi. 2016. 13 Oktober. Badai Nicole, lalu di Kategori 4, melanda Bermuda. It behind some serious damage to the islands infrastructure. It caused walls and roads to collapse, tore roofs off buildings, ripped up trees, smashed boats against rocks and flooded numerous homes and roads. Walls were damaged along the Causeway, the only route to and from the airport. The Royal Bermuda Regiment was a principal player during and after. Many power lines were downed. Flooding victims included Victor Scott Primary School, while Baileys Bay Cricket Clubs structure suffered extensive damage. Residents near Elbow Beach report a significant outflow from a broken pipe. Other damages are significant. No major marine incidents took place during the storm. Many houses around the island were damaged. Nicole was the biggest hurricane of recent years to make landfall. American system of hurricane assessment - used in Bermuda The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale classifies hurricanes thus: 1 . Pressure 28.94 inches or more. Wind speed of 74 to 95 mph, 4-5 foot storm surge but not much damage. 2. Pressure 28.50-28.93 inches. Wind speed of 96 to 110 mph, storm surge 6-8 feet. moderate damage. 3. Pressure 27.91-28.49 inches. Wind speed of 111 to 130 mph, storm surge 9-12 feet, damage extensive. 4. Pressure 27.17-27.9 inches. Wind speed of 131 to 155 mph, storm surge 13-18 feet, damage very extensive. 5 . Pressure less than 27.17 inches, winds greater than 155 mph, storm surge higher than 18 feet, catastrophic damage Last Updated: February 20, 2017. Multi-national 2017 by Bermuda Online. All Rights Reserved.Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP) Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP) Introduction Volume-Weighted Average Price (VWAP) is exactly what it sounds like: the average price weighted by volume. VWAP sama dengan nilai dolar dari semua periode perdagangan dibagi dengan total volume perdagangan untuk hari ini. Perhitungan dimulai saat trading dibuka dan berakhir saat trading ditutup. Karena bagus untuk perdagangan hari ini saja, periode intraday dan data digunakan dalam perhitungan. Tick ​​versus Minute Traditional VWAP didasarkan pada data tick. Seperti yang bisa dibayangkan, ada banyak kutu (perdagangan) setiap menit sepanjang hari. Efek aktif selama periode waktu aktif dapat memiliki 20-30 kutu dalam satu menit saja. Dengan 390 menit di hari perdagangan bursa biasa, banyak saham berakhir dengan lebih dari 5000 ticks per hari. Ada lebih dari 5000 saham yang diperdagangkan setiap hari dan kutu ini mulai bertambah secara eksponensial. Tak perlu dikatakan, tick-data sangat intensif sumber daya. Alih-alih VWAP berdasarkan data tick, StockCharts menawarkan VWAP intraday berdasarkan periode intraday (1, 5, 10, 15, 30 atau 60 menit). Perhatikan bahwa VWAP tidak didefinisikan untuk periode harian, mingguan atau bulanan karena sifat perhitungannya (lihat di bawah). Perhitungan Ada lima langkah yang terlibat dalam perhitungan VWAP. Pertama, hitung harga tipikal untuk periode intraday. Ini adalah rata-rata tinggi, rendah dan dekat. Kedua, kalikan harga tipikal dengan volume period039. Ketiga, ciptakan total nilai-nilai ini. Ini juga dikenal sebagai jumlah kumulatif. Keempat, buat volume total yang berjalan (volume kumulatif). Kelima, bagilah total volume harga yang harus dipenuhi dengan volume total. Contoh di atas menunjukkan VWAP 1 menit selama 30 menit pertama perdagangan di IBM. Membagi volume harga kumulatif dengan volume kumulatif menghasilkan tingkat harga yang disesuaikan (tertimbang) menurut volume. Nilai VWAP pertama selalu merupakan harga tipikal karena volume sama dengan pembilang dan penyebutnya. Mereka saling membatalkan dalam perhitungan pertama. Bagan di bawah ini menunjukkan batang 1 menit dengan VWAP untuk IBM. Harga berkisar antara 127,36 di level tinggi menjadi 126,67 pada level rendah untuk perdagangan 30 menit pertama. Itu sebenarnya cukup stabil pertama 30 menit. VWAP berkisar antara 127,21 sampai 127,09 dan menghabiskan waktunya di tengah rentang ini. Karakteristik Seperti moving averages, harga VWAP tertinggal karena rata-rata berdasarkan data masa lalu. Semakin banyak data yang ada, semakin besar lag. Saham telah diperdagangkan selama 331 menit pada pukul 3 sore. Sebagai rata-rata kumulatif, indikator ini mirip dengan rata-rata moving average 330. Itu banyak data masa lalu. Nilai VWAP 1 menit pada akhir hari seringkali cukup mendekati nilai akhir untuk rata-rata pergerakan 390 menit. Rata-rata bergerak rata-rata didasarkan pada batang 1 menit untuk hari itu. Pada penutupan, keduanya didasarkan pada data 390 menit (satu hari penuh). Seseorang tidak dapat membandingkan rata-rata pergerakan 390 menit ke VWAP pada siang hari sekalipun. Rata-rata pergerakan 390 menit pada pukul 12:00 akan mencakup data dari hari sebelumnya. VWAP tidak akan. Ingat, perhitungan VWAP mulai segar di tempat terbuka dan tutup tutup. 150 menit perdagangan telah berlalu pada pukul 12:00. Oleh karena itu, VWAP pada pukul 12:00 perlu dibandingkan dengan rata-rata pergerakan 150 menit. Meski ketinggalan, chartis bisa membandingkan VWAP dengan harga saat ini untuk menentukan arah umum harga intraday. Ini bekerja mirip dengan rata-rata bergerak. Secara umum, harga intraday turun saat berada di bawah harga VWAP dan intraday naik saat berada di atas VWAP. VWAP akan jatuh di suatu tempat antara kisaran high-low hari ini ketika harga berkisar untuk hari ini. Tiga grafik berikut menunjukkan contoh VWAP yang naik, jatuh dan datar. Penggunaan VWAP VWAP digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi titik likuiditas. Sebagai ukuran harga tertimbang volume, VWAP mencerminkan tingkat harga tertimbang volume. Ini bisa membantu institusi dengan pesanan besar. Idenya adalah jangan sampai mengganggu pasar saat memasuki buy atau sell order besar. VWAP membantu institusi ini menentukan titik-titik harga likuid dan likuid untuk keamanan tertentu dalam jangka waktu yang sangat singkat. VWAP juga bisa digunakan untuk mengukur efisiensi trading. Setelah membeli atau menjual sekuritas, institusi atau individu dapat membandingkan harganya dengan nilai VWAP. Perintah beli yang dijalankan di bawah nilai VWAP akan dianggap bagus karena keamanannya dibeli dengan harga di bawah rata-rata. Sebaliknya, order jual yang dieksekusi di atas VWAP akan dianggap bagus karena dijual dengan harga di atas rata-rata. Kesimpulan VWAP berfungsi sebagai acuan untuk harga satu hari. Dengan demikian, paling cocok untuk analisis intraday. Chartis dapat membandingkan harga saat ini dengan nilai VWAP untuk menentukan tren intraday. VWAP juga bisa digunakan untuk menentukan nilai relatif. Harga di bawah nilai VWAP relatif rendah untuk hari itu atau waktu tertentu. Harga di atas nilai VWAP relatif tinggi untuk hari itu atau waktu tertentu. Ingatlah bahwa VWAP adalah indikator kumulatif, yang berarti jumlah titik data semakin meningkat sepanjang hari. Pada grafik 1 menit, IBM akan memiliki 90 titik data (menit) pada pukul 11:00, 210 titik data pada 1PM dan 390 titik data dari dekat. Angka tersebut meningkat secara dramatis seiring berlalunya waktu. Inilah sebabnya mengapa VWAP ketinggalan harga dan lag ini meningkat seiring berlalunya waktu. SharpCharts Volume-Weighted Average Price (VWAP) dapat digambarkan sebagai indikator overlay pada Sharpcharts. Setelah memasukkan simbol keamanan, pilih periode intraday dan rentang. Ini bisa untuk 1 hari atau mengisi tabel. Chartists yang mencari lebih detail bisa memilih mengisi chart. Chartist yang mencari level umum bisa memilih 1 hari. VWAP dapat digambarkan lebih dari satu hari, namun indikatornya akan melompat dari nilai penutupan sebelumnya ke harga tipikal untuk pembukaan berikutnya saat periode perhitungan baru dimulai. Perhatikan juga bahwa nilai VWAP terkadang bisa jatuh dari grafik harga. VWAP di 45,5 akan muncul di chart dengan kisaran harga 45,8 sampai 47. Chartists terkadang perlu memperpanjang range hingga sehari penuh untuk melihat VWAP pada chart. Nilai VWAP selalu ditampilkan di kiri atas grafik. Click the chart below to see a live example.California Highways Click here for a key to the symbols used. LRN refers to the Pre-1964 Legislative Route Number. US refers to a US Shield signed route. I refers to an Eisenhower Interstate signed route. Route usually indicates a state shield signed route, but said route may be signed as US or I. Previous Federal Aid (pre-1992) categories: Federal Aid Interstate (FAI) Federal Aid Primary (FAP) Federal Aid Urban (FAU) and Federal Aid Secondary (FAS). Current Functional Classifications (used for aid purposes): Principal Arterial (PA) Minor Arterial (MA) Collector (Col) Rural Minor CollectorLocal Road (RMCLR). Note that ISTEA repealed the previous Federal-Aid System, effective in 1992, and established the functional classification system for all public roads. Quickindex Former State Route 209 No current routing. In 1963, Route 209 was defined as Point Loma to Route 5 in San Diego. In 2003, Chapter 525 deleted Route 209. At one time, the segment to Barnett Street was proposed as a freeway. This was originally part of LRN 12. and was signed as part of US 80. It was defined in 1933. The Gate at the Fort Rosecrans Military Reservation is open daily from 8:00am to 5:15pm. As signs get replaced on I-5. references to Route 209 are disappearing however, Route 209 is still well marked upon Rosecrans. SHC 263.1 Entire route. Overall statistics for Route 209: Total Length (1995): 8 miles Average Daily Traffic (1992): 2,550 to 61,000 Milage Classification: Rural: 0 Sm. Urban: 0 Urbanized: 8. Previous Federal Aid Milage: FAU: 8 mi. Functional Classification: Prin. Arterial: 8 mi. Counties Traversed: San Diego. In 1939, Chapter 794 added the route 147LRN 3 near Station 398, according to the survey of said LRN 3 , Section B, to Shasta Summit near Summit City148. No route number was assigned. This route was added as an urgency measure, in order to accomodate heavy traffic from US 99 to and from Shasta Dam. In 1943, Chapter 964 amended the 1939 definition to specify this as LRN 209. In 1953, Chapter 1836 rewrote the routing: LRN 3 near Project City to Shasta Dam This is present-day Route 151. Interstate 210 From Route 5 near Tunnel Station to Route 57 near San Dimas via the vicinity of San Fernando From Route 57 near San Dimas to Route 10 in Redlands via the vicinity of Highland As defined in 1963, this route ran from Route 5 near Tunnel Station to Route 10 near the east boundary of Los Angeles County via the vicinity of San Fernando. The first segment of this route opened in 1955 this is likely the segment that ran from Foothill Blvd. near Gould Ave. east to near the intersection of Montana Ave. and Canada Ave (cosigned with Route 118 ). When a new alignment over the Arroyo Seco was constructed in 1974, the original alignment was decommissioned and reliquished to the city, still containing one of the grade separations, ramps, mileage signs, and part of the old median. now bypassed portion in Pasadena. There were temporary I-210 shields along a portion of Route 118 at the northern end of the route. Sparker at AAroads provided the following information related to this on 7242016 : From its I-5 terminus, the I-210 freeway did extend only to MacLay Street (then part of Route 118 ) until 1981, when it was extended to the Foothill Blvd.Osborne St. exit (the access road into Little Tujunga Canyon). From the east, I-210 had been completed through the Route 2 interchange to Ocean View Ave. in La Crescenta by 1976, to La Tuna Canyon by 1979, and finally to Sunland Blvd. by 1981. The section from about 2 miles east of La Tuna west to Sunland followed the ridge line of the Verdugo mountains, complete with several substantial gradients in each direction. The final section, from Sunland Blvd. to Osborne St. was completed in 1983 this crossed the Big Tujunga Wash floodplain upstream from Hansen Dam Caltrans bridge engineers had extreme difficulties constructing the crossing because of the depth of usable bedrock, buried under layers of sand and debris washed out of the Big Tujunga canyon. This situation was virtually identical to that found in the San Bernardino area crossings of the Santa Ana River the eventual solution also used buried caissons, tamped down until they wouldnt go any further, with bridge columns rising up from there. From 1981 to 1983 through westbound traffic exited at Sunland Blvd. went east to Wheatland, a local arterial, then north a couple of blocks to Foothill Blvd. (old Route 118 ), then northwest across the existing Big Tujunga bridges before turning west to the already-completed Osborne interchange, where it resumed freeway travel. It was signed TO I-210 in both directions. This area was the location site for several film and TV productions, most notably the film Chinatown mdash the old Route 118 bridge over the Big Tujunga Wash was where the P.I. Jake, the character played by Jack Nicholson, was searching for traces of water releases from upstream. Later (1977-81) the uncompleted I-210 between MacLay and Osborne, including the Route 118 interchange, was the go-to freeway filming site for the TV series CHiPs. The first mention of the connection to the Long Beach Freeway was in 1961, when CHPW notes that the extension was defined by SB 480, and Advance Planning was starting to determine potential routes. In 1964, it was reported that planning was underway for the Long Beach Freeway (Route 7. now Route 710 ) from the Foothill Freeway, Route 134 and Long Beach Freeway Interchange to Norwich Avenue. On June 3-4 1964, a routing was adopted for I-210, Route 134. and Route 710 (then Route 7 ). This routing extends the Long Beach Freeway four mi N-ly to Route 134. and then extends I-210 N-ly to Sunland. It also extends Route 2 to I-210. Starting at Huntington Drive, the route proceeds N-ly to connect with Route 134 I-210, swings W-ly just S of Devils Gate Dam and proceeding generally S of Foothill Blvd through the Verdugo Mtns and across Big Tujunga Wash to Wheatland Ave. Also noticable on the map is the inclusion of Route 159 (old Figueroa Blvd, and the connection on Linda Vista between Route 134 and I-210), Route 248 (which was the surface street routing of Colorado between Route 134 and I-210 near Monrovia), and Route 212 (which is the old Valley Blvd routing of US 60. former LRN 77 ). The legislative definitions were later amended to note that Route 159 and Route 248 ceased to be state highways after I-210 was completed. Note how this also still shows Route 118 in the area that was later renumbered to Route 210. In 1968, the first official few miles of Route 210 opened for business between Arcadia and Duarte. Work on the freeway west beyond Pasadena to I-5 Freeway and east into the Inland Valley moved steadily. In 1971, the route was completed to Foothill Boulevard in La Verne, where it dumped into the western stub of Route 30. its eastward movement (and years of late-afternoon traffic) ground to a dead stop, 28 miles short of San Bernardino. Route 210, at the present day Route 57 junction, continued continued south to I-10 near Pomona. In 1989, San Bernardino County approved Measure I, adding to the sales tax for highway projects. Shortly after, Los Angeles County followed suit, providing funds for the work in La Verne and Claremont. At this point, Route 30 (now Route 210) continued construction EB. Turning now to the Route 30 portion in San Bernadino (more information under Route 30 ): Plans for this route began as early as 1957, but it was the mid-1970s when it got built as far east as Highland and Route 330 (which was originally part of Route 30 ). We then had the period of freeway doldrums that Route 210 faced. In 1990 that the work began between Highland and I-10 in Redlands. About 79 million later, that segment opened for traffic on July 1, 1993. In 1998, AB 2388, Chapter 221 split the route into two segments: (a) Route 5 near Tunnel Station to Route 57 near San Dimas via the vicinity of San Fernando. (b) Route 57 near San Dimas to Route 10 in Redlands via the vicinity of Highland. It also renumbered the I-10 (near Pomona) to I-210 (near San Dimas) portion as Route 57. and renumbered Route 30 as Route 210. The western portion of Route 30 remained signed as Route 30 until November 2002, when is was resigned as Route 210 (state shield) (the eastern portion of Route 30 remained as Route 30 ) The portion of (state) Route 210 between Route 57 and Sierra opened on November 24, 2002. Construction of the I-15 Route 30 210 interchange began in earlymid 1998, with the Route 210 freeway extending west to Haven Avenue in Rancho Cucamonga, and east to Etiwanda Avenue in Fontana. When this segment of freeway opened, it was accessible from Day Creek Blvd east to Sierra Avenue in Fontana. Later, the segment from Route 66 to Day Creek opened. In late 1998, other San Bernardino County sections started construction, to tie in with the neighboring Los Angeles County section of Route 210 from Foothill Blvd (Route 66) to the county line through La Verne and Claremont. Construction of the Los Angeles county section started in 1997. In November 2000, the California Transportation Commission had two Route 30 projects on its agenda (yes, as Route 30. not Route 210). One was a 17.5 million request from SANBAG (San Bernardino Associated Governments) for Route 30 from Cucamonga Canyon Wash to Hermosa Avenue for a 6-lane freeway and two HOV lanes (with 7.44 million to be requested later, and 21.007 million from other sources. The 17.5 million is 2.008M state, 15.492M Federal). The second proejct was segment 4 from Hermosa Ave to Milliken Avenue. This is also 6-lanes plus 2 HOV. The cost for this is 10.166M (1.167M state, 8.999M Federal), with 10.7M from other sources. Construction of the remaining segment, between Sierra and the present Route 30 (from I-10 into San Bernardino), began in 2002 and was completed in 2007. Costs for the last section through Rialto and San Bernardino total approximately 233 million. The freeway includes three travel lanes and a carpool lane in each direction and features on-ramps and off-ramps at Alder Avenue, Ayala Drive and Riverside Avenue in Rialto, as well as State Street in San Bernardino. It was also designed to expand. There is a wide enough median so Caltrans could add another lane on either side at any point, up to five lanes on either side. Additionally, the freeway was built with long life pavement that can last up to 40 years. Once the City of Rialto extends Pepper Avenue north to the freeway, on-ramps and off-ramps will be built at Pepper (interchange planning for Pepper began in 2014). That segment is signed as (state) Route 210, although at times it was signed as Temporary Route 30 . It opened to the public on July 24, 2007. As of December 2008, field reports confirmed that Route 30 is now completely resigned as Route 210 on all overhead signs and trailblazers, as well as on approaching routes. In some cases, a Route 210 shield was pasted over an Route 30 shield on the overhead signs, but in many cases, an entirely new sign panel was put up. About half of the postmila bridge ID signs at the overcrossings and undercrossings have been changed from SBD-30 to SBD-210. The postmile markers that showed the route as Route 30. There appears to be one exception, on the short Route 259 connector that links NB I-215 with eastbound Route 210. There is one interchange on that route at Highland Avenue. The shield on the freeway entrance sign at Highland for NB Route 259 (which defaults into EB Route 210) is still a Route 30 shield, rather than Route 210, and the sign designating it as the business route for Route 18 and Route 30 is still there approaching the Highland offramp. Additionally, there are Route 30 shields posted in Claremont and Upland along Baseline Ave and on 19th Street in Rancho Cucamonga as of December 2009. In May 2014, it was reported that plans were announced for a new interchange on I-210 at Pepper Avenue. Construction of the diamond style interchange will start the middle of 2015 with completion in 2016. The project is estimated to cost 19 million. This route was approximately LRN 157 (defined in 1933) between US 99 (present-day I-5 ) and Route 118. Before the freeway, this ran along Brand Blvd and Foothill Blvd. The route was LRN 9. defined in 1909, between Route 118 and the vicinity of La Verne, using a freeway routing. This was also part of LRN 240 between Pasadena and San Dimas, and was defined in 1957. Before the signage as I-210, this route included segments of Route 118 and US 66. In October 2016, the CTC authorized relinquishment of right of way in the city of La Canada Flintridge along Route 210 at Meadow Grove Street (07-LA-210-PM R21.1R21.3), consisting of nonmotorized transportation and collateral facilities. The City, by resolution dated September 20, 2016, agreed to waive the 90-day notice requirement and accept title upon relinquishment by the State. The SAFETEA-LU act, enacted in August 2005 as the reauthorization of TEA-21, provided the following expenditures on or near this route: High Priority Project 219 . Soundwall construction on the I-210 freeway in Pasadena. 1,440,000 . In March 2008, Caltrans activated four freeway-to-freeway ramp meters: from both the northbound Orange Freeway (Route 57 ) and the northbound San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605 ) to the eastbound and westbound Foothill Freeway (I-210) interchanges within the cities of San Dimas to Irwindale in the San Gabriel Valley. On March 10, the meters to the westbound I-210 were activated for the morning commute and the eastbound meters were turned on for the afternoon commute on March 24. The project, just one part of congestion relief on this 50-mile I-210 corridor, will by fall 2008, meter all on-ramps and connectors in both directions from the San Bernardino County line to the Golden State Freeway (I-5 ). Four freeway-to-freeway connector meters onto eastbound and westbound I-210 will be activated at northbound Glendale Freeway (Route 2 ) and eastbound Ronald Reagan Freeway (Route 118 ). Another meter will be activated at eastbound Ventura Freeway (Route 134 ) to westbound I-210. Construction for the metering project was more than halfway complete by April 2008 and operational. In June 2010, it was reported that a road was finally constructed under an I-210 overpass. When I-210 was built, a tunnel was left where the freeway passed over East Pasadena, even though there wasnt a road. City engineers at the time didnt have the funds to build a road, but a bridge was built. 9M was spent by the City of Pasadena to permit City engineers to extend Walnut Street and Kinneloa Avenue so that they intersect and so that Kinneloa continues under the freeway. Both roads used to stop short, which cut off traffic. Now drivers and walkers can cross over - residents north of the freeway can easily cross over to the businesses on the southern side of the freeway. Once the project got the green light, the water main and electrical cables had to be upgraded. Construction crews had to build a bridge over the flood channel that cuts over Walnut Avenue. The street grade had to be leveled where there was a hump in the road. However, a report from a reader of this site clarified the situation: When I-210 was built, the Santa Fe mainline was rerouted to the center divider between just west of Lake Avenue to Arcadia, where a bridge crossed the eastbound lanes and the tracks went back onto their original alignment. However, part of the original Santa Fe mainline was far enough south of the freeway to remain. This mainline became a spur that continued to serve businesses along the tracks, ending just west of Allen Avenue at a lumber yard. The spur rejoined the new mainline by passing under the eastbound lanes of I-210 near where Walnut and Kinneloa met, then moving up a tunnel to join the new mainline at Chapman siding, near where the current Sierra Madre Villa Gold Line station is currently located--the tunnel, in fact, is now an access road for MTA. Originally, a set of tracks continued under the westbound lanes to the north side of the freeway to what had been a naval installation of some sort, which is now a self-storage establishment however, after construction, but before it opened in the late 1970s, the installation closed and those tracks were removed. On the westbound lanes of I-210, you can still see the crossing marked as Navy Spur. The old mainline was finally abandoned in the 1980s and some of the local businesses used the westbound overpass for equipment storage. Looking at old topographic maps of the area, one can see the tracks and the bridges in question--at the time of construction (mid-1970s), the city of Pasadena had no plans to build a road under the freeway at that point as there was an active railroad operating at that time. The overpasses were not built for some unfunded future project--in fact, if you look at the actual alignment of the streets and the freeway bridge before the new project, it is clear that Kinneloa Avenue was not intended to continue northward (it did, in fact, go all the way north to Foothill Blvd before the freeway was built.) The street north of the freeway was named Titley Avenue, reflecting the lack of plans for a Kinneloa extension at that time. The westward extension of Walnut Street from Kinneloa was along the abandoned Santa Fe right-of way. Source: Pasadena Star News, 52810 In 2009, plans were revealed for a replacement of the railroad bridge in Arcadia. The Gold Line Foothill Extension Authority unveiled a San Gabriel Valley-themed design for a rail bridge honoring local wildlife and native cultures. The 739-foot bridge will stretch diagonally across I-210 to Santa Anita Avenue in Arcadia. It will be adorned by four basket-shaped columns that pay tribute to the basket-weaving of local indigenous peoples, specifically the Chumash who lived along the coast. The columns will contain bright lights to illuminate the dark area under the bridge. The bridge itself will have individual grooves, like the scales of a snake, to honor local wildlife, said artist and designer Andrew Leicester. The design was one of many Leicester had conceptualized, but its selection received approval from both the Foothill Extension board and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). Officials estimate the bridge will cost 20 million to 25 million. Officials hope to get construction going in June 2010, with an eye on completion by 2013. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which oversees funding for the project, lists the projects completion date as 2017. A picture of the basket is available here. Following the August 2010 release of the Phase 2A (Pasadena to Azusa) Request for Proposals for Design-Build-Finance services (to construction the track, stations, a 25-acre Maintenance and Operations Facility, crossings, bridges, utilities and more), the three short listed teams are preparing proposals. Proposals for the 450 million project are due in late January 2011, and an award is anticipated for April 2011. This schedule keeps us on track for a late 2014 project completion. IFS design-build team Skanska USAAECOM is Fall and Winter 2010 finalizing designs for the 584-foot bridge over the eastbound lanes of the I-210 freeway. They are currently working with the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) to get the necessary permits to conduct some additional geologic testing at the IFS site location, which will help finalize the design (testing will take place in October 2010). Installation begin in mid-2011. In September 2011, it was reported that foundation work for the Arcadia Bridge had begun. The entire bridge work is expected to be completed in the summer of 2012, while the whole 11.5 mile extension of the Metro Gold Line is due to be finished in 2015. The extension will continue the Gold Line east into Arcadia, Monrovia, Duarte, Irwindale and Azusa. Skanska, the contractor, began serious work on the 18.6-million bridge in early summer 2011, and is scheduled to be complete in July 2012. The steel frame for two of the three bridge columns (and their associated deep foundations) are in the ground and the third was installed in October 2011. The two deep completed foundations are 110-feet-deep and 11-feet in diameter mdash motorists on the 210 can only see the 16 feet steel skeletons that are above ground. The three deep foundations have nearly 11 miles of rebar, as well as more than 1,300 cubic yards of concrete from Irwindale. They also have a relatively new technology mdash never used before by Metro mdash that that in the future will allow Metro to check the structural integrity of the concrete after earthquakes by measuring electrical pulses traveling along wires inside each abutment. In December 2011, work crews will begin installing the falsework allowing them to build the bridge itself. The temporary support for the bridge must span the width of the freeway for the entire stretch across the freeway, which will create a tunnel of sorts for the eastbound 210 while work is being done. In March 2012, it was reported that construction of the falsework for the bridge was completed. The 584-foot-long falsework consists of nearly 50 beams that are 90 to 100 feet long and hundreds of smaller beams. It will help support over 5,000 tons of concrete that will form part of the bridges superstructure during an 18-hour period in May. In October 2012, additional information was provided on the baskets themselves. The two massive decorative baskets, which are each made of 60 different cast segments that weigh 800 pounds each. The concrete segments will form nine rings around the baskets, ultimately stacked and locked together to create the towering forms of woven baskets.First, a pattern for the curvy segment is made, then a mold is taken and the concrete is cast into the mold. The baskets are being made of cement that includes several kinds of glass, stone and sand from the Vulcan Rock Quarry in Azusa to give it a flashier look. About 15 tall concrete reeds will protrude out of each of the baskets as if they were unfinished. The baskets themselves will be installed before the bridges 121512 dedication. The fabrication and installation cost of the bridge baskets is about 500,000. In December 2012, it was reported that the bridge was completed on time and on budget. A side effect of the extension of Route 210 has been an increase in traffic. In 2001, the average daily traffic in both directions on Route 210 at San Dimas Avenue was 67,000 vehicles. That number jumped to 177,000 in 2007, with Caltrans expecting it to rise further when the final leg opens. Route 210 is now among the Southlands busiest freeways. Officials in some San Gabriel Valley communities have complained about spillover traffic on surface streets. San Marino officials said traffic on Huntington Drive jumped 20 after the last section of Route 210 opened in 2002. After Route 210 was extended 20 miles east to Fontana in 2002, Fontana noticed an increase not just in freeway traffic but surface street congestion as folks exited the freeway to avoid its congestion. In April 2009, the CTC approved relinquishment of right of way in the city of La Verne along Route 210U and 210 from Foothill Boulevard to the Claremont city limits, consisting of superseded highway right of way and collateral facilities. In July 2007, the CTC relinquished right of way in the city of Claremont, between Williams Avenue and the Los AngelesSan Bernardino County line, consisting of superseded highway right of way, reconstructed and relocated city streets, frontage roads and cul-de-sacs. In October 2016, the CTC amended the SHOPP to add the following: 08-SBd-210 0.010.3 Route 210 In the cities of Upland and Rancho Cucamonga, from Los Angeles County line to east of Etiwanda Avenue. Convert existing limited access HOV lanes to continuous access HOV lanes to allow safer ingress and egress movements for HOV. Project split. FY 1617. In December 2002, the CTC considered relinquishment of the former surface routing in Rancho Cucamonga (PM SBD 9.49.9). In April 2003, the CTC considered relinquishment of quite a few segments of what was presumably the old routing: 08-SBd-15, 30-PM 9.29.4 Routes 15, 30 in the City of Rancho Cucamonga 08-SBd-30-PM 9.49.6 Route 30 in the City of Rancho Cucamonga 08-SBd-30-PM 12.715.0 Route 30 in the City of Fontana 08-SBd-30, 210-PM 4.09.4 Routes 30, 210 in the City of Rancho Cucamonga and 08-SBd-30, 210-PM 9.212.6 Routes 30, 210 in the City of Fontana. In October 2004, the CTC considered relinquishment of right of way in the City of Fontana, from Knox Avenue to Sierra Avenue, consisting of superseded highway right of way, reconstructed and relocated city streets and cul-de-sacs. The City, by freeway agreement dated November 14, 1996, agreed to accept title upon relinquishment by the State. The 90-day notice period expired September 15, 2004, without exception. In June 2008. the CTC relinquished right of way in the city of Rialto, on West Easton Street, between the west city limit line and North Ayala Drive, consisting of relocated and reconstructed city streets and frontage roads. In January 2011, the CTC relinquished right of way in the city of Rialto along Route 210 between Mango Avenue and Lilac Avenue, consisting of collateral facilities. In June 2011, the CTC relinquished right of way in the city of Rialto along Route 210 on Highland Avenue and between Lilac Avenue and the east city limits, consisting of superseded highway right of way and collateral facilities. In October 2015, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in San Bernardino County that will construct a new interchange on Route 210 at Pepper Avenue in the city of Rialto (08-SBd-210, PM 19.320.1). The project is fully funded with federal and local dollars. The total estimated cost is 23,770,000 for capital and support. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 201516. A copy of the ND has been provided to Commission staff. In late 2007, the final 233-million, 8-mile extension between the Route 30 portion of Route 210 in San Bernardino and the Route 210 portion that continues West was completed. However, the I-210Route 215 interchange will not be complete for a few more years. Construction was originally scheduled begin on the interchange in mid-to-late 2008, with completion around 20112012. However, in October 2008. SANBAG increased the delay by turning the project over to Caltrans, moving the date past 2013. A combination of factors, including seismic and structural concerns, are causing the delay of the interchanges that will include elevated flyover connectors, similar to those used at the I-215 Route 91 interchange. SANBAG officials made the connectors a separate project because of design changes to deal with seismic and liquefaction concerns at the site. The transition to Caltrans was felt to be beneficial because it would expedite permits and reviews, which had to go through Caltrans anyway. Another advantage to having Caltrans manage construction is that it has access to the State Transportation Improvement Program construction contingency funds that otherwise wouldnt be available to SANBAG. A potential 7.2 million could be made available. Until the connectors are constructed, it will not be possible to go directly from the EB Route 210 to SB I-215. nor will it be possible to go from NB I-215 to WB Route 210. Other transitions that connect Route 210 to I-215 already exist. The transition from SB I-215 to EB Route 30 (Route 210) is already open. The connector road that will bridge SB I-215 to the WB Route 210 will be operational once Route 210 opens. However, those connectors are not designed to handle the heavy traffic loads (2,500 carshour) the final connectors can the current connectors can only carry 1,500 carshour. The delays are primarily seismic: in late 1999 and early 2000, a geologist conducting work in the area identified tell-tale signs of the potential for a seismic phenomenon known as fault rupture. Fault-rupture damage can differ greatly from other seismic activity so special planning is needed. (Information obtained from San Gabriel Daily Bulletin, 5292007 ) In February 2010, the CTC approved an adjustment to the allocation amount for the Route 210I-215 Connectors project (PPNO 0194Q) in San Bernardino County, from 45,634,000 to 18,672,000, in accordance with Assembly Bill 608. Specifically, on April 16, 2009, the Commission approved Resolutions CMIA-A-0809-012 and STIP1B-A-0809- 015 allocating 29,000,000 Corridor Management Improvement Account (CMIA) and 45,634,000 Regional Improvement Program (RIP) funds to the Route 210I-215 Connectors project programmed in the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP). Both RIP and CMIA allocations were made possible by SANBAGs purchasing of a Private Placement bond from the State Treasurers Office. The project was awarded on October 25, 2009, for 47,672,000 (29,000,000 CMIA and 18,672,000 RIP), including supplemental work, state furnished materials, and contingencies. Section 188.8 of the Streets and Highways Code allows the Commission to adjust an allocation amount for a capital outlay project in the STIP if the construction contract award amount for the project is less than 80 of the engineers final estimate. As a result, Caltrans requested a downward adjustment of 26,962,000 to San Bernardino Countys regional share balance. In October 2016, the CTC authorized relinquishment of right of way in the city of San Bernardino along Route 210 from Macy Street to 26th Street, along Route 210U (West Highland Avenue) from the westerly city boundary to 0.1 miles east of Route 210, and along Route 215 from Route 210 to 27th Street (08-SBd-210-PM 20.022.2, 08-SBd-210U-PM 20.822.2, and 08-SBd-215-PM 9.79.9), consisting of superseded highway and collateral facilities. The City, by freeway agreements dated January 7, 2002, agreed to accept title upon relinquishment by the State. The 90-day notice period expired August 29, 2016. In March 2013, the CTC approved 577,000 to widen ramps on northbound Route 210 and widen Greenspot Road from 4 lanes to 6 lanes in Highland, on Route 210 at Greenspot Road, and on Greenspot Road from Route 210 to Boulder Avenue. The SAFETEA-LU act, enacted in August 2005 as the reauthorization of TEA-21, provided the following expenditures on or near this route: High Priority Project 2051 . Improve interstates and roads part of the Inland Empire Goods Movement Gateway project in and around the former Norton Air Force Base. 20,000,000 . In June 2012, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project that will improve a section of Greenspot Road between Route 210 and Boulder Avenue, including Route 210 northbound termini ramps and the Boulder Avenue intersection in San Bernardino County. This is the interchange just to the E of the former Norton AFB (San Bernardino International Airport), where 5th Avenue turns into Greenspot Road. As of 2008, the eastern terminus of Route 210 at Route 10 is no longer signed as Route 30 Route 330. HighlandRunning Springs. Its now signed as Route 210Route 330. PasadenaRunning Springs. Also, at the junction of Route 210 and Route 18. freeway entrance shieldsoverheads have been replaced with Route 210 shields. Other junctions (like Highland AveFwy 210) still have Route 30 freeway entrance shields. The entire former Route 30 Fwy has Route 210 reassurance shields, but certain overheads still contain Route 30 signs (notably with the junction of Route 330 ), but they may be updated in early 2008. It is believed that in September 2007 the entire route will be resubmitted to AASHTO to be redesignated as I-210. The portion of this freeway from Route 5 to Route 10 is named the Foothill Freeway . It was officially named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 29, Chapter 128, in 1991 (although the name had been in use long before then). The first segment opened in 1955 the last segment in 1999. The portion of I-210 from Gould Avenue to Orange Grove Boulevard in the County of Los Angeles near where Jackie Robinson grew up is named the Jackie Robinson Memorial Highway . Jack Roosevelt ldquoJackierdquo Robinson was born in January 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, to a family of sharecroppers. Jackie Robinson and his four brothers dagger (and their sister) were raised by a single mother who in 1920 managed to move the family to Pasadena, California, and they became the first and only black family on their block. Jackie Robinson was a natural athlete and succeeded at John Muir High School and attended Pasadena City College where he continued his athletic career by succeeding in basketball, football, baseball, and track in 1938 when he was named the regionrsquos Most Valuable Player. Jackie Robinson transferred to the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1939 where he became the first Bruin to letter in four sports: baseball, basketball, football, and track. Jackie Robinson served as a second lieutenant in the United States Army from 1942 to 1944 and was arrested and court martialed during boot camp for refusing to move to the back of a bus. He was later acquitted of all charges and received an honorable discharge. In early 1945, the Kansas City Monarchs sent him a written offer to play professional baseball in the Negro leagues. In all, Jackie Robinson played 47 games for the Monarchs, hitting .387 with five home runs and registering 13 stolen bases. In 1946, Jackie Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the all-white Montreal Royals of the Class Triple-A International League and farm team for the Brooklyn Dodgers. On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson made his major league debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons, marking the first time ever that an African American athlete played in major league baseball. Jackie Robinson faced the constant onslaught from the public and from players objecting to playing with him. Jackie Robinson stood firm and focused on beating the critics on the field, despite the umpires who were supposed to protect all the players, including Jackie Robinson, turning a blind eye to the abuse and pitches aimed at his head that he endured, putting his life in danger. Jackie Robinson finished the 1947 season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175 hits, scoring 125 runs, including 31 doubles, 5 triples, and 12 home runs, driving in 48 runs for the year. He led the league with 28 sacrifice hits and 29 stolen bases. His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award. Jackie Robinson retired on January 5, 1957, from professional baseball with an impressive career batting average of .311. Jackie Robinson became a vocal champion for African American athletes, civil rights, and other social and political causes, so that, after baseball, he became active in business and continued his work as an activist for social change and served on the board of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) until 1967. Jackie Robinson was the first African American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. In 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number of 42. His number, 42, is the only number to be retired by all of baseball in honor of his accomplishments, including being the first African American to break the color barrier. Jackie Robinson died from heart problems and diabetes complications in October 1972, in Stamford, Connecticut. Jackie Robinsonrsquos life and legacy will be remembered as one of the most important in American history. In 1997, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of his breaking major league baseballrsquos color barrier, and in doing so, honored the man who stood defiantly against those who would work against racial equality and acknowledged the profound influence of one manrsquos life on American culture. Every year on the anniversary of Jackie Robinsonrsquos historic debut, all major league baseball teams across the nation celebrate this milestone by wearing jerseys with only ldquo42rdquo on the back. To this day Jackie Robinson is regarded as an inspiring example of how to combat hate and discrimination in the world. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 198, Res. Chapter 165, Statutes of 2016, on September 1, 2016. dagger The world remembers Jackie. The world does not remember his brother, Mack Robinson, who was equally important to the world and to Pasadena. At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Jesse Owens demonstrated to Hitler that athletic prowess wasnt exclusively Aryan. The runner who took silver in the 200-meter sprint was also a black American. He was Mack Robinson, from Pasadena, Jackies brother. In 1914, the city opened a whites-only swimming pool, called Brookside Plunge. After black protests, they allowed blacks to use it once a week. Then the city drained it and refilled it with fresh water. This is the Pasadena that Mack Robinson, Jackie Robinson, and his family found when they arrived from Georgia in 1920. Deserted by her husband and providing for five children, Mackrsquos mother worked as a maid, and by 1923 saved enough money to buy a home. But the home was in a white neighborhood. Some neighbors proposed buying them out, but Mackrsquos sister later recalled the plan died out when a white resident declared that the Robinsons were good neighbors. In the early 1930s, Mack Robinson went to Muir High School, but didnrsquot take part in sports right away because of a heart problem. His mother signed a waiver, and Mack persevered, helping Muir win the state championship in 1934. Mack had one year at Pasadena Junior College mdash now PCC mdash before he won a regional Olympic qualifying. But it seemed unlikely that Mack would even make it to the final trials, because they were in New York, because Pasadena Junior College didnrsquot have the money to send him to New York. A group of Pasadena businessmen stepped in and raised the money, and Mack won his spot at the 1936 Olympics. On race day in Berlin, Mack found himself in front of thousands of Germans, and just 15 feet from Adolf Hitler. In the 200-meter, Mack finished less than a half second behind Jesse Owens. And itrsquos even more impressive given the fact that Mack was wearing old worn down spikes (Jessie Owens had new spikes from Adidas). Gold medalist Jesse Owens got a ticker-tape parade in Manhattan and 10,000 in cash. The winner of the bronze was recognized as a hero in the Netherlands, where he was honored across the nation as the ldquobest sprinter of the white race.rdquo Mack was ignored by Pasadena when he returned. Mack won national collegiate and Amateur Athletic Union track titles at the University of Oregon, but quit school to go home and support his family. He got a job with the City of Pasadena as a street sweeper and later dug ditches and sewer lines. Mack sometimes swept the streets in his Olympic sweatshirt, his silver medal around his neck. In 1970, Pasadena earned the dubious distinction of being the first non-Southern city ordered to desegregate its schools. And Pasadenarsquos public schools are where Mack Robinson found his true calling. He became a truant officer at Muir and an activist against blight and crime in northwest Pasadena. An LA Times article from 1983 referred to Mack as a ldquocrusader for law, order, decency, small children, good neighborhoods and good government.rdquo The 1980s saw Pasadena get its first black mayor and Rose Queen, and Mack finally began to receive some recognition for his athletic accomplishments. In 1984, he helped carry the Olympic flag into the LA Coliseum for the opening ceremonies of the 1984 Olympics. (Source: KPCC Southern California Public Radio Hidden History of LA, 5192016 ) The portion of Route 210 from Rosemead Boulevard on the east to Allen Avenue on the west in the City of Pasadena is officially designated the Pasadena Police Agent Richard Morris Memorial Highway . It was named in memory of Pasadena Police Agent Richard Frank Morris, who was born in 1940 and grew up in Temple City and Rosemead, attending Muscatel Junior High School and Rosemead High School in the San Gabriel Valley. Between 1958 and 1960, Richard Morris attended Mt. San Antonio College, graduating with an Associatersquos Degree in Political Science prior to enlisting in the United State Marine Corps Reserve. Richard Morris directed his commitment to public service and sense of adventure into a career in police work, joining the Pasadena Police Department in February of 1962 and entering the basic training academy. Richard Morris graduated from the police academy training program on March 30, 1962, and began his career as a police officer in the City of Pasadena. Richard Morris was promoted to the rank of Police Agent in the Detective, Narcotics Unit in February of 1968. Throughout his tenure with the Pasadena Police Department, Police Agent Morris was regarded as a rising star within the police force. Police Agent Morris was protecting the ideals and values of the Pasadena community when he was shot and killed in the line of duty on March 13, 1969, while pursuing an assault suspect. Police Agent Morris is remembered within the City of Pasadena for his honor, courage, and commitment to the residents of the City of Pasadena. It was named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 170, Resolution Chapter 181, 091114. The interchange with Route 57 (i.e. the former Route 30 Route 210 interchange) is named the Police Officer Louie Pompei Memorial Interchange . Louis (Louie) A. Pompei was born August 4, 1964, in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. He was a physical fitness buff, and body builder, who earned a silver medal in the bodybuilding competition of the 1994 California Police Olympics, and who was a runner on the Glendora-Monrovia-Arcadia Police relay team, which annually competes in the Baker to Vegas 120-mile Challenge Cup relay race. He graduated from Mansfield University, Pennsylvania, in 1986 with a BA degree in Criminal Justice Administration and was hired as a Police Officer trainee by the Glendora Police Department on October 12, 1987. He graduated from the Los Angeles County Sheriffs Academy on March 4, 1988, and worked in the Patrol Division of the Glendora Police Department from 1988 to 1992 where he developed an enthusiasm for working narcotics cases, working as a narcotics investigator in the Detective Division of the Glendora Police Department from 1992 to 1995. During this time, he was assigned to a position with L.A. IMPACT, a major crimes multijurisdictional task force, composed of officers from agencies throughout the county, primarily dedicated to investigating major drug suppliers through southern California. On June 9, 2002, while off duty in a Vons Market in Via Verde, Officer Pompei attempted to stop an armed robbery takeover in which a box boy was being pistol whipped, and was killed in a fire fight. His colleagues remember him for his love of life, contagious enthusiasm, positive and outgoing attitude, and generous, helpful, and dependable personality. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 64, Chapter 105, on August 8, 2002. Surprisingly, the resolution refers to the Route 30Route 210 interchange, even thought at the time of passage, Route 30 no longer existed. I guess the legislative analyst missed finding that error. The interchange of I-605 and I-210 is named the Los Angeles County Deputy Sheriff David W. March Memorial Interchange . It was named in memory of Deputy David W. March of the Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department, who was killed in the line of duty at the age of 33 on April 29, 2002, in Irwindale while conducting a routine traffic stop. He was a longtime resident of Santa Clarita Valley and a 1988 graduate of Canyon High School where he played football and baseball. He served seven years as a law enforcement officer. It was named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 142, July 16, 2004. Chapter 122. The I-15 Route 210 interchange is named the William Leonard interchange. William E. Leonard served as Chairman for both the California Highway Commission and the California Transportation Commission (1973-1974). The portion of this route that approximates the path of old US 66. as well as the parallel original surface routings, are part of Historic Highway Route 66 , designated by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 6, Chapter 52, in 1991. The portion of the route from the City of Duarte to I-15 is named the William H. Lancaster Memorial Highway . William H. (Bill) Lancaster was born in Bakersfield. He was elected to the Duarte City Council in 1958 and reelected in 1962, and served three terms as the citys mayor. He was elected to the California Assembly in 1972 where he served on the Assembly Committee on Rules, the Assembly Committee on Transportation, and the Assembly Committee on Local Government. He was honored as Legislator of the Year by the League of California Cities in 1991 for his efforts to protect city finances. During his tenure on the Assembly Committee on Transportation, Bill Lancaster fought for the extension of Route 210. He retired from the Assembly in 1992. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 2, Chapter 76, 6272003. The portion of this route from the existing interchange of Route 210 30 and Route 215. in the City of San Bernardino at post-mile 21.84, to the existing interchange of Route 210 30 and Route 10, in the City of Redlands at postmile 33, is officially named the Martin A. Matich Highway . This segment was named in honor of Martin A. Matich. Matich served as a Colton City Council member from 1956 to 1958, and served as the mayor of the City of Colton from 1958 to 1960. He also served since 1950 as the president and then the chairman of Matich Corporation, which has been a California company since 1918 and which was founded by his father, John Matich the company is a leader in providing the highways, airports, and public works projects. He also served his community and state as a member of the Loma Linda University Medical Center, the Loma Linda University Childrens Hospital, and the St. Bernardines Medical Center as a member of the board of the National Orange Show Foundation as a member of the board of the Boy Scouts of America-Inland Empire Council as a member of the board of the Girl Scouts of America-San Gorgonio Council and as a member and past director of the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce. He has provided endowed scholarships to the University of Notre Dame under the names of the John Matich Undergraduate Scholarship and the Joyce Athletic Scholarship, and has provided a scholarship to the University of Redlands in the name of Williamina Matich. He also had a constant record of leadership on state transportation issues and, in particular, long-term support for the construction of the Foothill Freeway. Named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution (ACR) 156, Resolution Chapter 144, on 9122006. The Route 210I-215 interchange is named the Gary Moon Memorial Interchange . This interchange was named in memory of Gary Moon, whoserved with utmost distinction as the Director of Freeway Construction for San Bernardino Associated Governments (SANBAG) between October 1990 and March 2003. Mr. Moon earned the respect of the public, elected officials and colleagues for his problem solving abilities, willingness to listen and to take action, sensible and creative approaches to design and construction challenges, fair and kind treatment of staff and coworkers, quick wit and dry sense of humor. During his tenure with the transportation planning agency, Mr. Moon was responsible for the construction of Route 210 in Upland, Rancho Cucamonga, and Fontana, as well as improvements to I-10. Route 60 and Route 71. During his tenure, he was also instrumental in leading project development for the widening of I-215. improvements to congested freeway interchanges, the widening and extension of major streets and the separation of rail crossings from surface streets throughout the San Bernardino Valley. Mr. Moon held a bachelors degree from Claremont Mens College and both masters and doctorate degrees from Claremont Graduate School, was a former Navy Lieutenant, was a political science instructor at California State University, San Bernardino, and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and worked as a principal planner for the Southern California Association of Governments. Too soon after his retirement in March 2003, Mr. Moon was diagnosed with cancer and died after a short battle with the disease at the age of 59 in October 2005. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution (SCR) 16, Resolution Chapter 86, on 7102007. Bridge 54-0592 on I-10. the I-10 Route 210 (former Route 30 ) interchange in San Bernardino county, is designated the Chresten Knudsen Interchange . It was built in 1962, and was named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 21, Chapter 47, in 1991. Chresten Knudsen served as a member of the Redlands City Council and in the 1960s was appointed by Governor Ronald Reagan to the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board. Commuter lanes exist on this route between Route 134 and Sunflower Avenue. These were opened in December 1993, require two or more occupants, and are always in operation. As of late 2007, there were some proposals to convert some future lanes E of I-605 into High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes, as well as the lanes between Route 134 and I-605. In April 2008, the federal government offered Los Angeles County 213 million to convert these lanes to special, congestion-pricing toll lanes. In the proposed deal, the federal money would go toward the purchase of about 60 high-volume buses that would use the new toll lanes. That would free up MTA funds for creating the toll lanes. CTC approval would be required. In the former Route 30 portion, HOV lanes are under construction or planned as follows: From Route 57 to Foothill Blvd. These are scheduled to open in February 1998. From Foothill Blvd to the San Bernardino County line. Construction starts January 1998. From the San Bernardino County line to Mountain Avenue. Construction starts in February 2000. From Mountain Avenue to W of Cucamonga Canyon Wash. Construction starts December 1999. From W of Cucamonga Canyon Wash to Hermosa Avenue. Construction starts in October 1999. From Hermosa Avenue to 0.4 mi W of East Avenue. Construction starts in November 1998. From E of Hemlock Avenue to 02 mi E of Sierra Avenue. Construction starts in December 1999. From 0.2 mi S of Pipeline Avenue to 0.9 mi S of Central Avenue. Construction starts in December 2000. From Linden Avenue to Riverside Avenue. Planning stages. From Riverside Avenue to State Street. Construction starts in 2000. From State Street to 0.4 mi E of I-215. Construction starts in 2000. This portion of this route from Route 66 to Route 110 was part of the Arrowhead Trail (Ocean to Ocean Trail) . It was named by Resolution Chapter 369 in 1925. This route replaced a surface routing (i.e. old US 66 ) that was part of the National Old Trails Road . This route replaced a surface routing (i.e. old US 66 ) that was part of the New Santa Fe Trail . This route replaced a surface routing (i.e. old US 66) that appears to have been part of the National Park to Park Highway , and the Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway . Overall statistics for Route 210 (before the addition of former Route 30 and the transfer to Route 57 ): Total Length (1995): 49 miles Average Daily Traffic (1992): 14,500 to 256,000 Milage Classification: Rural: 0 Sm. Urban: 0 Urbanized: 49. Previous Federal Aid Milage: FAI: 49 mi. Functional Classification: Prin. Arterial: 49 mi. Counties Traversed: Los Angeles, San Bernardino. In 1939, Chapter 338 added the route LRN 28 near Canby to the Oregon State Line near Merrill to the state highway system, provided that the United States Government, through its agencies the Bureau of Public Roads and Forest Service construct or reconstruct the highway with highway funds or any other funds made available by congress for highway purposes within the state of California. No number was assigned. In 1943, Chapter 964 repealed the 1939 definition and added the route, with the same routing, as LRN 210. In 1959, Chapter 1062 reworded the route and added a second segment: LRN 28 near Canby to the Oregon line near Hatfield. From a point on the highway in segment (1) near Hatfield to LRN 72 near Dorris. This was numbered as follows: From LRN 28 (Route 139 present-day Route 139 Route 299 junction) near Canby to the Oregon line near Hatfield. This was present-day Route 139. From a point on the highway in segment (1) near Hatfield to LRN 72 (US 97) near Dorris. This is present-day Route 161. State Route 211 From Route 1 near Rockport to Route 101 near Fernbridge. In 1963, Route 211 was defined as Route 99 near Delano to Route 65 . In 1965. Chapter 1372 deleted that definition of Route 211 and added the route to Route 155. In 1984, Chapter 409 redefined the route as Route 1 near Rockport to Route 101 near Fernbridge. This was the result of a diversion of Route 1 was diverted to terminate at US 101 this was an unconstructed segment of Route 1 (SB 2471, Chapter 409). It is unconstructed from Route 1 to Ferndale. Traversable local roads between the US 101 and the Mendocino County Line include Chemise Mountain Road, Kings Peak Road, Wilder Ridge Road, and Mattole Road. These roads are not constructed to state highway standards and are unacceptable candidate highways for the state highway system. Between the Mendocino County Line and Route 1. the existing road is primative and unsuitable for use as a state highway. The 1963-1965 definition of Route 211 was part of LRN 136. defined in 1933. A portion of this routing is now Route 155. The post-1984 routing was originally part of LRN 56. and was to have been signed as part of Route 1. Route 1 and Route 211 from Mill Valley (Marin County) to Ferndale (Humboldt County) are named the Shoreline Highway . The portion of the route between Rockport and Ferndale (Route 211) is not constructed. The road runs along the Pacific Shore. Named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 91, Chapter 239 in 1957. This portion of coastline is sometimes referred to as The Lost Coast The current routing is unconstructed from Route 1 to Ferndale and is not signed. The portion of the route between the Ferndale city limits and US 101 is signed. The traversable route in Mendocino County is Chemise Mountain Road, Wilder Ridge Road, and Mattole Road. Overall statistics for Route 211: Total Length (1995): 5 miles traversable 103 miles unconstructed. Average Daily Traffic (1992): 3,450 to 5,800 Milage Classification: Rural: 108 Sm. Urban: 0 Urbanized: 0. Previous Federal Aid Milage: FAS: 5 mi. Functional Classification: Collector: 5 mi. Counties Traversed: Mendocino, Humboldt. This route number appears not to have been assigned by the California Legislature before the 1963 renumbering. Overall statistics for Route 213: Total Length (1995): 8 miles constructed 2 miles unconstructed. Average Daily Traffic (1992): 26,000 to 36,500 Milage Classification: Rural: 0 Sm. Urban: 0 Urbanized: 10. Previous Federal Aid Milage: FAU: 7 mi. Functional Classification: Prin. Arterial: 8 mi. Counties Traversed: Los Angeles. In 1947, Chapter 1370 added the route x93to parallel approximately but not coincide with LRN 4 near the northerly city limits of San Fernando to a point on said route near the southerly limits thereofx94. The route was added with no number. In 1949, Chapters 909 and 1467 deleted the 1947 definition of the route, and added the route to the highway code as LRN 213 as x93from a point on LRN 4 near the northerly limits of San Fernando to a point on LRN 4 near the southerly limits of San Fernando, approximately paralleling but not coinciding with LRN 4 x94 In 1961, Chapter 1146 added the condition that LRN 213 would x93cease to be a state highway when the commission relinquishes that portion of the present LRN 4 in the City of San Fernando upon the relocation of LRN 4 outside of the City of San Fernandox94. This route is no longer a state highway. It was Truman Street and San Fernando Road through the city of San Fernando. and corresponds to a one-way routing parallel to the LRN 4 routing on San Fernando Blvd (US 99 ). It is not presently in the state highway system. It was constructed in 1950. Former State Route 214 This was LRN 133 between Visalia and Woodlake. It was LRN 131 between Woodlake and Lemon Cove. Both routes were defined in 1933. It was not signed before 1963. A routing along Lovers Lane between Houston Road and Route 198 in Visalia was adopted on July 9, 1993. In September 2010, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in Tulare County that will widen Route 216 (Houston Ave) to four lanes from Lovers Lane to McAullif Street in the city of Visalia. The project is programmed in the 2010 State Transportation Improvement Program. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2011-12. Total estimated project cost is 11,200,000 for capital and support. The scope as described for the preferred alternative is consistent with the project scope programmed by the Commission in the 2010 State Transportation Improvement Program. The project will require both commercial and residential relocations. In addition the project would remove on-street parking spaces used for businesses in the area. In October 2012, the CTC approved 4,820,000 in funding for the Route 216 Widening in Visalia, from Lovers Lane to east of McAullif Street. Widen to four lanes. Caltrans is exploring creating a roundabout on this route at the intersection of Route 216Route 245 in Woodlake. Other potentialplanned roundabout locations in the San Joaquin Valley include Route 145 Jensen near Kerman, Route 168 Auberry Road in Prather, Route 43 Route 137 in Corcoran, Route 190 Road 152 east of Tipton, Route 190 Road 284 east of Porterville, and Route 155 Browning Road in Delano. A 2007 study of 55 roundabouts in the U.S. found a 35 reduction in accidents and a 90 reduction in fatal accidents when intersections with stop signs or signals were converted to roundabouts. It costs about the same to build a roundabout as to put up traffic signals, and they need significantly less maintenance than traffic signal intersections -- about 60 to 90 less, depending on how much landscaping work is required. In May 2015, the CTC approved for future consideration of funding a project in Tulare County that will widen the bridges and replace the railings at Sand Creek Bridge on Route 201 near Cutler, the Friant-Kern Canal Bridge on Route 201 near Seville, and the Kaweah River Bridge on Route 216 near Lemon Grove. The project is programmed in the 2014 State Highway Operation and Protection Program. The estimated cost is 15,298,000 for capital and support. Construction is estimated to begin in Fiscal Year 2016-17. The scope, as described for the preferred alternative, is consistent with the project scope programmed by the Commission in the 2014 State Highway Operation and Protection Program.
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