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Travel Nurse ToolBox Setelah Anda mempersempit berbagai Perawat Perjalanan Wisata menawarkan Anda mungkin ingin menghubungi perekrut perjalanan pada saat ini melalui email jika Anda belum melakukannya, maka Anda harus mulai mendapatkan jawaban atas pertanyaan dari daftar pertanyaan perekrut dan daftar pertanyaan perekrutan Anda. Mulailah dengan pertanyaan terpenting Anda terlebih dahulu. Yang penting mungkin berbeda dari orang ke orang. Anda bisa mulai dengan membahas tingkat gaji dan cara kerjanya, bergeser tersedia, mulai tanggal. Penggantian kemudian beralih ke pertanyaan yang lebih terperinci karena pertanyaan Anda dijawab untuk kepuasan Anda. Tidak ada gunanya membahas microwave atau apartemen dengan mesin cuci piring jika tarif gaji tidak sesuai. Bersabarlah tapi jangan pushover. Negosiasi adalah proses dan tidak berakhir pada panggilan pertama selalu. Jaga agar jalur komunikasi tetap terbuka. Ingat itu adalah keseluruhan paket yang akan memutuskan apakah Anda masuk atau tidak. Jadi jika salah satu bagian dari paket kurang bagian lain bisa menebusnya. Banyak kali meskipun mungkin terlihat jelas bahwa paketnya buruk dan tanpa harapan bisa dinegosiasikan. Pada titik ini beri tahu perekrut bahwa Anda tidak tertarik sehingga mereka juga bisa bergerak. Perekrut dibatasi oleh apa yang bos mereka akan memungkinkan mereka untuk melakukan atau apa tingkat dasar Rumah Sakit tapi sebagian besar waktu ada ruang gerak. Ada berbagai fasilitas tersembunyi yang dapat menjaga komunikasi tetap berjalan seperti perekrut dan perusahaan yang fleksibel dan akan bekerja sama dengan Anda dalam menemukan perumahan yang tepat dengan berbagai fasilitas. Terkadang jika Anda memberikan sesuatu Anda bisa mendapatkan sesuatu seperti penandatanganan selama 6 bulan atau lebih dari 3 bulan. Gunakan imajinasi Anda untuk membuat kesepakatan yang sesuai untuk mereka dan Anda (WinWin). Terkadang Anda harus meletakkan kaki Anda ke bawah dan mengatakan apa kebutuhan Anda dan dapat dan bersedia mundur jika mereka tidak memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut. Memiliki sumber daya keuangan dan atau tugas alternatif memungkinkan Anda melakukan ini dengan percaya diri dan kuku yang kurang gugup menggigit dan berkeringat. Bila Anda sangat membutuhkan uang dan putus asa dan khawatir kemampuan Anda untuk bernegosiasi dengan tenang hilang. Anda mungkin menggunakan Travel Nursing sebagai cara untuk berbelanja pekerjaan permisi sehingga mendiskusikan klausul dalam kontrak yang dapat mencegah hal ini atau membatasi hal ini. Tanyakan apa gaji perumahan adalah untuk mendapatkan ide tentang berapa banyak pengeluaran mereka untuk perumahan Anda tapi ini mungkin bukan jumlah pengeluaran mereka sebenarnya. Mereka mungkin mendapatkan potongan harga atau tidak. Tanyakan kepada agen penyewaan secara anonim biaya sewa jangka pendek, lalu cari di sewa furnitur, utilitas dan semacamnya untuk mendapatkan perkiraan lebih dekat. Banyak Mesin Pencari Apartemen memiliki 1 nomor 800 agen leasing sehingga Anda bisa mendapatkan info ini. Selalu memiliki bantalan kertas dan kalkulator 8 X 11 saat berbicara dengan perekrut untuk menuliskan seluruh paket dengan pilihan dan melakukan perhitungan cepat. Ini akan memungkinkan Anda untuk mengatasi kesepakatan setelah berbicara dengan perekrut dan menganalisis info lebih banyak dan mungkin melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut sebelum menelepon kembali dan terus bernegosiasi. Tolong informasikan kepada perekrut lain yang telah Anda ajak bicara atau komunikasikan jika Anda memutuskan tugas lain sebagai sopan santun profesional dan untuk fakta mereka mungkin memiliki kesepakatan untuk Anda nanti dalam karir Anda. Hindari mengasingkan peluang masa depan meskipun mungkin tidak dapat dihindari kapanpun. Kirimkan email untuk memberitahukan perekrut yang telah Anda ajak berkomunikasi bahwa Anda telah mengambil alih tugas dan kapan tanggal ketersediaan berikutnya dan terima kasih atas waktu mereka begitu kesepakatan selesai. Inilah sebabnya mengapa saya ingin langsung ke pokok permasalahan dan tetap fokus untuk mendapatkan jawaban dan negosiasi daripada membuang waktu dan waktu saya, yang juga tidak berarti menginterogasi. Perekrut tersebut harus menyenangkan rumah sakit dan berbicara di telepon adalah cara bagi mereka untuk menilai apakah Anda tampil sebagai orang yang kompeten. Maka selalu usahakan untuk bersiap berbicara secara pribadi. Pengaturan yang tenang dimana Anda memiliki akses ke kertas dan kalkulator (teman Anda). Jika Anda berbicara di telepon seluler di mobil Anda sementara orang lain hadir dan tertawa dan Anda berada dalam lalu lintas yang mengerikan di jalan utama, Anda mungkin tidak akan menganggapnya kompeten. Catatlah apa yang dibahas di telepon. Dengan email Anda selalu punya catatan tapi email adalah media yang buruk saat Anda sampai pada bagian negosiasi yang rumit dimana perlu ada komunikasi bolak-balik yang cepat. Pastikan semua perjanjian ditulis dengan jelas dalam kontrak dan rekrutmen dan manajer unit mengetahui hal tersebut. Kesepakatan dapat dipadatkan lebih banyak dengan meminta perekrut setuju melalui email. Email yang menyimpan catatan komunikasi masa lalu sangat berguna. Anda melakukan ini dengan menggunakan email asli yang sama untuk membalas dan menyimpannya di folder yang dapat Anda temukan dengan mudah. Pertanyaan untuk meminta Travel Nursing Recruit er. Apakah jam per minggu dijamin Sementara Anda sedang bertugas dan sensusnya benar-benar rendah dan Anda dipecat akankah mereka tetap membayar Anda Apakah ada yang mengambang yang dibutuhkan ke unit lain Unit apa Jika Anda tidak ingin mengapung pastikan itu tertulis di kontrak. Apakah ada penyelesaian Bonus Berapa banyak yang dapat Anda kerjakan menjadi penggantian atau per diem atau ke tingkat gaji (bonus biasanya dikenai pajak melebihi gaji Anda). Apakah ada bonus perpanjangan (jika ini adalah kontrak perpanjangan atau perpanjangan) Negosiasikan untuk ini karena fasilitas tersebut akan memiliki staf terlatih dan tidak ada tambahan Travel pay untuk Traveller lain. Apa jenis Unit itu Staf Staf Penunjang Lainnya Apa pergeseran yang akan Anda lakukan Apakah Anda harus melayang ke shift lain atau melakukan rotasi bergeser Apakah Anda harus menelpon Apa yang dibayar on call Base pay rate per jam Lembur membayar harga Holiday pay Liburan apa yang dilakukan oleh Perusahaan Perawatan Perawat Apakah Anda harus bertanggung jawab RN Seberapa sering Apakah Ada Bayaran Bayar Berapa Banyak Kemungkinan Ekstensi Berapa jumlah maksimum ekstensi yang diizinkan Berapa lama waktu yang Anda harus pergi sebelum Anda kembali setelah Anda maxed Out Apakah ada klausul untuk mencegah Anda dipekerjakan sebagai pegawai permisi Jika ada berapa lama Rumah Sakit dapat membayar biaya untuk melepaskan klausul Mintalah mereka menghapusnya jika mereka ingin menandatanganinya. Jika Anda sakit dapatkah Anda melakukan perubahan yang akan mereka potong untuk biaya Perumahan yang berkaitan dengan waktu Anda sakit Dapatkah Anda memperpanjang kontrak jika Anda sakit misalnya seminggu (beberapa perusahaan tidak akan mengganggu Anda jika mungkin 2-3 hari dalam Tugas atau akan bekerja sama dengan Anda jika lebih dari itu adalah bijaksana untuk mendiskusikan kemungkinan ini). Jika Anda memperpanjang Anda bisa memiliki waktu istirahat antara Apakah Anda akan dikenakan biaya untuk biaya perumahan jika Anda masih ingin mempertahankan perumahan yang sama Tergantung berapa lama tapi jika Anda harus membayar, lihat apakah Anda dapat menukarkan bonus untuk biaya ini. Jika Anda mungkin perlu suatu saat di tengah tugas untuk sesuatu yang sangat penting dan singkat berikan perekrut dan manajer Anda untuk meminta nasihat dan sampaikan rencana yang mungkin. Penggantian Sewa Mobil atau Penggantian Sewa Mobil Jika Anda tidak mengambil berapa banyak bayaran berbayar Berapa banyak Jika Anda tidak mengambil berapa banyak Bayar Bayar Bayar Berapa Banyak Apakah mereka melakukan Rincian Program Keuntungan Pajak Pertanyaan Perumahan Sementara? Kedekatan dengan fasilitas (verifikasi melalui mapquest atau googlemaps) Dapatkah Anda mengambil bagian dalam memilih perumahan yang akan mereka sewa untuk Anda Mengatakan bahwa Anda akan mempertimbangkan apa yang mereka miliki jika mereka mempertimbangkan apa yang Anda temukan. (Negosiasi) Deposito apapun (tidak boleh atau sangat minim seperti deposit hewan peliharaan) Akankah mereka menutup utilitas Yang mana sampai batas berapa (Sadarilah Banyak Agen Perawat Perjalanan yang meliput semuanya kecuali mungkin telepon, kadang kabel) Apa sebenarnya paket furniturnya Apa itu? Ukuran Tempat Tidur Apa ukuran TV (Tempat Tidur Tempat Tidur, Sofa, Meja Kopi, Kursi tipe kursi malas, Meja Samping, 2 Lampu, kadang Seni) Beberapa Apartemen Perusahaan dilengkapi dengan paket furnitur yang bagus karena pemiliknya memasoknya daripada Travel Nursing Company Menyewa Lakukan Penelitian Anda. Apakah ada paket barang rumah (Pot, Pans, Dishes, Glasses, sendok, garpu, pisau, peralatan dapur, microwave, handuk, seprai) Washer amp Dryer Mesin pencuci piring Jika bukan di mana Ruang Binatu Di lantai yang sama Berapa banyak WD. Biaya (saya suka bisa mencuci pakaian saya saat saya mau, Tanpa Biaya.) Kabel Dasar Telepon Internet berkecepatan tinggi (Beberapa tempat memang nirkabel) Jumlah hari Anda dapat pindah sebelum Tanggal Mulai Penugasan Jumlah Hari Untuk Keluar setelah Hari Penugasan Terakhir Yang Lantai Akhir Unit (saya lebih memilih Unit Akhir Lantai Atas untuk Keamanan Quiet amp tapi cek tata letak secara online untuk masalah fisik seperti di dekat jalan yang sibuk, parkir, kolam renang) Central AC Heat (Selalu tanya. Tanpa itu Anda mungkin perlu membuka jendela yang mengundang kebisingan, cahaya, polusi dan bahkan serangga atau pencuri.) Kaki Square apartemen. (Ive melihat gambar membentang di Internet dan orang-orang berbohong tentang rekaman persegi yang tepat.Untuk sebagian besar jika terdaftar di mesin pencari utama biasanya itu benar tetapi jika itu bukankah Anda harus mencari tahu melalui umpan balik dari Wisatawan lain untuk Perjalanan Forum Perawat atau Rating Apartemen). Nama Apartemen dan alamatnya (Dengan info itu sendiri, Anda dapat menemukan banyak info di Internet dan juga menghubungi agen leasing.) Manfaat Keperawatan Perjalanan Perusahaan Asuransi 0.0030 Asuransi Kesehatan Nama Perusahaan Sela Hari Pertama Dapatkah mereka mengirimkan email Info Dasar tentang pertanggungan Reimbursement Untuk membawa asuransi kesehatan Anda sendiri Berapa banyak (saya lebih suka membawa saya sendiri Blue Cross Blue Shield yang bagus hampir di mana-mana .. Dengan cara ini saya memiliki kontrol langsung atas asuransi saya dan jika saya mengganti perusahaan lain tanpa kerumitan Negosiasikan penggantiannya Saya telah menerima Sampai 300 bulan dan serendah 125 bulan. Benar-benar tergantung pada keseluruhan paket. 401K Pencocokan Berapa Banyak Tanggal Mulai Bonus Referral Untuk merujuk Wisatawan Lain dan Berapa Banyak Kapan Anda menerimanya Berapa kali Anda dapat menerimanya Bonus Akhir tugas Memperluas sebuah Tugas Awal Penugasan Bonus Loyalitas atau Penggantian Hadiah untuk Penggantian Pendidikan Lanjutan untuk Perizinan Pertanyaan untuk Meminta Manajer Mempekerjakan8230 Catatan: Banyak dari Pertanyaan yang Anda ajukan kepada perekrut mengenai fasilitas tersebut perlu diajukan ke Manajer Mempekerjakan juga. Hal ini penting karena mereka mungkin memiliki jawaban yang lebih baik dan perekrut dan manajer perekrutan sedang membaca dari naskah yang sama. Ada kontrak antara Facility and the Travel Nursing Company yang tidak Anda lihat. Kontrak ini mungkin berbeda dari yang Anda miliki antara Travel Nurse Company dan You. Untuk alasan ini Anda perlu memverifikasi barang. Juga jika Manajer Mempekerjakan bukan Manajer Langsung Unit Saya akan meminta untuk berbicara dengan manajer itu jika memungkinkan. Mencegah lebih baik daripada mengobati. Ini juga akan memberi Anda kesempatan untuk membaca orang itu dan gaya manajemen mereka. Staffing Grid Atau Formula Pergeseran atau shift kerja Dapatkah Anda mendapatkan giliran Anda kembali ke belakang pada hari yang sama setiap minggu atau menghabiskan waktu dan sebagainya. (Sekarang saatnya untuk menegosiasikan ini dan JIKA mereka setuju Anda mungkin menginginkan ini tertulis dalam kontrak) Assistive Staff What Apakah mereka melakukan Berapa Banyak Wisatawan Telah memperpanjang Berbagai prosedur tergantung pada Orientasi khusus Anda. Jam Kelas Orientasi Jam pada setiap unit Anda akan bekerja Jika ada kelas yang akan diambil kemudian dalam Tugas Perawatan Perjalanan Anda, mereka akan menyesuaikan jadwal Anda jika Anda tidak ingin menghabiskan waktu berjam-jam dan setuju untuk memberi tahu Anda sebelumnya terlebih dahulu Layout unit, ukuran Dari Stasiun Perawat, ruang wawancara, kamar lain yang diperlukan Balikkan pasien Lama Tinggal Rata-rata sensus Tanyakan mengapa mereka menggunakan Wisatawan dan bagaimana Wisatawan diperlakukan oleh staf perm. Anda mungkin ingin menunggu sampai nanti dalam percakapan untuk menanyakan yang ini dan perhatikan tanggapan yang mencatat keragu-raguan apa pun. CATATAN: Teliti tugas yang sering muncul di radar sepanjang tahun yang mungkin merupakan pertanda bahwa rumah sakit tersebut sama sekali tidak Friendly Friendly. Dapatkan umpan balik dari Wisatawan lain. Program Keuntungan Pajak memungkinkan Anda menerima penggantian pajak gratis untuk menutupi biaya makan dan biaya penginapan, atau untuk menerima jasa Travel Perawat yang disediakan oleh pemerintah gratis. Untuk berpartisipasi dalam Program Keuntungan Pajak, Anda perlu mempertahankan tempat tinggal sebagai penyewa atau pemilik di lokasi penduduk tetap Anda dan negara bagian dengan biaya terkait dan bekerja jauh dari tempat tinggal ini untuk sementara tinggal di tempat tinggal sementara yang terpisah. Tempat tinggal permanen ini disebut Rumah Pajak Tetap sebagaimana didefinisikan oleh IRS. Anda harus memiliki koneksi ke alamat ini seperti: Lisensi Driver, Asuransi, Lisensi Profesional, Pendaftaran Pemilih, Pajak Properti dan berbagai tagihan lainnya yang terhubung ke Rumah Pajak Tetap. Dianjurkan untuk kembali ke sana di antara tugas jika memungkinkan, melamar pekerjaan di sana, berbisnis di sana, bahkan bekerja di sana jika memungkinkan. Umumnya jika Anda tinggal di negara bagian lain atau negara bagian yang sama, lokasi yang berbeda, selama lebih dari setahun Anda dapat kehilangan status Rumah Tinggal Permanen Anda. Simpan dokumentasi kegiatan ini agar informasi tetap teratur dan mudah ditangani jika Anda membutuhkannya. Perusahaan Perjalanan biasanya hanya meminta Anda mengisi formulir verifikasi Rumah Pajak Permanen Anda. Perusahaan Perawat Perjalanan akan memberi Anda penggantian pajak gratis setiap hari bahwa Anda berada dalam sebuah penugasan yang tinggal di rumah sementara dari Rumah Pajak Permanen Anda (Aktiva dan Insiden dan Kompensasi Perumahan Gratis). Pengembalian uang per hari ini berbeda kemana pun Anda pergi. Tarif di situs ini ternyata penggantian uang yang dipikirkan oleh pegawai pemerintah yang bepergian ke, tinggal di hotel dan makan di kota lain untuk tujuan kerja. Biaya yang akan dikenakan oleh seorang Wisatawan setiap hari mungkin tidak sebanyak tergantung pada berbagai faktor umumnya karena Traveler biasanya tinggal minimal 3 bulan dan membeli belanjaan kebanyakan daripada makan di luar untuk setiap makan. Itu bisa berbeda jika Anda berada dalam kontrak jangka pendek seperti Strike. Beberapa Agen Perawat Perjalanan mungkin tidak menggunakan tarif maksimal sepanjang waktu kecuali jika mencerminkan biaya sebenarnya. Penggantian Gratis Pajak ini terpisah dari Tingkat Bayar Anda yang dikenakan pajak. Beberapa Perawat Perjalanan Perusahaan yang baru ini menjadi bingung dan mengira penggantiannya adalah per hari Anda bekerja tapi itu salah. Sehari-hari Anda berada di tempat tugas yang berada di tempat tinggal sementara di Rumah Pajak Permanen Anda. Tidak ada aturan radius 50 atau 80 mil dengan IRS. Aturan-aturan itu lebih sesuai peraturan dengan Perusahaan Perawat Perjalanan dan atau Rumah Sakit untuk menetapkan beberapa standar karena berada jauh dari rumah atau untuk mencegah perm atau calon staf permukiman di wilayah tersebut beralih ke Wisatawan (Peraturan Rumah Sakit). Agen Perawat Perjalanan jika mereka menyediakan perumahan sementara hanya akan menggunakan makanan dan ongkos maksimal untuk menghitung penggantian pajak gratis meskipun Anda tidak akan dikenai pajak untuk perumahan Anda yang disediakan. Jika Anda menerima uang saku perumahan, bukan Agen Perawat Perjalanan yang memasok rumah, Travel Nurse Company akan menggunakan Tarif Rata-rata per hari dan per hari Meal amp Noidentals menilai untuk menghitung penggantian pajak total Anda tergantung pada bagaimana tarif tersebut mencerminkan Biaya sebenarnya untuk Anda di daerah itu. Berikut adalah beberapa contoh bagaimana beberapa perusahaan mengetahui penggantian Tax Advantage. Situs pemerintah melaporkan tarif per hari untuk Meals amp Incidentals of 25day for locale tertentu. Mereka mengatakan bahwa jumlah maksimum yang akan Anda keluarkan per hari untuk Meals amp Incidentals adalah 25 25 hari X 7 hari 175 minggu 25 X 30 750 bulan (Tax Free Reimbursements) Banyak Perusahaan Keperawatan Perjalanan juga akan memasukkannya ke tingkat gaji virtual untuk melihat nilai sebenarnya. Yang kamu dapatkan dari segi shour. Katakanlah Anda bekerja 36 hoursweek dengan tingkat upah 28 jam dan Anda mendapatkan 475 mingguan dalam penggantian pajak gratis (Meals amp Incidentals Housing Stipend untuk contoh ini) 475 minggu dibagi 36 jam kerja? 13.19 jam Tarif membayar virtual 28 jam Laju Bayar aktual 13.19 jam Tarif bayar virtual 38.19hr (Tingkat pembayaran aktual Tingkat upah virtual) Ini hanya cara bagi Anda untuk melihat nilai total. Kontrak rintisan gaji atau kontrak Anda harus menghindari bahasa di atas karena penggantian biaya bebas pajak bukanlah tingkat upah. Jika Anda dipasok oleh Perusahaan Perawat Perjalanan Anda masih bisa mengubahnya menjadi tingkat gaji virtual jika Anda mengetahui biaya makan dan penggantian ongkos perumahan. Jika Anda bukan seorang Wisatawan Keuntungan Pajak, Anda harus membayar pajak atas uang jaminan perumahan atau perumahan Anda dan Anda juga tidak dapat menerima Meals amp Incidental Tax Free Reimbursement. Jika Anda TIDAK menawarkan Program Advantage Pajak namun Anda tetap mempertahankan Rumah Tinggal Pajak Tetap Anda dapat mengurangi biaya yang berada di atas apa yang tercakup dalam Badan Perawat Perjalanan pada akhir tahun sehingga mencatat biaya ini dan tetap menerima kuitansi. Bahkan sebagai Traveler Keuntungan Pajak yang Anda butuhkan untuk melacak biaya yang wajar di atas apa yang tercakup dalam Travel Nursing Company seperti Biaya Medis, Biaya Perjalanan, Jarak tempuh ke lokasi, Mileage to dan dari Fasilitas dari Waktu Perumahan Temporer sejumlah perjalanan. Bila Anda mengurangi jumlah ini, jumlah dolar yang berakhir dengan pengembalian pajak Anda sama sekali tidak akan Anda dapatkan penggantian pajak gratis Pajak. Itulah sebabnya orang tertarik dengan Program Advantage Pajak. Beberapa kelemahan menjadi karyawan Keuntungan Pajak adalah: Menurunkan pendapatan yang dapat dilaporkan yang dapat mempengaruhi pemberian pinjaman berdasarkan penghasilan Anda. Dengan persaingan untuk mendapatkan pinjaman akhir-akhir ini, saya kira ini akan berpengaruh kecil terutama jika Anda memiliki kredit yang baik. Beberapa bank bersikap ramah terhadap perawat atau profesional kesehatan. Mereka menganggap mereka peminjam yang dapat diandalkan karena ada permintaan besar untuk pekerjaan kesehatan dan faktor lainnya. Bank atau credit union yang tepat, kredit yang baik dan petugas pinjaman yang tepat bisa lebih penting daripada pendapatan yang dilaporkan lebih tinggi. Jaminan Sosial Anda yang Anda dapatkan saat Anda pensiun didasarkan pada penghasilan Anda yang dapat dilaporkan. Jadi jika Anda menghasilkan penghasilan yang kurang dilaporkan, Anda akan mendapatkan lebih sedikit uang saat Anda pensiun dari Jaminan Sosial. Solusi: Anda mengambil beberapa atau semua jumlah tambahan yang Anda dapatkan dan menginvestasikannya dengan bijak dan bahkan lebih banyak lagi saat Anda pensiun. Beberapa orang hanya tidak ingin kerumitan pulang ke rumah dan mempertahankan tempat tinggal permanen atau dibatasi berapa lama mereka bisa tinggal di negara bagian lain. Anda mungkin masih dapat mempertahankan residensi di negara lain tanpa persyaratan memiliki Rumah Pajak Resmi IRS yang ditetapkan secara resmi. Hindari Kontrak dimana Travel Nursing Company membayar Bayaran Sangat Rendah yang berada di bawah norma profesi Anda untuk lokasi tersebut seperti 10hr bersama dengan Tax Free Reimbursement. Anda tidak ingin terlibat dengan Travel Nurse Companies yang mungkin membuat Anda bermasalah dengan IRS. Ini hanya artikel umum dan Anda harus mencari saran dan bimbingan seorang Profesional Pajak yang berpengalaman bekerja dengan Travelling Professionals. Saya telah mencantumkan beberapa di bawah ini bersama beberapa situs web bermanfaat lainnya. Pajak Perjalanan - Joe Smith sedang pergi ke ahli untuk Pajak Pengusaha Perawatan Kesehatan. Pasti membaca dan memahami semua artikelnya tentang masalah ini. Dia juga tersedia untuk pertanyaan di Forum Delphi - Perawat dan Terapis Perjalanan. Yang satu ini tidak memerlukan Rumah Pajak Tetap. Apakah Anda lelah dengan premi asuransi kesehatan yang meningkat? Apakah Anda bosan harus memerinci potongan untuk biaya pengobatan dan melompati rintangan untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak uang kembali melalui pengembalian jika ada maka paling tidak Anda harus melihat asuransi kesehatan berkualitas HSA Dan HSA. Pertama, Dont membingungkan HSA dengan FSAs (Fleksibel Spending Accounts) yang ditawarkan oleh banyak perusahaan. Anda tahu yang Anda sisihkan sejumlah pendapatan Anda per tahun untuk biaya perawatan medis atau perawatan anak yang tidak dikenai pajak TETAPI jika Anda tidak menggunakannya untuk tahun itu, Anda akan mendapatkannya. HSA lebih mirip dengan IRA sehingga uang Anda bisa tumbuh dan diinvestasikan. Anda dapat menarik uang dari HSA Anda tanpa denda atau membayar pajak selama itu adalah biaya medis berkualitas IRS yang merupakan kategori barang yang lebih luas dibandingkan dengan asuransi Anda. Untuk memulai sebuah HSA Anda harus memiliki asuransi yang memenuhi syarat HSA. Apa itu Asuransi kesehatan yang dapat dikurangkan lebih tinggi tanpa sistem pembayaran bersama untuk meds atau kunjungan kantor namun dapat menawarkan kesehatan tahunan gratis, kunjungan tahunan OBGYN dan layanan diskon atau gratis. Ini membutuhkan lompatan dalam berpikir di luar apa yang biasa Anda baca dan pertimbangkan sebelum menolaknya. Pertama tanyakan pada diri Anda berapa banyak saya membayar ekstra per tahun untuk pembayaran premi yang lebih tinggi per bulan untuk mendapatkan hak istimewa untuk copays dan deductible yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan premi yang lebih rendah per bulan yang ditawarkan oleh berbagai rencana Kesehatan HSA Dapat dikurangkan per keluarga atau per orang Bagaimana dengan Biaya yang dikeluarkan dari biaya saku yang saya bayar setelah dikurangkan dapat dipenuhi, yang mungkin juga dianggap sebagai bagian dari deductible Ada beragam rencana dari berbagai macam Penanggung Kesehatan. HSA mulai sebagai pilihan pada tahun 2004 sehingga seiring berjalannya waktu Anda akan melihat lebih banyak pilihan. Saya membawa asuransi saya sendiri dan The Travel Nurse Companies biasanya mengembalikan uang Anda sampai 300 bulan dari pengalaman saya sendiri tapi itu tergantung dari total paket yang Anda negosiasikan. Keindahannya adalah akun HSA Anda dan portabel. Anda tidak perlu memindahkannya ke Administrator HSA lain jika Anda mengganti atasan atau menjadi wiraswasta kecuali jika Anda ingin, misalnya, untuk mendapatkan layanan yang lebih baik atau mendapatkan pilihan investasi yang lebih baik. Sempurna untuk Pelancong karena kami dapat memutar ke beberapa atau lebih dari perusahaan favorit kami dan memberi kami keuntungan pajak apakah Anda memiliki Rumah Pajak Permanen atau Tidak. Perusahaan Perjalanan dapat memasukkan dana ke dalam HSA Anda tanpa harus membayar pajak darinya. Mereka dapat menawarkan rencana asuransi kesehatan HSA Group Coverage atau Anda dapat memulai rencana asuransi kesehatan individu HSA Anda sendiri seperti yang saya miliki. OK Anda katakan Rencana Kesehatan HSA mungkin akan bagus jika Anda sehat dan tidak perlu segera memeriksakannya ke dokter, tetapi bagaimana jika Anda melakukannya dan Anda menggunakan beberapa resep. Saya akan mengatakan premi Asuransi Kesehatan Tradisional meningkat setiap tahun terutama jika Anda memiliki penyakit kronis dan Anda membayar premi dalam jumlah besar untuk membayar gaji rendah namun Anda sudah terbiasa melakukannya sehingga Anda tidak menganggap uang itu sebagai kerugian. Anda benar-benar harus menghitung angka mengingat penghematan pajak dan premi lebih rendah dan Anda akan melihat bahwa Anda tidak perlu sehat untuk memanfaatkan HSA. Siapa saja atau entitas dapat memasukkan uang ke dalam bebas pajak HSA Anda. Pengusaha, Keluarga, Teman, Diri Sendiri atau Orang Lain yang ingin membantu Anda. Anda dapat mengatur jumlah pra-komisi melalui pemberi kerja atau Anda dapat memasukkan uang setelah pajak ke dalamnya dan menurunkan penghasilan kena pajak tahunan Anda dengan jumlah yang Anda setorkan ke HSA Anda (Penyesuaian terhadap Pengurangan Penghasilan). Anda dapat membelanjakan uang untuk biaya pengobatan dari HSA Anda biasanya dengan cek yang mereka keluarkan dan atau kartu VISA atau Debit. Jika Anda membayar dari saku sepanjang tahun dan tidak memiliki dana atau dana terbatas di HSA Anda, Anda dapat melakukan deposit atau deposit sampai dengan tanggal 17 April tahun depan dan menerapkannya pada tahun sebelumnya untuk dapat melakukan penyesuaian. Pengurangan pendapatan kena pajak tahunan. Setelah uang itu disimpan di HSA Anda, Anda dapat menulis cek HSA kepada diri sendiri sama dengan biaya medis saku Anda untuk tahun itu, yang pada dasarnya akan memperbaiki diri Anda jika Anda memerlukannya namun Anda masih mendapatkan kredit untuk deposit Anda untuk tujuan perpajakan. Jika Anda bahkan tidak memiliki uang untuk melakukan hal di atas, Anda mungkin memerlukan pinjaman jangka pendek dari keluarga, teman, bank, atau bahkan kartu kredit Anda selama dua minggu atau sebulan untuk memberi diri Anda penyangga waktu. Mudah-mudahan meskipun Anda menyimpan uang di HSA Anda dan itu membangun dari tahun ke tahun seperti IRA. Administrator HSA akan memberi Anda berbagai pilihan untuk menginvestasikan uang ini di HSA Anda. Pada Usia Pensiun Anda dapat menarik HSA dengan alasan apapun tanpa penalti. Tidak dikenakan pajak atas uang Anda atau orang lain yang menyetorkan ke HSA. Tidak dikenakan pajak atas bunga investasi yang diperoleh dari dana HSA. Tidak dikenakan pajak atas uang yang Anda keluarkan dari HSA untuk Biaya Medis (IRS) Anda dapat mempertahankan HSA Anda jika Anda beralih ke rencana asuransi kesehatan HSA yang tidak memenuhi syarat namun Anda tidak dapat melakukan deposit apapun. Anda bisa melakukan penarikan sekalipun. Baru di tahun 2007: Anda dapat menggulirkan dana dari IRA atau FSA (Fleksibel Spending Account) sekali seumur hidup ke HSA Anda, tetapi Anda harus mempertahankan rencana asuransi kesehatan HSA yang memenuhi syarat selama 12 bulan setelah pengguliran atau Anda harus membayar pajak ditambah 10 penalti. Anda tetap bisa menjaga Vision Insurance dan Dental Insurance. Banyak waktu pertama Wisatawan dapat menerima uang pensiun sekaligus dari majikan mereka sebelumnya. Anda bisa menggulung ini menjadi IRA standar untuk menghindari pajak dan mempertahankan kontrol atas hal itu dan kemudian memasukkannya ke dalam HSA setelah Anda memiliki Rencana Jaminan Kesehatan HSA yang Berkualitas. Untuk info lebih lanjut tentang rencana asuransi kesehatan HSA dan HSA yang memenuhi syarat: Wikipedia - Rekening Tabungan Kesehatan - Informasi terbaru yang terkini. E-Health Insurance - Temukan Rencana Kesehatan HSA untuk Negara Anda dan Bandingkan Perawat Perjalanan atau Bepergian Sekutu Profesional Perawatan Kesehatan bekerja untuk kontrak sementara untuk rumah sakit atau fasilitas. Mereka bekerja melalui agen atau sebagai kontraktor independen atau sebagai karyawan musiman untuk sebuah fasilitas. Kekurangan Profesional Perawatan Kesehatan terutama di Keperawatan menyediakan persediaan Penugasan Perawat Perjalanan yang tidak pernah berakhir dan untuk beberapa waktu ke depan. Beberapa Wisatawan telah Berkendara selama 20 tahun atau lebih sehingga pasti bisa dilakukan full time sebagai karir jika Anda mau atau Anda bisa beristirahat antara tugas dan melihat dunia. Apakah gaji dan tunjangan sama dengan perawat biasa Umumnya lebih tinggi untuk menarik profesional kesehatan terutama saat Anda mencari di perumahan, penggantian biaya perjalanan, bonus. Banyak Perawat Perjalanan Perusahaan juga memiliki manfaat yang sama atau lebih baik daripada banyak rumah sakit seperti 401K, Jaminan Kesehatan yang diberikan atau penggantian, penggantian CEU, penggantian Lisensi, Asuransi Jiwa. Cacat, Hadiah Loyalitas, Bonus Referral, Bonus Selesai, Program Keunggulan Pajak, Pengembalian biaya perjalanan, Kontes, Bonus Perpanjangan. Bidang perawatan apa yang dapat Anda praktikkan sebagai perawat perjalanan ICU, OR, ER, Med-Surg. Dialisis, Psik, Cath, LampD, PEDS, PICU, STICU, Kesehatan Rumah Tangga, Manajemen, Supervisor, Perawatan Jangka Panjang, Rumah Perawatan, Rehab, Langkah ke Bawah, Manajemen Kasus, Praktisi Perawat, NP Khusus, Spesialis Perawat Klinis, Anestesi Perawat, LPN , LVNs, bahkan CNA pada waktu amp More. Termasuk Profesi Pelayanan Kesehatan lainnya seperti Terapis Pernafasan, Terapis Fisik, Terapis Bahasa Pidato, Pekerja Sosial, Dokter, Teknisi Spesial, Teknisi Teknisi Berlisensi, Teknisi Radiologi lebih banyak. Apa manfaat dan kemudahan menjadi perawat perjalanan Meningkatkan imbalan finansial. Perjalanan dan melihat Dunia saat Anda masih muda dan dibayar. Belajar keterampilan baru dan bekerja dalam setting yang berbeda. Perluas cakrawala Anda. Kebebasan untuk lepas landas antara tugas dan uang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Keluar dari kebiasaan dan selalu mengalami hal baru dalam pekerjaan dan lingkungan Anda. Di mana Anda tinggal sebagai perawat perjalanan Biasanya apartemen pribadi satu kamar tidur yang bagus atau lebih besar tergantung pada apa yang Anda negosiasikan dan apa yang Anda butuhkan. Beberapa orang tinggal di suite diperpanjang tinggal yang seperti studio. Beberapa orang bepergian ke RV. Apakah Anda harus menemukan rumah Anda sendiri Tidak, biasanya perusahaan menemukannya tapi saya sarankan Anda untuk melakukan pencarian dan bandingkan hasilnya. Tidak ada yang lebih termotivasi daripada Anda dalam menemukan perumahan terbaik yang bisa mereka masukkan ke dalam nama mereka. Beberapa orang akan mengambil uang saku perumahan dan mencari rumah sendiri. Semuanya tergantung situasinya. Misalnya RVer akan menerima uang saku perumahan secara umum. Diriku sendiri, aku lebih memilih Tidak memiliki perumahan atas namaku. Pungutan Perumahan atau Perumahan Anda adalah Bebas Pajak jika Anda mempertahankan quotPermanent Tax Homequot. Apakah Anda harus membayar untuk perumahan Anda Tidak, Anda seharusnya tidak kecuali jika Anda dibayar sebagai kontraktor independen di mana Anda hanya menerima tingkat upah yang mencakup semua biaya dan upah Anda. Sebagai kontraktor atau subkontraktor independen Anda dapat mengurangi lebih banyak pengeluaran yang merupakan pengeluaran bisnis. Berapa lama tugas untuk Umumnya selama 13 minggu dalam satu waktu. Banyak orang memperpanjang tiga belas minggu lagi jika kebutuhan itu ada dan mereka menyukai fasilitas tersebut. Kontrak atau Tugas dapat berkisar antara 4 minggu sampai 26 minggu dan tugas luar negeri seperti di Australia dapat berkisar 1 - 2 tahun. Apakah Anda bisa memilih ke mana Anda ingin pergi Ya tergantung pada ketersediaan tugas di antara 300 Perawat Perjalanan Plus di Amerika Serikat. Ada Perusahaan di Negara Lain maupun Umumnya Negara Berbahasa Inggris dan Timur Tengah. Departemen Pertahanan dan Kontrak Militer dengan Perawat dan Tenaga Kesehatan lainnya di negara lain seperti di Eropa, Jepang, Jerman, Italia, dll. Dapatkah Anda memilih negara bagian mana pun di negara ini untuk bekerja masuk Bahkan Hawaii dan Alaska Ya, tapi Anda memerlukan sebuah Lisensi untuk negara bagian yang akan Anda kerjakan. Ada sekelompok Negara yang disebut Perawat Kompak yang memungkinkan Anda menggunakan lisensi Anda di negara-negara ringkas lainnya tanpa dokumen apapun. Hasil tangkapannya adalah Anda harus menjadi penduduk negara kompak dan memelihara lisensi (RN atau LPN) di sana. Untuk Negara-negara di luar Kompak Anda perlu mengajukan permohonan lisensi mereka melalui dewan keperawatan tersebut. Dewan Nasional Dewan Keperawatan Negara Menjaga sebuah situs web dengan link ke semua situs web Dewan Keperawatan Kependudukan dan atau nomor telepon serta Peta Compact States. Negara bagian baru secara bertahap ditambahkan ke daftar negara kompak. Banyak negara adalah negara bagian quotwalk thruquot yang berarti Anda dapat melakukan perjalanan ke Dewan Perawat dan biasanya mendapatkan lisensi Anda pada hari yang sama jika lisensi Anda dalam keadaan baik. Yang terbaik untuk menghubungi Dewan Keperawatan untuk mendapatkan informasi terbaru melalui telepon atau melalui situs web mereka. Bagaimana dengan transportasi Banyak orang bepergian dengan mobil mereka sendiri sehingga penting untuk memiliki kendaraan yang andal. Beberapa orang terbang dan menggunakan rental mobil atau angkutan umum saat sampai di sana seperti di kota-kota besar tempat parkir bisa mahal. Banyak Perawat Perjalanan Perusahaan akan menerbangkan seseorang ke tugas mereka dan memberikan rental mobil. Beberapa orang mengendarai RV mereka dengan mobil yang ditarik di belakang atau di belakang sebuah Trailer. Penggantian Biaya Perjalanan dan Perumahan biasanya akan menutupi biaya RV. Saya telah meneliti ini sendiri namun perlu diingat bahwa ini dapat mengurangi fleksibilitas Anda terhadap tugas dan seberapa dekat Anda dengan fasilitas Anda. Bergerak ke tempat yang baru dan tidak tahu ada orang yang bisa sangat kesepian, apakah perusahaan keperawatan bepergian menawarkan semacam program untuk membuat Anda terhubung di kota baru Anda. Ya, hal ini benar dan harus dipertimbangkan jauh sebelum Anda bepergian. Saya belum melihat program perusahaan sendiri dan saya telah meninjau semua situs web Perawat Perjalanan Perusahaan namun ada banyak Forum Perawat Perjalanan di mana para Wisatawan Berkomunikasi dengan Wisatawan Lain di kota yang berbeda. Banyak Wisatawan bepergian dengan Traveler lain untuk persahabatan berbagi apartemen dan menyimpan uang atau masih memiliki apartemen terpisah. Saya bepergian dengan istri saya tapi masih merindukan rumah di kali. Yang penting Anda meneliti suatu daerah sebelum Anda pergi ke sana dan berbicara dengan Wisatawan lain melalui Forum Internet yang telah ada disana. Satu orang surga adalah neraka orang lain jadi mintalah saran dengan sebutir garam. Also its important to have housing that is friendly and in a nice environment with amenities which can make up for a lot. I Travel with my laptop which helps me research the area, keep in touch with home, market myself for future assignments. One thing I have learned is that you never know 100 if you will like something until you have done it. What do you like most about being a traveling nurse I like the freedom, the financial reward, the actual traveling, the challenges, the being able to go places and do things I would never have done or been able to do. Just last December my wife and I went to Brazil to vacation after working in the Virgin Islands, then the Florida Keys and maybe a cruise next or just go home and take a break. What are the opportunities for advancement as a traveling nurse Actually, opportunities permanent and travel have come my way on a regular basis since I have been traveling. On my first assignment I was a Nurse Manager in AZ which was great opportunity then I worked as a RN SupportEducator for the VA in Los Angeles. It definitely opens doors to new opportunities. Many Travel Nursing Companies offer online applications on there web site. Using the below process youll be able to fill out on line applications rather quickly. You may want to fill out online applications for companies that show promise but usually its best to wait until a recruiter presents an assignment with the details that you are definitely interested in. Play it by ear. Keep all of the below information in the order listed in one Notepad Text File that you can minimize and maximize when you need to copy fragments and paste them in the online application. I use the Notepad text file because it is easier to manipulate than Word Processor Documents like WORD .doc and the online applications only allow unformatted text anyway. As you fill out documents you will find Auto Complete Function in Internet Explorer or other Browsers will offer to fill In a block of text you have filled before. Some online application sections disable auto complete so you will only be able to copy and paste or type. The below information is all possible info you may need to supply usually in this order. Name amp Address (perm) Address (temporary) Email address Cell phone, Home phone or Voice mail Original License Date (when you first were issued your first license) State Licenses (numbers) Expiration Dates License of Resident State Certifications, Expiration Dates Clinical Experience in Reverse Chronological Order with below info: Facility Name, address, phone number Dates of Employment, Job Titles, Job duties Job type: Perm, Per diem, Travel Nursing Assignment Supervisors name, phone number extension, email. alternate phone numbers References: name, phone number extension, email. alternate phone numbers Not necessary to list Travel Nurse Companies you worked for. (Confidential) Also keep copies of the below documents to scan and email or fax. Licenses Certifications Drivers License Employment Physical (current) (some companies may send you to their own medical screening if so request a copy for future use) Immunization Records PPD Resume Complete Reference list Letters of Reference Past Evaluations Skills check list (make sure it is a comprehensive one so the Company will accept it otherwise they may want you to use theirs) W-2 (keep a blank copy for that year) I-9 (Proof of citizenship) (Keep a Blank Copy for that year) Copy of Check with VOID written across (for Direct Deposit) There will be other documents that are more Company specific which just require your signature and to be faxed back or scanned and emailed back. I found the best way to scan the above documents is using my portable, usb powered Cannon flat bed scanner (cost me 29 at Circuit City) which came with easy to use software. I Scan to a multi page PDF type file with high compression at 150 - 300 dpi ,depending, (dots per inch) in Gray scale. That way you have a quality image but not to big to email either. The multi page setting allows you to have more than one page per PDF file. I have been able to scan all the above documents into one file less than 1 megabyte which is easy to email or fax if you want to using FAX program built into Windows XP to fax directly from the application. Basically you chose FAX instead of your Printer in the Print Dialogue Box then follow the directions from there. You can also save files as attachments to emails in you web mail such as Yahoo, Gmail, Hotmail which all offer free accounts. You could then forward a saved email with attachment if you needed to. Occasionally you may have to resize documents which can be done at a print shop or even your printer at work. You can also scan the image as a jpeg and then insert it into a WORD document by keying in (Alt - I - P -F ) after you click the blinking cursor where you want the image file placed. Single click on the center of the image, Point the mouse pointer on the vertical or horizontal edge until you see double arrows, then left click drag to resize and save. Probably a dozen or more ways to do this. Resizing or enlarging to be specific is usually needed when faxing as the documents get degraded or dont come out as clear on the other end when faxing as many of you probably know. Another thing I found important is to carry a pen that writes in a dark bold black to use especially when people are filling out your evaluation forms as well as asking them to Print Clearly. Youll be glad you did this when you go to scan and may be able to keep your dpi (dots per inch) to 150 which make your file smaller and even easier to send. I know all of this may sound complicated and a lot of work but actually the goal is to make it easier for you and other recruiters in a systematic way. I do keep hard copies in one folder as a backup if all else fails or I had to fax and email wasnt an option. There have been times I didnt have a phone line but had access to a fax machine and Im glad I had the hard copies to just load up in the fax machine and send. There have been times I had a phone line or access to a Fax Machine without long distance access and I needed to fax long distance. Solution: Penny Talk calling card. Basically you enter their toll free number, two commas, your ID, two commas, Pass code, four commas, and then the area code and number, then send. 1 cent per minute USA, Great Foreign rates as well. Usually pretty reliable but occasionally may take a few attempts but a great option when you need it as well as avoiding using up your anytime minutes on your cell phone. Other options include Efax, MaxEmail and a dozen of others which allow you to Fax through your Internet connection at a charge. MaxEmail doesnt require software to download. Efax allows you to have a number for voicemail that can be delivered to your email and an efax number that people can fax to and is delivered to your email (Free up to a limit). Evoice is another option for voicemail to email. Hopefully youve researched your housing thoroughly but here are some things to check for before you move in move or meet the leasing agent. Drive around the apartment complex and area and look for generally cleanliness, landscaping, vehicle conditions, balcony areas. This will give you some assessment on how the place is managed and what type of people live there. Remember the more buildings and stories in the buildings the more traffic. Check the layout and where your apartment is near to assess for potential security issues or noise and such. See what lighting is available for nighttime security. Is there a security light that will shine right in your apartment window Maybe talk to a few neighbors to get their assessment. Are a lot of people moving out or in A lot of students parties domestic disturbances Sort of be a detective. Check the amenities out and see what shape they are in. Is the pool closed Heated What conditions is the exterior of the buildings When was it built A lot of this info you can get before you get there from various resources mentioned in previous articles but you always need to double and triple verify. People give inaccurate information and conditions change and so forth. You may even want to try the drive from the apartment to the facility to get an idea of drive time and obstacles. All of the above shouldnt take all afternoon unless you enjoy playing Sherlock Holmes or a tad bit obsessive. Now that you are satisfied you can now meet the leasing agent. Be friendly but assertive because they can be a great resource and they will be the person to troubleshoot problems. Make sure they walk you through the apartment. When you do a walk through write down problems on clip board with carbon paper between so they get a copy and you keep the original. Below is a reminder lists of things to check. Open all blinds and turn on all lights to see better Check for bugs everywhere. Condition of walls, carpet, tiles. Door locks and window locks for effectiveness. Bathroom ventilation fan (does it actually have a vent outside ask to see). Dryer Ventilated to outside (some arent which can make it hot). Toilet flushes well. Good water pressure, hot water, clean. Cabinets in good condition. Closetroom doors in good condition. Has all of the furniture arrived if rented (condition, fleas). Fire Extinguishers and locations (current tag). Location of mailboxes (does your key work). Thermostat ACHeatFan working. Fridge condition, temperature, Freon leaks. All cable outlets work. Location of phone outlets. WasherDryer working (making any noises). Location of Trash. Laundry room condition, number of washersdryers, cost, distance from apartment Listen to noise from stairs, other doors closing, general sound-proofness. Ask about maintenance policy, landscaping times. Location of Parking, visitor parking, (covered or not, important in areas such as AZ). Ask about closest grocery store and other community info IMPORTANT: Use your instincts and do not take residency in housing that obviously unacceptable other than problems that could be easily fixed. Make an agreeable time and date items will be fixed. If you take residency you will lose leverage to get another apartment. If you do not take residency inform the recruiter on call immediately and the leasing agent. Make a clear agreement about going to a hotel and that you can transfer the hotel bill to them. Use your AAA Travel guide for info on a hotel near your facility and that is suitable and affordable. Try to get a hotel with High-speed Internet Access (wireless if possible) so you can use your lap top to help finding another apartment. Be assertive not aggressive first. Try to work with your recruiter to find a reasonable solution. If that does not work use the chain of command but always keep communication channels open. It may happen sometimes even after appropriate research. Think of problems as challenges or a game and you are more likely to be successful. CoolantAntifreeze Motor Oil TowelsWindow cleaner First Aid Kit Cell Phone DC Chargercell AC Chargercell Flashlightbatteries RegistrationLicenseInsurance AAA Card with VIN number PonchoJacketGloves if car stuck in cold weather Spare Tire Old cell phone (analog) if not on your current cell. Allows you to call 911 without service in places where there is no digital coverage. Small tool kit Credit cards Ice Scraper (cold weather) Emergency Weather Alert Radio 2 way radios if separate vehicles (GPRSGRMS) Eye GlassesSun Glasses Moist Towelettes Meds including Maalox, Imodium AD (Travelers sickness) PenSmall tablet MapsItinerary AAA Travel Guide to visiting states Pillows ComfortableLoose Travel clothes Separate clothesitems you will need at hotel stops Address book with numbers of RecruiterOn call Recruiter Reliable friends Contact numbers for Apartment Agent and agreed times to meet Camera to document your Trip Rolling Light weight suitcases can help keep things securenot loose and organized. Also provides for easy unloading. Snacks for the Trip (Yummy). Toilet paper (cushioning and emergencies) The Apartment Pillows (they never give you enough also helps cushion in vehicle) Linens (I like my own and cushioning) Humidifier (Dry Environment like AZ) Air Purifier Febreeze for odors Alarm clock (battery operated) I use my cell phone Welcome Mat Some items that are compact but make you feel at home. AAA Travel Guide of the area Small phone Book so you can carry in car Good Map of the areaGPS handheld like Gorman to navigate Eye Cover Blackout Covers for windows for us night people Apartment FinderGuide from Apartment complexReal Estate Company If alternate housing is needed (has good maps to see locations) Telephone non-cordless with light up dial for when the power goes out 9 Bug Spray Roach Discs Maybe Bomb (Bug Spray) apartment before unpacking Extra key copies Mailbox key Toilet paper Small vacuum if not supplied Light weight Laundry basketbag Travel Alarm for front door Stick to lock sliding patio door small saw to cut to proper length Spices, Pot pans etc just enough if not supplied (Try to bring multi purpose items).GASES, LIQUIDS and SOLIDS application of the particle model for the three states of matter particle models, describing, explaining the properties of gases, liquids and solids Doc Browns Chemistry KS4 science GCSEIGCSE Revision Notes Comparison of t he Propertie s of GASES, LIQUIDS and SOLIDS States of Matter gasliquidsolid revision notes Part 1 The kinetic particle model and describing and explaining the properties of gases, liquids and solids, state changes and solutions (sections 1a to 3d) You should know that the three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Melting and freezing take place at the melting point, boiling and condensing take place at the boiling point. The three states of matter can be represented by a simple model in which the particles are represented by small solid spheres. Particle theory can help to explain melting, boiling, freezing and condensing. The amount of energy needed to change state from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas depends on the strength of the forces between the particles of the substance and the nature of the particles involved depends on the type of bonding and the structure of the substance. The stronger the forces between the particles the higher the melting point and boiling point of the substance. For details see structure and bonding notes. The physical state a material adopts depends on its structure, temperature and pressure. State symbols used in equations: (g) gas (l) liquid (aq) aqueous solution (s) solid aqueous solution means something dissolved in water Most diagrams of particles on this page are 2D representations of their structure and state EXAMPLES OF THE THREE PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER GASES e.g. the air mixture around us (including the oxygen needed for combustion) and the high pressure steam in the boiler and cylinders of the steam locomotive. All of the gases in air are invisible, being colourless and transparent. Note that the steam you see outside of a kettle or steam locomotive is actually fine liquid droplets of water, formed from the expelled steam gas condensing when it meets the cold air the state change of gas to liquid (same effect in mist and fog formation). LIQUIDS e.g. water is the most common example, but so are, milk, hot butter, petrol, oil, mercury or alcohol in a thermometer. SOLIDS e.g. stone, all metals at room temperature (except mercury), rubber of walking boots and the majority of physical objects around you. In fact most objects are useless unless they have a solid structure On this page the basic physical properties of gases, liquids and solids are described in terms of structure, particle movement (kinetic particle theory), effects of temperature and pressure changes, and particle models used to explain these properties and characteristics. Hopefully, theory and fact will match up to give students a clear understanding of the material world around them in terms of gases, liquids and solids referred to as the three physical states of matter . The changes of state known as melting, fusing, boiling, evaporating, condensing, liquefying, freezing, solidifying, crystallising are described and explained with particle model pictures to help understanding. There is also a mention of miscible and immiscible liquids and explaining the terms volatile and volatility when applied to a liquid. These revision notes on the states of matter should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (91) chemistry science courses. Subindex for Part I sections (this page) : 1.1. The Three States of Matter, gasliquidsolid particle theory models The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Either melting and freezing can take place at the melting point, whereas boiling and condensing take place at the boiling point. Evaporation can take place at any temperature from a liquid surface. You can represent the three states of matter with a simple particle model. In this modeldiagrams, the particles are represented by small solid spheres (electron structure is ignored). Kinetic particle theory can help to explain changes of state like melting, boiling, freezing and condensing. The amount of energy needed to change state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas depends on the strength of the forces between the particles of the substance. These forces may be relatively weak intermolecular forces (intermolecular bonding) or strong chemical bonds (ionic, covalent or metallic). The nature of the particles involved depends on the type of chemical bonding and the structure of the substance. The stronger the attractive forces between the particles the higher the melting point and boiling point of the substance WHAT ARE THE THREE STATES OF MATTER Most materials can be simply described as a gas, a liquid or a solid. WHY ARE THEY LIKE WHAT THEY ARE Just knowing isnt enough, we need a comprehensive theory of gases, that can explain their behaviour and make predictions about what happens e.g. if we change temperature or pressure. HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN HOW THEY BEHAVE We need a theoretical model e.g. particle theory that is supported by experimental evidence. CAN PARTICLE MODELS HELP US UNDERSTAND THEIR PROPERTIES and CHARACTERISTICS WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE PROPERTIES OF GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS It is important in the chemical industry to know about the behaviour of gases, liquids and solids in chemical processes e.g. what happens to the different states with changes in temperature and pressure. What is the KINETIC PARTICLE THEORY of gases, liquids and solids The kinetic particle theory of the states of matter is based on the idea of all materials existing as very very tiny particles which may be individual atoms or molecules and the their interaction with each other either by collision in gases or liquids or by vibration and chemical bonding in solids. CAN WE MAKE PREDICTIONS BASED ON THEIR CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES This page introduces general physical descriptions of substances in the simplest physical (nonchemical) classification level i.e. is it a gas, liquid or a solid. BUT, this web page also introduces particle models in which a small circle represents an atom or a molecule i.e. a particular particle or simplest unit of a substance. This section is quite abstract in a way because you are talking about particles you cant see as individually, you just the bulk material and its physical character and properties. Are there LIMITATIONS to the particle model The particles are treated as simple inelastic spheres and just behave like minute snooker balls flying around, not quite true, but they do fly around at random non-stop Although the particles are assumed to be hard spheres and inelastic, in reality they are all sorts of shapes and twist and bend on collision with other particles and when they react they split into fragments when bonds break. The simple model assumes no forces between the particles, untrue, the model takes little account of the forces between the particles, even in gases you get very weak intermolecular forces. The particle model takes no account of the actual size of the particles e.g. ionsmolecules can be widely different in size e.g. compare an ethene molecule with a poly(ethene) molecule The spaces between the particles WHAT IS THE GASEOUS STATE OF MATTER WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF A GAS HOW DO GASEOUS PARTICLES BEHAVE How does the kinetic particle theory of gases explain the properties of gases A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container - the gas molecules will diffuse into any space available . There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles so they are completely free of each other. The particles are widely spaced and scattered at moving rapidly at random throughout the container so there is no order in the system. The particles move linearly and rapidly in all directions . and frequently collide with each other and the side of the container. The collision of gas particles with the surface of a container causes gas pressure . on bouncing off a surface they exert a force in doing so. With increase in temperature . the particles move faster as they gain kinetic energy . the rate of collisions between the particles themselves and the container surface increases and this increases gas pressure eg in a steam locomotive or the volume of the container if it can expand eg like a balloon. Gases have a very low density (light) because the particles are so spaced out in the container (density mass volume). Density order: solid gt liquid gtgtgt gases Gases flow freely because there are no effective forces of attraction between the gaseous particles molecules. Ease of flow order . gases gt liquids gtgtgt solids (no real flow in solid unless you powder it) Because of this gases and liquids are described as fluids . Gases have no surface . and no fixed shape or volume . and because of lack of particle attraction, they always spread out and fill any container (so gas volume container volume). Gases are readily compressed because of the empty space between the particles. Ease of compression order . gases gtgtgt liquids gt solids (almost impossible to compress a solid) Gas pressure When a gas is confined in a container the particles will cause and exert a gas pressure which is measured in atmospheres ( atm ) or Pascals (1.0 Pa 1.0 Nm 2 ), pressure is forcearea i.e. the effect of all the collisions on the surface of the container. The gas pressure is caused by the force created by millions of impacts of the tiny individual gas particles on the sides of a container . For example if the number of gaseous particles in a container is doubled, the gas pressure is doubled because doubling the number of molecules doubles the number of impacts on the side of the container so the total impact force per unit area is also doubled. This doubling of the particle impacts doubling the pressure is pictured in the two diagrams below. If the volume of a sealed container is kept constant and the gas inside is heated to a higher temperature, the gas pressure increases . The reason for this is that as the particles are heated they gain kinetic energy and on average move faster . Therefore they will collide with the sides of the container with a greater force of impact . so increasing the pressure. There is also a greater frequency of collision with the sides of the container BUT this is a minor factor compared to the effect of increased kinetic energy and the increase in the average force of impact. Therefore a fixed amount of gas in a sealed container of constant volume, the higher the temperature the greater the pressure and the lower the temperature the lesser the pressure. For gas pressuretemperature calculations see Part 2 CharlessGayLussacs Law If the container volume can change, gases readily expand on heating because of the lack of particle attraction, and readily contract on cooling . On heating, gas particles gain kinetic energy . move faster and hit the sides of the container more frequently . and significantly, they hit with a greater force . Depending on the container situation, either or both of the pressure or volume will increase (reverse on cooling). Note: It is the gas volume that expands NOT the molecules, they stay the same size If there is no volume restriction the expansion on heating is much greater for gases than liquids or solids because there is no significant attraction between gaseous particles. The increased average kinetic energy will make the gas pressure rise and so the gas will try to expand in volume if allowed to e.g. balloons in a warm room are significantly bigger than the same balloon in a cold room For gas volumetemperature calculations see Part 2 CharlessGayLussacs Law DIFFUSION in Gases: The natural rapid and random movement of the particles in all directions means that gases readily spread or diffuse . The net movement of a particular gas will be in the direction from lower concentration to a higher concentration, down the socalled diffusion gradient. Di ffusion continues until the concentrations are uniform throughout the container of gases, but ALL the particles keep moving with their ever present kinetic energy Diffusion is faster in gases than liquids where there is more space for them to move ( experiment illustrated below ) and diffusion is negligible in solids due to the close packing of the particles. Diffusion is responsible for the spread of odours even without any air disturbance e.g. use of perfume, opening a jar of coffee or the smell of petrol around a garage. The rate of diffusion increases with increase in temperature as the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster . Other evidence for random particle movement including diffusion . When smoke particles are viewed under a microscope they appear to dance around when illuminated with a light beam at 90 o to the viewing direction. This is because the smoke particles show up by reflected light and dance due to the millions of random hits from the fast moving air molecules. This is called Brownian motion ( see below in liquids ). At any given instant of time, the hits will not be even, so the smoke particle get a greater bashing in a random direction. A two gaseous molecule diffusion experiment is illustrated above and explained below A long glass tube (24 cm diameter) is filled at one end with a plug of cotton wool soaked in conc. hydrochloric acid sealed in with a rubber bung (for health and safety) and the tube is kept perfectly still, clamped in a horizontal position. A similar plug of conc. ammonia solution is placed at the other end. The soaked cotton wool plugs will give off fumes of HCl and NH 3 respectively, and if the tube is left undisturbed and horizontal, despite the lack of tube movement, e.g. NO shaking to mix and the absence of convection, a white cloud forms about 1 3 rd along from the conc. hydrochloric acid tube end . Explanation: What happens is the colourless gases, ammonia and hydrogen chloride, diffuse down the tube and react to form fine white crystals of the salt ammonium chloride. ammonia hydrogen chloride gt ammonium chloride NH 3(g) HCl (g) gt NH 4 Cl (s) Note the rule: The smaller the molecular mass, the greater the average speed of the molecules (but all gases have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature). Therefore the smaller the molecular mass, the faster the gas diffuses. misalnya M r ( NH 3 ) 14 1x3 17 . moves faster than M r ( HCl ) 1 35.5 36.5 AND thats why they meet nearer the HCl end of the tube So the experiment is not only evidence for molecule movement . it is also evidence that molecules of different molecular masses movediffuse at different speeds . For a mathematical treatment see Grahams Law of Diffusion A coloured gas , heavier than air (greater density), is put into the bottom gas jar and a second gas jar of lower density colourless air is placed over it separated with a glass cover. Diffusion experiments should be enclosed at constant temperature to minimise disturbance by convection. If the glass cover is removed then (i) the colourless air gases diffuses down into the coloured brown gas and (ii) bromine diffuses up into the air. The random particle movement leading to mixing cannot be due to convection because the more dense gas starts at the bottom . No shaking or other means of mixing is required. The random movement of both lots of particles is enough to ensure that both gases eventually become completely mixed by diffusion (spread into each other). This is clear evidence for diffusion due to the random continuous movement of all the gas particles and, initially, the net movement of one type of particle from a higher to a lower concentration ( down a diffusion gradient ). When fully mixed, no further colour change distribution is observed BUT the random particle movement continues See also other evidence in the liquid section after the particle model for diffusion diagram below. A particle model of diffusion in gases . Imagine the diffusion gradient from left to right for the green particles added to the blue particles on the left. So, for the green particles, net migration is from left to right and will continue, in a sealed container, until all the particles are evenly distributed in the gas container (as pictured). Diffusion is faster in gases compared to liquidssolutions because there is more space between the particles for other particles to move into at random. When a solid is heated the particles vibrate more strongly as they gain kinetic energy and the particle attractive forces are weakened. Eventually, at the melting point . the attractive forces are too weak to hold the particles in the structure together in an ordered way and so the solid melts. Note that the intermolecular forces are still there to hold the bulk liquid together but the effect is not strong enough to form an ordered crystal lattice of a solid. The particles become free to move around and lose their ordered arrangement. Energy is needed to overcome the attractive forces and give the particles increased kinetic energy of vibration. So heat is taken in from the surroundings and melting is an endothermic process ( 916H ve). Energy changes for these physical changes of state for a range of substances are dealt with in a section of the Energetics Notes . Explained using the kinetic particle theory of liquids and solids On cooling, liquid particles lose kinetic energy and so can become more strongly attracted to each other. When the temperature is low enough, the kinetic energy of the particles is insufficient to prevent the particle attractive forces causing a solid to form. Eventually at the freezing point the forces of attraction are sufficient to remove any remaining freedom of movement (in terms of one place to another) and the particles come together to form the ordered solid arrangement (though the particles still have vibrational kinetic energy. Since heat must be removed to the surroundings, so strange as it may seem, freezing is an exothermic process ( 916H ve). comparative energy changes of state changes gas ltgt liquid ltgt solid 2f(i) Cooling curve . What happens to the temperature of a substance if it is cooled from the gaseous state to the solid state Note the temperature stays constant during the state changes of condensing at temperature Tc . and freezingsolidifying at temperature Tf . This is because all the heat energy removed on cooling at these temperatures (the latent heats or enthalpies of state change), allows the strengthening of the interparticle forces (intermolecular bonding) without temperature fall. The heat loss is compensate d by the exothermic increased intermolecular force attraction. In between the horizontal state change sections of the graph, you can see the energy removal reduces the kinetic energy of the particles, lowering the temperature of the substance. See section 2. for detailed description of the state changes. A cooling curve summarises the changes: For each change of state, energy must be removed . known as the latent heat . Actual energy values for these physical changes of state for a range of substances are dealt with in more detail in the Energetics Notes . 2f(ii) Heating curve . What happens to the temperature of a substance if it is heated from the solid state to the gaseous state Note the temperature stays constant during the state changes of melting at temperature Tm and boiling at temperature Tb . This is because all the energy absorbed in heating at these temperatures (the latent heats or enthalpies of state change), goes into weakening the interparticle forces (intermolecular bonding) without temperature rise The heat gain equals the endothermicheat absorbed energy required to reduce the intermolecular forces. In between the horizontal state change sections of the graph, you can see the energy input increases the kinetic energy of the particles and raising the temperature of the substance. See section 2. for detailed description of the state changes. A heating curve summarises the changes: For each change of state, energy must be added . known as the latent heat . Actual energy values for these physical changes of state for a range of substances are dealt with in more detail in the Energetics Notes. SPECIFIC LATENT HEATS The latent heat for the state changes solid ltgt liquid is called the specific latent heat of fusion (for melting or freezing). The latent heat for the state changes liquid ltgt gas is called the specific latent heat of vaporisation (for condensing, evaporation or boiling) For more on latent heat see my physics notes on specific latent heat Explained using the kinetic particle theory of gases and solids This is when a solid, on heating, directly changes into a gas without melting, AND the gas on cooling reforms a solid directly without condensing to a liquid. Sublimation usually just involves a physical change BUT its not always that simple (see ammonium chloride). Theory in terms of particles . When the solid is heated the particles vibrate with increasing force from the added thermal energy. If the particles have enough kinetic energy of vibration to partially overcome the particleparticle attractive forces you would expect the solid to melt. HOWEVER, if the particles at this point have enough energy at this point that would have led to boiling, the liquid will NOT form and the solid turns directly into a gas. Overall endothermic change . energy absorbed and taken in to the system. On cooling, the particles move slower and have less kinetic energy. Eventually, when the particle kinetic energy is low enough, it will allow the particleparticle attractive forces to produce a liquid. BUT the energy may be low enough to permit direct formation of the solid, i.e. the particles do NOT have enough kinetic energy to maintain a liquid state Overall exothermic change . energy released and given out to the surroundings. Even at room temperature bottles of solid iodine show crystals forming at the top of the bottle above the solid. The warmer the laboratory, the more crystals form when it cools down at night If you gently heat iodine in a test tube you see the iodine readily sublime and recrystallise on the cooler surface near the top of the test tube. The formation of a particular form of frost involves the direct freezing of water vapour (gas). Frost can also evaporate directly back to water vapour (gas) and this happens in the dry and extremely cold winters of the Gobi Desert on a sunny day. H 2 O (s) H 2 O (g) (physical change only) Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is formed on cooling the gas down to less than 78 o C. On warming it changes directly to a very cold gas. condensing any water vapour in the air to a mist, hence its use in stage effects. CO 2 (s) CO 2 (g) (physical change only) On heating strongly in a test tube, white solid ammonium chloride . decomposes into a mixture of two colourless gases ammonia and hydrogen chloride. On cooling the reaction is reversed and solid ammonium chloride reforms at the cooler top surface of the test tube. Ammonium chloride heat energy ammonia hydrogen chloride T his involves both chemical and physical changes and is so is more complicated than examples 1. to 3. In fact the ionic ammonium chloride crystals change into covalent ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases which are naturally far more volatile (covalent substances generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic substances). The liquid particle picture does not figure here, but the other models fully apply apart from state changes involving liquid formation. GAS particle model and SOLID particle model links. PLEASE NOTE, At a higher level of study . you need to study the gls phase diagram for water and the vapour pressure curve of ice at particular temperatures . For example, if the ambient vapour pressure is less than the equilibrium vapour pressure at the temperature of the ice, sublimation can readily take place. The snow and ice in the colder regions of the Gobi Desert do not melt in the Sun, they just slowly sublimely disappear 2 h. More on the heat changes in physical changes of state Changes of physical state i.e. gas ltgt liquid ltgt solid are also accompanied by energy changes. To melt a solid, or boilevaporate a liquid, heat energy must be absorbed or taken in from the surroundings, so these are endothermic energy changes. The system is heated to effect these changes. To condense a gas, or freeze a solid, heat energy must be removed or given out to the surroundings, so these are exothermic energy changes. The system is cooled to effect these changes. Generally speaking, the greater the forces between the particles, the greater the energy needed to effect the state change AND the higher the melting point and boiling point. A comparison of energy needed to melt or boil different types of substance (This is more for advanced level students) The heat energy change involved in a state change can be expressed in kJmol of substance for a fair comparison. In the table below 916H melt is the energy needed to melt 1 mole of the substance (formula mass in g). 916H vap is the energy needed to vaporise by evaporation or boiling 1 mole of the substance (formula mass in g). For simple small covalent molecules, the energy absorbed by the material is relatively small to melt or vaporise the substance and the bigger the molecule the greater the intermolecular forces. These forces are weak compared to the chemical bonds holding atoms together in a molecule itself. Relatively low energies are needed to melt or vapourise them. These substances have relatively low melting points and boiling points. For strongly bonded 3D networks e.g. (iii) and a metal lattice of ions and free outer electrons ( m etallic bonding ), the structures are much stronger in a continuous way because of the continuous chemical bonding throughout the structure. Consequently, much greater energies are required to melt or vaporise the material. This is why they have so much higher melting points and boiling points. Type of bonding, structure and attractive forces operating Melting point K (Kelvin) o C 273 Energy needed to melt substance Boiling point K (Kelvin) o C 273 Energy needed to boil substance 3a. WHAT HAPPENS TO PARTICLES WHEN A SOLID DISSOLVES IN A LIQUID SOLVENT What do the words SOLVENT, SOLUTE and SOLUTION mean When a solid (the solute ) dissolves in a liquid (the solvent ) the resulting mixture is called a solution . In general: solute solvent gt solution So, the solute is what dissolves in a solvent, a solvent is a liquid that dissolves things and the solution is the result of dissolving something in a solvent. The solid loses all its regular structure and the individual solid particles (molecules or ions) are now completely free from each other and randomly mix with the original liquid particles, and all particles can move around at random. This describes salt dissolving in water, sugar dissolving in tea or wax dissolving in a hydrocarbon solvent like white spirit. It does not usually involve a chemical reaction, so it is generally an example of a physical change . Whatever the changes in volume of the solid liquid, compared to the final solution, the Law of Conservation of Mass still applies. This means: mass of solid solute mass of liquid solvent mass of solution after mixing and dissolving. You cannot create mass or lose mass . but just change the mass of substances into another form. If the solvent is evaporated . then the solid is reformed e.g. if a salt solution is left out for a long time or gently heated to speed things up, eventually salt crystals form, the process is called crystallisation . 3b. WHAT HAPPENS TO PARTICLES WHEN TWO LIQUIDS COMPLETELY MIX WITH EACH OTHER WHAT DOES THE WORD MISCIBLE MEAN Using the particle model to explain miscible liquids. If two liquids completely mix in terms of their particles, they are called miscible liquids because they fully dissolve in each other. This is shown in the diagram below where the particles completely mix and move at random. The process can be reversed by fractional distillation . 3c. WHAT HAPPENS TO PARTICLES WHEN TWO LIQUIDS DO NOT MIX WITH EACH OTHER WHAT DOES THE WORD IMMISCIBLE MEAN WHY DO THE LIQUIDS NOT MIX Using the particle model to explain immiscible liquids. If the two liquids do NOT mix . they form two separate layers and are known as immiscible liquids, illustrated in the diagram below where the lower purple liquid will be more dense than the upper layer of the green liquid. You can separate these two liquids using a separating funnel . The reason for this is that the interaction between the molecules of one of the liquids alone is stronger than the interaction between the two different molecules of the different liquids. For example, the force of attraction between water molecules is much greater than either oiloil molecules or oilwater molecules, so two separate layers form because the water molecules, in terms of energy change, are favoured by sticking together. 3d. How a separating funnel is used 1. The mixture is put in the separating funnel with the stopper on and the tap closed and the layers left to settle out. 2. The stopper is removed, and the tap is opened so that you can carefully run the lower grey layer off first into a beaker. 3. The tap is then closed again, leaving behind the upper yellow layer liquid, so separating the two immiscible liquids. Appendix 1 some SIMPLE particle pictures of ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES GCSEIGCSE multiple choice QUIZ on states of matter gases, liquids amp solids Some easy basic exercises from KS3 science QCA 7G quotParticle model of solids, liquids and gasesquot Multiple Choice Questions for Science revision on gases, liquids and solids particle models, properties, explaining the differences between them. See also for gas calculations gcse chemistry revision free detailed notes on states of matter to help revise igcse chemistry igcse chemistry revision notes on states of matter O level chemistry revision free detailed notes on states of matter to help revise gcse chemistry free detailed notes on states of matter to help revise O level chemistry free online website to help revise states of matter for gcse chemistry free online website to help revise states of matter for igcse chemistry free online website to help revise O level states of matter chemistry how to succeed in questions on states of matter for gcse chemistry how to succeed at igcse chemistry how to succeed at O level chemistry a good website for free questions on states of matter to help to pass gcse chemistry questions on states of matter a good website for free help to pass igcse chemistry with revision notes on states of matter a good website for free help to pass O level chemistry what are the three states of matter draw a diagram of the particle model diagram of a gas, particle theory of a gas, draw a particle model diagram of a liquid, particle theory of a liquid, draw a particle model diagram of a solid, particle theory of a solid, what is diffusion why can you have diffusion in gases and liquids but not in solids what are the limitations of the particle model of a gas liquid or solid how to use the particle model to explain the properties of a gas, what causes gas pressure how to use the particle model to explain the properties of a solid, how to use the particle model to explain the properties of a solid, why is a gas easily compressed but difficult to compress a liquid or solid how do we use the particle model to explain changes of state explaining melting with the particle model, explaining boiling with the particle model, explaining evaporation using the particle model, explaining condensing using the particle model, explaining freezing with the particle model, how do you read a thermometer wor king out the state of a substance at a particular temperature given its melting point and boiling point, how to draw a cooling curve, how to draw a heating curve, how to explain heatingcooling curves in terms of state changes and latent heat, what is sublimation what substances sublime explaining endothermic and exothermic energy changes of state, using the particle model to explain miscible and immiscible liquids GASES, LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, States of Matter, particle models, theory of state changes, melting, boiling, evaporation, condensing, freezing, solidifying, cooling curves, 1.1 Three states of matter: 1.1a gases, 1.1b liquids, 1.1c solids 2. State changes: 2a evaporation and boiling, 2b condensation, 2c distillation, 2d melting, 2e freezing, 2f cooling and heating curves and relative energy changes, 2g sublimation 3. Dissolving, solutions. miscibleimmiscible liquids Boiling Boiling point Brownian motion Changes of state Condensing Cooling curve Diffusion Dissolving Evaporation Freezing Freezing point Gas particle picture Heating curve Liquid particle picture Melting Melting point miscibleimmiscible liquids Properties of gases Properties of liquids Properties of solids solutions sublimation Solid particle picture GCSEIGCSE multiple choice QUIZ on states of matter gases liquids solids practice revision questions Revision notes on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids KS4 Science GCSEIGCSEO level Chemistry Information on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids for revising for AQA GCSE Science, Edexcel Science chemistry IGCSE Chemistry notes on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids OCR 21st Century Science, OCR Gateway Science notes on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids WJEC gcse science chemistry notes on particl e models and properties of gases, liquids and solids CIE O Level chemistry CIE IGCSE chemistry notes on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids CCEACEA gcse science chemistry (revise courses equal to US grade 8, grade 9 grade 10) science chemistry courses revision guides explanation chemical equations for particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids educational videos on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids guidebooks for revising particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids textbooks on particle models and properties of gases, liquids and solids state changes amp particle model for AQA AS chemistry, state changes amp particle model for Edexcel A level AS chemistry, state changes amp particle model for A level OCR AS chemistry A, state changes amp particle model for OCR Salters AS chemistry B, state changes amp particle model for AQA A level chemistry, state changes amp particle model for A level Edexcel A level c hemistry, state changes amp particle model for OCR A level chemistry A, state changes amp particle model for A level OCR Salters A level chemistry B state changes amp particle model for US Honours grade 11 grade 12 state changes amp particle model for pre-university chemistry courses pre-university A level revision notes for state changes amp particle model A level guide notes on state changes amp particle model for schools colleges academies science course tutors images pictures diagrams for state changes amp particle model A level chemistry revision notes on state changes amp particle model for revising module topics notes to help on understanding of state changes amp particle model university courses in science careers in science jobs in the industry laboratory assistant apprenticeships technical internships USA US grade 11 grade 11 AQA A level chemistry notes on state changes amp particle model Edexcel A level chemistry notes on state changes amp particle model for OCR A level chem istry notes WJEC A level chemistry notes on state changes amp particle model CCEACEA A level chemistry notes on state changes amp particle model for university entrance examinations describe some limitations of the particle model for gases, liquids and solidsWant To Study Psychology An Experimental Study of Apparent Behavior by Fritz Heider Marianne Simmel is a landmark study in the field of interpersonal perception, in particular in relation to the attribution process when making judgments of others. Before reading this classic article, have a look at the film footage in the video below (which was central to the authors methodological design.) What do you think is going on in the video Try telling the story of the video in a few sentences and try to answer the following questions. What kind of a person is the big triangle What kind of a person is the little triangle What kind of a person is the circle (disc) Why did the two triangles fight Why did the circle go into the house In one part of the movie the big triangle and the circle were in the house together. What did the big triangle do then Why What did the circle do when it was in the house with the big triangle Why In one part of the movie the big triangle was shut up in the house and tried to get out. What did the little triangle and the circle do then Why did the big triangle break the house By doing this it will allow you to fully appreciate the thinking behind the experiment as well as allowing you to compare your responses with the original sample of subjects from 1944 The Article in Full The processes which are involved in perceiving other individuals, their behavior and their personal qualities, have received but little attention in psychological literature. Although these processes are basic in almost any social act, few experimental investigations relating to them are to be found. It is true that there have been studies concerning the inference of emotions from gestures or facial change. But most of these leave the reader with a feeling of disappointment and with the conviction that facial expressions - at least as taken by themselves - do not play an important role in the perception of other persons. We are usually referred to the importance of the situation but what features of the situation are of importance or how the situation influences the perception are problems which are left unanswered. The reason is that research in this field has seldom been carried out from the point of view of the psychology of perception. The problem usually studied has concerned the correct interpretation of expression, and not the stimulus-configuration as a determinant of interpretation. The same is true of another group of related investigations which concern the correctness of our judgments of others. If processes of perception are mentioned they are treated only so far as they impair the correctness of judgment. In the investigation of the apprehension of colors, forms, or movement, which has attained a more mature stage of development, questions of achievement or correctness - though these still play a role of legitimate importance with some psychologists (e.g. E. Brunswik) - have largely given way to other problems. When the perception of movement is investigated, it is with the purpose of finding out which stimulus conditions are relevant in the production of phenomenal movement and of determining the influences of the surrounding field. Only when we attempt to answer these questions can we hope to deepen our insight into the processes of perception, whether of movement or of other human beings. SSN IFrame Widget - Blue Find A Psychology School Near You The experiments on the perception of the behavior of others here reported are in method and purpose different from the investigations mentioned. In the first place, instead of presenting faces with the exclusion of the situation, we have presented situations and activities without the face. Secondly, our aim has not been to determine the correctness of the response but instead the dependence of the response on stimulus-configurations. Method . Our subjects were requested to interpret a moving picture-film of about 2 and a half minutes duration in which three geometrical figures (a large triangle, a small triangle and a disc, also called a circle) were shown moving in various directions and at various speeds. The only other figure in the field was a rectangle, a section of which could be opened and closed as a door is. The film, one frame of which is shown in Fig. 1, was produced by a trick-film method. The geometrical figures were cut from cardboard and placed on a horizontal translucent-glass plate illuminated from above. A mirror below the plate threw the image into the camera. After each exposure the figures which were to be shown in motion were moved a short distance, then another exposure was made, and so on. FIGURE 1 . Exposure-Objects Displayed in Various Positions And Configurations From The Moving Film. (Large Triangle, Small Triangle, Disc and House). In the following description of the main features of the picture, the action is, for purposes of reference, divided into scenes. A few anthropomorphic words are used since a description in purely geometrical terms would be too complicated and too difficult to understand. The large triangle is referred to by T, the small triangle by t, the disc by c (circle) and the rectangle by house. 1. T moves toward the house, opens door, moves into the house and closes door. 2. t and c appear and move around near the door 3. T moves out of the house toward t 4. T and t fight, T wins: during the fight, c moves into the house 5. T moves into the house and shuts door 6. T chases c within the house: t moves along the outside of the house toward the door 7. t opens the door and c moves out of the house and t and c close the door 8. T seems to try to get out of the house but does not succeed in opening the door: t and c move in circles around outside of the house and touch each other several times 9. T opens the door and comes out of the house 10. T chases t and c twice around the house 11. t and c leave the field 12. T hits the walls of the house several times: the walls break The scenes of the picture shown in advancing order will be referred to by f (forward) added to the number of the scene, those of the picture shown in reverse by r. Three experiments were performed with three different groups of undergraduate women: 34 Ss in Experiment i: 36 in Experiment ii 44 in Experiment iii. In all three the film was shown twice, instructions given before the presentation of the film. The time allowed for describing the picture and answering the questions was not limited. In the first experiment, instructions were general write down what happened in the picture. In a second (the main) experiment, S was instructed to interpret the movements of the figures as actions of persons and a short sealed questionnaire was prepared which S was asked to open and answer after viewing the picture. It contained the following questions (1) What kind of a person is the big triangle (2) What kind of a person is the little triangle (3) What kind of a person is the circle (disc) (4) Why did the two triangles fight (5) Why did the circle go into the house (6) In one part of the movie the big triangle and the circle were in the house together. What did the big triangle do then Why (7) What did the circle do when it was in the house with the big triangle Why (8) In one part of the movie the big triangle was shut up in the house and tried to get out. What did the little triangle and the circle do then (9) Why did the big triangle break the house (10) Tell the story of the movie in a few sentences. In the third experiment the same picture was shown in reverse. S was instructed to answer Questions 1, 2, 3, and 10, above. In Experiment 1 the instructions were general, in order to find out how many Ss would perceive the picture in terms of animated beings. A large majority of them did. Only one S described the film almost entirely in geometrical terms. Her report follows. A large solid triangle is shown entering a rectangle. It enters and comes out of this rectangle, and each time the corner and one-half of one of the sides of the rectangle form an opening. Then another, smaller triangle and a circle appear on the scene. The circle enters the rectangle while the larger triangle is within. The two move about in circular motion and then the circle goes out of the opening and joins the smaller triangle which has been moving around outside the rectangle. Then the smaller triangle and the circle move about together and when the larger triangle comes out of the rectangle and approaches them, they move rapidly in a circle around the rectangle and disappear. The larger triangle now alone, moves about the opening of the rectangle and finally goes through the opening to the inside. He (sic) moves rapidly within, and, finding no opening, breaks through the sides and disappears. All other Ss interpreted the movements as actions of animate beings, in most cases of persons in two cases of birds. Nineteen Ss reported a connected story. Two examples of this last group are given below, the first representative of the interpretation commonly made in the group, the second an excerpt of a report showing unusual elaboration. (1) A man has planned to meet a girl and the girl comes along with another man. The first man tells the second to go the second tells the first, and he shakes his head. Then the two men have a fight, and the girl starts to go into the room to get out of the way and hesitates and finally goes in. She apparently does not want to be with the first man. The first man follows her into the room after having left the second in a rather weakened condition leaning on the wall outside the room. The girl gets worried and races from one corner to the other in the far part of the room. Man number one, after being rather silent for a while, makes several approaches at her but she gets to the corner across from the door, just as man number two is trying to open it. He evidently got banged around and is still weak from his efforts to open the door. The girl gets out of the room in a sudden dash just as man number two gets the door open. The two chase around the outside of the room together, followed by man number one. But they finally elude him and get away. The first man goes back and tries to open his door, but he is so blinded by rage and frustration that he cannot open it. So he butts it open and in a really mad dash around the room he breaks in first one wall and then another. (2) The first thing we see in this little episode is triangle number-one closing the door of his square. Lets insist that the action of the play is on a two-dimensional surface (not that it makes much difference) and we will undoubtedly start calling the square in which the triangle number one seems to make his dwelling, a house, which infers three dimensions. But we are not sticking to the theme of our story. Triangle number-one shuts his door (or should we say line) and the two innocent young things walk in. Lovers in the two-dimensional world, no doubt little triangle number-two and sweet circle. Triangle-one (hereafter known as the villain) spies the young love. Ah. He opens his door, walks out to see our hero and his sweet. But our hero does not like the interruption (we regret that our actual knowledge of what went on at this particular moment is slightly hazy, I believe we didnt get the exact conversation), he attacks triangle-one rather vigorously (maybe the big bully said some bad word). In this experiment a few features were common to all reports save that first quoted (using geometrical terms). These common features follow. In Scene 4, T and t fight in Scene 8, T is shut up in the house and tries to get out in Scene 10, T chases t and c throughout the picture, T, t and c move the door (the door never moves the actors). In Experiment ii, all Ss followed instructions and interpreted the movements as human actions. We shall try to indicate the degree of uniformity found in the answers. The reasons given for the interpretations are necessarily only tentative and based on impressions in viewing the picture. Questions 4 and 10 refer to the main interpretations Q.4: Why did the two triangles fight and Q.10: Tell the story of the movie in a few sentences. All reports have in common the following features. (1). T and t fight. The events of impulsion with sudden impact give rise to this interpretation. (2) t and c belong together and are in antagonism to T. The reason for this is that during the course of the picture t and c are frequently shown moving together, they appear together in the field and they leave the field together. On the other hand, t fights T, and c is chased by T. The fight between T and t is the central event and the stories can best be classified in terms of the cause of this fight. In 11 cases (30) this cause lies in the personality of T. T is an aggressive bully and he attacks t, or t and c, without any further reason. In one of these cases, T is a witch who tries to catch the children t and c. In the remaining cases the cause lies, at least in part, in the situation. The most common interpretation (18 cases, 50) is that T and t are two men who fight over the girl or woman c. This story has several variations: T does not want to marry c T is the villain, t the hero and c his sweetheart the wife c of T came home with another man. In three cases it is stated that T and t fight over c, but no allusion is made to an erotic triangle. In opposition to these cases are those in which the cause of the fight lies in the behavior of t and c. Two Ss write that T is provoked to his aggression by the fact that t and c tease him in one case the fight started because t and c want to regain the house which T had taken from them one S reports that T is an angry mother who wants to punish her two children because they came home late. Thus S obtains a unified story and a central theme by referring to the causes of the events as seen in the picture. Q. 1: What kind of a person is the big triangle The personality of T is judged with great uniformity. The expressions used are classified below in groups containing words with similar meaning. After each group is indicated the number and (after the larger groups) also the percentage of Ss who used at least one word of a given group. Aggressive, warlike, belligerent, pugnacious, quarrelsome, troublesome, mean, angry, bad-tempered, temperamental, irritable, quick to take offense, bully, villain, taking advantage of his size, picking on smaller people, dominating, power-loving, possessive. N 35 (97) Strong, forceful, slow but powerful. N 5 (14) Dumb, stupid, apt to get confused, more strength than brains. N 3 (8) Ugly, not attractive, spoiled, always on defensive, shy, crafty and sly. One S each. We might expect that T would be described differently according to whether the cause of the fight is seen to lie in his personal characteristics or in the situation. Even an average man can become aggressive when he is provoked. T is almost always described, however, as an aggressive bully, even in the cases in which the fight starts, because t and c tease T. The reason lies probably in the way he fights t. He is portrayed in the picture as hitting t relentlessly until t cannot move and is pinned against the wall. T makes the impression of being strong, probably not so much because of his greater size as because he wins in the fight with t. The interpretation T defeats t itself is based on the following data: T hits t more often than t hits T t is driven backward by T at the end of the fight t stands motionless against the wall while T hits him. That T is described (3 Ss) as stupid is a consequence of the interpretation T is fooled by t and c, i.e. T is locked up in his house by t and c and is thus frustrated in his attempt to chase them. Q. 2: What kind of a person is the small triangle Heroic, valiant, brave, courageous, fearless, defiant, more aggressive than c, independent, resents being bullied, a fighter, does not allow himself to submit, spirited, cocky, snappy. N 17 (47) Timidly aggressive, antagonizer, then afraid, not too brave, quick to run away. N 4 (11) Cagy, sly, crafty, tricky, wary, brains instead of brawn, clever, intellectual. N 13 (36) Weak, not very strong. N 6 (17) Protective, loyal, devoted. N 5 (14) Inquisitive, likes to tease, appealing, attractive, more personality, less force, persevering, persistent, quiet. (One S each) Figure t is called brave by many because, though smaller than T, he hits back and defends himself and c. He is clever and tricky because he is more active than c and therefore he is usually considered the cause of the locking up of T. In 4 cases there is reported an element of cowardice in the description of t. We can assume that in these cases the reason for his going back in the fight may then be differently regarded, i.e. not his physical inferiority to T, but his fear of T. Q. 3: What kind of person is the circle Does not like fighting, is frightened, afraid, fearful, cowardly, shy, timid, meek, not too sure of herself, goes where t goes, a follower, not much personality of her own, less initiative and nerve, relies for protection on t, helpless, dependent. N 27 (75) Girl, woman, female, feminine. N 22 (61) Shrewd, intelligent, clever, smart. N 5 (14) Courageous, resistant, has courage. N 4 (11) Weak. N 3 (8) Opportunist, looks after own good, teasing, curious, playful, good natured, more gentle, very refined, nervous, retiring, beautiful, loyal, affectionate, coming to aid when necessary. (One S each) The withdrawing of c during the fight and the fact that c never hits T accounts for the description of it as afraid, meek, etc. Some Ss obviously make c at least partly responsible for the ruse played on T and call c clever. Q. 5: Why did the circle go into the house For protection, afraid to watch fight, frightened by fighting, to get out of the way of the fight, scared, tried to hide, for shelter against T, to escape villain T, afraid of what T might do to t. N 33 (92) 2 Ss have c chased in or forced in by T, and one S makes c go in order to lure T in and trap it: In the first and second experiments, the majority of Ss interpret the event as hiding (though not always using this word). This high degree of uniformity is probably produced by the simultaneous event of T and t fighting and the movements of c preceding cs entrance to the house. It is clear that c is afraid of the fight. Q. 6: In one part of the picture, the big triangle and the circle were in the house together. What did the big triangle do then Why T always subject, c object: went after, tried to catch, chased, cornered, trapped, tried to get closer to, tried to pin down, attacked, tried to harm, to kill, to torture, punished, pushed into corner. N 27 (75) Tried to kiss, made love to. N 3 (8) Was mad at and scolded stood in front of c keeping c in suspense, closed the door to keep t out, stood guard at door afraid that t would come in, did not know what to do. (One S each) The high degree of uniformity in the answers to this question is determined mainly by the temporal relationships of the movements. It is a case of successive movements without contact, which will be described later. Q. 7: What did the circle do when it was in the house with the big triangle Why Ran away from, avoided, eluded, evaded, stayed away from, tried to escape, did not want T to catch her, was almost captured, retreated, ran into corner, was afraid of, scared, terrified, frightened, shrank from, became nervous, disliked, was bored with. N 33 (92) Tried to distract Ts attention from t, tried to tempt T into attacking it so that it could shut T in the house, fought with T. (One S each) Most of the Ss report that c tried to run away from T partly because c was afraid of T. N 14 (39) partly because c disliked, or was bored by, T. N 3 (8). In two cases c is seen as cause c tried to distract or tempt T. These cases belong to those exceptions in which c is described as playing a more active role (resistant and courageous and coming to aid when necessary). Q. 8: In one part of the picture the big triangle was shut up in the house and tried to get out. What did the little triangle and the circle do then Were elated, happy, glad, joyful. N 8 (22) Kissed each other. N 3 (8) Congratulated each other and shook hands very pleased (1) The other answers either described merely the movements (ran around) or referred to the scene immediately following (escaped). The interpretation of the circular movements of c and t around each other and of their touching each other, as expressions of joyful emotion, is probably determined to a high degree by the preceding events T is locked up in the house and t and c are together again. Q. 9: Why did the big triangle break the house 34 Ss (95) write to the effect that T was mad and thwarted because c and t had escaped. The act is again interpreted as an indication of emotion. One S puts the blame partly on Ts personality (a problem child). Two connect the act more definitely with the house. T decided that it wasnt a strong enough trap to capture anybody, and the purpose of the house could not be fulfilled without the circle, and then there would be no need for it. These results show the possibility of investigating thus the perception of behavior of persons. The stimulus has many geometrical and temporal features which can be defined in an exact way and which can be varied infinitely. The tentative analysis of the answers to the questionary seems also to point to the great importance which causal interpretation plays in the organization of the events into a story. A few events stand out and are seen by all Ss in the same way these events are organized into a meaningful whole which contains causal centers (persons). Events and persons gain their significance by the way they are causally connected. In Experiment iii, the picture was shown in reverse. All but two Ss again interpreted the movements as human actions. The interpretations show much more variation and, presumably, more projection than those of Experiment ii, and do not lend themselves to a quantitative analysis. Some of the results referring to single scenes will be given in the next section. Following are three examples of the answers to the question: Tell the story of the movie in a few sentences. Man (T) finds himself in chaos, which finally resolves itself into a sort of cell representing Fate. He is able to free himself (but only temporarily), when Woman (c) accompanied by Evil (t) comes upon him, and disrupts his momentary peace. He feels called upon to rescue her, but Evil imprisons them both by Fate, from which Man escapes, leaving the woman there for safe-keeping. He at first seems to vanquish Evil, but Woman comes into the picture again and again disrupts Man. She goes off with Evil, as he seems the winner of the struggle, and Man, not understanding her, himself, or anything, resigns himself to Fate. T is supposed to be in jail. The little ball (c) has come to kill him. When c and T are in the cell, t comes down to tell c how to kill T, T escapes, and t, unable to kill him, finally puts him back in the cell. The executioner and the keeper, thinking that their prisoner is safely locked in, go away but the prisoner manages to escape unnoticed. The story might be interpreted as an argument between husband and wife over child. The big triangle is the father, the smaller triangle the mother, and the disc the child. The father sent the child off in a room. The mother tries to persuade it to come out. When the child cannot be persuaded, the father and mother have a fight about it. The mother assails the father who does little to fight back. Finally the child comes out and goes off with his mother, leaving the father alone. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS We shall now attempt to answer in a more systematic way the question of how the interpretations arise. Interpretation of the movement combinations. (1) Successive movements with momentary contact. We shall first consider the stimulus conditions for elementary actions. Scene 4f offers an easy approach to such an analysis. Most of our Ss in Experiment i described this event in the same way and, indeed, the apprehension of the moving T and t as hitting each other is phenomenally compelling. In order to begin our analysis we shall have to describe the stimulus-configuration and then to make clear the term hitting. The stimulus consists of co-ordinated movements of T and t. T rapidly approaches t until it comes into contact with it. Then T stands still while, at the moment of contact, t starts moving in the direction of Ts previous movement. S has the strong impression of a transfer of kinetic energy from T to t. One could almost speak of an apparent movement of energy. Ts movement is clearly the cause and ts movement (reeling back under the impact of Ts blows) is the effect. This phenomenal relationship is obviously determined by temporal succession and spatial proximity. The good continuation of the line-the fact that the direction of ts movement continues the direction of Ts probably plays a ro1e in the convincing appearance of this apparent energetic movement. Another example of causation by impact occurs in Scene 12f, which all Ss in Experiment i interpreted as T breaking the house. Again the impression of an apparent movement of energy is very strong. The effect consists here, not merely in a backward movement of the units as struck but also in a breaking to pieces. (2) Simultaneous movements with prolonged contact. When the actors (T, t or c) are seen opening or closing the door, they seem to impart movement to the door, not by sudden impact but by pushing or pulling in prolonged contact. The stimulus-conditions are very simple: when T opens or shuts the door, T and the door move together in contact. The problem at once arises as to what determines which of two things moving together shall be seen as the origin and which as recipient of the movement. In the case of impulsion by sudden impact just considered, the causal origin is determined by succession in the events. In the case of slow pushing or pulling the local stimulus-conditions are insufficient for a full determination of the origin of locomotion. Actually the interpretations are highly uniform in the case of the door. All Ss see the actors as pushing or pulling the door. This is true whether the picture is shown forward or in reverse. A scene in the forward film in which T closes the door by pushing is interpreted in reverse as T opens the door by pulling. The reversal changes only the activity, not the origin. With impulsion by sudden contact it is different reversal changes the temporal relation of the events and thereby the origin. What is seen in the forward picture as T hitting t, is seen in reverse as t hitting T. The reason for the fact that T, t or c, rather than the door, is always seen as origin must lie in the larger field in which the local event door-actor-movement is embedded. The door never moves of itself, i.e. without another moving unit in contact with it. T, t and c continually move around by themselves. These units are therefore described as persons, as potential origins of movement. If the door had been shown in other parts of the picture as moving independently, and T (for instance) as never moving alone, then a combined movement of the door and T would be ascribed to the door as origin, the door would push T. (3) Simultaneous movements without contact. The situation is somewhat similar when two or more units move in the same direction, one behind the other, without touching each other. Such stimulus conditions are again ambiguous and the interpretation will vary according to the place of origin of the movement. Let A be the front unit and B the back unit. Then if A is seen as origin, A will lead B. If B is seen as origin, B will chase A. In leading or chasing, both units have to move under their own power, both must be persons or animals, and the transmission of movement is not by means of physical, but by means of psychological causation. Again the surrounding data can determine the phenomenal position of the origin. In Scene 10f there occurs an event which was in almost all cases interpreted as T chases t and c. The film order is as follows T, t and c move together but not in contact with each other, twice around the house. T moves behind t and c. We can safely say that the reason for this uniform interpretation of T as the origin lies in the interpretation of the previous parts of the picture. The event T chases t and c is coordinated to two facts T is stronger than t and c, and there is an antagonism between T and the pair t and c. These two features are contained in almost all interpretations of the forward picture. Therefore, the event has to be interpreted as T chases t and c if it is to conform to what has happened before. In the reverse picture, we do not find such uniformity in the interpretation of Scene 10. In only 13 cases (31 of the 42 Ss who were able to follow instructions) the event is dealt with explicitly. In 9 cases the origin is put definitely in T or in t and c. Since in the r-picture c and t move behind T, the interpretation is c and t chase T when c and t are taken as the origin (4 cases), and T leads c and t when T is the origin (5 cases). Which interpretation is taken depends again on the interpretation of the rest of the story and the kind of persons the actors are taken to be. In the 4 cases with t and c as origin, T has the following characteristics (1) T has done wrong, t and c rout T, (2) T timid, t fierce, (3) T a coward, (4) T is cautious, prudent. The 5 cases with T as the origin have the following features (1) T is a bully, mean, clever and constructive (he has constructed a house and then shown the outside of the house to t and c), (2) T is aggressive (he tries to lead t and c into the house), (3) T is dictatorial and stubborn (he wants to rent his house to t and c and shows it to them), (4) T is a bully and playful (he lures t and c into the house), (5) T is a person of initiative, a good business man (he tries to sell his idea or his house to t and c and shows it to them). The r-picture has no definite organization and it lends itself to very different interpretations. But each interpretation presents a unified whole and these parts, which are ambiguous as parts, are made to fit the whole. And one of the most important sources of ambiguity is the possibility of seeing the origin of changes in different individuals. If one sees two animals running in file through high grass, one will interpret these movements in accordance with other data. If the one in front is a rabbit and the one behind a dog, he will perceive a dog chasing a rabbit. If the first one is a big rabbit and the second a small one, he will not see chasing but leading and following. (4) Successive movements without contact. In Scene 6f, T and c are in the house and the following movements occur c stands in one corner, T approaches c suddenly but before T reaches c, c suddenly moves to another corner. This sequence is repeated several times. The movements of T and c are again successive. The origin is determined by the temporal relationship. In Experiment ii (Q6), 95 of the Ss interpret the event as T chases c or T is the aggressor, c tries to evade T, etc.In the r-picture this event is interpreted only 4 times. Three times c is the origin (c tries to drive T out of the house c tries to catch T c keeps T inside the house). In one case the interpretation is ambiguous 7 T, surprised at first by intruder c, finds her unresponsive to any friendly overtures. The unit which moves first is again more likely to be seen as the origin. It is another case of post hoc ergo propter hoc and a reversal of succession reverses the attribution of origin. Causal origins . Thus we see that the interpretation of these simple movement-combinations varies according to the unit seen as the origin. The movements of lines and figures are the stimuli but these movements become anchored in a field of objects and persons and are interpreted as acts. The distinction between perception that is relatively more directed by the stimulus and a perception that is more directed by the object can be applied in this case as legitimately as, for instance, in color-perception. Phenomenal movements per se are comparable to reduction colors, and acts of persons are comparable to object-colors. In both cases we can speak of attribution. In the case of color-perception the color is attributed in different degrees either to object or to illumination. In the case of movement-combinations the movement is attributed to the one or the other moving unit. In other words, the movements (or, more generally, any changes in the field) are organized in terms of acts of persons. It is obvious that this organization has many advantages from the point of view of achievement i.e. from the point of view of the adaptation of the organism to the environment. The changes, when identified with a constant figural unit, no longer follow each other in an arbitrary and unconnected way. They are connected with invariable characteristics of the environment they are meaningfully embedded in our picture of reality. We saw how the interpretation of movements is intimately connected with the interpretation of personality-traits of the actors, i.e. with the interpretation of invariancies. But this organization must be considered also from the point of view of performance. What processes take part in it How is this result attained These questions cannot be answered on the basis of these experiments. It might be useful, however, to try to use an hypothesis of unit-formation. The movements and changes are in some way identified with figural units and thereby gain the significance of acts. Are persons units consisting of figural units and movements as their parts And if movements are at all considered as parts, are they parts of a special kind Does this unit-formation follow some of the laws of purely figural unit-formation These are some of the questions to which such an hypothesis would lead us. In trying to answer them we may come nearer to an adequate theory. Needs as origins . So far we have only considered the attribution of the origin of movement to persons as a whole. Often the attribution goes beyond that. The descriptions not only make clear which person, but also what motive or need within that person, is responsible for the movement. As a matter of fact, as soon as we ascribe a certain movement to a figural unit and consider this unit as an animated being, perception of motive or need is involved. When we see T hitting t we seem to perceive at the same time that T wants to hurt t. When we see T chasing c the fact of T wanting to catch c seems to be implied. But often the attribution to motive adds something and differentiates between different interpretations of actions with the same person as origin. This can be seen in the interpretation of the events of entering and leaving. During the picture it happens several times that one of the actors (T or c) moves either in or out of the house. These movements, which can be defined in topological terms as entering or leaving the region of the house, give rise to various interpretations. The moving-in is called hiding, being-forced-in, being-lured-in, etc. The moving out is called escaping, being-invited-out, being-let-out, etc. What are the conditions which determine which of these interpretations is used to describe one and the same scene When we try to classify these interpretations, we find first of all that they differ according to whether the origin is attributed to the entering or leaving person itself or to another person. To the first class belong spontaneous actions (such as hiding or escaping) to the second class such induced movements as being-forced-out, being invited-in, etc. But these are not the only differences which appear in the interpretations. A person can enter a house in order to hide or in order to look for something in the house. That is to say that, although the moving person himself is the origin in both cases, the motivation may be different. Expressions like going to hide and escaping refer to movements and at the same time to motives. We cannot read off the motivation from the movements themselves, e.g. from the movement of a circle entering the house. Movements of the other actors, or of preceding or succeeding events, offer cues for the determination of motives. In Scene 4f, c enters the house of 14 Ss who mention the origin of the event in Experiment i, 11 describe it as hiding, running to shelter (92 in Experiment. ii), etc. 2 as being pushed-in by T, and one as going in because c does not want to be with T. When T enters the house in Scene 5f, the event is, in all the 9 cases where mention is made of the origin (Experiment i ), described as T follows c in, T goes in to pursue c, etc. This interpretation is probably based on the immediately following Scene 6f, in which T chases c around within the house. Scene 5f is assimilated in regard to the origin to Scene 6f and both the movements of entering and the movements of chasing c are then interpreted as manifestations of the same motive to catch c. Thus we see that the event figure-entering-house may be interpreted in many ways as hiding, as pursuing somebody, or as being pushed in. The surrounding field determines the motive, and thereby the meaning of the event. A description of movements in terms of motives again taps environmental layers of greater invariancy. Just as the successive perspective views of a landscape seen through the window of a moving train can only be resolved, or made to yield a meaningful unit, by reference to distant objects laid out in space, so acts of persons have to be viewed in terms of motives in order that the succession of changes becomes a connected sequence. A motion picture which shows movements of three geometrical figures was the material of the investigation. It was presented to a first group of 34 Ss with the instruction to describe it to a second group (36 Ss) with the instruction to interpret the movements as actions of persons and to answer a number of questions relating to them. A third group (44 Ss) was treated like the second except that the picture was shown in reverse and with fewer questions. The reports show that all but one S of Group I, all of Group II, and all but two of Group III interpreted the picture in terms of actions of animated beings, chiefly of persons. A characteristic feature of this organization in terms of actions is the attribution of the origin of movements to figural units and to motives. It has been shown that this attribution of the origin influences the interpretation of the movements, and that it depends in some cases on the characteristics of the movements themselves, in others on surrounding objects. The way in which the actors are judged is closely connected with this attribution of origin. It is held that this method is useful in investigating the way the behavior of other persons is perceived. Feb 23, 17 10:41 AM
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