Moving-average-gnu-r

Moving-average-gnu-r

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Linux di Mac Mini (Versi ini telah diterjemahkan ke bahasa Spanyol oleh Maria Ramos Webhostinghub Gracias, Maria) Generasi pertama sistem Mac Mini menggunakan prosesor PowerPC G4. Halaman ini terutama menjelaskan teknik untuk menginstal Debian pada sistem berbasis PowerPC G4 sebelumnya. Sekarang saya menambahkan panduan singkat untuk menginstal Ubuntu pada sistem berbasis Intel yang lebih baru. Sistem Mac Mini yang dikirim sejak Februari 2006 berisi prosesor Intel Core Duo dan chipset Intel 945GM ICH7M. Dengan kata lain mereka adalah PC biasa yang menggunakan platform Intels Centrino, modulo beberapa firmware mewah, dan dengan sedikit bujukan bisa menjalankan umum atau taman i386 Linux. Kami memiliki i386 (Intel) dan PowerPC Mac Mini. The i386 Mac Mini dual boots MacOS X dan pra-rilis Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft Knot 2). Ubuntu adalah distribusi berbasis Debian yang berfokus pada kegunaan desktop dan rilis stabil reguler. Pada foto di bawah ini, ICBM (Intel chip berbasis Macintosh) ada di atas, dengan sistem G4 di bawahnya. Dimensi dan warna cat cocok persis, meskipun lebar slot drive optis lebih lebar pada ICBM untuk memungkinkan ruang di satu sisi untuk penerima infra merah, dan G4 memiliki talang yang sangat sedikit di sekitar tepi atas yang ICBM lakukan. tidak. Heres sebuah panduan super kental untuk menginstal Ubuntu di Mini i386. Saya tidak akan mencoba ini kecuali jika Anda yakin bisa memasang partisi root Anda dan menginstal GRUB dengan tangan dari command line, atau Anda tidak keberatan untuk meninggalkan keseluruhan dan menginstal ulang dari MacOS X DVD. Ada panduan yang lebih komprehensif online jika Anda terjebak, misalnya Anda bisa mulai membaca di sini. Saya tidak akan menulis diskusi rinci tentang perangkat keras, karena ada banyak potongan yang ditulis dengan baik secara online. Bagaimanapun. Campurkan beberapa minuman lemon lemah dan mari kita mulai. Boot ke MacOS X Download dan instal Boot Camp. Alat ini memungkinkan Anda untuk mengubah ukuran partisi HFS yang ada tanpa memformat ulang. Buat cukup ruang untuk instalasi Ubuntu Anda, lalu keluar dari alat saat meminta Anda untuk CD Windows XP Anda. Download dan install rEFIt. Seorang manajer boot EFI REFIt akan memungkinkan Anda untuk memilih antara MacOS X dan Ubuntu saat Anda menghidupkannya. Ikuti instruksi untuk menginstalnya pada volume MacOS X Anda. Download dan bakar CD Ubuntu i386 (saya menggunakan Edgy Eft Knot 2 karena ini adalah yang terbaru saat itu). Pop CD ke drive, reboot (biarkan untuk boot dari hard disk, tidak perlu memaksa boot dari CD). Anda harus berakhir di menu rEFIt. Gunakan alat peta partisi rEFIts untuk menyalin peta partisi GPT ke dalam MBR. Format partisi GPT yang baru dapat menangani disk yang sangat besar dan berisi peta partisi kanonik peta partisi MBR lama harus berisi bayangan informasi ini dan digunakan di sini terutama oleh bootloader GRUB. Saya yakin suatu hari nanti rccIt akan boot kernel Ubuntus Linux secara langsung dan akan bisa melewati ini. Beritahu rEFIt untuk boot dari CD. Anda harus mendarat di desktop Ubuntu, berjalan langsung dari CD. Gunakan ikon Install untuk menginstal ke hard disk. Jangan biarkan sistem secara otomatis mempartisi ulang disk Gunakan editor partisi manual dan format partisi yang dibuat Boot Camp untuk Windows (kemungkinan besar yang terakhir pada disk) sebagai filesystem root Anda. Jika Anda merasa berjiwa petualang, hapus dan buat dua partisi, satu untuk swap dan satu lagi untuk root - walaupun ini mungkin berimplikasi ketika Anda datang untuk menginstal bootloader (lihat poin berikutnya). Saya menemukan bahwa saya tidak bisa menginstal GRUB setelah saya membagi partisi yang dibuat oleh Boot Camp menggunakan editor partisi Ubuntu. Alasannya tampaknya editor partisi Ubuntu menulis ulang peta partisi GPT namun tidak membayangi informasi ini ke dalam peta partisi MBR (mungkin ini mengasumsikan bahwa semua sistem GPT hanya GPT). Cara memperbaikinya adalah melakukan reboot, gunakan alat peta partisi di rEFIt untuk memperbarui peta bayangan di MBR, lalu boot lagi dari CD Ubuntu dan pasang GRUB dengan tangan. Saya menginstal ke sektor boot dari partisi root Ubuntu saya (yang ditandai sebagai bootable di peta partisi) daripada masuk ke MBR. Alternatif lain adalah menginstal untuk kedua kalinya, tanpa mempartisi ulang semuanya di Ubuntu, yang akan lebih mudah namun memakan waktu lebih lama. Saya belum diuji apakah teknik kedua ini bekerja, caveat lector. . Keuntungan Jika Anda mencoba ini, Id akan penasaran untuk mendengar bagaimana Anda melanjutkan dengan teknik ini. Saya tidak bisa melakukan banyak eksperimen dengan kotak i386 semampu saya dengan PowerPC karena Celia dan saya sudah menggunakannya untuk pekerjaan nyata. Kami sekarang mengembalikan Anda ke pemrograman yang dijadwalkan secara rutin. Dari sini, Anda harus membaca Mac Mini sebagai G4 Mac Mini. Tidak ada pembahasan lebih lanjut tentang Mac Minis berbasis Intel di halaman ini. Apel generasi pertama Mac Mini adalah sesuatu yang banyak diminati oleh pengguna Linux: Sistem PowerPC murah dan mudah tersedia dalam chassis kecil yang tenang dan menarik. Debian sangat populer di sistem Intel i386 yang kompatibel. Karena sifat open source dari kernel Linux dan sistem operasi Debian, adalah mungkin untuk membangun perangkat lunak yang sama untuk dijalankan pada prosesor PowerPC yang ditemukan di dalam Mac Mini. Sederhana untuk menukar PC tua Anda yang besar dan berisik untuk Mac Mini yang ramping dan ramping, dan halaman ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan kepada Anda bagaimana melakukan hal ini. Secara pribadi, saya membeli Mac Mini sebagai pengganti sistem Pentium-III 1GHz yang menikahi pacar saya. Berkat portabilitas Debian dan alat manajemen paketnya yang canggih, membuat Mac barunya terlihat seperti PC lamanya hanya membutuhkan waktu sekitar satu jam. Spesifikasi perangkat kerasnya agak kurang dari standar tahun 2005, namun masih sangat memadai. Seseorang dapat memilih antara 1.25GHz atau 1.42GHz PowerPC G4, keduanya berjalan dengan cache L2 512K on-chip dan bus sisi depan MaxBus 166MHz. Ini sangat kurang kuat daripada sistem Intel atau AMD x86 kontemporer, namun untuk sebagian besar tugas, ini lebih dari cukup kemampuan pemrosesan. Jika Anda membutuhkan lebih banyak daya, Anda dapat selalu menumpuk beberapa Minis lagi - Keuntungan dari G4 yang digunakan pada Mac Mini adalah menghasilkan panas yang sangat kecil dibandingkan prosesor x86 dengan daya komputasi yang sebanding, sehingga ideal untuk Ruang kecil di dalam Mac Mini. G4 yang digunakan menghamburkan sekitar 21W pada 1,42GHz, dan 18,3W pada 1,25GHz. Perangkat keras lain di dalam kotak juga matang dan dapat diandalkan (atau jika Anda adalah orang yang setengah kosong, murah dan lamban). Mac Mini memiliki GPU RV280 (Radeon 9200) dengan SDRAM DDR 32MB yang berdedikasi. RV280 memiliki empat saluran rendering, transformasi geometri perangkat keras dan percepatan pencahayaan, dan pixel programmable pixel dan vertex shader. Pada Mac Mini saya, GPU diberi clock 250MHz dan memori grafisnya clock pada 190MHz DDR. Ini lebih dari cukup bagi orang yang arent tertarik bermain game 3D terbaru. Sebagian besar perangkat keras 3D didukung oleh XFree86, yang merupakan berita bagus. Sistem ini memiliki soket DIMM tunggal yang mengambil modul PC2700 standar, walaupun sedikit sulit untuk mendapatkan akses ke sana. Upgrade terbesar yang ada saat ini adalah modul 1GB, tapi saya percaya bahwa Mac Mini juga akan disertifikasi untuk digunakan dengan modul 2GB saat mereka masuk produksi. Untuk pengguna Linux rata-rata, 1GB akan lebih dari cukup. Pasokan 256MB Apple terlalu sedikit untuk Mac OS X. Untuk alasan panas dan kebisingan, Apple telah memilih untuk menggunakan hard drive 2.5 (laptop-size) di Mac Mini, yang membuat pengguna akhir upgrade fiddly dan mahal. Harddisk 40GB atau 80GB yang disertakan sepertinya tidak akan cukup besar untuk semua orang. Apple tampaknya akan mengirimkan campuran unit 4200rpm dan 5400rpm dalam ukuran 40GB, namun saat ini semua unit 80GB adalah 4200rpm. Drive 5400rpm ternyata lebih cepat, mungkin karena waktu mencari kepala yang lebih pendek. Unit saya memiliki MK8025GAS Toshiba 80GB. Mac Mini menggunakan jembatan utara Apel Intrepid. Tampaknya menjadi turunan yang sangat kompak dari desain motherboard eMacs. Diagram ini menggambarkan perangkat keras di Mac Mini semaksimal mungkin. Perhatikan bahwa MaxBus dan SDRAM memiliki clock 166MHz, dan drive optik internal dikonfigurasikan sebagai perangkat slave pada bus ATA-100 yang sama yang digunakan oleh hard drive. Ini adalah ukuran hemat biaya pada bagian Apel, karena chipset Intrepid memiliki saluran ATA kedua yang dapat digunakan untuk drive optis. Kartu Airport dan modul Bluetooth dipasang pada kartu mezzanine opsional. Jika sistem Anda tidak dilengkapi dengan salah satu pilihan ini, kartu mezzanine tidak akan hadir. Saya diberitahu bahwa modem tidak hadir pada model yang dijual ke pasar pendidikan. Catatan Pengembang Apel di Mac Mini sekarang online. Yang sepi - sangat sepi. Tapi tidak diam. Satu-satunya suara adalah dengungan yang nyaris tak terdengar dari hard disk. Berkat bantalan dinamis fluida, ini bukan sulingan jengkel yang mengganggu yang lebih tua dari 2,5 disk yang dihasilkan. Saya sangat berhati-hati dengan kebisingan, dan saya merasa cukup dapat diterima. Setelah beberapa bulan saya mengupgrade disk internal di G4 saya ke model 7200rpm 2.5 (Hitachi TravelStar 7K60) yang sangat sedikit lebih keras, 20GB lebih kecil, namun lebih cepat. Mac Mini memiliki power supply mode saklar 85W tanpa kipas tanpa kipas, sekitar setengah ukuran Mac itu sendiri (gambar di sini), memindahkan sumber panas utama dari chassis logam. Dikombinasikan dengan prosesor G4 clock speed yang relatif rendah, ini agaknya penting untuk desain thermal Apples. Memiliki sedikit panas untuk menghilang berarti, sementara Mac Mini memang memiliki kipas pendingin kecil, jarang berputar hingga kecepatan tinggi. Melakukan pekerjaan kantor normal tidak terdengar. Satu-satunya suara yang keluar dari Mac Mini adalah dengung yang tenang dari hard disk, dan bahkan bisa berputar secara otomatis saat sistem benar-benar tidak berfungsi. Drive optis relatif nyaring saat digunakan. Saya tidak pernah benar-benar menggunakan media optik, jadi ini tidak mengganggu saya. Ini mungkin mengganggu Anda. Upgrade RAM membutuhkan pembukaan case. Lihat halaman ini Di mana Anda dapat mendownload PDF yang bagus dan video yang menunjukkan cara membongkar sistem. Sebenarnya, PDF adalah panduan perawatan lengkap, mungkin ditulis untuk teknisi layanan Apple. Anda membutuhkan pisau puttyspreading, pastikan untuk membeli yang paling tipis. Alat yang saya gunakan sangat tipis dan kenyal dan tetap saja meninggalkan tanda sedikit di dasar chassis. Tolong jangan mencoba untuk membuka Mac Anda kecuali jika Anda mengenal pembukaan perangkat elektronik konsumen. Jika Anda merusak Mac Anda, Anda bisa mempertahankan keduanya. Prosesor MPC7447A (G4) dengan Altivec Apple Airport Extreme (802.11g) Didukung (sedang dalam proses) Saya tidak menyangka 802.11g wireless (Airport Extreme) pernah bekerja. Modul Apple Airport Extreme menggunakan chipset PCI 802.11g dari Broadcom, dan tidak ada spesifikasi yang tersedia untuk menulis driver open source untuk perangkat keras ini. Namun, beberapa orang yang sangat berdedikasi telah menetapkan tentang rekayasa balik perangkat keras dan menulis spesifikasi mereka sendiri. Ini kemudian memungkinkan tim kedua menghasilkan driver open source untuk chip Broadcom BCM43xx. Driver ini disertakan dalam kernel linux baru-baru ini. Saya tidak yakin tentang modem atau modul Bluetooth opsional, saya belum pernah diuji. Ben Herrenschmidt (semua pujian BenH) telah memperbaiki driver audio. Ternyata patch nya ada di kernel 2.6.12-rc4 atau yang lebih baru, dan Anda perlu alsa-lib 1.0.9rc3 atau yang lebih baru. Beberapa masalah aneh yang pernah saya temukan: Jika saya memasang port firewire ke port firewire di PC saya, nampaknya mengganggu suplai daya PC. Seperti menahan tombol reset pada PC. Hal ini membuat tidak mungkin menggunakan mode target firewire disk pada Mac Mini. Ini mungkin berubah menjadi masalah dengan kartu firewire di PC saya. Saya belum bisa mengetesnya dengan sistem lain. Driver radeon di kernel 2.6.10 tidak dapat diandalkan menggerakkan LCD 1600x1200 saya melalui DVI. Gambar berkedip, seolah-olah waktunya salah. Mac OS X bisa menggerakkan LCD ini dengan baik pada perangkat keras yang sama, sehingga nampaknya menjadi masalah dengan driver radeon di 2.6.10. Sopir di 2.6.9 tarif lebih baik, tapi layarnya terkena beberapa teknik aneh salju. Sangat menyebalkan. Driver di kernel 2.6.9 dapat menggerakkan LCD 1280x1024 saya melalui DVI tanpa masalah, dan saya menganggapnya beresolusi rendah juga. Ive belum diuji 2.6.10 dengan LCD 1280x1024. Alat yang akan Anda perlukan: Media instalasi Apple Mac OS X (hadir dengan Mac) Sambungan internet Blank CD-R Minuman lemon lemah Proses berikut akan menghapus hard disk internal Mac Anda. Setiap data tentang itu akan hilang. Salin apapun yang Anda nilai ke komputer lain atau ke media optik yang dapat ditulisi sebelum melanjutkan. Saat Anda menerima Mac mini dari Apple, ia akan memiliki satu partisi untuk Mac OS X yang menempati keseluruhan disk. Untuk menginstal Debian, Anda perlu menyisihkan sebagian disk untuk filesystem Debian. Proses ini disebut partisi. Saat kita mempartisi ulang disk, setiap filesystem di dalamnya harus diformat ulang (atau diinisiasi ulang di Apple-speak). Jika Anda memiliki data berharga di Mac Anda, salin di tempat yang aman (sebaiknya komputer lain) sebelum melanjutkan. Jika Anda ingin Mac Anda menjalankan hanya Debian, Anda bisa melompat ke depan untuk membakar CD instalasi. Jika Anda ingin dual-boot Mac OS X dan Debian, baca terus. Dengan Mac OS X yang berjalan, masukkan Mac OS X Install Disc 1 berwarna abu-abu yang Anda terima dengan Mac Anda. Jalankan installer dari disk dan, saat diminta, klik tombol Restart. Mac Mini Anda akan reboot (bong) dan muat installer Mac OS X dari optical disc. Jika Anda belum menginstal OS X Anda, cukup reboot dengan disk di drive dan tahan tombol C pada keyboard Anda - ini akan memaksa firmware Mac mencoba boot dari drive optis internal. Dengan penginstal berjalan, buka pada menu Installer di kiri atas layar. Pilih Open Disk Utility. Anda sekarang perlu memberitahu Disk Utility bagaimana partisi hard disk. Saya meminta lima partisi. Sebagian besar ini saya tandai sebagai Free Space. Ini bagus, kami akan menetapkan kembali tujuan mereka di installer Debian. Disk Utility sedikit fiddly untuk digunakan, namun bertahan dan Anda akan menemukannya pada akhirnya. Beberapa tip: Jika Anda menggunakan mouse untuk mengubah ukuran partisi di bawah satu gigabyte, itu mulai menghitung dalam megabyte sebagai gantinya. Ini memungkinkan Anda mengetik ukuran yang tepat yang Anda inginkan untuk partisi kecil. Untuk memilih partisi yang terlalu kecil agar terlihat, klik pada partisi lain dan gunakan tombol tab pada keyboard. Tabel ini menunjukkan bagaimana saya mempartisi disk internal 80GB saya. Saya memutuskan untuk memiliki partisi 8GB yang akan saya format sebagai FAT32. Hal ini memungkinkan saya untuk dengan mudah dan andal berbagi file antara OS X dan Linux, yang keduanya memiliki dukungan FAT32 yang baik namun, pada saat penulisan, dukungan yang buruk atau tidak lengkap untuk satu sama lain filesystem asli. Mac OS X filesystem Sebuah kata peringatan: Saya menemukan bahwa Disk Utility kadang-kadang kehilangan beberapa ruang, mungkin ini adalah bug dalam perangkat lunak. Periksa apakah ukuran partisi bertambah hingga jumlah yang benar saat Anda mengubah ukurannya. Dan ingat dari 80 disket pemasaran gigabyte hanya berisi 74,5 real-gigabyte. Saya harus berhenti dan memulai kembali Disk Utility beberapa kali sebelum berhasil melakukannya dengan benar. Saya pikir triknya adalah melakukan partisi terakhir terlebih dahulu, lalu turunkan dari yang pertama. Setelah selesai, klik tombol Partisi, keluar dari Disk Utility, dan pasang Mac OS X ke partisi baru Anda. Minum minuman lemon lemah sekarang. Akhirnya Mac akan reboot ke Mac OS X sehingga Anda memberikan semua data pribadi Anda ke Apple dan kemudian melanjutkan hidup di OS X. Komputer Anda sekarang memiliki beberapa partisi kosong untuk Debian untuk menginstal dirinya sendiri. Selanjutnya Anda memerlukan CD Instalasi Debian. Debian memiliki beberapa cabang, beberapa di antaranya terus berkembang. Versi baru perangkat lunak diunggah ke cabang yang tidak stabil. Setelah beberapa minggu tanpa bug serius ditemukan tidak stabil. Cabang pengujian menerima paket ini. Debian secara berkala membekukan pengujian dan melepaskannya sebagai cabang stabil baru. Cabang baru kemudian dibuat untuk menjadi pengujian baru. Saya akan menunjukkan cara menginstal Sarge, yang merupakan nama untuk cabang pengujian saat ini. Yang tidak cukup putih-buku-perjalanan bahwa cabang tidak stabil, dan tidak seperti cabang stabil itu berisi cukup up-to-date perangkat lunak. Ini pilihan cerdas. Heres sebuah garis besar proses: Download gambar ISO dari situs web Debian Bakar citra ISO ke CD-R kosong Reboot ke installer Debian Instal sistem basis Debian ini adalah sistem Debian minimal dengan alat yang cukup untuk mendownload dan menginstal apapun Paket tambahan yang Anda butuhkan Reboot ke dalam sistem basis Debian Pilih paket yang ingin Anda gunakan Download dan instal paket Buat kernel yang dioptimalkan Nikmati Safari Run dan masuk ke halaman Installer Debian. Di sini Anda bisa mendownload file ISO, yang merupakan gambar filesystem siap dibakar ke CD-R kosong. Saya mendownload versi Release Release 2 (rc2) dari installer. Jika versi yang lebih baru tersedia, Anda mungkin ingin mencobanya. Ada banyak gambar CD yang berbeda tersedia. Anda menginginkan salah satu gambar powerpc. Ada beberapa ukuran berbeda yang tersedia. Jika Anda terhubung ke Internet melalui port ethernet Mac, Id merekomendasikan citra CD businesscard. Yaitu sekitar 110MB. Ini cukup berisi untuk menginstal sistem dasar tanpa download lebih jauh. Jika Anda tidak keberatan mendownload banyak, atau jika Anda terhubung ke Internet melalui modem internal Mac, mungkin ide yang lebih baik untuk mendownload set CD lengkap sebagai gantinya, termasuk cuplikan dari paket terpopuler. Jangan khawatir bahwa ada 14 () CD, mereka diatur dengan perangkat lunak yang paling populer di CD bernomor rendah. Anda bisa mendapatkan sistem kerja hanya dengan CD 1, saya yakin. Setiap full CD sekitar 650MB. Begitu Anda mendapatkan ISO yang bagus, Anda akan ingin membakarnya ke CD. Anda tidak bisa membakarnya sebagai file di CD, file itu sendiri adalah gambar dari filesystem CD (iso9660). Buka folder Applications Anda, lalu folder Utilities, dan jalankan Disk Utility lagi. Terkadang rasanya seperti ini adalah satu-satunya aplikasi OS X yang pernah saya jalani. Anyway, dari menu Images pilih Open. Temukan file ISO anda dan buka. Klik pada gambar ISO lalu klik tombol Burn pada toolbar. Beri makan Mac Mini Anda sebuah CD-R kosong dan minum sedikit minuman lemon lemah sekarang. Sebelum melakukan reboot, Anda mungkin ingin membolak-balik manual instalasi Sarge untuk PowerPC. Akan memulai Bab 5. Reboot atau power pada mesin Anda. Sebelum bong, tahan tombol C. Bootstrap pada CD Debian harus dimuat. Jika Anda hanya berakhir di OS X, coba lagi. Saat boot: prompt, tekan enter saja. Kernel akan boot. Setelah beberapa detik, installer akan mulai dan Anda akan ditanya beberapa pertanyaan sederhana. Idealnya Anda akan terhubung ke Internet melalui port ethernet Mac Minis, dalam hal ini Anda bisa memberi tahu installer untuk menggunakan eth0 sebagai antarmuka jaringan utama. Setelah mendownload daftar paket dari arsip Debian lokal Anda, installer akan meluncurkan alat partisi. Kami sudah memartisi disk kami, tapi kami perlu menggunakan alat ini untuk mengatur jenis partisi yang benar. Saat diminta, pilih Manuals edit tabel partisi. Jika Anda mengikuti lima rencana partisi saya sebelumnya, inilah yang ingin Anda hadapi: Jangan sentuh Partisi kecil 1 di awal disk, yang berisi peta partisi itu sendiri. Partisi 2 (16MB) adalah untuk yaboot, bootstrap yang memungkinkan Anda untuk boot Linux atau MacOS. Anda ingin memberi tahu partisi untuk menggunakan partisi tersebut sebagai partisi boot NewWorld, dan atur flag bootable. Partisi 3 (2.0GB) harus digunakan sebagai area swap. Partisi 4 (48.0GB) adalah filesystem root Anda, Anda ingin menggunakannya sebagai sistem berkas penjurnalan ReiserFS, memformatnya, dan memasangnya. Partisi 5 (8.7GB) digunakan sebagai sistem file FAT32, saya telah memasang mounting pada shared. Tidak ada Partisi 6 Partisi 7 (21.3GB) adalah filesystem Mac OS Xs. Jangan sentuh itu Setelah selesai, pilih Selesai partisi dan tulis perubahan pada disk. Bagi saya, installer mengeluh bahwa partisi FAT32 memiliki kesalahan. Saya pikir ini berarti formatnya tidak bisa, mungkin karena mkfs.vfat yang hilang. Jangan panik, teruskan penginstalannya - ini masalah sederhana untuk memperbaikinya nanti. Debian sekarang akan memasang sistem dasar. Ini adalah sistem dengan alat yang cukup untuk memulai, terhubung ke Internet dan mendownload perangkat lunak tambahan yang Anda butuhkan. Langkah ini memakan waktu beberapa menit, jadi mengapa tidak menggunakan waktu ini untuk menikmati minum sedikit minuman lemon yang menyegarkan. Akhirnya Mac Anda akan meludahkan CD instalasi Debian dan reboot. Alih-alih reboot langsung ke Mac OS X seperti sebelumnya, sekarang akan memuat bootstrap dari mana Anda dapat menekan huruf L untuk booting Linux, atau X untuk boot Mac OS X. Ketuk L dan, saat boot: prompt, tombol Enter . Debian akan boot dan sekarang Anda bisa menyelesaikan instalasi Anda. Petunjuk instalasi Sarge akan memandu Anda melalui sisa proses instalasi, yang tidak menimbulkan rasa sakit. Jika mengikuti Anda, mulai dari Bab 7.2. Jika Anda ingin membangun kernel Anda sendiri, inilah kernel saya .config for 2.6.9. Yang mungkin berguna bagi Anda. Membangun kernel baru sangat cepat dan sederhana dengan alat Debian, cukup install paket kernel dan ikuti dokumentasi. Setelah Anda menginstal sistem dasar, Anda dapat dengan mudah menginstal perangkat lunak yang sama di Mac Mini Anda saat Anda menggunakan sistem Debian lain: Gunakan dpkg - pilihan pilihanget.txt pada sistem Anda saat ini. Salin file selection.txt ke Mac Mini Anda. Jalankan dpkg --set-selectionsPlease Visit our New Website - Paket UNIXPackages UNIX menyediakan dukungan paket lengkap untuk semua tingkat Solaris dari 2,5, 2.6, 7. sampai ke Solaris 11 SVR4 dan paket Solaris 11 IPS I. Harap diperhatikan bahwa paket pada Paket UNIX hanya tersedia melalui layanan berlangganan berbayar, karena situs baru ini tidak disponsori oleh pihak ketiga manapun. Jika ini menimbulkan kesulitan khusus, silakan kirim email ke email dukungan kami. Lihat Informasi Kontak. Paket UNIX menawarkan berlangganan berbayar, daftar paket berikut di Bold pada versi yang ditentukan untuk versi Solaris ini. Daftar ini berlaku mulai 24 Juli 2014. Namun, paket populer sering diperbarui dan oleh permintaan pelanggan, paket yang lebih up to date juga hadir untuk versi Solaris lainnya. Nama paket yang tidak berani dan tanpa nomor versi, saat ini tidak tersedia untuk versi Solaris ini. Namun, mereka bisa dibangun atas permintaan. Daftar Paket 10 SPARC Solaris a2ps 4.14 a2ps adalah filter Any to PostScript. Aalib 1.4.5 aalib adalah perpustakaan gfx tingkat rendah. Menguasai 0.5.6 Abook adalah program buku alamat dengan dukungan klien surat mutt. Ack 2.12 Ack adalah program perl yang ditulis sebagai pengganti grep. Adns 1.4 Adns adalah perpustakaan klien DNS yang asinkronik asisten dan utilitas. Afio 2.5.1 Afio membuat arsip format cpio. Afterstep 8211 Manajer jendela afterstep. Aget 0.4.1 Aget adalah akselerator download multithreaded HTTP. Ajudan 0.15.1 AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) adalah pengganti gratis untuk Tripwire. Hidup 2.0.2 GNU Alive adalah program ping periodik. Alpine 2.00 Alpine adalah klien email baru berdasarkan pinus. Amanda 8211 Amanda pengarsip disk jaringan. Analog 6.0 Analog adalah file log analyzer. Ansitape 8211 Ansitape membaca menulis dan menciptakan magtapes yang sesuai dengan standar ANSI untuk pelabelan magtape. Terutama ini berguna untuk menukar kaset dengan VAXVMS yang membuat tape jenis ini secara default. Antiroute 8211 Antiroute mencegah dan mencatat pelacakan rute berbasis UDP. Antiword 0.37 Antiword adalah MS Word reader. Aolserver 8211 AOLserver 3 server web open source open source dari America Online. Apache 2.4.9 Apache server web yang populer. Apg 2.2.3 Generator Password Otomatis. Apr 1.2.2 Apr adalah sistem perpustakaan Apache Portable Runtime. Aprutil 1.2.2 Aprutil adalah bagian dari sistem perpustakaan Apache Portable Runtime. Busur arsip arsip arsip busur. Argtable2 13 Argtable adalah library ANSI C untuk menguraikan opsi baris perintah GNU style. Arpalert 2.0.11 Arpalert digunakan untuk mendengarkan di antarmuka jaringan untuk menangkap semua percakapan alamat MAC dengan permintaan IP. Arping 2.13 Arping adalah util untuk mengetahui apakah alamat IP tertentu pada LAN tersebut. Arpscan 1.9 Arp-scan adalah alat baris perintah yang menggunakan protokol ARP untuk menemukan dan memberi sidik jari host IP pada jaringan lokal. Arpwatch 2.1a15 Arpwatch dan arpsnmp adalah alat yang memantau aktivitas ethernet atau fddi dan memelihara database pasangan alamat ethernetip. Ascii 3.14 Ascii adalah sebuah utilitas yang mengenali berbagai cara untuk menamai karakter ASCII (hex octal binary decimal C escape ISO character table pair slang names dan lain-lain) dan mencetak semua padanannya. Asciidoc 8.6.9 AsciiDoc adalah format dokumen teks untuk menulis dokumen singkat dan buku manual UNIX man pages. File asciiDoc dapat diterjemahkan ke markup HTML dan DocBook menggunakan perintah asciidoc. Jam 2.0.12 Jam afterstep. Aspell 0.60.6.1 Aspell adalah pemeriksa ejaan dan kumpulan perpustakaan yang dapat digunakan dalam pemeriksaan ejaan. Atk 1.18.0 Toolkit aksesibilitas GNOME. Audiofile 0.3.6 Perpustakaan audiofile menyediakan antarmuka pemrograman yang seragam ke format file audio digital standar. Autoconf 2.69 GNU autoconf adalah sebuah paket untuk menghasilkan configure scripts. Autogen 5.18 AutoGen adalah alat untuk mempermudah pembuatan dan pemeliharaan program yang mengandung sejumlah besar teks berulang. Automake 1.13.3 Automake adalah alat untuk membuat Makefile secara otomatis sesuai dengan Standar Coding GNU. Autossh 1.4c Autossh adalah program yang dirancang untuk secara otomatis me-restart sesi SSH dan terowongan. Axel 2.4 Axel mencoba mempercepat download dengan menggunakan beberapa koneksi atau server. Keseimbangan 3.56 Saldo adalah proxy TCP generik sederhana namun kuat dengan mekanisme load balancing round-robin dan failover. Bar 1.11.1 Bar adalah baris perintah untuk menampilkan jumlah data yang dilewatkan dalam aliran data. Bash 4.3 Bash adalah shell yang kompatibel dengan sh yang menggabungkan fitur berguna dari shell Korn (ksh) dan c shell (csh). Bashdb 4.00.4 Sebuah debugger bash shell dengan sintaks yang mirip dengan gdb. Bashnonetredirections 4 Bash adalah shell sh-compatible yang menggabungkan fitur berguna dari shell Korn (ksh) dan C shell (csh) 8211 Dibangun dengan 8211disable-net-redirections untuk mengatasi masalah keamanan yang diajukan oleh beberapa administrator sistem. Battlebots 8211 BattleBots adalah permainan pemrograman. Tugasnya adalah merancang bots Anda dan kemudian menggunakan perangkat keras seefisien mungkin dengan menulis sebuah program untuk itu dengan misi membunuh musuh bot di tempat bermain. BB 1.3.0 BB adalah demo portable penggunaan perpustakaan delta ascii gfx. Bc 1.0.6 Bc adalah bahasa pemrosesan presisi numerik yang sewenang-wenang. Bcrypt 1.1 Bcrypt adalah utilitas enkripsi file cross platform yang menggunakan algoritma enkripsi blowfish. Bglibs 1.104 Perpustakaan BG (Bruce Guenter). Mengikat 9.9.5p1 Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) menerapkan server nama Internet untuk sistem operasi Unix. Binutils 2.23.1 Paket GNU ini menyertakan versi GNU dari ld sebagai string strip ran lib dan program lainnya. Bison 3.0.2 Bison pengganti YACC. Menyalahkan 1.3.1 Blame menampilkan modifikasi terakhir untuk setiap baris dalam file RCS. Blt 8211 BLT adalah perluasan ke toolkit Tk menambahkan manajer geometri widget baru dan perintah lain-lain. Bluefish 1.0.7 Editor bluefish untuk pemrogram dan perancang web. Bogofilter 1.2.4 Bogofilter adalah filter email yang mengklasifikasikan email sebagai spam atau non-spam. Bonnie 1.03e Bonnie adalah tolok ukur yang melakukan sejumlah tes sederhana tentang kinerja hard drive dan sistem file. Bosh 0.6 Bosh adalah singkatan dari shell output yang dapat dijelajahi. Ini bukan cangkang. Apa yang dilakukan adalah menyimpan output dari program tertentu dalam buffer dan menyediakan antarmuka kutukan sederhana untuk mencari buffer ini. Tindakan dapat dikonfigurasi yang dapat memanfaatkan isi baris yang saat ini dipilih. Bpython 0.9.7.1 Bpython adalah antarmuka ke penerjemah Python. Brltty 4.2 BRLTTY adalah proses latar belakang (daemon) yang menyediakan akses ke konsol LinuxUnix (bila dalam mode teks) untuk orang buta menggunakan layar braille yang dapat disegarkan. Bvi 1.3.2 Bvi adalah editor untuk file biner. Bwmng 0.6 Bwmng adalah monitor bandwidth berbasis konsol. Bzip2 1.0.6 bzip2 file compression utility. Bzr 2.5.1 Bazaar adalah sistem kontrol versi yang membantu Anda melacak sejarah proyek dari waktu ke waktu dan untuk berkolaborasi dengan mudah dengan orang lain. C3270 3.3.7p4 c3270 adalah versi mengutuk x3270 untuk digunakan pada terminal bodoh. Kairo 1.2.10 Cairo adalah perpustakaan grafik 2D dengan dukungan untuk beberapa perangkat output. Merawat 1.9.1 MIT c-ares adalah perpustakaan penyelesai asinkron. Catdoc 0.94.2 Catdoc membaca satu atau lebih berkas kata dan teks keluaran Microsoft. Ini juga mencakup xls2csv sebuah program yang mengubah spreadsheet Excel menjadi file nilai yang dipisahkan koma. Gua 1.0b Gua adalah alat untuk bermain animasi ascii. Cclive 0.3.2 Cclive adalah utilitas ekstraksi video baris perintah. Ini mendukung YouTube Google Video dan lainnya. Ccrypt 1.10 Ccrypt adalah utilitas untuk mengenkripsi dan mendekripsi file dan stream. Ini dirancang sebagai pengganti utilitas crypt unix standar. Ccrypt didasarkan pada cipher Rijndael. Cdpr 2.4 Cdpr (Cisco Discovery Protocol Reporter) menunjukkan saklar dan port yang terhubung dengan mesin jika perangkat mendukung CDP. Cdrtools 2.01.01a35 Cdrtools (dahulu cdrecord) berisi alat canggih untuk membakar CD dan DVD. Cfengine 3.0.5p1 GNU cfengine adalah rangkaian program untuk pengaturan dan pemeliharaan sistem operasi BSD dan System-V-like yang secara opsional dilekatkan pada jaringan TCPIP. Cgrep 8.15 Cgrep adalah tool grep-like dengan performa yang disempurnakan dan banyak fitur tambahan. Cek 0.9.8 Cek adalah kerangka uji unit untuk cherokee 0,4.21 Cherokee adalah server Web cepat ringan yang sangat cepat. Ini diimplementasikan sepenuhnya di C dan tidak memiliki ketergantungan di luar perpustakaan C standar. Ini dapat disematkan dan dapat diperluas dengan plug-in. Ini mendukung konfigurasi on-the-fly dengan membaca file atau string TLSSSL (melalui GNUTLS atau OpenSSL) host virtual otentikasi fitur ramah cache Manajemen kesalahan kustom PHP dan banyak lagi. Ayam 4.8.0 Ayam adalah kompiler untuk bahasa pemrograman Skema. Chkrootkit 0.49 chkrootkit adalah alat untuk secara lokal memeriksa tanda-tanda rootkit. Chmlib 0.4 Chmlib adalah perpustakaan untuk menangani file format ITSSCHM. Ckermit 9.0.302 C-Kermit adalah jaringan gabungan dan paket perangkat lunak komunikasi serial. Clamav 0.98.4 Sistem Clam Antivirus. Clex 3.18 CLEX adalah manajer file berbasis ncurses dengan antarmuka pengguna layar penuh. Clisp 8211 CLISP versi Common Lisp. Clzip 1.5 Clzip adalah kompresor data lossless berdasarkan algoritma LZMA dengan pengecekan integritas yang sangat aman dan antarmuka pengguna yang mirip dengan gzip atau bzip2. Cmake 2.8.12.1 Cmake adalah sistem pembuatan cross-platform. Cmatrix 8211 Cmatrix adalah program berbasis ncurses yang mensimulasikan garis bergerak simbol yang terlihat di layar di film The Matrix Disediakan untuk bersenang-senang atau berfungsi sebagai semacam screen saver. Cmatrix digunakan dalam jendela xterm atau rxvt (jika Anda menginginkan warna). colordiff 1.0.13 Colordiff is a perl script that provides color highlighted diff output. coloredit 8211 Coloredit is a tool to view and edit the X window color entries. combine 0.4.0 Combine is primarily a program for merging files on a common key. compface 8211 Compface 48x48x1 image compression and decompression. complexity 1.1 Complexity measures the complexity of C source. conflict 6.19 Conflict examines the user specifiable list of programs looking for instances in the user. confuse 2.7 libConfuse is a configuration file parser library. conman 0.2.7 ConMan is a serial console management program designed to support a large number of console devices and simultaneous users. conserver 8211 Conserver is an application that allows multiple users to watch a serial console at the same time. convmv 1.15 Convmv converts filenames (not file content) directories and even whole filesystems to a different encoding. cook 2.34 Cook is a file construction tool. coreutils 8.21 GNU Coreutils are a set of basic file shell and text manipulation utilities for the GNU operating system that are expected to exist on every operating system. Previously they were offered as three individual distributions: fileutils shellutils and textutils. cpio 2.11 GNU cpio copies files into or out of a cpio or tar archive. cpptest 1.1.1 CppTest is a C Unit Testing Framework. crm114 8211 CRM114 is a system to examine incoming e-mail system log streams data files or other data streams and to sort filter or alter the incoming files or data streams according to the user8217s desires. cronolog 1.6.2 Cronolog is a simple filter program that reads log file entries from standard input and writes each entry to the output file specified by a filename template and the current date and time. cscope 15.8a Cscope is a developer8217s tool for browsing C code. ctags 5.8 Exuberant Ctags is a multilanguage reimplementation of the ctags(1) program. It generates indexes of source code definitions which are used by a number of editors and tools. curl 7.37.0 Curl is a tool for transferring files with URL syntax supporting FTP FTPS HTTP HTTPS GOPHER TELNET DICT and FILE. curlldap 7.23.1 Curl is a tool for transferring files with URL syntax supporting FTP FTPS HTTP HTTPS GOPHER TELNET DICT and FILE 8211 With LDAP Support. cvs 1.12.13 The cvs version control system. cvs2svn 2.4.0 Cvs2svn is a tool for migrating a cvs repository to subversion or git. cython 0.15.1 Cython is a language that makes writing extensions for the Python language as easy as Python. daemontools 8211 Daemontools is a collection of tools for managing UNIX services. daq 2.0.2 The Snort Data Acquisition library. darkstat 3.0.717 Darkstat is a network statistics gatherer. db 5.3.21.NC db is the Berkeley open source embedded database system. dbus 1.0.2 Dbus is a message bus system providing a way for applications to talk to each other. dbusglib 0.74 The glib bindings for Dbus. ddd 3.3.12 DDD is the GNU Data Display Debugger. ddpt 0.93 Ddpt is a utility for copying files like its namesake the Unix dd command. ddrescue 1.18.1 GNU ddrescue is a data recovery tool. It copies data from one file or block device (hard disc cdrom etc) to another trying hard to rescue data in case of read errors. ded 20131205 Ded is a curses based directory editor which allows you to navigate multiple file lists or a directory tree. dejagnu 1.5.1 DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs. Its purpose is to provide a single front end for all tests. dhcp 4.2.5p1 The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol distribution. dhex 0.68 Dhex is an ncurses based hex editor. di 4.35 Di is a disk information utility. dialog 1.0.20050306 Dialog is a utility to create user interfaces to shell scripts or other scripting languages. diction 1.11 GNU diction and style document analysis. diffstat 1.58 Diffstat reads the output of diff and displays a histogram of the insertions deletions and modifications per file. diffuse 0.4.7 Diffuse is a graphical tool for merging and comparing text files. diffutils 3.3 The GNU diff diff3 sdiff and cmp utilities. dig 8211 Dig is a command-line tool for querying Domain Name System servers. dio 8211 Dio is a device IO analysis tool. disktool 2.0c Disktool is a program that shows how much disk space is available in each disk on a system. disktype 9 The purpose of disktype is to detect the content format of a disk or disk image. It knows about common file systems partition tables and boot codes. distcc 8211 Distcc is a program to distribute builds of C C Objective C or Objective C code across several machines on a network. djbdns 8211 Djbdns is a collection of Domain Name System tools. dnrd 2.20.3 Dnrd (Domain Name Relay Daemon) is a caching forwarding DNS proxy server. dnsmasq 2.41test8 Dnsmasq is a lightweight DNS forwarder and DHCP server. dnstop 20121017 Dnstop displays various tables of dns traffic. doc 8211 DOC is a documentation system for C C and Java generating both TeX output for high quality hardcopies and HTML output for sophisticated online browsing of your documentation. docutils 0.10 The docutils documentation utilities. dog 8211 Dog is an alternative to the cat command. dos2unix 6.0.5 DOSMAC to UNIX text file format converter. dovecot 2.1.12 Dovecot is an IMAP and POP3 server. doxygen 1.8.7 Doxygen is a documentation system for C C Java Objective-C Python and others. dsniff 8211 The dsniff package contains a number of tools for examining traffic on a network including the dsniff sniffer webspy a URL sniffer and other tools. dttools 8211 Dttools is a library of C utilities used by the ftsh fault tolerant shell. dwdiff 2.0.7 Dwdiff is a front end for diff that works at the word level instead of the line level. ed 1.10 GNU ed is a line oriented text editor. It is used to create display modify and otherwise manipulate text files both interactively and via shell scripts. egcs 8211 The egcs snapshot 20000306 which includes gcc g and other compilers as in gcc-2.95.3. egd 0.8 EGD is an Entropy Gathering Daemon and is a substitute for devrandom. elinks 0.11.7 Elinks is a lynx like web browser. elm 8211 Elm is a mail system. emacs 23.3 Emacs is the extensible customizable self-documenting real-time display editor. emacs 23.3 Emacs is the extensible customizable self-documenting real-time display editor. enlightenment 8211 The enlightenment window manager. enscript 1.6.6 Enscript converts ASCII files to PostScript and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer. epydoc 3.0.1 Epydoc is a tool for generating API documentation for Python modules. esound 0.2.38 The enlightened sound daemon mixes several audio streams for playback by a single audio device. eterm 8211 Eterm is a color vt102 terminal emulator. ethereal 0.10.7 Ethereal is a network traffic analyzer or sniffer. ettercapng 0.7.3 Ettercap is a suite for man in the middle attack analysis. Both ncurses and gtk interfaces are included. eventlog 0.2.12 An API to format and send structured log messages. everybuddy 8211 Everybuddy is a chat program for X that incorporates the functions of AOL Instant Messenger ICQ Yahoo Chat and MSN Messanger. expat 2.0.1 Expat is a fast non-validating stream-oriented XML parsing library. expat64 2.0.1 Expat is a fast non-validating stream-oriented XML parsing library. 64-bit version. expect 5.45 Expect is a program that performs programmed dialogue with other interactive programs. feh 1.14.2 Feh is an image viewer based on imlib2. fetchmail 6.3.26 Fetchmail is a free full-featured robust well-documented remote-mail retrieval and forwarding utility intended to be used over on-demand TCPIP links (such as SLIP or PPP connections). It supports every remote-mail protocol now in use on the Internet: POP2 POP3 RPOP APOP KPOP all flavors of IMAP and ESMTP ETRN. It can even support IPv6 and IPSEC. fftw 3.2.2 Fftw is a C subroutine for computing the discrete Fourier transform in one or more dimensions. file 5.14 The open source version of the file command. fileutils 8211 The GNU fileutils package contains the basic file management utilities that are standard on a Unix-like system. filezilla 3.0.3 The FileZilla ftp client. findutils 4.4.2 Findutils contains the GNU find xargs and locate programs. Firefox 12 Firefox browser by Mozilla 8211 See our Mozilla Page. fish 1.22.1 Fish is a command line shell. flex 2.5.35 Flex the GNU version of lex. fltk 1.1.10 FLTK is a GUI toolkit. fmirror 8211 Fmirror is a program for mirroring files and directories from a remote ftp server. fnlib 0.5 Fnlib is a color font rendering library. fontconfig 2.8.0 Fontconfig is a library for configuring and customizing font access. foremost 1.5.7 Foremost is a program to recover files based on their headers and footers. fping 3.9 fping is tool to quickly ping N number of hosts to determine their reachability. freeradius 1.1.7 The Radius server. freetds 0.91 FreeTDS is a set of libraries that allows your programs to natively talk to Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase database. freetype 2.4.2 FreeType 2 is a software font engine. ftsh 8211 The Fault-Tolerant Shell (ftsh) is a small language for system integration that makes failures a first class concept. ganglia 3.1.1 Ganglia is a monitoring system for clusters and grids. gateway 1.4.1 This is the Kannel opensource WAP and SMS Gateway. gawk 4.1.1 gawk is the GNU version of the awk formatting program. gc 7.1 The Boehm-Demers-Weiser garbage collector for C and C. gcal 3.6.3 Gcal is a program for calculating and printing calendars. gcc 4.7.2 The GNU C compiler and related programs. gconf 2.20.1 GConf is a system for storing application preferences. gd 2.0.35 GD Graphics Library An ANSI C library for the dynamic creation of images. GD creates PNG and JPEG images among other formats. gdb 6.8 The GNU Debugger. gdbm 1.9.1 GNU dbm is a set of database routines that use extendible hashing and works similar to the standard UNIX dbm routines. gdkpixbuf 2.21.6 The gdk-pixbuf libraries and related graphics objects. gdmap 0.8.1 Gdmap is a tool which allows one to visualize disk space. geany 0.14 Geany is a GTK based text editor with some IDE features. gengen 1.4.2 GNU Gengen (GENerator GENerator) is a tool that starting from a parameterized text called template generates a text generator that can substitute parameters with values. gengetopt 2.22.6 This program generates a C function that uses the getoptlong function to parse the command line options to validate them and fills a struct. geoip 1.4.5 GeoIP is a C library that enables the user to find geographical and network information of an IP address. gettext 0.18.3 Gettext is the GNU internationalisation library. gfortune 8211 GNU fortune is an enhanced fortune cookie program. gftp 2.0.18rc1 gftp is a multithreaded ftp client for X Windows written using gtk. ghostscript 9.05 PostScript and PDF previewing conversion and printing. ghostview 8211 Ghostview postscript and pdf viewing tool. giblib 1.2.4 Giblib is a wrapper library for imlib2. gif2png 2.5.8 The gif2png program converts files from the Graphic Interchange Format to Portable Network Graphics. giflib 8211 Giflib is a library for manipulating gif files. gifmerge 1.33 Gifmerge is used to merge gif images into a gif animation. gifsicle 1.71 Gifsicle manipulates GIF image files in a variety of ways. gimp 2.4.2 The GNU image manipulation program. git 1.8.4 Git is a version control system for large and small projects. glark 1.8.0 Glark is a replacement for grep with perl compatible regular expressions and many other features. glib 2.25.13 GLib is the low-level core library that forms the basis of GTK and GNOME. global 6.3 GNU global is a source code tag system. glpk 4.46 The GLPK (GNU Linear Programming Kit) package is intended for solving large-scale linear programming (LP) mixed integer programming (MIP) and other related problems. glut 8211 Glut is the OpenGL Utility Toolkit (GLUT). gmime 2.2.26 GMime is a set of utilities for parsing and creating messages using the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME). gmp 4.2.1 GMP is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic operating on signed integers rational numbers and floating point numbers. gnats 4.1.0 Gnu Gnats is a set of tools for tracking bugs. gnuchess 8211 Gnuchess is a chess playing syste. gnuit 4.9.4 The GNU interactive tools are a set of text-mode tools. gnupg 1.4.17 GnuPG or GPG (the GNU Privacy Guard) is a tool for secure communication and data storage. It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures. gnuplot 4.6.0 The gnuplot plotting tool. gnutls 3.3.4 The GNU transport layer security library system. gpa 0.7.6 Gpa is the GNU Privacy Assistant and is a graphical user interface for GNUPG (GNU Privacy Guard). gperf 3.0.4 GNU gperf is a program that generates perfect hash functions for sets of key words. gpgme 1.4.2 GnuPG Made Easy is a library to make access to GnuPG easier. gpw 6.94 Gpw is Van Vleck8217s password generation program. gqlplus 1.12 Gqlplus is a drop-in replacement for sqlplus an Oracle SQL client. graphviz 2.26.3 Graph visualization software. grep 2.18 The GNU version of grep which finds lines that match patterns. grep 2.18 The GNU version of grep which finds lines that match patterns. groff 1.21 Groff (GNU Troff) is a document processor which reads plain text and formatting commands produces formatted output from them and then outputs it to another device. grsync 0.6.1 Grsync is a GUI for rsync. gsl 1.14 GSL the GNU Scientific Library is a collection of numerical routines for scientific computing. gsoap 2.8.8 gSOAP offers generator tools for coding SOAPXML web services in C and CgSOAP offers generator tools for coding SOAPXML web services in C and C. gt5 1.4.0 gt5 is used to study disk space usage. gtk 2.12.0 GTK is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. gtkspell 2.0.11 GtkSpell provides highlighting and replacement of misspelled words in a GtkTextView widget. gtypist 2.8.5 GNU Typist is a universal typing tutor. guile 1.8.8 Project GNU.s extension language library. gv 3.7.2 A postscript and pdf viewing tool. gzip 1.6 The gzip compressuncompression system. help2man 1.45.1 Help2man is a script to create simple man pages from the -help and -version output of programs. hexdump 1.8 Eric Raymond.s hex dumper. hexedit 1.2.13 Hexedit view and edit files in hexadecimal or in ASCII. hfsutils 3.2.6 Hfsutils tools for reading and writing Macintosh HFS volumes. hping3 20051105 Hping is a command-line oriented TCPIP packet assembleranalyzer. htdig 8211 The ht:Dig system is a complete indexing and searching system for a domain or intranet. httping 2.3.3 Httping is a ping for http-requests. httpry 0.1.7 Httpry is a specialized packet sniffer designed for displaying and logging HTTP traffic. hydra 8211 Hydra is a password security checking program. hypermail 2.3.0 Hypermail is a program that takes a file of mail messages in UNIX mailbox format and generates a set of cross-referenced HTML documents. id3lib 3.8.3 Id3lib is a software library for manipulating ID3v1v1.1 and ID3v2 tags. ifstatus 8211 Ifstatus is designed to detect Solaris 8 hme and qfe interfaces that have been placed in promiscuous mode. iftop 0.17 Iftop does for network usage what top does for CPU usage. It listens to network traffic on a named interface and displays a table of current bandwidth usage by pairs of hosts. imagemagick 6.8.6.9 ImageMagick is a software suite to create edit and compose bitmap images. imaging 1.1.7 The Python Imaging Library (PIL). imap 2007f Imap contains imap pop2 and pop3 email servers. imlib 1.9.15 Imlib is a general Image loading and rendering library. imlib2 1.4.4 The Imlib 2 library a library that does image file loading and saving as well as rendering manipulation arbitrary polygon support etc. indent 2.2.10 Indent is a C source beautifier. intltool 0.40.3 The internationalization tool collection (intltool) can be used to extract translatable strings from various source files collect the extracted strings together with messages from traditional source files (.c .h) and merge translations from .po files into .xml .desktop and .oaf files. iperf 2.0.5 Iperf is a tool for measuring internet bandwidth performance. iplog 8211 Iplog is a TCPIP traffic logger. Currently it is capable of logging TCP UDP and ICMP traffic. irc 8211 Irc contains a user Interface to Internet Relay Chat Protocol and the Internet Relay Chat Program Server. ircii 20110228 Ircii is an IRC and ICB client. irssi 0.8.15 Irssi is a modular IRC client with a text mode user interface. ispell 3.3.02 Ispell is an interactive spell-checking program. jdiskreport 1.3.1 JDiskReport enables you to understand how much space the files and directories consume on your disk drives and it helps you find obsolete files and folders. jikes 8211 Jikes is a fast simple source code to byte code compiler that emphasizes strict adherence to the Java language definition. joe 3.7 The Joe text editor. john 1.7.6 John the Ripper is a fast password cracker Its primary purpose is to detect weak Unix passwords. john64 1.7.6 John the Ripper is a fast password cracker Its primary purpose is to detect weak Unix passwords 8211 64 Bit Version. jove 8211 Jove is an Emacs-style text editor. jpeg 8d The jpeg libraries. jpeg2ps 1.9 Jpeg2ps is a utility for converting jpeg images to compressed Postscript level 2 or 3 files. jpeginfo 1.6.1 Jpeginfo is utility to generate information from jpeg files. jpegoptim 1.2.4 Jpegoptim is a uility to optimize jpeg files. keychain 2.7.1 Keychain helps to manage ssh keys in a convenient and secure manner. It acts as a frontend to ssh-agent. krb5 1.11 MIT Kerberos network authentication protocol. lame 3.98.4 Lame is an MP3 encoder. lbzip2 0.23 Lbzip2 is a pthreads-based parallel bzip2bunzip2 utility. lcms 1.19 Lcms is a color management engine. lcms2 2.3 Lcms2 is a color management engine. ldns 1.6.16 Ldns is used to simplify DNS programming. Included in the package is the dig-like program drill and other example programs. less 458 Less is a paginator file similar to more but that allows backward as well as forward movement through the file. lftp 4.5.3 lftp is command line file transfer program. It supports FTP HTTP FISH SFTP and FILE (local FS) protocols. GNU Readline library is used for input. Low level stuff supported: ftp proxy http proxy ftp over http opieskey fxp transfers automatic retrying on non-fatal errors and timeouts ipv6 socks http1.1 sftp v3-4. libao 1.1.0 Libao is a cross-platform audio library that allows programs to output audio using a simple API on a wide variety of platforms. libarchive 2.8.4 Libarchive contains a C library and command-line tools for reading and writing tar cpio zip iso and other archive formats. libartlgpl 2.3.19 Libart is a library for high performance 2D graphics. libassuan 2.1.1 Libassuan is a library implementing the Assuan protocol used in some GnuPG components. libcddb 1.3.0 Libcddb is a library that implements the different protocols (CDDBP HTTP SMTP) to access data on a CDDB server (freedb.org). libcroco 0.6.1 Libcroco is a cascading style sheet (CSS) parsing and manipulation toolkit used by GNOME applications. libdnet 1.12 Libdnet provides a simplified portable interface to several low-level networking routines. libedit 20120601-3.0 A port of the NetBSD libedit library. libemf 1.0.3 libEMF is a CC library which provides a drawing toolkit based on ECMA-234. The general purpose of this library is to create vector graphics files on POSIX systems which can be imported into StarOfficeOpenOffice. libevent 1.4.14b The libevent API. libexif 0.6.16 The libexif exif library reads and writes EXIF meta information from and to image files. libffi 3.0.10 The libffi library provides a portable, high level programming interface to various calling conventions. libg2c 3 This package contains the libg2c library files needed by the octave program. libgcc 3.4.6 Gcc libraries that many programs have as dependencies. libgcj 3.4 The libgcj Java libraries. libgcrypt 1.5.2 Libgcrypt is the GNU basic cryptographic library. libghttp 8211 Libghttp is the GNOME http client library. libglade 2.6.2 The libglade library allows you to load glade interface files in a program at runtime. libgpgerror 1.12 Libgpg-error is a small library with error codes and descriptions for the GnuPG software. libgsasl 1.8.0 The GNU SASL library which is an implementation of the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL). libgsf 1.14.7 The GNOME structured file library for reading and writing structured file formats. libgtkhtml 2.11.1 GtkHTML is a HTML renderingediting library. libiconv 1.14 GNU libiconv provides an iconv() implementation for use on systems which do not have one. libidl 0.8.12 libIDL is a front end for CORBA IDL and required for ORBIT2 in Gnome. libidn 1.28 GNU libidn is an implementation of stringprep punycode and IDNA specifications. libintl 3.4.0 Libintl is used with gettext and is needed by a few programs when libintl in not in usrlib. libmcrypt 2.5.8 Libmcrypt is a thread-safe library providing a uniform interface to access several block and stream encryption algorithms. libmikmod 3.2.0beta2 libmikmod is a portable sound library for Unix and other systems. libmng 1.0.10 Libmng is a png-like image format supporting multiple images animation and transparent jpg. libnet 1.1.2.1 Libnet is an API to help with the construction and handling of network packets. libnids 1.24 Libnids offers IP defragmentation TCP stream assembly and TCP port scan detection. libogg 1.1.3 Libogg is the bitstream and framing library for the Ogg project. libol 0.3.18 Libol is a library used by syslog-ng. liboop 1 Liboop provides a generic callback-based event dispatch interface. libpar2 0.2 These are the libraries from the par2 file verification and repair tool. libpcap 1.5.3 libpcap is a system-independent interface for user-level packet capture. libpng 1.2.49 The PNG library is a collection of routines used to create and manipulate PNG format graphics files. librsvg 2.22.3 Librsvg supplies libraries to enable SVG-format scalable graphics. librsync 0.9.7 librsync implements the rolling-checksum algorithm of remote file synchronization that was popularized by the rsync utility and is used in rproxy. This algorithm transfers the differences between 2 files without needing both files on the same system. libsigc 2.0.17 Libgsigc implements a typesafe callback system for standard C. libsigsegv 2.10 Libsigsegv is a library for handling page faults in user mode. libspf2 1.2.9 Libspf2 is an implementation of the SPF specification. libssh2 1.4.3 Libssh2 is a library implementing the SSH2 protocol. libstatgrab 0.17 Libstatgrab is a library that provides cross platform access to statistics about the system on which it is run. libtasn1 2.14 The ASN.1 library and some related programs. libtool 2.4.2 Libtool is a generic library support script. libungif 4.1.4 libungif operates on GIF files using uncompressed GIFs. libuninum 2.7 This is a library for converting Unicode strings to numbers and numbers to Unicode string. libunistring 0.9.3 GNU libunistring provides functions for manipulating Unicode strings. libvorbis 1.2.0 Ogg Vorbis is a general-purpose compressed audio format. Libvorbis provides a standard encoder and decoder. libxml 1.8.17 Libxml is the XML C library developed for the Gnome project. libxml2 2.9.1 Libxml2 is the XML C library developed for the Gnome project. libxslt 1.1.28 Libxslt is the Xslt C library developed for the GNOME project. lighttpd 1.4.35 The lighttpd web server. links 2.7 Links is a Lynx-like text and graphics WWW browser. lldpd Nicstat prints network traffic statistics. logcheck 8211 Logcheck is designed to automatically run and check system log files for security violations and unusual activity. logilabastng 0.20.0 A python module provides a common base representation of python source code used by programs like pylint. logilabcommon 0.49.0 A set of python modules used by pylint and other projects. logrotate 3.8.6 The logrotate utility is designed to simplify the administration of log files on a system. logsurfer 1.7 Logsurfer is a monitoring system for system logs. lookat 1.4.3 Lookat is a program to view Unx text files and manual pages. lrzsz 0.12.20 Lrzsz is a unix communication package providing XMODEM. YMODEM and ZMODEM file transfer protocols. lsh 2 Lsh is the GNU implementation of ssh 2. lsof 4.87 lsof lists information about files that are open by the processes running on a UNIX system. lua 5.2.2 Lua is a light-weight programming language designed for extending applications. Lua is also frequently used as a general-purpose stand-alone language. lunzip 1.4 Lunzip is a decompressor for lzip files. lxml 2.2.8 Lxml is a python binding for libxml2 and libxslt. lynx 2.8.8.10 Lynx is a text-based web client with ipv6 support. lynxsslipv6 2.8.7 Lynx is a text-based web client. lzip 1.14 Lzip is a lossless file compressor based on the LZMA (Lempel-Ziv-Markov chain-Algorithm) algorithm. lziprecover 1.15 Lziprecover is a data recovery tool and decompressor for files in the lzip compressed data format. lzlib 1.5 Lzlib is a data compression library providing in-memory LZMA compression and decompression functions including integrity checking of the uncompressed data. lzma 4.32.7 The LZMA compression utilities. lzo 2.05 Lzo is a portable lossless data compression library. lzop 1.03 Lzop is a file compressor which uses the LZO data compression library. m4 1.4.17 GNU m48242 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor. mailx 12.4 Mailx (formerly nail) is a mail user agent that extends the features of the older mailx. make 4.0 The GNU version of make also known as gmake. makemap 8211 Makemap is part of the sendmail system and is here because it was left out of the sendmail provided here. man2html 8211 Man2html converts man pages to html format. mawk 1.3.4.20130803 Mawk is an implementation of newposix awk. mc 4.8.12 GNU Midnight Commander (also referred to as MC) is a user shell and visual file manager with text-mode full-screen interface. md5 6142000 MD5 reads data and calculates a cryptographic checksum. md5deep 1.12 Md5deep is a suite of tools (md5deep sha1deep sha256deep whirlpooldeep and tigerdeep) to compute hashes or message digests for any number of files while optionally recursively digging through the directory structure. memcached 1.4.15 Memcached is a distributed memory object caching system. memconf 3.03 memconf is a perl script that displays memory modules installed in a Sun system. memtester 4.3.0 Memtest is a utility to test for a faulty memory subsystem. mercurial 2.3 The mercurial Source Control Management (SCM) system. mesa 8211 Mesa is a 3-D graphics library with an API which is very similar to that of OpenGL. metamail 8211 metamail can be used to turn virtually any mail-reading program into a multimedia mail reader as well as programs that will allow metamail to display several specific types of multimedia mail. mgdiff 8211 Mgdiff is a graphical file difference browser. mhash 0.9.9.9 Mhash is a library which provides a uniform interface to a large number of hash algorithms. mikmod 3.2.1 Mikmod is a module player and library supporting many formats including mod s3m it and xm. mined 2011.17 Mined is a Unicode text editor. ming 0.4.4 Ming is a library for generating Macromedia Flash files (.swf) written in C and includes useful utilities for working with .swf files. miranda 1.9 miRanda is an algorithm for finding genomic targets for microRNAs. mkhybrid 8211 Mkhybrid make ISO9660HFS shared hybrid CD volume. mkisofs 8211 Mkisofs is used to create a iso9660 filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes for use with cdrecord. mktemp 1.7 Mktemp is a small program to allow safe temporary file creation from shell scripts. mm 1.4.2 MM is a 2-layer abstraction library. It is part of OSSP. modjk 1.2.40 The modjk Apache module from Tomcat Connectors. moe 1.6 GNU Moe is an 8-bit clean text editor for ISO-8859 and ASCII character encodings. mpack 1.6 Mpack and munpack are utilities for encoding and decoding (respectively) binary files in MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) format mail messages. mpage 2.5.6 Mpage takes in plaintext and outputs postscript that will print the text on 1 2 4 or 8 pages. mpeg3play 8211 The mpeg3play mpeg2 and mpeg3 audio file player. mpfr 2.4.0 The MPFR library is a C library for multiple-precision floating-point computations with correct rounding. mpg123 8211 Mp3 audio player with a command line interface. mrtg 2.17.4 The Multi Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) is a tool to monitor the traffic load on network-links. mrxvt 0.5.4 Mrxvt is a multi-tabbed X terminal emulator based on rxvt. msmtp 1.4.28 Msmtp is an SMTP client. msort 8.53 Msort is a program for sorting files in sophisticated ways. mtools 4.0.18 Mtools is a collection of utilities to access MS-DOS disks without mounting them. mtr 8211 Mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic too. mtx 1.3.12 Mtx is a set of low level driver programs to control features of SCSI backup related devices such as autoloaders tape changers media jukeboxes and tape drives. multitail 6.2 Multitail lets you view one or multiple files in a way similar to the tail program but in multiple windows. mutt 1.5.21 The Mutt email client Support for pop imap and ssl is included. mysql 5.5.27 MySQL is an SQL database server. namebench 1.3.1 Namebench is designed to help determine what name services are the best to use for an individual machine. nano 2.3.4 GNU nano (Nano is an enhanced clone of the pico editor). nc 110 nc also called netcat is a simple Unix utility which reads and writes data across network connections using TCP or UDP protocol. ncdu 1.10 Ncdu is an ncurses version of the unix du command. ncftp 3.2.5 ncftp is a browser program for the (FTP) File Transfer Protocol. ncurses 5.7 ncurses (new curses) library is a freeware emulation of System V Release 4.0 curses. ndiff 2.00 Ndiff is uses to compare similar files ignoring small numeric differences. ne 2.5 The nice editor. nedit 5.5 NEdit is a Unix text editor for programmers and general users. It has a graphical user interface. nemesis 1.4 Nemesis is a command-line network packet crafting and injection utility. nenscript 8211 Nenscript converts text files to PostScript format for printing. neon 0.29.6 Neon is an HTTP and WebDAV client library Neon is used by subversion. nepim 0.39 Nepim stands for network pipemeter a tool for measuring available bandwidth between hosts. nessus 5 Nessus is a remote security scanner. It is plug-in-based has a GTK interface and performs over 1200 remote security checks. It allows for reports to be generated in HTML XML LaTeX and ASCII text and suggests solutions for security problems. netcdf 3.6.1 NetCDF (network Common Data Form) is an interface for array-oriented data access. nethack 3.4.3 Nethack is a single player dungeon exploration game. netio 1.31 Netio is a network benchmark for OS2 2.x Windows NT2000 and Unix. It measures the net throughput of a network via NetBIOS TCP and UDP protocols (Unix only supports TCP and UDP) using various different packet sizes. netpbm 10.58.00 The Netbpm graphics tools and converters -. netperf 2.5.0 Netperf is a TCPUDPsocketsetc performance benchmark. netsnmp 5.7.2 The NET-SNMP (formerly UCD-SNMP) package contains various tools relating to the Simple Network Management Protocol. nettle 2.7.1 Nettle is a cryptographic library. nginx 0.8.54 Nginx is an http and reverse proxy server. ngrep 1.45 ngrep is a program that mimicks as much functionality in GNU grep as possible applied at the network layer. nikto 8211 Nikto is a tool for finding default web files and examining web server and CGI security. nload 0.7.4 Nload is a console application that monitors network traffic and bandwidth usage in real time. nmap 6.40 nmap is a network exploration tool and security scanner. nmh 1.4 Nmh is a mail handling system. nose 0.10.4 Nose is a Python unittest extension offering automatic test suite discovery and easy test authoring. ntop 3.3 Ntop is a network traffic probe that shows the network usage. ntp 4.2.7p422 The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time of a computer client or server to another server or reference time source. nzbget 0.6.0 NZBget is a binary news grabber. ocaml 3.10.2 Objective Caml is the main implementation of the Caml language. octave 2.1.73 GNU Octave is a high-level language for numerical computations. olvwm 8211 Olvwm (OPEN LOOK virtual window manager) is an ICCCM compliant window manager supplied for use with the XView toolkit. op 1.32 Op is used to grant access to certain root operations. openldap 2.4.39 OpenLDAP is an open source implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. openslp 1.2.1 OpenSLP is an implementation of the Service Location Protocol. openssh 6.6p1 Openssh is an open source version of the SSH secure shell system. openssl 1.0.1h Openssl is an open source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-strength general purpose cryptography library. optik 1.5.3 Optik is a command-line parsing library for Python. orbit2 2.14.10 Orbit2 is a CORBA 2.4 compliand Object Request Broker and is used in the Gnome project. p7zip 9.20.1 P7zip is a port of 7z and 7za file archiver programs. pango 1.18.2 Pango provides a framework and libraries for the layout and rendering of internationalized text. paps 0.6.8 Paps reads a UTF-8 encoded file and generates a Postscript language rendering of the file. parallel 20140722 GNU Parallel is a shell tool for executing jobs in parallel using one or more machines. paramiko 1.7.1 Paramiko is a module for python 2.2 that implements the SSH2 protocol for secure (encrypted and authenticated) connections to remote machines. patch 2.7 The gnu version of the patch utility. patchutils 0.3.3 Patchutils is a small collection of programs that operate on patch files. patool 0.13 Patool is a command line archive file manager. pbzip2 1.1.6 Pbzip2 is a parallel implementation of the bzip2 compression program. pca 20130502.01 PCA Patch Check Advanced is a perl script that generates a list of installed and missing patches for Solaris systems and optionally downloads patches. pcnfsd 8211 Pcnfsd (PC)NFS authentication and print request server. pconsole 1 Pconsole is a administrative tool for working with clusters of machines. pcre 8.35 The PCRE library is a set of functions that implement regular expression pattern matching using the same syntax and semantics as Perl 5. pdftk 1.12 Pdftk is a tool for manipulating pdf documents in a variety of ways. pdlzip 1.5 Pdlzip is a lossless data compressor based on the LZMA algorithm with very safe integrity checking and a user interface similar to the one of gzip or bzip2. pdsh 2.26 Pdsh is a multithreaded remote shell client which executes commands on multiple remote hosts in parallel. pem 0.7.9 GNU Pem is a tool to help you keep track of your personal income and expenses. pen 0.22.1 Pen is a load balancer for simple tcp protocols such as http and sntp. perl 5.18.1 The Perl Language System. php 5.4.30 The PHP scripting language. pidentd 8211 Pidentd this daemon implements the ident protocol as specified in RFC1413. pidgin 2.5.5 Pidgin is a multi-protocol instant messaging client. pigz 2.2.5 Pigz which stands for Parallel Implementation of GZip is a fully functional replacement for gzip that exploits multiple processors and multiple cores when compressing data. pine 4.64 Pine a Program for Internet News and Email is a tool for reading sending and managing electronic messages. pinessl 4.64 Pine a Program for Internet News and Email is a tool for reading sending and managing electronic messages 8211 With SSL support. pinfo 0.6.10 Pinfo is a ncurses based lynx style info documentation browser. pingtunnel 0.72 Ptunnel is an application that allows you to reliably tunnel TCP connections to a remote host using ICMP echo request and reply packets commonly known as ping requests and replies. pipebench 0.40 Pipebench is used to measure the speed of stdinstdout communication. pixman 0.18.2 Pixman is a library that provides low-level pixel manipulation features. pkgconfig 0.28 pkg-config is a system for managing library compilelink flags that works with automake and autoconf. plotutils 2.6 The GNU plotutils package. plzip 1.1 Plzip is a massively parallel (multi-threaded) lossless data compressor based on the LZMA algorithm with very safe integrity checking and a user interface similar to the one of gzip or bzip2. pmacct 0.14.0 Pmacct is a small set of passive network monitoring tools. pngcrush 1.7.73 Pngcrush is an optimizer for png files. poppler 0.14.3 Poppler is a PDF rendering library based on xpdf. popt 1.16 The popt library is for parsing command line options. postfix 2.11.1 The Postfix mail system. postgresql 9.3.4 The postgresql database server. povray 8211 Persistence of Vision Raytracer system for three dimensional graphics. prll 0.6.2 A utility for parallelizing the execution of shell functions. prngd 0.9.25 PRNGD is a Pseudo Random Number Generator Daemon. procmail 3.22 The procmail and formail mail processing package can be used to create mail-servers mailing lists sort your incoming mail into separate foldersfiles preprocess your mail start any programs upon mail arrival or selectively forward certain incoming mail automatically to someone. proftpd 1.3.4b Proftpd is a highly configurable ftp server. proj 4.7.0 Proj.4 is a cartographic and datum shifting library. prwd 1.8 Prwd prints the absolute pathname of the current working directory to the standard output. pssh 2.3.1 Pssh provides parallel versions of OpenSSH and related tools. pstotext 1.9 Pstotext is used to extract text from PostScript. pstree 2.33 Pstree is a utility that shows running processes in tree form. psutils 1.17 PSUtils is a collection of useful utilities for manipulating PostScript documents. pth 2.0.7 GNU Pth The GNU Portable Threads. ptunnel 0.71 Ptunnel (PingTunnel) is an application that allows a user to reliably tunnel TCP connections to a remote host using ICMP echo request and reply packets. putty 0.60 PuTTY is an implementation of Telnet and SSH with an xterm terminal emulator. pv 1.3.1 Pv the pipe viewer is a terminal-based tool for monitoring the progress of data through a pipeline. pvm 8211 PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) is a portable message-passing programming system. pwgen 2.06 Pwgen is a small password generator which creates passwords that are easy to memorize. pycairo 1.4.0 Pycairo is a set of Python bindings for cairo. pycrypto 2.0.1 Pycrypto is a collection of cryptographic algorithms and protocols for Python. pydf 7 Pydf displays the amount of used and available space on your filesystem like df but in colors. pygments 1.1.1 Pygments is a generic syntax highlighter to prettify source code. pygobject 2.14.0 The python bindings for gobject (used with pygtk). pygtk 2.10.6 PyGTK provides a way to interface python with the GTK libraries. pylint 0.20.0 Pylint is a lint-like tool for Python code. pysqlite 2.4.0 Pysqlite is a Python DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite. python 3.1.2 The python language system. pythonldap 2.3.9 Python-ldap provides an object-oriented API to access LDAP directory servers from Python programs. qdbm 1.8.78 QDBM (Quick Database Manager) is a library of routines for managing a database. qmail 8211 The qmail mail system. qpopper 8211 Qualcomm version of popper the POP3 email server. qpopperssl 8211 Qualcomm version of popper the POP3 email server 8211 With SSL support. qt 3.3.4 This is a packaging of QtX11 application development environment from Trolltech. quotatool 1.4.12 Quotatool is a utility to set filesystem quotas from the command line. R 2.15.1 R is an environment for statistical computing and graphics. radius 8211 Radius Remote Authentication Dial In User Service daemon. rapidsvn 0.12.0.1 Rapidsvn is a GUI front end to subversion. rcs 5.9.1 rcs is the Revision Control System. rdesktop 1.8.1 Rdesktop is a client for Windows terminal servers. rdiffbackup 1.2.8 Rdiff-backup is used to backup up or mirror files and directories. It provides an alternative to rsync. rdup 1.1.5 Rdup provides a list of files to backup and the mechanisms to process them. re2c 0.13.5 Re2c is a tool for writing flexible lexical scanners. readline 6.3 readline lets users edit command lines as they are typed in. recode 8211 Recode recognizes or produces approximately 150 character sets and can convert almost any character set to almost any other. recutils 1.6 GNU recutils is a set of libraries and utilities supporting the Rec format: a human-readable text-based format to store small to medium sized databases. renameutils 0.12.0 The renameutils are a set of programs designed to make renaming files easier and faster. render 0.8 This package contains header files and documentation for the X render extension. renderproto 0.9.3 The renderproto package provides some files needed in the build of GTK related packages. replace 2.24 Replace is a substitute for the sed command. rlwrap 0.37 Rlwrap is a readline wrapper that uses the GNU readline library to allow the editing of keyboard input for any other command. rpm 8211 RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a powerful command line driven package management system capable of installing uninstalling verifying querying and updating software packages. rrdtool 1.4.2 RRD is system to store and display time-series data network bandwidth server load average etc. rssh 2.3.4 Rssh is a restricted shell fo use with openssh allowing only scp andor sftp. Support for rdist rsync and cvs are also available if you install them. rsync 3.1.0 Rsync is a replacement for rcp that has many more features. rsyslog 5.8.4 Rsyslog is an enhanced multi-threaded syslogd. rtext 0.9.9.4 Rtext is a programmer8217s text editor. ruby 1.9.2p0 Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. rush 1.7 GNU Rush is a restricted user shell. rxvt 2.7.10 Rxvt is a modified version of the X terminal emulator xvt. samba 3.6.4 The Samba software suite is a collection of programs that implements the SMB protocol for unix systems allowing you to serve files and printers to Windows NT OS2 and DOS clients Kerberos SSL and AIO support are added. sasl 2.1.26 This is the Cyrus SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) API implementation. It can be used on the client or server side to provide authentication and authorization services. sbcl 1.0.7 The Steel Bank Common Lisp system. sc 7.16 Sc is a curses-based spreadsheet program that uses key bindings similar to vi and less. scanssh 2.1 The scanssh protocol scanner scans a list of addresses and networks for running SSH protocol servers and their version numbers. schur 6.08 Schur is a program for interactively calculating properties of Lie groups and symmetric functions. scotty 8211 Scotty is the name of a software package which allows to implement site specific network management software using high-level string-based APIs. screen 4.0.3 Screen provides an ANSIvt100 terminal emulator which can multiplex up to 10 pseudo-terminals. scrub 2.5.2 Scrub writes patterns on special files or regular files to make retrieving the data more difficult. sdl 1.2.15 The Simple Directmedia Layer libraries. sdlmixer 1.2.11 The SDL simple multi-channel audio mixer headers and libraries. seccheck 0.7.6 Security checker for Solaris 10. sed 4.2.2 The GNU version of the sed utility. sendmail 8211 The sendmail mail program. serf 1.2.1 The serf library is a C-based HTTP client library built upon the Apache Portable Runtime (APR) library. setuptools 0.6c11 The python setuptools package. sgrep 1.94a Structured grep (sgrep) is a tool for searching and indexing text. sharitylight 1.3 Sharity-light is a client for the Lanmanger protocol. sharutils 4.13.5 GNU shar makes so-called shell archives out of many files preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services. shmux 1.0.2 Shmux is a program for executing the same command on many hosts in parallel. shush 1.2.3 Shush runs a command and optionally reports its output by email. shutils 8211 Sh-utils contains the GNU shell utilities. siege 3.0.6 Siege is an http load testing and benchmarking utility. slang 2.2.4 Slang contains the S-Lang Language libraries. slrn 1.0.1 Slrn is a Usenet client that supports both the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) and a news spool on the local filesystem. smake 1.2.2 Smake is Joerg Schilling8217s version of make. smpeg 0.4.5 Smpeg is an mpeg decoding library. snarf 7.0 Snarf is a command line resource grabber. It can transfer files through the http gopher finger and ftp protocols without user interaction. snort 2.9.4.5 Snort is a lightweight network intrusion detection system. snownews 1.5.12 Snownews is a text mode RSS newsreader. socat 1.7.2.4 Socat is a relay for bidirectional data transfer between two independent data channels. speex 1.0.5 Speex is an audio compression format designed for speech. spell 1.1 GNU Spell is a clone of standard Unix spell implemented as a wrapper to ispell. spfmilter 0.98gwh Sendmail includes a facility for plugging in custom mail filters called milters. splint 3.1.2 Splint is a tool for statically checking C programs for security vulnerabilities and coding mistakes. sqlite 3.7.13 SQLite is an embeddable SQL database engine. squid 2.7.STABLE9 The Squid Web Proxy Cache. srm 1.2.10 srm, a secure replacement for rm. ssldump 0.9b3 Ssldump is an SSLv3TLS network protocol analyzer. star 1.5.2 Star is Joerg Schilling8217s version of tar. stress 1.0.4 Stress is a workload generator for POSIX systems. stunnel 5.02 The stunnel program is designed to work as an SSL encryption wrapper between remote client and local (inetd-startable) or remote servers. subversion 1.8.3 Subversion is an alternative to the CVS version control system. sudo 1.8.10p2 Sudo (superuser do) allows a system administrator to give certain users (or groups of users) the ability to run some (or all) commands as root while logging all commands and arguments. sudosh3 3.2.0 Sudosh is a filter and can be used as a login shell. sudoldap 1.8.1p2 Sudo (superuser do) allows a system administrator to give certain users (or groups of users) the ability to run some (or all) commands as root while logging all commands and arguments 8211 With LDAP Support. sunclock 8211 Sunclock shows a map of the world with sunlight and darkness areas. surfraw 8211 Surfraw provides a fast unix command line interface to a variety of popular WWW search engines. swet 1.5.16 Swet is a sustained workload and efficiency test. swig 1.3.40 SWIG is a software development tool that connects programs written in C and C with a variety of high-level programming languages. SWIG is used with different types of languages including common scripting languages such as Perl PHP Python Tcl Ruby and PHP. switzerland 0.0.7 The switzerland network testing tool. synergy 1.3.1 Synergy lets you share a single mouse and keyboard between multiple computers with different operating systems each with its own display without special hardware. syslogng 3.2.4 Syslog-ng is a syslogd replacement but with new functionality. sysdiag 7.04 Sysdiag is a Solaris utility (ksh script) from Todd Jobson at Sun that can perform several functions among them system configuration snapshot and reporting (detailed or high-level) plus workload characterizationprofiling via performance data gathering (over some specified duration or time in point snapshot) high-level analysis and reporting of findingsexceptions (based upon perf thresholds that can be easily changed within the script header). t1lib 5.1.2 T1lib is a library written in C which implements functions for generating bitmaps from Adobe Type 1 fonts. tar 1.27.1 This is the GNU version of tar the archive creator. tardy 1.2 Tardy is a tar post-processor. tcl 8.6.0 Tcl the tool command language -. tclX 8211 tclX is extended Tcl a freely redistributable set of extensions to the Tool command language (Tcl). tcpdrop 1.4 Tcpdrop is a tool to drop tcp sessions. tcpdump 4.5.1 tcpdump is a tool for network monitoring and data acquisition. tcpflow 0.21 Tcpflow is a program that captures data transmitted as part of TCP connections (flows) and stores it in a way that is convenient for protocol analysis or debugging. tcpreplay 3.4.4 Tcpreplay is a tool to replay saved tcpdump files at arbitrary speeds. tcpslice 1.2a3 Tcpslice is a tool for extracting portions of packet trace files generated using tcpdump. tcpstat 1.5 Tcpstat reports certain network interface statistics. tcptraceroute 1.5beta7 tcptraceroute is a traceroute implementation using TCP packets. tcputils 0.6.2 Tcputils a collection of programs to facilitate TCP programming in shell-scripts. tcpwrappers 7.6 The tcpwrappers package allows you to monitor and filter incoming requests for the SYSTAT FINGER FTP TELNET RLOGIN RSH EXEC TFTP TALK and other network services. It provides tiny daemon wrapper programs. tcpwrappersIPV6 7.6 The tcpwrappers package allows you to monitor and filter incoming requests for the SYSTAT FINGER FTP TELNET RLOGIN RSH EXEC TFTP TALK and other network services. It provides tiny daemon wrapper programs. This is the IPV6 version. tcsh 6.18.01 tcsh is a version of the Berkeley C-Shell with additional functionality. tdlib 20131205 A library used by the ded package and other related tools. tdu 20080507 Tdu is a text-terminal program that displays disk space utilization in an interactive full-screen folding outline. ted 0.2.4 Ted is a light weight command line text editor designed for scripting. termcap 8211 The GNU termcap library is a library of C functions that enable programs to send control strings to terminals in a way independent of the terminal type. tetex 3 teTeX is a complete TeX distribution based on the web2c distribution. texi2html 8211 Texi2html is texi to html file conversion utility. texinfo 5.2 The texinfo documentation system. textutils 8211 The GNU textutils package includes GNU versions of the programs cat cksum comm csplit cut expand fmt fold head join md5sum nl od paste ptx pr sort split sum tac tail tr tsort unexpand uniq wc. The textutils programs are now included in the coreutils package. tftphpa 0.48 Tftp-hpa is an enchanced version of the BSD TFTP client and server. thttpd 2.25b thttpd is a simple small portable fast and secure HTTP server. Thunderbird 12 Mozilla8217s Email Client 8211 See our Mozilla download page. tidy 39344 HTML Tidy is used to clean up web pages. tiff 4.0.3 libtiff provides support for the Tag Image File Format (TIFF). tin 2.2.0 Tin is a Usenet newsreader. tk 8.6.0 Tk the X11 toolkit written in Tcl. tk800 8211 Tk800 is PerlTk a graphical user interface toolKit. tkdiff 4.2 Tkdiff is a graphical front end to the diff program. tkinfo 2.8 Tkinfo is a browser for info files. tmux 1.8 The tmux terminal multiplexer. tnef 1.4.9 Tnef provides a way to unpack Microsoft MS-TNEF MIME attachments. top 3.8.1 Top process analysis utility. traceroute 8211 The traceroute utility. transfig 8211 TransFig is a set of tools for creating TeX documents with graphics which are portable. tre 0.8.0 TRE is a posix compliant regexp matching library. tree 1.5.3 Tree is a utility to display a tree view of directories. trickle 1.06 Trickle is a userspace bandwidth shaper. ttywatcher 8211 TTYWatcher is a host security monitor with active countermeasures. txt2man 1.5.6 Txt2man converts flat ASCII text to man page format. ucspitcp 8211 Ucsp-tcp contains among other items the tcpserver and tcpclient programs which are easy-to-use command-line tools for building TCP client-server applications. unclutter 8 Unclutter hides the cursor in X windows when you don8217t need it. uncrustify 0.60 Uncrustify is a source code beautifier for C C and other languages. unisontext 2.27.57 The unison file synchronizer. units 2.11 GNU units8217 converts between different systems of units. unrar 4.2.4 unRAR is a utility to extract view and test RAR archives. unrtf 0.21.4 UnRTF is a command-line program which converts documents in Rich Text Format (.rtf) to HTML LaTeX troff macros. and RTF itself. unwindows 1.1.3 Unwindows contains the programs changesounds coloreyes dynamag and winsounds. unzip 6.0 Unzip decompression utility. uperf 1.0.2 uperf is a network performance tool that supports modelling and replay of various networking patterns. uriparser 0.6.0 Uriparser is a strictly RFC 3986 compliant URI parsing library. utf8proc 1.1.2 Utf8proc is a library for processing UTF-8 encoded Unicode strings. This package includes the C libraries only. utf8proc 1.1.5 Utf8proc is a library for processing UTF-8 encoded Unicode strings. This package includes the C libraries only. uucp 1.07 This is the Taylor implementation of uucp. uudeview 0.5.20 UUDeview is a smart decoder and an encoder for Base64 (MIME) uuencoded xxencoded and Binhex files. vdt 5.4.68 Vdt (Visual Disk Test) is diskfiledevice io test program with visual feedbackfollow-up. vice 1.22 The VICE emulator for certain old 8-bit computers. These include the C64 C128 VIC20 some PET models the PLUS4 and the CBM-II. vifm 0.4 Vifm is an ncurses based file manager with vi like keybindings. vile 9.8 Vile, the VI like Emacs editor. vim 7.4 Vim is an improved version of the editor vi. visprint 2.1 Visprint is a visual file fingerprint generator. vmsbackup 8211 This progam reads a VMS backuptape. vnc 8211 VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is in essence a remote display system which allows you to view a computing desktop environment not only on the machine where it is running but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. vsftpd 3.0.2 The vsftpd ftp server. watch 3.2.7 Watch runs a command repeatedly displaying its output in the first screenful. This allows you to watch the program output change over time. wcd 5.2.4 Wcd is a command line program to change directories quickly. wdiff 1.2.2 Wdiff is a front end to diff for comparing files on a word per word basis. webalizer 2.23.05 Webalizer is a web server log file analysis tool. weblint 8211 Weblint is a syntax and minimal style checker for HTML. wget 1.15 GNU Wget is a freely available network utility to retrieve files from the World Wide Web using HTTP and FTP. which 2.2 Which shows the path to a command. winefish 1.3.3 The winefish LaTeX editor. wireshark 1.8.4 Wireshark (formerly Ethereal) is a network protocol analyzer. workman 8211 Workman utility for playing audio CD8217s. wput 0.6.2 Wput is a command-line ftp-client similar to wget but uploads files or directories to remote ftp servers. wuftpd 8211 Wu-ftpd is a replacement ftp daemon for Unix systems. wxgtk 2.8.6 wxGTK is a version of wxWidgets for creating applications for GTK. x11vnc 0.9.9 x11vnc is a vnc server for X displays. It allows remote viewing and interaction with real X displays via keyboard and mouse. x3270 3.3.12 x3270 is an IBM 3270 terminal emulator for the X Window System. xanim 8211 XAnim(pronounced: eks-8217an-im) is a program for playing a wide variety of animation audio and video formats on unix X11 machine. xaw3d 1.5 Xaw3D is a set of 3-D widgets based on the R6.1R6.3R6.4 Athena Widget set. xbill 2.1 The xbill game. xbindkeys 1.8.3 This program grabs keys in X and starts the corresponding shell command. xboard 8211 Xboard is the game board program used by gnuchess. xchat 8211 Xchat an X windows chat tool. xchm 1.17 Xchm is a GUI front-end to chmlib. xcoral 8211 Xcoral is a multiwindow mouse-based text editor. xcpustate 2.9 Xcpustate is a snapshot performance monitor. xdelta 1.1.4 Xdelta is program designed to compute changes between binary files. These changes (deltas) are similar to the output of the. xdf 1.4.37 Xdf is a modified version of the df command. xdir 8211 LLNL xdir is an ftp client and provides a graphical user interface for drag-and-drop file transfer. xearth 8211 Xearth sets the X root window to an image of the Earth as seen from your favorite vantage point in space. xemacs 8211 XEmacs is a highly customizable open source text editor and application development system. xfig 3.2.4 The xfig drawing tool. xft 2.1.2 Xft is a library that connects X applications with the FreeType font rasterization library. xftp 8211 LLNL xftp is an ftp client and enables you to graphically transfer files and perform various directory manipulation commands both locally and remotely. xineramaproto 1.2 The xineramaproto headers for xorg. Used in the building of GTK. xinetd 2.3.14 xinetd is a secure replacement for inetd. xjobs 20120412 Xjobs reads job descriptions line by line and executes them in parallel. xkeycaps 8211 Xkeycaps is a graphical front-end to xmodmap. xli 8211 Xli is a graphicsl image viewer. xmemory 8211 The xmemory multiplayer memory game. xmessage 8211 Xmessage is a program that displays a window containing a message from the command line a fil or standard inpu. xmlparser 2.36 This is a build of the XML::Parser Perl module for parsing XML documents. xmlstarlet 1.4.2 XMLstarlet is a command line XML toolkit. xmms 8211 XMMS is a multimedia player based on the look of WinAmp. xorriso 1.0.8 Xorriso is a program which copies file objects from POSIX compliant filesystems into Rock Ridge enhanced ISO 9660 filesystems and allows session-wise manipulation of such filesystems. xosview 1.9.3 Xosview displays many system related stats such as cpu usage, memory usage, swap usage, network usage, interrupt activity, serial activity, and load average inside of an X Window. xpat2 8211 Xpat2 contains various solitaire games for X windows. xpdf 3.02 Xpdf is a viewer for Portable Document Format (PDF) files. xpm 3.4k The xpm graphics libraries. xrender 0.8.3 Xrender is an X rendering client library. xroach 8211 8220The xroach 82208221game8221 that puts crawling cockroaches in your root window8221. xtail 2.1 Xtail watches the growth of files. xterm 309 The xterm terminal emulation window. xtermcontrol 2.10 Xtermcontrol enables dynamic control of xterm properties. xv 8211 The XV image viewer. xxgdb 8211 The xxgdb front end to the gdb debugger. xz 5.0.5 The xz utils provide general purpose data compression programs with high compression ratio. yarbu 1.4.8 Yarbu (Yet Another Rsync Backup Utility) is an automatic backup utility. yasm The YASM modular assembler (x86 only). yaz 5.0.2 YAZ is a programmer.s toolkit for the development of Z39.50SRWSRU clients and servers. zebra 0.95 GNU Zebra manages TCPIP based routing protocols. zile 2.3.24 GNU Zile is a lightweight Emacs clone. zip 3.0 Zip compression utility. zlib 1.2.8 zlib compression libraries. zoo 2.10 The zoo archiver. zsh 5.0.2 The zsh shell program. zutils 1.0 Zutils is a collection of utilities for dealing with any combination of compressed and non-compressed files transparently. The supported compressors are bzip2 gzip lzip and xz. Some of these functions were moved from the lzip package Steven M. Christensen and Associates, Inc. 169 2017. Oracle, Java, Sun, Solaris, and OpenSolaris are registered trademarks of Oracle andor its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. This page was last updated on July 24, 2014 . ldquo rdquo. ,. 1971 MIT 1. , . , , , , . ,. ITS 2 ( ), (1) PDP -10 Digital, . ,,. ldquo rdquo, . ,. , - , , , . (1) ldquordquo ldquo rdquo mdash , . , , ldquo, , , , rdquo. . ldquo rdquo . XX , Digital PDP-10. , , , . , , ITS, . ,. 1981 Symbolics , ( ldquordquo , .) 1982 PDP-10, Digital ITS. , , VAX 68020, , : , . ,. . , , : ldquo , mdash . , rdquo. , mdash , , mdash , , , . , , , , , , , . ,,. ldquordquo ldquordquo ldquo rdquo, , , . ,. ,. ,,. ( , , , .) , , , , . , , mdash , , , , . , , ( ), . , , , , , . ,,. ,. , , . . , -. , , , , . ,,. , , , , , , . , , , - . ( , .) , mdash - . ,. , , , . , - . ,. , - . , , , . : mdash . ,. ,. mdash . ,,. . , , , . Unix, Unix . ldquoGNUrdquo ldquoGNU mdash Unixrdquo 3 . ,. XX , , , , , , , , . ITS, Multics, VMS, Unix. GNU. , (1): , , , GNU . (1) , , , - . ldquordquo ldquordquo ldquo rdquo mdash . . ,. , , : , , . . ( , , .) , . ,. ldquordquo , , . : , -, , mdash . , , , . ldquordquo , . , , , ldquordquo ldquordquo mdash ldquordquo. , ldquordquo, ldquordquo (ldquo rdquo) ldquordquo, , - . GNU GNU mdash . , , , . , TeX X Window , GNU. GNU mdash , GNU. GNU , GNU mdash , , , . 1984 MIT GNU. MIT , GNU . , , , . , , , mdash . ,,. GNU ldquo rdquo 4. VUCK. ( ldquordquo v .) , , , . , GNU . , , , mdash . , , GNU . ,. ,. ,,. Motorola 68000. , , , Unix 68000 64k. , , , ldquordquo, , . ,. GCC 5. , , . GNU Emacs. GNU Emacs 1984 , 1985 . Unix vi ed , . GNU Emacs, , . , ftp MIT, . ( , prep.ai.mit.edu, , , ftp GNU , ftp.) ftp. ,,. : ldquo , rdquo. , Emacs PDP-10 mdash : ldquo , Emacsrdquo. ,. , , , 150 . , , GNULinux. , , , , . , (, ) . , , , . X Window. MIT , . X Unix, , . X , Unix. X Window mdash , . , ldquordquo, ldquo rdquo. ,,. , ldquo rdquo , MIT, , X . X, , . X , Unix, . GNU GPL GNU , . , GNU . , , ldquo rdquo.(1) , , , , : , , . , , , mdash . , , ldquo rdquo, , . ,. , , , , . , , GNU, : ldquo , , rdquo. , , , . , X Window, , . X, . ,. . ,. , , . , : , , , . , GNU mdash GNU, GNU GPL. ,. GNU , , GNU GPL.(2) (1) 1984 1985 ( ) . , : ldquo mdash rdquo. ldquo rdquo , . Emacs , GNU , , . , 1985 (), , , . Emacs ( GNU, GNU), . (- , - , mdash ) ldquordquo (, ). -. . fsf.org . GNU. mdash . GNU mdash , , GNULinux, Linux. , -. , GNULinux mdash BASH 6. ldquo rdquo(1), . , GNU . ,. (1) ldquo rdquo mdash , ldquo rdquo mdash Unix . ,. ,. Emacs , . ,. ,,. , GNU Emacs, GCC ( mdash GCC ). . - , . ,,. mdash , ldquo rdquo, , . mdash , . ldquo rdquo. , : . , ldquo rdquo. GNU mdash . GNU Unix, mdash , mdash . mdash , , , 8- , . , Unix , 16- ( , 32- , GNU ), , . , , , , -. GNU Unix . , GNU , Unix. , GNU Unix . : , Unix. Unix ( ) , GNU, . , , , , , , . , - . Unix, . ,. GNU GNU - . ,. ldquo GNUrdquo. Unix , , , - . (1) ldquo GNUrdquo - Unix mdash , . , - ldquordquo. , , , . mdash . Unix , GNU , , . , , Unix. ,. (1) 1998 . 2009 . ,. mdash , . GNU GPL GNU , GNU (1), . ,. ( , ) LGPL mdash . . , , mdash . : GNU ( GNULinux) GNU mdash . GNU , GNU. , GNU, , GNU, . GPL mdash . . , , GPL, , , . GNU Readline, , , BASH. Readline GNU GPL, GPL. , , Readline, . , Readline, . ,. , , GPL, , . ,. (1) GNU, , . . ldquo GPL rdquo . , ldquo rdquo. , , GNU , . ,. , GNU, Unix , BASH mdash Unix , GNU tar mdash Unix tar. mdash GNU, GNU Emacs GNU Make. GNU , . , gzip, Compress, - LZW. Lesstif, GNOME 7 Harmony, , (. ). GNU Privacy Guard, , . , , , , . . GNU , GNU, . -. GNU Unix, Unix GNU. , mdash Unix, . , GNU. , , , GNU , . 1990 GNU . , Mach. Mach mdash , -, mdash GNU Hurd mdash (. . GNU 8 ), Mach Unix. , , Mach , . , , , : , . Mach, Hurd , GDB. , , , , , . Hurd . , GNU Hurd. ldquoAlixrdquo mdash , . , Unix, , Unix : ldquo- rdquo. , , ldquoAlixrdquo. . ( ) , , ldquoHurdrdquo Alix mdash , , Hurd. , Hurd , , Alix . , , ldquoAlixrdquo Hurd . ,,. Linux GNULinux GNU Hurd , , - . , , , , , . ,. 1991 Unix Linux. , 1992 Linux GNU . (, .) Linux - GNU. ldquoGNULinux rdquo, , GNU Linux . , , ldquoLinuxrdquo, - . ,,. ,. ,. ,. ,,. . . , , Linux XFree86 . , , . . ,,. , , , . mdash , mdash , mdash , . , , . ( 2008 : BIOS. BIOS, LibreBoot ( coreboot) , LibreBoot ldquordquo.) , , . mdash , , . ( , , . .) : , , , . Motif, . , , Motif . GNU : X, Motif, -, Motif. Lesstif, ldquo rdquo, , Motif, 1997 . 1996 1998 , Qt, , KDE . GNULinux KDE, . GNULinux, , KDE mdash , . KDE Qt, ldquo Linuxrdquo , - . . : GNOME Harmony. GNOME, GNU mdash GNU. 1997 Red Hat Software, GNOME , . , , , . :. Harmony mdash , , KDE Qt. 1998 Qt , , , Qt . , , , Qt , . ( , Qt.) : 2000 Qt GNU GPL, . ,. , , , . LZW 1983 , GIF. 2009 . 1998 MP3 . : , , . , , - , . , , , . . , , , , , , . , ldquordquo , - , . . , , mdash , . mdash , . . , , , . :. ( ) , , . . , , . , , , , . ,. , , mdash . ,,. , , . , , . , , ( , ). ,. ,. , , . ,. GNULinux, , Debian GNULinux Red Hat ldquoLinuxrdquo. ,. : , , , . , , , . ,,. , , , . : . , , . ldquo rdquo 1998 , ldquo rdquo ldquo rdquo. , , ldquordquo ldquordquo mdash . , GNU, , , , , . , ldquo rdquo , , . ldquoLinuxrdquo mdash : , GNULinux. Motif Qt, , . , , . ldquo rdquo ldquo rdquo ( ), , . GNU ldquo rdquo, , , . (ldquolsquorsquo rdquo) , . , , , , , . , , . , - . -. . ,. . , , , , , , mdash . , Microsoft . ,. ,. Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( ). Incompatible Timesharing System. GNUs Not Unix . Free University Compiler Kit ldquo rdquo. GNU Compiler Collection ( GNU). Bourne Again Shell . GNU Network Object Model Environment ( GNU). - ldquordquo (herd) , (Hurd). ldquo mdash , , , , , rdquo. , GNU ltgnugnu.orggt. . ltwebmastersgnu.orggt . ,. , , ltweb-translatorsgnu.orggt. . ldquo rdquo . Copyright copy 1998, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2014, 2015 Richard Stallman Copyright copy 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc. (translation) Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs ( mdash ) 4.0 . . , gnu.org . : Date: 20151201 07:32:22
Multilateral-trading-system-pdf
Urban-forex-review