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Pilih mode tampilan pilihan Anda Silakan pilih apakah Anda ingin melihat halaman MDPI dengan tampilan yang disesuaikan untuk display ponsel atau untuk melihat halaman MDPI dalam versi desktop biasa yang dapat digulir. Pilihan ini akan disimpan ke dalam cookie Anda dan digunakan secara otomatis pada kunjungan berikutnya. Anda juga dapat mengubah gaya tampilan pada setiap titik dari header utama saat menggunakan halaman dengan perangkat mobile Anda. Anda tampaknya memiliki javascript dinonaktifkan. Harap dicatat bahwa banyak fungsionalitas halaman tidak berfungsi seperti yang diharapkan tanpa javascript diaktifkan. MDPI mdash Hidrologi Journal Menu E-Mail Alert Jurnal Browser Recent Articles Buku Terbaru Hydrology Open Access Journal Hidrologi (ISSN 2306-5338) adalah jurnal hidrologi akses terbuka internasional yang diterbitkan secara triwulanan secara online oleh MDPI. Open Access - gratis bagi pembaca, terbitan gratis untuk manuskrip yang dipersiapkan dengan baik yang diajukan pada tahun 2017. Publikasi yang cepat: manuskrip ditinjau ulang dan keputusan pertama diberikan kepada penulis sekitar 34 hari setelah diterimanya penerimaan publikasi dilakukan dalam 9 hari (nilai median untuk Makalah yang diterbitkan dalam jurnal ini pada tahun 2016). Artikel Terbaru Fitur Kertas Akses Terbuka Di negara-negara Nordik, tingkat erosi tanah di musim dingin dan awal musim semi dapat melebihi yang terjadi pada waktu lain dalam setahun. Secara khusus, pencairan salju, dikombinasikan dengan hujan dan embun beku, menyebabkan erosi tanah yang parah, bahkan, mis. Di daerah berisiko rendah di Norwegia. Di negara-negara Nordik, tingkat erosi tanah di musim dingin dan awal musim semi dapat melebihi pada waktu lain dalam setahun. Secara khusus, pencairan salju, dikombinasikan dengan hujan dan embun beku, menyebabkan erosi tanah yang parah, bahkan, mis. Di daerah berisiko rendah di Norwegia. Di Norwegia selatan, usaha-usaha sebelumnya untuk memprediksi erosi tanah selama musim dingin dan musim semi belum begitu akurat karena kurangnya data berbasis tangkapan air, yang menghasilkan pemahaman buruk tentang proses hidrologi selama musim dingin. Oleh karena itu, studi lapangan dilakukan selama tiga musim berturut-turut (2013, 2014 dan 2015) untuk mengumpulkan data yang relevan. Secara paralel, pengembangan tutupan salju, suhu tanah dan kandungan es selama tiga musim dingin ini disimulasikan dengan model Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) untuk dua tanah berbeda (pasir, tanah liat). Pengamatan lapangan yang dilakukan di musim dingin menunjukkan kompleksitas dan keragaman yang tinggi dalam proses hidrologi yang terjadi di daerah tangkapan air. Erosi tanah yang besar disebabkan oleh kejadian hujan kecil di atas tanah beku sebelum tutupan salju terbentuk, sementara snowmelt tidak memainkan peran penting dalam hal erosi tanah pada masa penelitian. Empat faktor yang menentukan tingkat limpasan dan erosi sangat penting: (1) kandungan air tanah pada pembekuan (2) apakah tanah dibekukan atau tidak dicairkan pada saat tertentu (3) keadaan paket salju dan (4) pengolahan tanah Praktek sebelum musim dingin SHAW tampil dengan baik dalam aplikasi ini dan membuktikan bahwa ini adalah alat yang berharga untuk menyelidiki dan mensimulasikan pengembangan tutupan salju, suhu tanah dan tingkat pembekuan dalam profil tanah. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Studi ini menganalisis dampak perubahan iklim terhadap beberapa karakteristik curah hujan di DAS Mekrou pada abad kedua puluh satu. Untuk tujuan ini, ansambel multi model berdasarkan eksperimen model iklim regional yang mempertimbangkan dua Konsentrasi Konsentrasi Perwakilan (RCP4.5 dan RCP8.5) digunakan. Studi ini menganalisis dampak perubahan iklim terhadap beberapa karakteristik curah hujan di DAS Mekrou pada abad kedua puluh satu. Untuk tujuan ini, ansambel multi model berdasarkan eksperimen model iklim regional yang mempertimbangkan dua Konsentrasi Konsentrasi Perwakilan (RCP4.5 dan RCP8.5) digunakan. Hasilnya menunjukkan tingkat ketidakpastian curah hujan yang lebih luas (kira-kira antara 10 dan 10), penurunan jumlah hari basah (sekitar 10), meningkat (sekitar 10) dari total intensitas curah hujan untuk hari-hari yang sangat basah, dan perubahan pada Panjang periode mantra kering, serta onset dan akhir musim hujan. Jumlah curah hujan maksimum 24 jam berturut-turut, 48 jam dan 72 jam akan mengalami peningkatan sekitar 50 periode referensi. Perubahan tingkat ini dibandingkan dengan periode referensi dapat menyebabkan eksaserbasi kejadian ekstrem (kekeringan dan banjir) di cekungan Mekrou, terutama pada akhir abad ini dan di bawah skenario RCP8.5. Untuk mengatasi tantangan yang ditimbulkan oleh proyeksi perubahan iklim untuk DAS Mekrou, diperlukan kebijakan pemerintah yang kuat untuk membantu merancang opsi tanggapan. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Makalah ini membahas potensi penggunaan dataset reanalisis global sebagai masukan untuk pemodelan hidrologi di wilayah Sudano-Sahel yang langka data. Untuk mencapai hal ini, kami menggunakan dua analisis reasalisis atmosfir global (Reanalisis Sistem Peramalan Iklim dan Pusat Eropa untuk Predema Prakiraan Moda Jangka Menengah (ECMWF) ERA-Interim) Makalah ini menyelidiki potensi penggunaan dataset reanalisis global sebagai masukan untuk pemodelan hidrologi dalam data. -scarce wilayah Sudano-Sahel. Untuk mencapai hal ini, kami menggunakan dua analisis reasali atmosfer global (Metodologi Peramalan Sistem Peramalan Iklim dan Pusat Eropa untuk Predema Prakiraan Cuaca Rentang Medium Range (ECMWF) ERA-Interim) dan satu meteorologi global yang memaksa dataset Metodologi WATCH Forcing Data diterapkan pada ERA-Interim (WFDEI) . Dataset ini digunakan untuk menggerakkan Alat Penilaian Tanah dan Air (SWAT) di daerah tangkapan Logone di cekungan Danau Chad. Indikator kinerja model setelah kalibrasi menunjukkan bahwa, pada waktu harian dan bulanan, hanya WFDEI yang menghasilkan nilai Nash Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) dan Coefficient of Determination (R 2) di atas 0,50. Meski kinerjanya kurang baik dibanding WFDEI, CFSR tampil lebih baik dibanding ERA-Interim. Analisis ketidakpastian model setelah kalibrasi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari 60 dari semua nilai arus teramati harian dan bulanan diamati di semua stasiun hidrometri dikelompokkan dalam kisaran ketidakpastian prediksi 95 (95PPU) untuk semua dataset. Hasil dari penelitian ini juga menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan dalam perkiraan evapotranspirasi aktual simulasi dari dataset. Hasil keseluruhan menunjukkan bahwa bias WFDEI yang dikoreksi mengungguli dua dataset reanalisis sementara CFSR tampil lebih baik daripada ERA-Interim. Kami menyimpulkan bahwa, dengan tidak adanya data hidro-meteorologi yang diukur, WFDEI dan CFSR dapat digunakan untuk pemodelan hidrologi di daerah yang jarang data seperti daerah Sudano-Sahel. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Studi ini berfokus pada rembesan uranium dari bendungan tailing yang tidak bergaris menjadi akuifer aluvial di dataran banjir Sungai Gawib di Namibia dimana wilayah ini semata-mata bergantung pada air tanah untuk aktivitas ekonominya sebagai akibat kondisi iklim yang gersang. Studi ini difokuskan pada rembesan uranium dari bendungan tailing yang tidak bergaris ke dalam akuifer aluvial di dataran banjir Sungai Gawib di Namibia dimana wilayah ini semata-mata bergantung pada air tanah untuk aktivitas ekonominya sebagai akibat kondisi iklim yang gersang. Studi ini meninjau karya-karya sebelumnya selain pengumpulan dan analisis sampel air untuk ion-ion utama, logam dan isotop lingkungan disamping uji lapangan terhadap parameter fisiko-kimia (pH, Konduktivitas Listrik, Redoks dan T). Estimasi kecepatan rembesan (true velocity of groundwater flow) telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat transport aerobik radioaktif. Hidrokimia, isotop stabil dan hasil tritium menunjukkan bahwa ada kontaminasi uranium dari tailing uranium yang tidak bergaris pada sistem akuifer dangkal Gawib yang menunjukkan permeabilitas tinggi dari akuifer aluvial yang memfasilitasi aliran airtanah di wilayah gersang. Kontaminan radioaktif dapat menyebar ke sistem akuifer lebih dalam melalui struktur utama seperti persendian dan kesalahan. Cawan kontaminasi juga bisa menyebar ke hilir ke Sungai Swakop kecuali jika ada intervensi serius. Ada juga risiko yang sangat tinggi dari membanggakan untuk mencapai Samudera Atlantik melalui banjir bandang musiman yang terjadi di daerah tersebut. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Pertumbuhan dan penyebaran permukaan yang tidak rata dalam urbanisasi daerah tangkapan air menimbulkan ancaman yang signifikan terhadap kualitas lingkungan alami dan built-up. Permukaan yang tidak rata mencegah infiltrasi air ke dalam tanah, sehingga menghasilkan runoff yang meningkat. Cekungan Erbil dipilih karena tahan pertumbuhan dan penyebaran permukaan yang tidak rata dalam urbanisasi daerah tangkapan air menimbulkan ancaman yang signifikan terhadap kualitas lingkungan alami dan built-up. Permukaan yang tidak rata mencegah infiltrasi air ke dalam tanah, sehingga menghasilkan runoff yang meningkat. Cekungan Erbil dipilih karena penutup tahan air meningkat dengan cepat dan mempengaruhi kondisi hidrologi daerah aliran sungai. Tujuan keseluruhan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji dampak pertumbuhan perkotaan dan perubahan lainnya dalam penggunaan lahan terhadap respons limpasan selama periode studi 1984 sampai 2014. Penelitian ini menjelaskan tanggapan hidrologi jangka panjang di daerah tangkapan air yang berkembang pesat di kota Erbil, Di Wilayah Kurdistan Irak. Data dari enam stasiun curah hujan di dan sekitar lembah Erbil digunakan. Model Ketinggian Digital (DEM) juga digunakan untuk mengekstrak distribusi jaringan drainase. Tingkat historis pertumbuhan perkotaan dan daerah tahan air yang sesuai, serta perubahan tutupan lahan lahan dipetakan dari tahun 1984 sampai 2014 dengan menggunakan citra satelit temporal (Landsat) untuk menentukan perubahan tutupan lahan lahan. Land useland cover dikombinasikan dengan model hidrologi (SCS-CN) untuk memperkirakan volume limpasan dari daerah aliran sungai. Studi tersebut menunjukkan bahwa urbanisasi daerah aliran sungai telah meningkatkan tutupan lahan tahan lama sebesar 71 untuk periode 1984 sampai 2004 dan 51 dari tahun 2004 sampai 2014. Volume limpasannya lebih tinggi pada tahun 2014 dibandingkan dengan tahun 1984 karena peningkatan Luas permukaan yang tidak menentu ini disebabkan oleh pertumbuhan perkotaan. Studi ini juga menunjukkan bahwa kemiringan DAS di sub-DAS Erbil harus diperhitungkan dalam estimasi limpasan permukaan karena bagian hulu DAS memiliki gradien tinggi dan tanahnya hampir tandus dengan vegetasi yang sangat sedikit menutupi penyebab ini. Sebuah peningkatan kecepatan arus dan meningkatkan risiko banjir di kota Erbil. Artikel lengkap Metode Open Access Article disajikan untuk menganalisis interaksi antara air tanah dan Danau Linlithgow (Australia) sebagai studi kasus. Pendekatan sederhana berdasarkan ldquonoderdquo yang mewakili komponen air tanah digunakan dalam spreadsheet pemodelan keseimbangan air untuk menganalisis dan menyoroti metode efek yang disajikan untuk menganalisis interaksi antara air tanah dan Danau Linlithgow (Australia) sebagai studi kasus. Pendekatan sederhana berdasarkan simpul yang mewakili komponen air tanah digunakan dalam spreadsheet pemodelan keseimbangan air untuk menganalisis dan menyoroti pengaruh air tanah pada tingkat danau dari waktu ke waktu. Perbandingan dilakukan antara tingkat danau yang disimulasikan dan diamati selama periode waktu dengan menyalakan dan mematikan simpul air tanah. Model bucket diasumsikan mewakili perilaku danau. Meskipun studi ini menunjukkan pemahaman tentang sistem air tanah Danau Linlithgows, model saat ini mencerminkan pemahaman kontemporer tentang sistem air tanah setempat, menggambarkan bagaimana cara memodelkan data di lingkungan yang langka, dan menyediakan sarana untuk menilai area fokus pengumpulan data di masa depan dan Perbaikan model. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan ini mudah untuk mendapatkan informasi langsung tentang pengaruh air tanah pada lahan basah atau danau melalui perhitungan anggaran air danau melalui sebuah simpul yang mewakili komponen air tanah. Metode ini dapat digunakan di mana saja dan penerapan metode semacam itu berguna untuk menerapkan mekanisme adaptasi yang relevan untuk pengelolaan sumber daya air di masa depan, mengurangi kerentanan dan meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap perubahan iklim di dalam lembah danau. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Makalah ini menyajikan penilaian penerapan data kelembaban tanah yang diturunkan dari RADARSAT-2 pada Sistem Pemodelan Hidrologi yang dikembangkan oleh Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-HMS) untuk peramalan banjir dengan studi kasus di Sturgeon Creek DAS di Manitoba, Kanada. Spring flooding Makalah ini menyajikan penilaian penerapan data kelembaban tanah yang diturunkan dari RADARSAT-2 dalam Sistem Pemodelan Hidrologi yang dikembangkan oleh Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-HMS) untuk peramalan banjir dengan studi kasus di DAS Sturgeon Creek di Manitoba. , Kanada. Banjir musim semi di Manitoba umumnya dipengaruhi oleh curah hujan musim dingin dan kondisi kelembaban tanah pada musim gugur tahun sebelumnya. Akibatnya, perhitungan kelembaban tanah (SMA) dan algoritma indeks suhu digunakan dalam simulasi. Hasil dari simulasi berkesinambungan dan simulasi HEC-HMS menunjukkan bahwa model ini cocok untuk peramalan banjir di Manitoba. Data kelembaban tanah dari survei lapangan Pertanian Manitoba dan satelit RADARSAT-2 digunakan untuk mengatur kelembaban tanah awal untuk simulasi acara. Hasilnya mengkonfirmasi manfaat penggunaan data satelit dalam menangkap arus puncak dalam acara snowmelt. Analisis sensitivitas parameter SMA, seperti penyimpanan tanah, infiltrasi maksimum, perkolasi tanah, penyimpanan kanopi maksimum dan penyimpanan tegangan, dilakukan dan diberi peringkat untuk menentukan parameter mana yang memiliki dampak signifikan terhadap kinerja model. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa penyimpanan kelembaban tanah merupakan parameter yang paling sensitif. Analisis sensitivitas kelembaban tanah awal pada acara snowmelt menunjukkan bahwa aliran kumulatif dan arus puncak sangat dipengaruhi oleh pengaturan kelembaban tanah awal dari model. Oleh karena itu, ada potensi untuk memanfaatkan kelembaban tanah yang diturunkan RADARSAT-2 untuk pemodelan hidrologi di daerah aliran sungai Manitoba yang didominasi salju lainnya. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Makalah ini menyajikan solusi dari persamaan diferensial parsial parsial (fPDE) untuk menganalisis pergerakan air di tanah. FPDE menjelaskan proses yang setara dengan konsep derivat pecahan simetris (SFD) yang memiliki dua komponen: turunan turunan ke depan (FFD) dan derivatif pecahan ke belakang Makalah ini menyajikan solusi dari persamaan diferensial fraksional parsial (fPDE) untuk menganalisis pergerakan air di tanah . FPDE menjelaskan proses yang setara dengan konsep derivat pecahan simetris (SFD) yang memiliki dua komponen: turunan turunan ke depan (FFD) dan turunan turunan (BFD) pergerakan air di tanah dengan BFD yang mewakili efek air laut skala mikro di Media berpori Ruang waktu terdistribusi fPDE mewakili pergerakan air di tanah pembengkakan dan pembengkakan yang tidak bergerak dengan zona bergerak dan tidak bergerak dengan efek backwater yang beroperasi pada dua skala waktu dalam pori-pori besar dan kecil. Konsep hubungan fluks-konsentrasi sekarang diperbaharui untuk memperhitungkan fluks fraksional relatif pergerakan air di tanah. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Banjir puing yang merusak terjadi antara 19 dan 21 Juni 2013 di Cougar Creek, terletak di Canmore, Alberta. Penggemar Cougar Creek kemungkinan adalah penggemar aluvial yang paling padat di Kanada. Sementara tidak ada nyawa yang hilang, acara tersebut menghasilkan sekitar 40 M Banjir yang merusak terjadi antara 19 dan 21 Juni 2013 di Cougar Creek, yang terletak di Canmore, Alberta. Penggemar Cougar Creek kemungkinan adalah penggemar aluvial yang paling padat di Kanada. Meskipun tidak ada nyawa yang hilang, kejadian tersebut mengakibatkan kerusakan sekitar 40 M dan menutup jalur Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1) dan jalur Kereta Api Pasifik Kanada selama beberapa hari. Banjir puing-puing tersebut memicu penilaian bahaya komprehensif yang menjadi fokus makalah ini. Frekuensi banjir dan besaran puing-puing ditentukan dengan menggabungkan beberapa metode kuantitatif termasuk fotogrametri, dendrochronologi, penanggalan radiometrik, uji pit logging, hubungan empiris antara volume curah hujan dan volume sedimen, dan ledakan dahsyat yang mengancam pemodelan banjir. Analisis data menunjukkan bahwa tiga jenis proses yang berbeda beraksi di daerah aliran sungai. Proses yang paling sering adalah banjir normal atau clearwater. Yang kurang sering tapi yang lebih merusak adalah puing-puing banjir di mana beban bedload yang berlebihan diangkut pada kipas angin, biasanya terkait dengan erosi bank yang cepat dan ekstensif dan penyaluran dan pelebaran saluran. Proses ketiga dan paling merusak ditafsirkan sebagai wabah wabah longsor. Jenis acara ini diperkirakan terjadi pada periode pengembalian melebihi 300 tahun. Dengan menggunakan teknik frekuensi magnitudo kumulatif, data untuk banjir debris konvensional diplot hingga periode pengembalian 100300s tahun. Pendekatan peak-over-threshold digunakan untuk wabah longsor wabah longsor yang terjadi pada periode pengembalian melebihi 300 tahun, karena tidak semua kejadian tersebut diidentifikasi selama pengujian penggalian. Hidrograf untuk 6 kelas periode kembali didekati dengan menggunakan perkiraan debit puncak dan menyesuaikan bentuk hidrograf untuk mengintegrasikan ke volume puing-puing banjir sebagaimana ditentukan dari hubungan frekuensi-besaran. Volume kipas dihitung dan dibandingkan dengan kurva magnitudo frekuensi terintegrasi untuk memeriksa keabsahan yang terakhir. Pencocokan yang masuk akal tercapai, memverifikasi keseluruhan hubungan. Temuan dari penelitian ini kemudian digunakan sebagai masukan untuk penilaian risiko yang berusaha mengukur risiko kehilangan nyawa dan kerugian ekonomi. Penilaian risiko kemudian membentuk dasar untuk merancang struktur mitigasi banjir puing. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Kami menilai kesalahan yang dihasilkan dengan mempertimbangkan suhu sebagai pelacak konservatif dalam studi fluviokarst. Perpindahan panas yang terjadi antara Sistem Conduit karstik (CS) dan Matous Fractured Matrix (PFM) adalah alasan mengapa seseorang harus berhati-hati dalam membuat asumsi ini tanpa kehati-hatian. Kami menilai kesalahan yang dihasilkan dengan mempertimbangkan suhu sebagai pelacak konservatif dalam studi fluviokarst. Perpindahan panas yang terjadi antara Sistem Conduit karstik (CS) dan Matous Fractured Matrix (PFM) adalah alasan mengapa seseorang harus berhati-hati dalam membuat asumsi ini tanpa kehati-hatian. Kami menganggap akuifer karstik sebagai Sistem Termodinamika Terbuka (OTS), yang batasnya dapat dimasuki dengan energi panas dan air. Prinsip pertama termodinamika memungkinkan mempertimbangkan keseimbangan entalpi antara arus input dan output. Dikombinasikan dengan persamaan kontinuitas, ini mengarah pada sistem dua persamaan yang melibatkan arus dan suhu. Kondisi mantap didekati selama masa resesi atau selama fase tertentu percobaan uji pemompaan. Setelah studi teoritis tentang kesalahan yang disebabkan oleh asumsi konservatif di karst, kami telah menerapkan metode ini untuk meninjau kembali data yang dikumpulkan selama kampanye pemompaan yang lengkap. Metode yang dibatasi pada data yang dipilih memungkinkan pengambilan nilai aliran dasar, pencampuran aliran, intrusi aliran, dan akifer jawaban terhadap penarikan. Penerapan metode ini telah dinilai dalam hal propagasi fluktuasi temporal melalui pemecahan tetapi juga dalam hal asumsi konservatif itu sendiri. Hasil kami memungkinkan pengambilan sifat hidrologi utama karst seperti yang diamati di lapangan (sampel volumetrik berjangka waktu, analisis geokimia, uji pemompaan arus dan intrusi aliran alogenik). Konsistensi ini mendukung penerapan metode suhu konservatif untuk menyelidiki sistem fluviokarst dalam kondisi terkendali. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Mengingat implikasi ekologi yang meluas yang menyertai perubahan yang signifikan dalam permintaan evaporatif atmosfer, penelitian ini menyelidiki variasi spasial dan temporal dalam beberapa ekspresi penguapan potensial (PE) yang diterima. Studi ini berfokus pada kawasan hutan di Amerika Utara, dengan 1 Mengingat implikasi ekologi yang meluas yang menyertai perubahan yang signifikan dalam permintaan evaporatif atmosfer, penelitian ini menyelidiki variasi spasial dan temporal dalam beberapa ekspresi penguapan potensial (PE) yang diterima. Studi ini berfokus pada kawasan hutan di Amerika Utara, dengan cakupan spasial 1 km dan langkah waktu bulanan, dari tahun 19512014. Kami menganggap model Penmans (E Pen), model PriestleyTaylor (E PT), tingkat referensi berdasarkan model PenmanMonteith Untuk padang rumput (E RG), dan tingkat referensi untuk hutan yang digabungkan dengan cukup (E RFu) dan digabungkan dengan baik (E RFc) ke atmosfer. Untuk memberi konteks pada model, kami juga mempertimbangkan kesesuaian statistik (E PanFit) terhadap pengukuran penguapan pan (Pan Panap). Kami mendokumentasikan bagaimana masing-masing model dibandingkan dengan E Pan. Perbedaan atribusi varians pada PE terhadap faktor pendorong tertentu, pola spasial rata-rata, dan tren waktu dari tahun 19512014. Model tidak setuju secara kuat pada kepekaan terhadap driver yang mendasarinya, variasi zonal PE, atau pada besarnya tren dari tahun 19512014. Sensitivitas Defisit tekanan uap (D a) berbeda antar model, tidak ada dari E PT dan terkuat di E RFc. Tren waktu pada tingkat referensi yang berasal dari persamaan PenmanMonteith sangat sensitif terhadap bagaimana konduktansi aerodinamis ditetapkan. Sejauh E PanFit secara akurat mencerminkan kepekaan PE ke D di atas permukaan tanah, tren masa depan PE berdasarkan model PriestleyTaylor mungkin meremehkan permintaan evaporatif yang meningkat, sementara tingkat referensi untuk hutan, yang mengasumsikan kopling atmosfer kanopi yang kuat di PenmanMonteith Model, mungkin melebih-lebihkan meningkatkan permintaan evaporatif. Database historis yang dihasilkan, yang mencakup spektrum model PE yang berbeda yang diterapkan dalam studi modern, dapat berfungsi untuk menyelidiki lebih lanjut hubungan biosfer-hidroklimat di seluruh Amerika Utara. Full article Revisi Editorial Akses Terbuka untuk Pengkaji Hidrologi pada tahun 2016 Abstrak Editor Hidrologi ingin mengucapkan terima kasih yang tulus kepada pengulas berikut untuk menilai manuskrip pada tahun 2016. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Permukaan kerak, yang dibentuk oleh dampak hujan, menurunkan Struktur permukaan tanah menyebabkan perubahan porositas. Percobaan dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pembentukan lapisan kerak pada porositas (persentase luas, bentuk dan ukuran) kerak Permukaan, yang dibentuk oleh dampak hujan, menurunkan struktur permukaan tanah yang menyebabkan perubahan porositas. Percobaan dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pembentukan lapisan kerak pada porositas (persentase luas, bentuk dan ukuran) Haplic Acrisol di bawah tiga sistem persiapan lahan, dan simulasi curah hujan. Sistem pengolahan tanah adalah: pengolahan tanah konvensional (CT), pengolahan tanah yang dikurangi (RT) dan no-upage (NT). Setiap sistem pengolahan tanah diajukan ke berbagai tingkat curah hujan simulasi (0, 27, 54 dan 80 mm) pada intensitas 80 mmh 1. Sampel tanah yang tidak terganggu dikumpulkan dan resin diresapi untuk analisis citra dalam dua lapisan: lapisan 1 (01 cm) Dan lapisan 2 (12 cm). Analisis citra digunakan untuk mendapatkan persentase daerah pori, bentuk dan ukuran pori. Degradasi permukaan tanah dan perubahan porositas, yang disebabkan oleh curah hujan, terjadi secara berbeda pada sistem pengolahan lahan. Pada sistem CT dan RT, perubahan pori yang paling menonjol yang disebabkan oleh curah hujan terjadi pada lapisan 1, namun pada sistem NT, perubahan ini terjadi pada lapisan 2. Curah hujan menyebabkan perubahan persentase luas pori pada sistem CT dan RT, dengan reduksi Kompleks dan peningkatan pori-pori bulat. Sistem PB menunjukkan kemunculan pori-pori bulat yang lebih besar (vesikula), yang berasal dari proses pembasahan di bawah penutup residu, dan dengan periode pembasahan dan pengeringan yang bergantian. Dalam penelitian ini, perubahan porositas dikaitkan dengan dua faktor utama: (1) pengaruh tetesan hujan langsung pada permukaan tanah (untuk sistem pengolahan tanah CT dan RT) dan (2) proses pemindahan air di permukaan tanah (untuk Sistem NT). Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Pabrik pembangkit listrik tenaga air Bui memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan sosio-ekonomi Ghana. Makalah ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi efek gabungan perubahan tutupan lahan akibat penggunaan lahan terhadap produksi listrik dengan menggunakan model (WEAP): Sistem Evaluasi dan Perencanaan Air. Analisis historis Pabrik pembangkit listrik tenaga air Bui memainkan peran penting dalam pengembangan sosio-ekonomi Ghana. Makalah ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi efek gabungan perubahan tutupan lahan akibat penggunaan lahan terhadap produksi listrik dengan menggunakan model (WEAP): Sistem Evaluasi dan Perencanaan Air. Analisis historis variabilitas curah hujan dan aliran sungai menunjukkan bahwa koefisien variasi variasi curah hujan dan aliran arus masing-masing adalah 8,6 dan 60,85. Aliran sungai sangat bervariasi dibanding curah hujan, karena perubahan tutupan lahan menggunakan lahan (LULC). Sebenarnya, analisis LULC menunjukkan adanya perubahan penting pada daerah vegetatif dan badan air. Evaluasi model WEAP menunjukkan bahwa efek gabungan dari LULC dan perubahan iklim mengurangi ketersediaan air untuk semua sektor permintaan, termasuk pembangkit tenaga air di pembangkit listrik tenaga air Bui. Namun, diproyeksikan bahwa produksi daya Bui akan meningkat masing-masing 40,7 dan 24,93, di bawah kondisi basah dan adaptasi, dan masing-masing mengalami penurunan pada kondisi kering dan arus. Kondisi basah tersebut diartikan sebagai kenaikan curah hujan pada 14, kondisi kering karena penurunan curah hujan sebesar 15 current account adalah bisnis seperti biasa, dan adaptasinya adalah sebagai penggunaan air yang efisien untuk periode 20122040. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Tanah irigasi menyumbang 70 penggunaan air global dan 30 produksi pertanian global. Empat puluh persen air ini berasal dari air tanah. Sekitar 20ndash30 dari sumber air tanah adalah garam dan 20ndash50 air irigasi global disirami. Salinisasi mengurangi lahan lahan irigasi untuk 70 penggunaan air global dan 30 produksi pertanian global. Empat puluh persen air ini berasal dari air tanah. Sekitar 2030 sumber air tanah adalah garam dan 2050 air irigasi global disiram. Salinisasi mengurangi hasil panen dan jumlah varietas tanaman yang dapat ditanam pada induk yang dapat ditanami. Zellin terstruktur (zero valent iron, pelet Fe 0 desalinate water dengan menyimpan ion yang terhapus sebagai halite (NaCl) di dalam porositasnya. Hal ini memungkinkan Zona Pengobatan Akifer dibuat dalam akuifer, (ditembus oleh sejumlah sumur (mengandung pelet ZVI ) Zona ini digunakan untuk memasok air yang sebagian terputus secara langsung dari akuifer garam. Iifer yang dikonfigurasikan dengan model yang menghasilkan aliran terus menerus (misalnya 20 m 3 hari, 7300 m 3 a) air irigasi yang sebagian didesalinasi digunakan untuk menggambarkan dampak dari Porositas, permeabilitas, heterogenitas akuifer, tingkat abstraksi, ukuran Zona Aquifer Treatment, ketebalan akuifer, injeksi ulang opsional, kebocoran dan aliran by-pass pada kadar air air. Pendekatan desalinasi ini tidak memiliki biaya operasi (selain biaya abstraksi (dan regenerasi ZVI) ) Dan berpotensi dapat memberikan aliran terus menerus dari air yang sebagian terputus (pengurangan 3080 NaCl) untuk 0,050,5 m 3. Artikel lengkap Artikel Akses Terbuka Danau Nokoueacute adalah komp Ekosistem lex, pemahaman yang membutuhkan kontrol terhadap proses fisik yang telah terjadi. Untuk ini, model hidrodinamika Permukaan Air Modeling (SMS) dikalibrasi dan divalidasi pada data kedalaman air. Hasil simulasi ini menunjukkan Danau Nokou merupakan ekosistem yang kompleks, yang pemahamannya membutuhkan kontrol terhadap proses fisik yang telah terjadi. Untuk ini, model hidrodinamika Permukaan Air Modeling (SMS) dikalibrasi dan divalidasi pada data kedalaman air. Hasil simulasi ini menunjukkan kecocokan yang baik antara data simulasi dan pengamatan untuk kekasaran bawah dan koefisien pertukaran turbulen, masing-masing 0,02 m 13 s dan 20 m 2 s. Setelah kemampuan model untuk mensimulasikan hidrodinamika danau ini bersaksi, model ini digunakan untuk mensimulasikan elevasi permukaan air, arus dan kecepatan bertukar. Simulasi menunjukkan bahwa amplitudo pasang surut maksimal pada saluran masuk dan menurun secara bertahap dari saluran masuk menuju badan utama laguna. Perambatan gelombang pasang ditandai oleh dephasing dan perataan gelombang amplitudo, yang meningkat saat kita menjauh dari saluran. Pengurasan ini ditandai dengan pasang surut yang tinggi dan rendah sekitar 1 atau 4 jam dan juga tergantung pada amplitudo pasang surut dan lokasinya. Kecepatan di dalam danau sangat rendah dan tidak melebihi 0,03 ms. Yang tertinggi diperoleh di pintu masuk saluran. Dalam periode banjir, berbeda dengan periode air rendah, arus masuk lebih tinggi dari arus keluar, diperkuat oleh amplitudo arus pasang. Waktu pembaharuan rata-rata danau telah diperkirakan dan sesuai selama periode banjir sampai 30 hari untuk pasang surut rata-rata dan 26,3 hari pada gelombang amplitudo tinggi. Dalam periode air yang rendah adalah 40,2 hari untuk pasang surut rata-rata dan 30 hari untuk pasang surut tinggi. Dari hasil yang diperoleh, beberapa ukuran harus diperhitungkan untuk pengelolaan sumber daya air danau yang rasional. Ini termasuk pembangunan bendungan di danau hulu, untuk mengendalikan arus sungai, dan pengerukan saluran untuk memfasilitasi pertukaran dengan laut. Artikel lengkap Open Access Article Studi ini menganalisis, pada skala lokal dan regional, variabilitas curah hujan di DAS Agneby di gerai Agboville selama periode 1950an2020. Data curah hujan harian dari 14 alat ukur hujan digunakan. Metode yang digunakan didasarkan pada indeks curah hujan yang dianalisis studi ini, pada skala lokal dan regional, variabilitas curah hujan di DAS Agneby di gerai Agboville selama periode 19502013. Data curah hujan harian dari 14 alat ukur hujan digunakan. Metode yang digunakan didasarkan, pertama, pada indeks curah hujan yang bertujuan untuk mengkarakterisasi variabilitas curah hujan antar tahunan dan dekaden dan, kedua, pada rata-rata bergerak untuk menentukan dinamika siklus musiman rata-rata presipitasi. Selanjutnya, uji Pettitt dan segmentasi Hubert diterapkan untuk mendeteksi titik perubahan pada deret hujan. Pada skala cekungan, analisis sinyal curah hujan komposit telah menunjukkan bahwa defisit curah hujan lebih terasa setelah lompatan monsun. Tahun-tahun kering ditandai oleh kematian monsun awal yang luar biasa setelah tahun 1968. Selain itu, tahun-tahun setelah tahun 1969 menampilkan pergeseran puncak presipitasi sekitar 12 hari. Puncak ini tercapai lebih awal. Sinyal curah hujan menunjukkan bahwa defisit curah hujan untuk periode setelah 1968, yang relatif ke periode sebelumnya, adalah 10 pada bulan Juni terhadap 36 pada bulan Oktober untuk curah hujan rata-rata di cekungan Agneby. Pada skala lokal, defisit puncak bergantung pada lokasi. These rainfall deficits were 23 against 36.3 in June for the Agboville and Bongouanou rain gauges, respectively. Full article Open Access Article Flood damage in West Africa has increased appreciably during the last two decades. Poor communities are more at risk due to the vulnerability of their livelihoods, especially in rural areas where access to services and infrastructures is limited. The aim of this paper Flood damage in West Africa has increased appreciably during the last two decades. Poor communities are more at risk due to the vulnerability of their livelihoods, especially in rural areas where access to services and infrastructures is limited. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors that contribute to flood risk of rural communities in the Oti River Basin, Togo. A community-based disaster risk index model is applied. The analyses use primary data collected through questionnaires during fieldwork, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, population and housing census data and flood hazard mapping of the study area. The results showed a moderate level of flood risk despite a high level of hazard and vulnerability for all investigated communities. In addition, the results suggest that decreasing vulnerability through creation of new income-generating opportunities and increasing capacity of communities to manage their own flood risk should be paramount in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. The results of this work contribute to the understanding of flood risk and can be used to identify, assess, and compare flood-prone areas, as well as simulating the impacts of flood management measures in the Oti River Basin. Full article Open Access Case Report Design and operation of water resources management systems in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from inadequate observation data. Long running uninterrupted time series of data are often not available for water resource planning. Incomplete datasets with missing gaps is a challenge for users of the Design and operation of water resources management systems in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from inadequate observation data. Long running uninterrupted time series of data are often not available for water resource planning. Incomplete datasets with missing gaps is a challenge for users of the data. Inadequate data compromise results of analyses leading to wrong inference and conclusions of scientific assessments and research. Infilling of missing sections of data is necessary prior to the practical use of hydrometeorological time series. This paper proposes the use of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data as a viable alternate source of infill for missing rain gauge records. The least square regression method, using satellite-based estimates of rainfall was tested to fill in the missing data for 153 data points at nine rain gauge stations in Machakos, Makueni and the Kitui region of Kenya. Results suggest that the satellite rainfall estimates can be used as an alternative data source for rainfall series where the missing data gaps are large. The infilled data series were used in the development of monitoring, forecasting and drought early warning for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) in Kenya. Full article Open Access Article Traditionally torrential rains are considered as the main factor of flood emergence. With the examples of two disastrous floods in 2015 in absolutely different parts of the world, the authors roughly estimate the water balance and suggest an alternative hypothesis. The simplest model, Traditionally torrential rains are considered as the main factor of flood emergence. With the examples of two disastrous floods in 2015 in absolutely different parts of the world, the authors roughly estimate the water balance and suggest an alternative hypothesis. The simplest model, taking into account precipitation, evaporation and soil permeability, clearly points out the significant discrepancy between potentially accumulated and observed water masses. This observation pushes the idea that precipitation is necessary but not sufficient for disastrous flood emergence, so the only other available water sourcegroundwatercannot be ignored. Full article Journal Contact MDPI AG Hydrology Editorial Office St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: Tel. 41 61 683 77 34 Fax: 41 61 302 89 18 Editorial Board Contact Details Submit to HydrologyNWS Forecast Office Tulsa, OK Shower and thunderstorm chances will increase beginning Sunday and continuing through Tuesday night across eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. The strongest storms during the period are most likely to occur late Tuesday across areas to the south and east of Interstate 44. Depending on how conditions evolve, both large hail and damaging winds may be possible Tuesday evening and into Tuesday night. Tonight. Partly cloudy. Lows 25 to 38. Sun. Cloudy. Chance of rain showers. Warmer. Highs 53 to 67. Latest Text Product Selector (Selected product opens in a new window)The process by which ice and snow dissipate owing to melting and evaporation. The part of a valley or canyon wall against which a dam is constructed. Right and left abutments are those on respective sides of an observer looking downstream. Reservoir water that moves through seams or pores in the natural abutment material and exits as seepage. The amount of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot. An acre-foot equals 326,851 gallons, or 43,560 cubic feet. Active Conservation Storage : The portion of water stored in a reservoir that can be released for all useful purposes such as municipal water supply, power, irrigation, recreation, fish, wildlife, etc. Conservation storage is the volume of water stored between the inactive pool elevation and flood control stage. Active (Usable) Storage Capacity : The total amount of reservoir capacity normally available for release from a reservoir below the maximum storage level. It is total or reservoir capacity minus inactive storage capacity. More specifically, it is the volume of water between the outlet works and the spillway crest. Adirondack Type Snow Sampling Set : A snow sampler consisting of a 5-foot fiberglass tube, 3 inches in diameter, with a serrated-edge steel cutter at one end and a twisting handle at the other. This sampler has a 60-inch snow depth capacity. A program which combines the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) method of estimating runoff with unit hydrograph theory to estimate streamflow for a headwater basin. A portion of the lithosphere in which the functional interstices of permeable rock or earth are not filled with water under hydrostatic pressure. The interstices either are not filled with water or are filled with water that is no held by capillarity. Automation of Field Operations and Services The tail race of a hydroelectric power plant at the outlet of the turbines. The term may be applied to a short stretch of stream or conduit, or to a pond or reservoir. An ice cover of floe formed by the freezing together of various forms of ice. Automatic Hydrologic Observing System Automatic Hydrologic Observing System - Satellite Automatic Hydrologic Observing System - Telephone Airborne Snow Survey Program : Center (NOHRSC) program that makes airborne snow water equivalent and soil moisture measurements over large areas of the country that are subject to severe and chronic snow melt flooding. Airborne Snow Water Equivalent Measurement Theory : A theory based on the fact that natural terrestrial gamma radiation is emitted from the potassium, uranium, and thorium radioisotopes in the upper eight inches of the soil. The radiation is sensed from low flying aircraft 500 feet above the ground. Water mass in the snow cover attenuates the terrestrial radiation signal. The difference between airborne radiation measurements made over bare ground and snow-covered ground can be used to calculate a mean areal snow water equivalent value with a root mean square error of less than a half inch. The portion of incoming radiation which is reflected by a surface. ALERT Flood Warning System : A cooperative, community-operated flood warning system the acronym stands for Automated Local Evaluation (in) Real Time. The elevation, or stage, of a stream at which need-to-know officials (e.g. county sheriff, civil defense officials, bypass gate operators) are notified of the threat of possible flooding. Same as caution stage. An adjective referring to alluvium. Sediments deposited by erosional processes, usually by streams. A diverging branch of a river which re-enters the main stream. Submerged Frazil ice attached or anchored to the river bottom, irrespective of its formation. An accumulation of anchor ice which acts as a dam and raises the water level. The maximum discharge peak during a given water year (October 1 - September 30). Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) : An index of moisture stored within a drainage basin before a storm. A statistical method to estimate the amount of surface runoff which will occur from a basin from a given rainstorm based on the antecedent precipitation index, physical characteristics of the basin, time of year, storm duration, rainfall amount, and rainfall intensity. A formation which contains water but cannot transmit it rapidly enough to furnish a significant supply to a well or spring. Permeable layers of underground rock, or sand that hold or transmit groundwater below the water table that will yield water to a well in sufficient quantities to produce water for beneficial use. A geologic formation which has no interconnected openings and cannot hold or transmit water. A concrete arch dam is used in sites where the ratio of width between abutments to height is not great and where the foundation at the abutments is solid rock capable of resisting great forces. The arch provides resistance to movement. When combined with the weight of concrete (arch-gravity dam), both the weight and shape of the structure provide great resistance to the pressure of water. The area covered by the drawdown curves of a given pumping well or combination of wells at a particular time. A graph showing the relation between the surface area of the water in a reservoir, the corresponding volume, and elevation. Area Wide Hydrologic Prediction System (AWHPS) : A computer system which automatically ingests areal flash flood guidance values and WSR-88D products and displays this data and other hydrologic information on a map background. An adjunctive applied to regions where precipitation is so deficient in quantity, or occurs at such times, that agriculture is impracticable without irrigation. A water-carved channel or gully in arid country, usually rather small with steep banks, dry most of the time, due to infrequent rainfall and the shallowness of the cut which does not penetrate below the level of permanent ground water. A well drilled into a confined aquifer. A weir or other man-made structure which serves as the control for a stream-gaging station. AHOS SHEF Automatic Processing System The software component of ASAP. The ASOS program is a joint effort of the National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Department of Defense (DOD). When installation is completed in the mid-1990s, the ASOS systems will serve as the nations primary surface weather observing network. ASOS is designed to support weather forecast activities and aviation operations and, at the same time, support the needs of the meteorological, hydrological, and climatological research communities. ATDTDCS (Automated Tone Dial Telephone Data Collection System) : Data collection system where cooperative observers collect precipitation, stage, and temperature data then transmit the data to the NWS ATDTDCS computer through the telephone lines. The ATDTDCS computer transmits the data to AFOS. The process where the flood crest is reduced as it progresses downstream. Automated Event-Reporting Gage : (see Tipping Bucket Rain Gage) for river stage gages, IFLOWS pressure transducer type gages can be programmed to report if water surface rises or falls by a predetermined amount. Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time (ALERT) : A local flood warning system where river and rainfall data are collected via radio signals in real-time at an ALERT base station. Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System. A system that will eventually replace Automation of Field Operations and Services, AFOS. B-44 Form, Cooperative Station Report : A Weather Service form documenting station management, exposure, topography, driving instructions, payment information, hydrometeorologic equipment, and observing information. The backing up of water through a conduit or channel in the direction opposite to normal flow. A rod reading taken on a point of known elevation, a benchmark or a turning point. Backsights are added to the known elevation to arrive at the height of the instrument. With a known height of the instrument, the telescope can be used to determine the elevation of other points in the vicinity. The longitudinal profile of the surface of a liquid in a non-uniform flow in an open channel, when the water surface is not parallel to the invert owing to the depth of water having been increased by the interposition of an obstruction such as a dam or weir. The term is sometimes used in a generic sense to denote all water surface profiles or for profiles where the water is flowing at depths greater than the critical. The effect which a dam or other obstruction or construction has in raising the surface of the water upstream from it. Upstream flooding caused by downstream conditions such as channel restriction and or high flow in a downstream confluence stream. The margins of a channel. Banks are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow. Water absorbed and stored in the void in the soil cover in the bed and banks of a stream, lake, or reservoir, and returned in whole or in part as the level of water body surface falls. An established river stagewater surface elevation at a given location along a river which is intended to represent the maximum water level that will not overflow the river banks or cause any significant damages from flooding. An established river stage at a certain point along a river which is intended to represent the maximum safe water level which will not overflow the river banks or cause any significant damage within the reach of the river. Any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release. The national standard for flood plain management is the base, or one percent chance flood. This flood has at least one chance in 100 of occurring in any given year. It is also called a 100 year flood. A computer which accepts radio signals from ALERT gaging sites, decodes the data, places the data in a database, and makes the data available to other users. Streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. The time duration of a unit hydrograph. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff. The topographic dividing line around the perimeter of a basin, beyond which overland flow (i.e. runoff) drains away into another basin. The time it takes from the centroid of rainfall for the hydrograph to peak. Rainfall that adds to the residual moisture of the basin in order to help recharge the water deficit. i.e water absorbed into the soil that does not take the form of direct runoff. Sand, silt, gravel, or soil and rock detritus carried by a stream on or immediately above its bed. The particles of this material have a density or grain size such as to preclude movement far above or for a long distance out of contact with the stream bed under natural conditions of flow. Beginning of the Breakup : Date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level. Beginning of Freezup : Date on which ice forming a stable winter ice cover is first observed on the water surface. A permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference. Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps. Transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes, or on roads and bridges. An ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore. shore ice. Ice formed from Brackish water. Characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands. A braided stream is composed of anabranches. Accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters across the wreckage of other forms of ice. The failed opening in a dam. The time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition. Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding. Date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter. Ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces. The period of disintegration of an ice cover. A water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes. Buttress dams are comprised of reinforced masonry or stonework built against concrete. They are usually in the form of flat decks or multiple arches. They require about 60 percent less concrete than gravity dams, but the increased form work and reinforcement steel required usually offset the savings in concrete. Many were built in the 1930s when the ratio of labor cost to materials was comparatively low. However, this type of construction is not competitive with other types of dams when labor costs are high. CADAS (Centralized Automated Data Acquisition System) : A system of two minicomputers in NWSH that interrogates LARCs and DARDCs by telephone every 6 hours and transmits the data to AFOS via HADS. The process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as SACSMA, routings, and unit hydrographs. (1)The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level. Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water. (2)The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules. The soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone. The work required to move a unit mass of water from the reference plane to any point in the soil column. The soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary zone is also called the capillary fringe. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff (also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed). Same as alert stage. CFS (Cubic Feet per Second) : The flow rate or discharge equal to one cubic foot (of water, usually) per second. This rate is equivalent to approximately 7.48 gallons per second. This is also referred to as a second-foot. The volume of water discharged in twenty four hours, with a flow of one cubic foot per second is widely used 1 cfs-day is 24 x 60 x 60 86,000 cubic feet, 1.983471 acre-feet, or 646,317 gallons. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. An open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. Water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel. An elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. The process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river. The modification of a natural river channel may include deepening, widening, or straightening. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation. A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation. Closed Basin Lake Flooding : Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years. Calibration Network Information Files Flooding that occurs from storms where water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. These can be hurricanes, noreasters, or tropical storms, but even a severe winter storm or thunderstorm can cause this type of flooding. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained. A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. The depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. The depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Depression. Confined Ground Water : Ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge called artesian if the pressure is positive. Congressional Organic Act of 1890 : The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nations people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service. Storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control. Consolidated Ice Cover : Ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice. The volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage. Control Points. Horizontal and Vertical : Small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself. Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques. An individual (or institution) who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business. Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published. The loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration. Rotten granular ice. County Warning Forecast Area (CWFA) : The area (aggregation of counties, or parishes and sometimes portions of counties, or parishes) served by a WFO for which weather forecast and warning services are provided. A separation formed in an ice cover of floe that does not divide it into two or more pieces. A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion. (1)The highest stage or level of a flood wave as it passes a point. (2)The top of a dam, dike, spillway, or weir, to which water must rise before passing over the structure. A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed. The elevation of the uppermost surface of a dam excluding any parapet walls, railings, etc. Crest Width (Top thickness) : The thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest (top) of the dam. The term thickness is used for gravity and arch dams and width for other types of dams. The depth of water flowing in an open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical velocities. A condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity. Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow. Critical Rainfall Probability (CRP) : The probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value. Area perpendicular to the direction of flow. Critical Rainfall Probability. The Probability that a given rainfall will cause a river, or stream to rise above flood stage. The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius. Cubic Feet Per Second : A unit expressing rates of discharge. One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second. It is also approximately 7.48 gallons per second. A drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called an Intercepting Drain. Device used to measure the water velocity or current in a river. The maximum mean daily discharge occurring in a stream during a given flood event. Any artificial barrier which impounds or diverts water. The dam is generally hydrologically significant if it is: 1. 25 feet or more in height from the natural bed of the stream and has a storage of at least 15 acre-feet. 2. Or has an impounding capacity of 50 acre-feet or more and is at least six feet above the natural bed of the stream. The Dam Break Forecasting Model. Catastrophic event characterized by the sudden, rapid, and uncontrolled release of impounded water. The Data Acquisition Program Manager. The Software System that supports RFC gateway functions. Hydrologic Data Network Analysis Software Often abbreviated as SDF. See Second-Day Feet. DCP (Data Collection Platform) : An electronic device that connects to a river or rainfall gage that records data from the gage and at pre-determined times transmits that data through a satellite to a remote computer. Data Distribution System The volume in a reservoir below the lowest controllable level. Deep Percolation Loss : Water that percolates downward through the soil beyond the reach of plant roots. Infiltration which reaches the water table. A well whose pumping head is too great to permit use of a suction pump. A general term for ice which has been squeezed together and forced upwards and downwards in places. Subdivisions are rated ice, ridge ice, hummocked ice, and other similar deformations. The geologic process by means of which various parts of the surface of the earth are worn down and carried away and their general level lowered, by the action of wind and water. An alluvial deposit, often in the shape of the Greek letter delta, which is formed where a stream drops its debris load on entering a body of quieter water. Thin branch-like growth of ice on the water surface. The form of the drainage pattern of a stream and its tributaries when it follows a treelike shape, with the main trunk, branches, and twigs corresponding to the main stream, tributaries, and subtributaries, respectively, of the stream. A flow of water maintained by gravity through a large body of water, such as a reservoir or lake, and retaining its unmixed identity because of a difference in density. The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the volume which a given quantity of snow would occupy if it were reduced to water, to the volume of the snow. When a snow sampler is used, it is the ratio expressed as percentage of the scale reading on the sampler to the length of the snow core or sample. That part of the hydrograph extending from the point of termination of the Recession Curve to the subsequent rise or alternation of inflow due to additional water becoming available for stream flow. The volume of water contained in natural depressions in the land surface, such as puddles. The total runoff from a drainage basin, divided by its area. For convenience in comparing runoff with precipitation, the term is usually expressed in inches of depth during a given period of time over the drainage area or acre-feet per square mile. The hypothetical flood used in the sizing of the dam and the associated structures to prevent dam failure by overtopping, especially for the spillway, outlet works, channel culvert, and inlet sizing. Detention basins are normally dry, but are designed to detain surface water temporarily during, and immediately after a runoff event. Their primary function is to attenuate the storm flows by releasing flows at a lower flow rate. There are no gates or valves allowed on the outlet so that water can never be stored on a long-term basis. Typical detention times in such a basin would be on the order of 24 to 72 hours although some are as long as 5 to 10 days. The volume of water, other than depression storage, existing on the land surface as flowing water which has not yet reached the channel. (1) the heavier mineral debris moved by natural watercourses, usually in bed-load form. (2) the sand, grit, and other coarse material removed by differential sedimentation in a relatively short period of detention. Poorly defined ice edge limiting an area of dispersed ice usually on the leeward side of an area of floating ice. The damage done to property, structures, goods, etc. by a flood as measured by the cost of replacement and repairs. The runoff entering stream channels promptly after rainfall or snow melt. Superposed on base runoff, it forms the bulk of the hydrograph of a flood. The rate at which water passes a given point. Discharge is expressed in a volume per time with units of L3T. Discharge is often used interchangeably with streamflow. A curve that expresses the relation between the discharge of a stream or open conduit at a given location and the stage or elevation of the liquid surface at or near that location. Also called Rating Curve and Discharge Rating Curve. (1) A table showing the relation between two mutually dependant quantities or variable over a given range of magnitude. (2) A table showing the relation between the gage height and the discharge of a stream or conduit at a given gaging station. Also called a Rating Table. A unit hydrograph of direct runoff modified to show the proportions of the volume of runoff that occur during successive equal units of time. The taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a canal, pipe, or other conduit. The high ground that forms the boundary of a watershed. A divide is also called a ridge. Department of Natural Resources Development and Operations Hydrologist The quantity, or quantity per capita, of water consumed in a municipality or district for domestic uses or purposes during a given period, generally one day. It is usually taken to include all uses included within the term Municipal Use of Water and quantity wasted, lost, or otherwise unaccounted for. Domestic Use of water : The use of water primarily for household purposes, the watering of livestock, the irrigation of gardens, lawns, shrubbery, etc. surrounding a house or domicile. The slope or face of the dam away from the reservoir water. This slope requires some kind of protection (e.g. grass) from the erosive effects of rain and surface flow. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff (also see Watershed and Catchment Area). A part of the surface of the earth that is occupied by a drainage system, which consists of a surface stream or a body of impounded surface water together with all tributary surface streams and bodies of impounded surface water. The relative density of natural drainage channels in a given area. It is usually expressed in terms of miles of natural drainage or stream channel per square mile of area, and obtained by dividing the total length of stream channels in the area in miles by the area in square miles. The boundary line, along a topographic ridge or along a subsurface formation, separating two adjacent drainage basins. A vertical well or borehole, usually downstream of impervious cores, grout curtains or cutoffs, designed to collect and direct seepage through or under a dam to reduce uplift pressure under or within a dam. A line of such wells forms a drainage curtain. The lowering of the surface elevation of a body of water, the water surface of a well, the water table, or the piezometric surface adjacent to the well, resulting from the withdrawal of water therefrom. The scooping, or suction of underwater material from a harbor, or waterway. Dredging is one form of channel modification. It is often too expensive to be practical because the dredged material must be disposed of somewhere and the stream will usually fill back up with sediment in a few years. Dredging is usually undertaken only on large rivers to maintain a navigation channel. Pieces of floating ice moving under the action of wind and or currents. A period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged from the lack of precipitation to cause a serious hydrologic imbalance. Computed value which is related to some of the cumulative effects of a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. (An index of hydrological drought corresponding to levels below the mean in streams, lakes, and reservoirs.) Crack visible at the surface but not going right through the ice cover, and therefore it is dry. A dry flood proofed building is sealed against floodwaters. All areas below the flood protection level are made watertight. Walls are coated with waterproofing compounds or plastic sheeting. Openings like doors windows, sewer lines and vents are closed, wether permanently, with removable shields, or with sandbags. The flood protection level should be no more than 2 or 3 feet above the top of the foundation because the buildings walls and floors cannot withstand the pressure of deeper water. Streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as base flow, or ground water flow. A cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time during which specified units of items (e.g. discharge, head, power, etc.) were equaled or exceeded in a given period. It is the integral of the frequency diagram. Duration of Ice Cover : The time from freeze-up to break-up of an ice cover. Pressure due to a moving ice cover or drifting ice. Dynamic Wave Routing Model (DWOPER) : A computerized hydraulic routing program whose algorithms incorporate the complete one-dimensional equations of unsteady flow originally developed by Barre De Saint-Venant in 1871. A form that a Service Hydrologist Hydrology Focal Point completes to document the dates in which forecast points are above flood stage, as well as the crest dates and stages. Discussion of the flood event must also be included in the E-5, Monthly Report of River and Flood conditions. An E-3 report is sent to Regional Headquarters, the appropriate RFC, as well as the Office of Hydrology (OH). E-5, Monthly Report of River and Flood conditions : A monthly narrative report covering flooding which occurred over the past month. Flood stage, flood crest and dates in which flooding occurred is covered within this report for each data point which was in flood. If the flooding involved a forecast point, an E-3 must be filled out as well. If no flooding has occurred within the past month, a climatic summary of the past month can be included as well as other interesting non-flood events, such as water supply, ice jams and the occurrence of drought. An E-5 report is sent to Regional Headquarters, the appropriate RFC, as well as the Office of Hydrology (OH). E-7, Flood Damage Report : A report to be completed anytime there is reported flood damage or loss of life as a direct result of flooding. An E-7 report is sent to Regional Headquarters, as well as the Office of Hydrology (OH). E-19, Report on River Gage Station : A report to be completed every 5 - 10 years providing a complete history of a river station and all gages that have been used for public forecasts since the establishment of the station. Should be updated anytime a significant change occurs at a forecast point. E-19a, Abridged Report on River Gage Station : An abridged version of an E-19, an E-19a used to be used to update the E-19 as additional information, or changes occur at the station during the intervening five year period. No longer relevant since E-19s can be updated and produced rapidly on computers or on AWIPS. An E-19a can also be used to take the place of an E-19 in documenting any gage history, or information of any non-forecast point (i.e data point). Earthen (or Earthfill) Dam : An embankment dam in which more than 50 of the total volume is formed of compacted fine-grained material. A homogeneous earthen dam is constructed of similar earthen material throughout. These are the most common type of dam because their construction involves using materials in the natural state, requiring little processing. The ratio, usually expressed as a percentage, of the volume of water or other liquid which a given saturated volume of rock or soil will yield under any specified hydraulic condition, to the given volume of soil or rock. Effective Precipitation (Rainfall) : (1) That part of the precipitation that produces runoff. (2) A weighted average of current and antecedent precipitation that is effective in correlating with runoff. (3) That part of the precipitation falling on an irrigated area that is effective in meeting the consumptive use requirements. Diffuse discharge of ground water to the ground surface. Any watercourse in which all, or a portion of the water volume came from the Phreatic zone, or zone of saturation by way of groundwater flow, or baseflow. Enhanced IFLOWS Format Fill material, usually earth or rock, placed with sloping sides and usually with length greater than height. All dams are types of embankments. Emergency Action Plan : A predetermined plan of action to be taken to reduce the potential for property damage and loss of life in an area affected by a dam break or excessive spillway release. Services provided in order to minimize the impact of a flood that is already happening. These measures are the responsibility of city, or county emergency management staff and the owners or operators of major, or critical facilities. Some examples of emergency services are flood warning and evacuation, flood response, and post flood activities. A structure which slows fast-moving spillway flows in order to prevent erosion of the stream channel. A telescope which is attached to a spirit-tube level, all revolving around a vertical axis and is mounted on a tripod. An Engineers Level is used for determining the difference in elevation between two points. The telescope on the level has a vertical cross hair and a horizontal cross hair. Once the instrument is leveled, the sighting through the horizontal cross hair represent a horizontal plane of equal elevation. Ensemble Hydrologic Forecasting. A process whereby a continuous hydrologic model is successively executed several times for the same forecast period by use of varied data input scenarios, or a perturbation of a key variable state for each model run. A common method employed to obtain a varied data input scenario is to use the historical meteorological record, with the assumption that several years of observed data covering the time period beginning on the current date and extending through the forecast period comprises a reasonable estimate of the possible range of future conditions. The ultimate, constant drawdown for a steady rate of pumped discharge. Equilibrium Surface Discharge : The steady rate of surface discharge which results from a long-continued, steady rate of net rainfall, with discharge rate equal to net rainfall rate. The time when flow conditions become substantially equal to those corresponding to equilibrium discharge or equilibrium drawdown. A line, in a field of flow, such that the total head is the same for all points on the line, and therefore the direction of flow is perpendicular to the line at all points. Wearing away of the lands by running water, glaciers, winds, and waves, can be subdivided into three process: Corrasion, Corrosion, and Transportation. Weathering, although sometimes included here, is a distant process which does not imply removal of any material. Extended Streamflow Prediction ESP Initialization Program Deepwater tidal habitats and tidal wetlands that are usually enclosed by land but have access to the ocean and are at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land (such as bays, mouths of rivers, salt marshes, lagoons). The area near the coastline that consists of estuaries and coastal saltwater wetlands. The thin zone along a coastline where freshwater systems and rivers meet and mix with a salty ocean (such as a bay, mouth of a river, salt marsh, lagoon). An instrument which measures the evaporation rate of water into the atmosphere. Process by which liquid water is converted into water vapor. A pan used to hold water during observations for the determination of the quantity of evaporation at a given location. Such pans are of varying sizes and shapes, the most commonly used being circular or square. The quantity of water, expressed in terms of depth of liquid water, which is evaporated from a given surface per unit of time. It is usually expressed in inches depth, per day, month, or year. Combination of evaporation from free water surfaces and transpiration of water from plant surfaces to the atmosphere. Effective rainfall in excess of infiltration capacity. Exclusive Flood Control Storage Capacity : The space in a reservoir reserved for the sole purpose of regulating flood inflows to abate flood damage. The external surface of a structure, such as the surface of a dam. A component of the NWSRFS FCST Program. NWSRFS Forecast Program to produce operational forecasts. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) : An agency of the federal government having responsibilities in hazzard mitigation FEMA also administers the National Flood Insurance Program. Federal Snow Sampler : A snow sampler consisting of five or more sections of sampling tubes, one which has a steel cutter on the end. The combined snowpack measuring depth is 150 inches. This instrument was formerly the Mount Rose Type Snow Sampling Set. An area of the sea surface over which a wind with constant direction and velocity is blowing. Field (Moisture) Capacity : The amount of water held in soil against the pull of gravity. Field Moisture Deficiency : The quantity of water, which would be required to restore the soil moisture to field moisture capacity. Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or of industrial wastes. Old snow on top of glaciers, granular and compact and not yet converted into ice. It is a transitional stage between snow and ice. Also called Neve. The highest level to which the fresh snow on a glaciers surface retreats during the melting season. The line separating the accumulation area from the ablation area. Fischer amp Porter Punched Tape Recorder Gage : A precipitation gage which converts weight into a code disk position. The code disk position is then punched on paper tape in a binary decimal format suitable for automatic machine processing. A flood which follows within a few hours (usually less than 6 hours) of heavy or excessive rainfall, dam or levee failure, or the sudden release of water impounded by an ice jam. Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) : An internal product produced by the RFCs containing rainfall threshold values which must be exceeded in order to produce a flash flood. Flash Flood Statement (FFS) : A statement by the NWS which provides follow-up information on flash flood watches and warnings. (In Western Region, the product header FLS is used for Flash Flood statements). A table of pre-computed forecast crest stage values for small streams for a variety of antecedent moisture conditions and rain amounts. Soil moisture conditions are often represented by flash flood guidance values. In lieu of crest stages, categorical representations of flooding, e.g. minor, moderate, etc. may be used on the tables. Flash Flood Warning (FFW) : A warning by the NWS issued to warn of flash flooding that is imminent or occurring. A statement by the NWS that alerts communities to the possibility of flash flooding in specified areas. A length of timber, concrete, or steel placed on the crest of a spillway to raise the retention water level but which may be quickly removed in the event of a flood by a tripping device, or by deliberately designed failure of the flashboard or its supports. Float Recording Precipitation gage : A rain gage where the rise of a float within the instrument with increasing rainfall is recorded. Some of these gages must be emptied manually, while others employ a self-starting siphon to empty old rainfall amounts. A cluster of frazil particles. An accumulation of frazil flocs (also known as a pan) or a single piece of broken ice. The inundation of a normally dry area caused by high flow, or overflow of water in an established watercourse, such as a river, stream, or drainage ditch or ponding of water at or near the point where the rain fell. This is a duration type event with a slower onset than flash flooding, normally greater than 6 hours. Flood Control Storage : Storage of water in reservoirs to abate flood damage. The maximum height of a flood wave as it passes a location. Flood Frequency Curve : (1) A graph showing the number of times per year on the average, plotted as abscissa, that floods of magnitude, indicated by the ordinate, are equaled or exceeded. (2) A similar graph but with recurrence intervals of floods plotted as abscissa. Flood Loss Reduction Measures : The strategy for reducing flood losses. There are four basic strategies. They are prevention, property protection, emergency services, and structural projects. Each strategy incorporates different measures that are appropriate for different conditions. In many communities, a different person may be responsible for each strategy. The highest observed river stage or discharge at a given location during the period of record keeping. (Not necessarily the highest known stage.) The portion of a river valley that has been inundated by the river during historic floods. Flood Plain Information Studies. Reports usually prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) following a survey of a flood-impacted community. Flood Potential Outlook (ESF on AFOS) (FPO for Acronym) : An NWS outlook that is issued to alert the public of potentially heavy rainfall that could send area rivers and streams into flood or aggravate an existing flood. Measures that are taken in order to keep flood problems from getting worse. Planning, land acquisition, river channel maintenance, wetlands protection, and other regulations all help modify development on flood plains and watersheds to reduce their susceptibility to flood damage. Preventive measures are usually administered by the building, zoning, planning and or code enforcement offices of the local government. Problems and damages that occur during a flood as a result of human development and actions. Flood problems are a result from: 1) Inappropriate development in the floodplain (e.g. building too low, too close to the channel, or blocking flood flows) 2) Development in the watershed that increases flood flows and creates a larger floodplain, or 3) A combination of the previous two. A graph of elevation of the water surface of a river in flood, plotted as ordinate, against distance, measured in the downstream direction, plotted as abscissa. A flood profile may be drawn to show elevation at a given time, crests during a particular flood, or to show stages of concordant flows. Process of determining progressively the timing, shape, and amplitude of a flood wave as it moves downstream to successive points along the river. A gage height at which a watercourse overtops its banks and begins to cause damage to any portion of the defined reach. Flood stage is usually higher than or equal to bankfull stage. A statement issued by the NWS to inform the public of flooding along major streams in which there is not a serious threat to life or property. It may also follow a flood warning to give later information. A release by the NWS to inform the public of flooding along larger streams in which there is a serious threat to life or property. A flood warning will usually contain river stage (level) forecasts. A rise in streamflow to a crest and its subsequent recession caused by precipitation, snow melt, dam failure, or reservoir releases. Ice which has been flooded by melt water or river water and is heavily loaded by water and wet snow. The process of protecting a building from flood damage on site. Floodproofing can be divided into wet and dry floodproofing. In areas subject to slow-moving, shallow flooding, buildings can be elevated, or barriers can be constructed to block the waters approach to the building. These techniques have the advantage of being less disruptive to the neighborhood. It must be noted that during a flood, a flood proofed building may be isolated and without utilities and therefore unusable, even though it has not been damaged. A long, narrow concrete, or masonry embankment usually built to protect land from flooding. If built of earth the structure is usually referred to as a levee. Floodwalls and levees confine streamflow within a specified area to prevent flooding. Ring levees confine streamflow out of an area. The term dike is used to describe an embankment that blocks an area on a reservoir or lake rim that is lower than the top of the dam. (1) A part of the flood plain, otherwise leveed, reserved for emergency diversion of water during floods. A part of the flood plain which, to facilitate the passage of floodwater, is kept clear of encumbrances.(2) The channel of a river or stream and those parts of the flood plains adjoining the channel, which are reasonably required to carry and discharge the floodwater or floodflow of any river or stream. A cumulative frequency curve that shows the percentage of time that specified discharges are equaled or exceeded. Flowing Artesian Well : A well drilled into a confined aquifer with enough hydraulic pressure for the water to flow to the surface without pumping. The water behind (upstream) of the dam. The highest elevation of river level, or stage, expected during a specified storm event. A location that represents an area (reach of a river), where a forecast is made available to the public. Each NWS river forecast point has an associated E-19a, Abridged Report on River Gage Station, and E-19, Report on River Gage Station. A sighting on a point of unknown elevation from an instrument of known elevation. To determine the elevation of the point in question, the foresight is subtracted from the height of the instrument. A surveying term. The upper end of a confined-aquifer conduit, where it intersects the land surface. Any break or rupture formed in an ice cover or floe due to deformation. An area which has a great number of fractures. Deformation process whereby ice is permanently deformed, and fracture occurs. Fine spicules, plates, or discoids of ice suspended in water. In rivers and lakes, frazil is formed in supercooled, turbulent water. An agglomerate of loosely packed frazil which floats or accumulates under the ice cover. Unconfined ground water whose upper boundary is a free water table. The vertical distance between the normal maximum level of the water surface in a channel, reservoir, tank, canal, etc. and the top of the sides of a levee, dam, etc. which is provided so that waves and other movements of the liquid will not overtop the confining structure. Date on which the water body was first observed to be completely frozen over. Ice jam formed as frazil ice accumulates and thickens. An underground passageway for water through the interstices among stones placed loosely in a trench. A curve that expresses the relation between the frequency distribution plot, with the magnitude of the variables as abscissas and the number of occurrences of each magnitude in a given period as ordinates. The theoretical frequency curve is a derivative of the probability curve. The decrease in total head caused by friction. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) : A method of data transfer that can take place between Frame Relay Networks, and Workstations. (1) A device for indicating the magnitude or position of a thing in specific units, when such magnitude or position undergoes change, for example: The elevation of a water surface, the velocity of flowing water, the pressure of water, the amount or intensity of precipitation, the depth of snowfall, etc. (2) The act or operation of registering or measuring the magnitude or position of a thing when these characteristics are undergoing change. (3) The operation, including both field and office work, of measuring the discharge of a stream of water in a waterway. The arbitrary zero datum elevation which all stage measurements are made from. The water-surface elevation referred to some arbitrary gage datum. Gage height is often used interchangeably with the more general term stage, although gage height is more appropriate when used with a reading on a gage. The elevation of zero stage. (Same as gage datum.) A particular site on a watercourse where systematic observations of stage andor flow are measured. A passageway within the body of a dam or abutment. A device in which a leaf or member is moved across the waterway from an external position to control or stop flow. There are many different kinds of gates used on a dam. Some include: Bulkhead, Crest (or Spillway), Emergency, Fixed Wheel, Flap, Flood, Guard, Outlet, Radial, Regulating, and Slide Gates. That branch of hydrology relating to subsurface, or subterranean waters. The study of the physical characteristics and properties of the earth including geodesy, seismology, meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric electricity, terrestrial magnetism, and tidal phenomena. Bodies of land ice that consist of recrystallized snow accumulated on the surface of the ground, and that move slowly downslope. The lake formed when a glacier flows across the mouth of an adjoining valley and forms an ice dam. GOES (Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite) : Satellite orbiting at 22,000 miles above the earths surface that remains above the same location on the earth. DCPs transmit river and rainfall data to the GOES for relay to a ground-receive site in Wallops Island, VA. GOES DCS (Data Collection System) : A data collection system under NESDIS which is comprised of the DCPs, and the NESDIS Command and Data Acquisition (CDA) System components. This satellite-based system collects a variety of environmental data from locations in the Western Hemisphere. The system is a data relay network for more than 10,000 DCPs which transmits data to one of two GOES satellites (East and West). These data are relayed to the NESDIS CDA ground station located at Wallops Island, VA. The data are then relayed over to Silver Springs, MD, where the data is then distributed to the appropriate recipients. A concrete structure proportioned so that its own weight provides the major resistance to the forces exerted on it. Ground receive sites : A satellite dish and associated computer which receives signals from the GOES satellite, decodes the information, and transmits it to a another site for further processing. The GOES satellite ground-receive site is located at Wallops Island, VA and the information is relayed to a mainframe computer at NWSH for processing. Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs water in the zone of saturation where all openings in rocks and soil are filled, the upper surface of which forms the water table. Also termed Phreatic water. Ice that has run aground or is contact with the ground underneath it. A line on a water table where on either side of which the water table slopes downward. It is analogous to a drainage divide between two drainage basins on a land surface. Ground Water Hydrology : The branch of hydrology that specializes in ground water its occurrence and movements its replenishment and depletion the properties of rocks that control ground water movement and storage and the methods of investigation and utilization of ground water. Streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as baseflow, or dry-weather flow. Pumping ground water from a basin where the safe yield is very small, thereby extracting ground water which had accumulated over a long period of time. Ground Water Outflow : That part of the discharge from a drainage basin that occurs through the ground water. The term underflow is often used to describe the ground water outflow that takes place in valley alluvium (instead of the surface channel) and thus is not measure at a gaging station. Ground Water Overdraft : Pumpage of ground water in excess of safe yield. That part of the runoff which has passed into the ground, has become ground water, and has been discharged into a stream channel as spring, or seepage water. A barrier produced by injecting grout into a vertical zone, usually narrow (horizontally), and in the foundation to reduce seepage under a dam. HADS (Hydrometeorological Automated Data System) : Software that replaced GDDS to process and distribute the GOES DCP data and CADAS data collected from DCPs and LARCS. A mass of ice composed mainly of frazil or broken ice deposited underneath an ice cover in a region of low flow velocity. An Hourly Digital Rainfall Product of the WSR-88D. The difference between the pool height and tailwater height. Usually expressed in feet of head, or in lbs.sq. inch. The decrease in total head caused by friction, entrance and exit losses. A channel which directs water to a water wheel a forebay. Erosion which occurs in the upstream end of the valley of a stream, causing it to lengthen its course in such a direction. Streams at the source of a river. Headwater Advisory Program (ADVIS) : A Program which uses the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) method of estimating runoff, unit hydrograph theory and stage-discharge ratings to produce hydrologic forecasts for headwater basins. Headwater Advisory Table : A table developed by a River Forecast Center for a Headwater Guidance Point a pre-computed matrix of values allows a forecaster to ascertain an anticipated crest or rise on a small river or stream for a variety of rainfall events and soil moisture conditions. A basin at the headwaters of a river. All discharge of the river at this point is developed within the basin. Hydrologist in Charge of an RFC. The Hydrometeorological Information Center of the Office of Hydrology (OH). Crack caused by significant changes in water level. The Hydrologist on Duty at an RFC. The Hydrologic Operations Division of the Office of Hydrology (OH). The Hydrological Research Laboratory at the Office of Hydrology (OH). HSA (Hydrologic Service Area) : A geographical area assigned to Weather Service Forecast OfficesWeather Forecast Offices that embraces one or more rivers. The Hydrologic Systems Branch in the Office of Hydrology (OH). The Hydrometeorological Training Council. A hillock of broken ice which has been forced upward by pressure. Ice piled haphazardly one piece over another to form an uneven surface. A dam constructed of materials, often dredged, that are conveyed and placed by suspension in flowing water. Hydraulic Grade Line : A line whose plotted ordinate position represents the sum of pressure head plus elevation head for the various positions along a given fluid flow path, such as along a pipeline or a ground water streamline. In open channels, the hydraulic grade line is equal to the water surface. (1) The height of the free surface of a body of water above a given point beneath the surface. (2) The height of the water level at the headworks, or an upstream point, of a waterway, and the water surface at a given point downstream. (3) The height of a hydraulic grade line above the center line of a pressure pipe, at a given point. Hydraulic Mean Depth : The right cross-sectional area of a stream of water divided by the length of that part of its periphery in contact with its containing conduit the ratio of area to wetted perimeter. Also called Hydraulic Radius. The flow of water through a unit cross-sectional area of soil normal to the direction of flow when the hydraulic gradient is unity. The right cross-sectional area of a stream of water divided by the length of that part of its periphery in contact with its containing conduit the ratio of area to wetted perimeter. Also called Hydraulic Mean Depth. A graph showing the water level (stage), discharge, or other property of a river volume with respect to time. The process where the storm hydrograph is separated into baseflow components and surface runoff components. An instrumental survey to measure and determine characteristics of streams and other bodies of water within an area, including such things as location, areal extent, and depth of water in lakes or the ocean the width, depth, and course of streams position and elevation of high water marks location and depth of wells, etc. An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage in, a hydrologic unit, such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake, reservoir, or irrigation project. The natural pathway water follows as it changes between liquid, solid, and gaseous states. The water inventory equation (Inflow Outflow Change in Storage) which expresses the basic principle that during a given time interval the total inflow to an area must equal the total outflow plus the net change in storage. A conceptual or physically-based procedure for numerically simulating a process or processes which occur in a watershed. Hydrologic Service Area (HSA) : A geographical area assigned to Weather Service Forecast OfficesWeather Forecast Offices that embraces one or more rivers. A general term referring to the operations, products, verbal communications, and related forms of support provided by the NWS for the Nations streams, reservoirs, and other areas affected by surface water. A geographical area representing part or all of a surface drainage basin or distinct hydrologic feature such as a reservoir, lake, etc. The applied science concerned with the waters of the earth, their occurrences, distribution, and circulation through the unending hydrologic cycle of: precipitation, consequent runoff, infiltration, and storage eventual evaporation and so forth. It is concerned with the physical and chemical reaction of water with the rest of the earth, and its relation to the life of the earth. Individuals whose duties include data collection, quality control, gage network maintenance, as well as the gathering and disseminating of data and products at NWS Forecast Offices. Individuals who study the applied science of hydrology and solve hydrologic problems. This study includes the occurrence, distribution, and circulation of water through the unending hydrologic cycle of: precipitation, consequent runoff, infiltration, and storage as well as evaporation. It is concerned with the physical and chemical reaction of water with the rest of the earth, and its relation to the life of the earth. The region that includes all the earths liquid water, frozen water, floating ice, frozen upper layer of soil, and the small amounts of water vapor in the earths atmosphere. A measure of pressure at a given point in a liquid in terms of the vertical height of a column of the same liquid which would produce the same pressure. A graphical representation of rainfall intensity with respect to time. A floating structure designed to retain ice. A continuous ice cover of limited size extending from shore to shore like a bridge. The gorge or opening left in a jam after it has broken. A stationary accumulation that restricts or blocks streamflow. Compression of an ice cover particularly at the front of a moving section of ice cover. Flow of ice in a river. An ice run may be light or heavy, and may consist of frazil, anchor, slush, or sheet ice. Downstream movement of a small section of an ice cover. Ice twitches occur suddenly and often appear successively. On-shore ice push caused by wind, and currents, changes in temperature, etcetera. The Integrated Flood Observing and Warning System. Material that does not permit fluids to pass through it. The ability to repel water, or not let water infiltrate. Water piped or channeled into an area. Inactive Storage Capacity : The portion of capacity below which the reservoir is not normally drawn, and which is provided for sedimentation, recreation, fish and wildlife, aesthetic reasons, or for the creation of a minimum controlled operational or power head in compliance with operating agreements or restrictions. The product of inches of rainfall multiplied by the temperature in degrees above freezing (Fahrenheit Scale), used as a measure of the snowmelting capacity of rainfall. The volume of water from runoff of a given depth over the entire drainage. A staff gage that is placed on the slope of a stream bank and graduated so that the scale reads directly in vertical depth. The ratio of precipitation for a given year over the mean annual precipitation. Indirect Flood Damage : Expenditures made as a result of the flood (other than repair) such as relief and rescue work, removing silt and debris, etc. The quantity of water consumed in a municipality or district for mechanical, trade, and manufacturing purposes, in a given period, generally one day. The per capita use is generally based on the total population of the locality, municipality, or district. Movement of water through the soil surface into the soil. The maximum rate at which water can enter the soil at a particular point under a given set of conditions. Infiltration Capacity Curve : A graph showing the time-variation of infiltration capacity. A standard infiltration capacity curve shows the time-variation of the infiltration rate which would occur if the supply were continually in excess of infiltration capacity. An average rate of infiltration, in inches per hour, equal to the average rate of rainfall such as that the volume of rainfall at greater rates equals the total direct runoff. (1) The rate at which infiltration takes place expressed in depth of water per unit time, usually in inches per hour. (2) The rate, usually expressed in cubic feet per second, or million gallons per day per mile of waterway, at which ground water enters an infiltration ditch or gallery, drain, sewer, or other underground conduit. Movement of gravity water in the zone of aeration from the ground surface toward the water table. Any watercourse in which all, or a portion of the surface water flows back into the ground namely the, vadose zone, or zone of aeration. The volume of water on the ground, either in depressions or in transit, at the time active runoff begins. In hydrology, rainfall preceding the beginning of surface runoff. It includes interception, surface wetting, evaporation and infiltration unless otherwise specified. Initial Moisture Deficiency : The quantity, usually expressed in depth of water in inches upon a unit area, by which the actual water content of a given soil zone (usually the root zone) in such area is less than the field capacity of such zone at the beginning of the rainy season. Also called Initial Water Deficiency. Initial Water Deficiency : The quantity, usually expressed in depth of water in inches upon a unit area, by which the actual water content of a given soil zone (usually the root zone) in such area is less than the field capacity of such zone at the beginning of the rainy season. Also called Initial Moisture Deficiency. Inland freshwater wetlands : Swamps, marshes, and bogs found inland beyond the coastal saltwater wetlands. Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph : The theoretical, ideal, unit hydrograph that has a infinitesimal duration. The use of water that does not require withdrawal or diversion from its natural watercourse for example, the use of water for navigation, recreation, and support of fish and wildlife. Intangible Flood Damage : Estimates of the damage done by disruption of business, danger to health, shock, and loss of life and in general all costs not directly measurable which require a large element of judgment for estimating. Integrated Flood Observing and Warning System (IFLOWS) : A 1200 baud wide area network utilizing UHFVHF radio and land line communications IFLOWS components include rainfall and stage sensors, transceivers, store-forward repeaters and computer base stations. The physical transfer of water from one watershed to another. Interception Storage Requirements : Water caught by plants at the onset of a rainstorm. This must be met before rainfall reaches the ground. A drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called Curtain Drain. The process by which precipitation is caught and held by foliage, twigs, and branches of trees, shrubs, and other vegetation, and lost by evaporation, never reaching the surface of the ground. Interception equals the precipitation on the vegetation minus streamflow and through fall. Interception Storage Requirements : Water caught by plants at the onset of a rainstorm. This must be met before rainfall reaches the ground. The lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream channels than runoff. This also called subsurface storm flow. The subsurface water zone below the root zone and above the capillary fringe. A stream that flows periodically. Compare perennial stream. A map delineating the area that would be inundated in the event of a dam failure. The gross farm area upon which water is artificially applied for the production of crops, with no reduction for access roads, canals, or farm buildings. The controlled application of water to arable lands to supply water requirements not satisfied by rainfall. The percentage of water applied that can be accounted for in soil moisture increase for consumptive use. The quantity of water, exclusive of precipitation, that is required for crop production. It includes surface evaporation and other economically unavoidable wastes. An imaginary line on the earths surface or a line on a map connecting all points which are the same vertical distance above the upper or lower surface of a water-bearing formation or aquifer. A line that connects points of equal rainfall. A structure (e.g. a pier, or mole of wood or stone) extending into a sea, lake, or river to influence the current or tide or to protect a harbor. An Icelandic term meaning glacier dammed lake outburst flood. Water formed chemically within the earth and brought to the surface in intrusive rock. The measure of the time between the center of mass of precipitation to the center of mass of runoff (on the hydrograph) basin lag is a function of not only basin characteristics, but also of storm intensity and movement. Some hydrologic texts define lag from the center of mass of rainfall to the hydrograph peak. The time it takes a flood wave to move downstream. Streamline flow in which successive flow particles follow similar path lines and head loss varies with velocity to the first power. LARC (Limited Automatic Report Collector) : An electronic device that interfaces a river or precipitation gage with a telephone line making it possible for remote computers to call a gaging site and retrieve data. Eventually LARCs will Replace DARDCs. The distance in the direction of flow between two specific points along a river, stream, or channel. A nonflowing or standing body of fresh water, such as a lake or pond. Compare lotic system. A long, narrow embankment usually built to protect land from flooding. If built of concrete or masonry the structure is usually referred to as a flood wall. Levees and floodwalls confine streamflow within a specified area to prevent flooding. The term dike is used to describe an embankment that blocks an area on a reservoir or lake rim that is lower than the top of the dam. A generic term for any type of Local Flood Warning System. Limited Automatic Remote Collector (LARC) : An electronic device that interfaces a river or precipitation gage with a telephone line making it possible for remote computers to call a gaging site and retrieve data. The branch of hydrology that pertains to the study of lakes. A coating of concrete, rubber, or plastic to a canal, tunnel, shaft or reservoir to provide water-tightness, prevent erosion, reduce friction, or support the periphery of the structure. That part of the earth which is composed predominantly of rocks (either coherent or incoherent, and including the disintegrated rock materials known as soils and subsoils), together with everything in this rocky crust. The area on, or near the shore of a body water. The total amount of storage capacity available in a reservoir for all purposes, from the dead storage level to the normal water or normal pool level surface level. Does not include surcharge, or dead storage, but does include inactive storage, active conservation storage and exclusive flood control storage. Flooding conditions over a relatively limited (localized) area. Local Flood Warning System (LWFS) : A general designator for a network of stream and rain gages implemented by a community or local government to monitor hydrologic events as they occur. LFWS gages are either read manually by spotters or fitted with radio transmitter to communicate data to a computerized base station (see IFLOWS and ALERT). A net-like device installed in a reservoir, upstream of the principal spillway, to prevent logs, debris and boaters from entering a water discharge facility or spillway. Long Term Storage Dams : Reservoirs used for recreational use or storage of irrigation, municipal or industrial water. Because water is impounded on a permanent basis, the design of these dams is more complex than for tailings or flood control detention dams. A long term storage dam may include an impermeable core surrounded by shell material, have many types of drains and filters, outlet works, with gates and valves, seepage collection boxes, and possibly several spillways. The capacity of the spillway is dependant upon the downstream hazard potential. A flowing body of fresh water, such as a river or stream. Compare lentic system. Inundation of low areas near the river, often rural, but may also occur in urban areas. A device to measure the quantity or rate of downward water movement through a block of soil usually undisturbed, or to collect such percolated water for analysis as to quality. The reach of a riverstream formed by the tributaries that flow into it. A general term including extensive inundation and property damage. (Usually characterized by the evacuation of people and livestock and the closure of both primary and secondary roads.) MAP (Mean Areal Precipitation) : The average rainfall over a given area, generally expressed as an average depth over the area. A graph of the cumulative values of a hydrologic quantity (such as precipitation or runoff), generally as ordinate, plotted against time or date. Maximum Spillway Discharge : Spillway discharge (cfs) when reservoir is at maximum designed water surface elevation. The average depth of water in a stream channel or conduit. It is equal to the cross-sectional area divided by the surface width. The winding of a stream channel. The area between lines drawn tangential to the extreme limits of fully developed meanders. The curved surface of the liquid at the open end of a capillary column. Water derived from precipitation. A rate of discharge through an orifice one inch square under a specific head. A general term indicating minimal or no property damage but possibly some public inconvenience. Mission of the National Weather Service : To provide weather and flood warnings, public forecasts and advisories for all of the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, primarily for the protection of life and property. NWS data and products are provided to private meteorologist for the provision of all specialized services. Mission of the Hydrologic Services Program : To provide river and flood forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and to provide basic hydrologic forecast information for the Nations economic and environmental well being. The inundation of secondary roads transfer to higher elevation necessary to save property -- some evacuation may be required. The ratio of (1) the weight of water which the soil, after saturation, will retain against a centrifugal force 1,000 times the force of gravity, to (2) the weight of the soil when dry. The ratio is stated as a percentage. A stream bed made up of materials readily transportable by the stream flow. Moveable Bed Streams : These are most common in the arid West, where steep slopes and lack of vegetation result in a lot of erosion. During a flood, a channel may be eroded more deeply, or it may become filled with sediment and move to a different location. A reservoir constructed and equipped to provide storage and release of water for two or more purposes such as flood control, power development, navigation, irrigation, recreation, pollution abatement, domestic water supply, etc. Municipal Use of Water : The various uses of water in developed urban areas, including domestic use, industrial use, street sprinkling, fire protection, etc. The term is an inclusive one, applied where the uses are varied. A stream gaging control which is natural to the stream channel, in contrast to an artificial control structure by man. Three basic methods of providing and managing inland waterways - 1) Run-of-the-River: no provision of upstream storage 2) Slack-Water: locks and dams provide slack water or pools with adequate depth for the draft of heavy barges and area to prevent excessive velocities 3) Canalization: in lieu of a series of dams on the river a canal with locks adjoins the river. NOAA Central Computer Facility National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) : NESDIS collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates various types of hydrologic, meteorologic, and oceanic data. NESDIS is also responsible for the development of analytical and descriptive products so as to meet the needs of its users. The portion of rainfall which reaches a stream channel or the concentration point as direct surface flow. The National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center. An organization under the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology (OH) that mainly deals with snow mapping. Normal Water Surface Elevation (Normal Pool Level) : The lowest crest level of overflow on a reservoir with a fixed overflow level (spillway crest elevation). For a reservoir whose outflow is controlled wholly or partly by movable gates, siphons, or other means, it is the maximum level to which water may rise under normal operating conditions, exclusive of any provision for flood surcharge. A year during which the precipitation or stream flow approximates the average for a long period of record. National Resources Conservation Services National Weather Service Headquarters. NWSRFS V5.0, or Version 5 (National Weather Service River Forecast Model Version 5) : The system of data entry, data preprocessing, and forecast programs which are used by RFCs. To make river forecasts, RFCs run NWSRFS V5.0 on a mainframe computer in NWSH through Remote Job Entry, or locally via Government Development Platforms, GDPs. A non-pumping well used for observing the elevation of the water table or piezometric surface. A reverse curve, shaped like an elongated letter S. The downstream faces of overflow dams are often made to this shape. (From the French word Ogive). The Office of Hydrology, located in Silver Springs, MD. An Operations Manual Letter. These serve as updates to policy and procedure for the NWService Operations Manual (WSOM). One Percent Chance Flood (One Hundred Year Flood) : Flood magnitude that has one chance in 100 of being exceeded in any future 1-year period. The occurrence of floods is assumed to be random in time, or regularity of occurrence is implied. The exceeding of a 1-percent chance is no guarantee, therefore, that a similar size flood will not occur next week. The risk of experiencing a large flood within time periods longer than 1 year increases in a nonadditive fashion. For example, the risk of exceeding a 1-percent chance flood one or more times during a 30-year period is 25 percent and during a 70-year period is 50 percent. (1) An opening with closed perimeter, usually sharp edged, and of regular form in a plate, wall, or partition through which water may flow, generally used for the purpose of measurement or control of water. (2) The end of a small tube, such as a Pitot tube, piezometer, etc. Precipitation which is caused by hills or mountain ranges deflecting the moisture-laden air masses upward, causing them to cool and precipitate their moisture. A natural stream channel which transports reservoir releases. An opening through which water can be freely discharged from a reservoir. Outlet Discharge Structure : Protects the downstream end of the outlet pipe from erosion and is often designed to slow down the velocity of released water to prevent erosion of the stream channel. The flow of rainwater or snowmelt over the land surface toward stream channels. After it enters a watercourse it becomes runoff. Palmer Drought Severity Index : An index whereby excesses or deficiencies of precipitation are determined in relation to average climate values. The index takes in to account precipitation, potential and actual Evapotranspiration, infiltration of water into the soil, and runoff. Data such as rating curves, unit hydrographs, and rainfallrunoff curves which define hydrologic variables in models. A solid wall built along the top of the dam for ornament, safety, or to prevent overtopping. Partial-Duration Flood Series : A list of all flood peaks that exceed a chosen base stage or discharge, regardless of the number of peaks occurring in a year. Generally however, selected to result in one per year on average, with some years having none and others having several. Circular flat pieces of ice with a raised rim the shape and rim are due to repeated collisions. Highest rate of discharge of a volume of water passing a given location during a given period of time (during the year, or a flood event, etc..). Local saturated zones above the water table which exist above an impervious layer of limited extent. The water table of a relatively small ground-water body supported above the general ground water body. The movement of water, under hydrostatic pressure, through the interstices of a rock or soil, except the movement through large openings such as caves. In irrigation or farming practice, the amount of water that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation. The course followed by water moving or percolating through any other permeable material, or under a dam which rests upon a permeable foundation. The rate, usually expressed as a velocity, at which water moves through saturated granular material. The term is also applied to quantity per unit of time of such movement, and has been used erroneously to designate Infiltration Rate or Infiltration Capacity. A stream that flows all year round. Compare intermittent stream. A stream gaging control which is substantially unchanging and is not appreciably affected by scour, fill, or backwater. Fixed monuments placed away from the dam which allow movements in horizontal and vertical control points on the dam to be monitored by using accurate survey procedures. The ability of a material to transmit fluid through its pores when subjected to a difference in head. The rate of flow of a fluid through a cross section of a porous mass under a unit hydraulic gradient, at a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The standard coefficient of permeability used in hydrologic work in Meinzers Units is defined as the rate of flow of water at 60 degrees Fahrenheit, in gallons per day, through a cross section of 1 sq. ft. under a hydraulic gradient of 100. A related coefficient, which may be called the Field Coefficient of Permeability, is defined as the rate of flow of water, in gallons a day, under prevailing conditions, through each foot of thickness of a given aquifer in a width of 1 mile, for each foot per mile of hydraulic gradient. A laboratory instrument for determining permeability by measuring the discharge through a sample of the material when a known hydraulic head is applied. A part of the cross section of an embankment dam comprising material of high permeability. An instrument used to measure pressure head in a conduit, tank, soil, etc. They are used in dams to measure the level of saturation. The free surface of ground water at atmospheric pressure. Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs water in the zone of saturation where all openings in rocks and soil are filled, the upper surface of which forms the water table. Also termed Groundwater. The locus of points below the water table where soil pores are filled with water. This is also called the zone of saturation. A plant that habitually obtains its water supply from the zone of saturation, either directly or through the capillary fringe. An instrument for measuring pressure head in a conduit, tank, soil, etc. It usually consists of a small pipe or tube tapped into the side of the container, the inside end being flush with, and normal to, the water face of the container, connected with a manometer pressure gage, mercury of water column, or other device for indicating pressure head. Piezometric Level (or Surface) : Confined groundwater is usually under pressure because of the weight of the overburden and the hydrostatic head. If a well penetrates the confining layer, water will rise to this level, the piezometric level, the artesian equivalent of the water table. If the piezometric level is above ground level, the well discharges as a flowing well, artesian well, or a spring. The progressive development of internal erosion by seepage, appearing downstream as a hole or seam discharging water that contains soil particles. A device for measuring the velocity of flowing water using the velocity head of the stream as an index of velocity. It consists essentially of an orifice held to a point upstream in the water, connected with a tube in which the rise of water due to velocity head may be observed and measured. It also may be constructed with an upstream and downstream orifice, with two water columns, in which case the difference in height of water column in the tubes is the index of velocity. In hydrology, anything that is brought about directly by precipitation. Instantaneous rate of discharge, in contrast to the mean rate for an interval of time. Precipitation at a particular site, in contrast to the mean precipitation over an area. (1) The holding back of water for later release for power development above the dam of a hydroelectric plant to (a) equalize daily or weekly fluctuations of streamflow or (b) to permit irregular hourly use of water by the wheels to care for fluctuations in the load demand. (2) In general the holding back of water for later releases. (3) The storage capacity available for the use of such water. In flat areas, runoff collects, or ponds in depression and cannot drain out. Flood waters must infiltrate slowly into the soil, evaporate, or be pumped out. The height of the water behind a dam. (Various datums may be used and various pool heights may be used, e.g. conservation pool, flood control pool, etc.) The interstitial pressure of water within a mass of soil, rock, or concrete. The ratio of openings (voids) to the total volume of soil or rock. As used in hydrology, precipitation is the discharge of water, in a liquid or solid state, out of the atmosphere, generally onto a land or water surface. It is the common process by which atmospheric water becomes surface, or subsurface water. The term precipitation is also commonly used to designate the quantity of water that is precipitated. Precipitation includes rainfall, snow, hail, and sleet, and is therefore a more general term than rainfall. Precipitation Processing System. The WSR-88D system that generates 1-hour running, 3-hourly, and running storm total precipitation accumulations. Five functional steps are performed to calculate the best estimate of precipitation: 1) development of a sectorized hybrid scan, 2) conversion to precipitation rate, 3) precipitation accumulation, 4) adjustment using rain gages, 5) product update. Energy contained by fluid because of its pressure, usually expressed in feet of fluid (foot pounds per pound). A device for registering the pressure of solids, liquids, or gases. It may be graduated to register pressure in any units desired. Pressure Relief Pipes : Pipes used to relieve uplift or pore pressure in a dam foundation or in the dam structure. A current meter with a series of conical cups fastened to a flat framework through which a pin extends. The pin sets in the framework of the meter, and the cups are rotated around it in a horizontal plane by the flowing water, registering the number of revolutions by acoustical or electrical devices, from which the velocity of the water may be computed. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (PQPF) : A form of QPF (see below) that includes an assigned probability of occurrence for each numerical value in the forecast product. A graph showing variation of elevation with distance along a traverse. Measures that are undertaken usually by property owners in order to prevent, or reduce flood damage. Property protection measures are often inexpensive for the community because they are implemented by or cost-shared with property owners. In many cases the buildings appearance or use is unaffected, so these measurements are particularity appropriate for historical sites and landmarks. These measures include relocation and acquisition, flood proofing, and buying flood insurance. (1) The act of compacting earth, soil clay, etc. by mixing them with water and rolling or tamping the mixture. (2) A compact mass of earth, soil, clay, or a mixture of material, which has been compacted through the addition of water, rolling and tamping. This makes the material less permeable. (3) A small pool of water, usually a few inches in depth and from several inches to several feet in it greatest dimension. Energy given to a fluid by a pump, usually expressed in feet of fluid (foot pounds per pound). QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecast) : A spatial and temporal precipitation forecast that will predict the potential amount of future precipitation for a specified region, or area. Radioisotope Snow Gage : A snow water equivalent gage based on the absorption of gamma radiation by snow this gage can measure up to 55 inches water equivalent with a 2 to 5 percent error. A graph showing the relationship between the stage, usually plotted vertically (Y-axis) and the discharge, usually plotted horizontally (X-axis). A table of stage values and the corresponding discharge for a river gaging site. The distance between two specific points outlining that portion of the stream, or river for which the forecast applies. This generally applies to the distance above and below the forecast point for which the forecast is valid. Constant used to reduce the API value daily in the API method of estimating runoff. The average amount of time between events of a given magnitude. For example, there is a 1 chance that a 100-year flood will occur in any given year. A relatively permanent point of known elevation which is tied to a benchmark. The measure of the efficiency of a radar target in intercepting and returning Electro Magnetic Energy. Reflectivity depends upon the size, shape, aspect and dielectric properties at the surface of the target. Some maps show an area where construction regulations require special provisions to account for this extra hazard. This is a regulatory floodway. Remote Observing System Automation (ROSA) : A type of automated data transmitter used by NWS Cooperative Program observers. A man-made facility for the storage, regulation and controlled release of water. Reservoir Surface Area : The surface area of a reservoir when filled to the normal pool or water level. The volume of a reservoir when filled to normal pool or water level. The amount of time in which it will take a watershed to react to a given rainfall event. RFC (River Forecast Center) : Centers that serve groups of Weather Forecast Offices, in providing hydrologic guidance and is the first echelon office for the preparation of river and flood forecasts and warnings. A line or wall of broken ice forced up by pressure. May be fresh or weathered. Ice piled haphazardly one piece over another in the form of ridges or walls. A stream and all the vegetation on its banks. Drainage area of a river and its tributaries. The rise of a river to an elevation such that the river overflows its natural banks causing or threatening damage. An internal product issued by RFCs to other NWS offices. An RVF contains stage andor flow forecasts for specific locations based on existing, and forecasted hydrometeorologic conditions. The contents of these products are used by the HSA office to prepare Flood Warnings (FLW), Flood Statements (FLS), River Statements (RVS), as well as other products available to the public. A device for measuring the river stage. The arbitrary zero datum elevation which all stage measurements are made from. River Ice Statement (RVI) : A public product issued by the RFCs containing narrative and numeric information on river ice conditions. River Observing Station : An established location along a river designated for observing and measuring properties of the river. River Recreation Statement (RVR). A statement released by the NWS to inform river users of current and forecast river and lake conditions. These statements are especially useful for planning purposes. A product issued to communicate notable hydrologic conditions which do not involve flooding, i.e. within river bank rises, minor ice jams, etc. A NWS summary of river and or crest stages for selected forecast points along the river. All of the streams and channels draining a river basin. An embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by using rollers or rolling equipment. Same as Rolled Filled Dam. A graduated staff used in determining the difference in elevation between two points. The two most common types of rods are the Philadelphia Rod, graduated in feet and hundredths of a foot, and a California Rod, graduated in feet, inches, and eights of an inch. An embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by using rollers or rolling equipment. Same as Rockfill dam. Regional Operations Manual Letter. These serve as updates to regional policy and procedure for the National Weather Service Operations Manual (WSOM). Remote Observation System Automation Ice in an advanced stage of disintegration. The methods of predicting the attenuation of a flood wave as it moves down the course of a river. That part of precipitation that flows toward the streams on the surface of the ground or within the ground. Runoff is composed of baseflow and surface runoff. Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SACSMA) : A hydrologic model which simulates the movement and occurrence of water in and on top of the ground. Satellite Hydrology Program : A NOHRSC program that uses satellite data to generate areal extent of snow cover data over large areas of the western United States. The Soil Conservation Service, now known as the NRCS (National Resources Conservation Services). Station Duty Manual The volume of water represented by a flow of one cubic foot per second for 24 hours equal to 84,000 cubic feet. This is used extensively as a unit of runoff volume. Often abbreviated as SDF. Sediment Storage Capacity : The volume of a reservoir planned for the deposition of sediment. The interstitial movement of water that may take place through a dam, its foundation, or abutments. The designated expert of the hydrology program at a WFO. Flow that occurs overland in places where there are no defined channels, the flood water spreads out over a large area at a uniform depth. This also referred to as overland flow. SHEF (Standard Hydrologic Exchange Format) : A documented set of rules for coding data for operational day-to-day use in a form for both visual and computer recognition. A software decoder for SHEF Data. An ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore border ice. Term used in conjunction with forecast or warning to convey the fact that a hydrologic (stream) forecast is produced for an individual stream gage location as opposed to a general area (e.g. a city, zone, or county) as is commonly done in many types of weather forecasts. Site Specific Hydrologic Prediction System (SSHP) : The WFO hydrologic forecast model for small rivers and streams that uses RFC soil moisture state variables, stage and precipitation data. Routing capabilities may be added to future builds. The Soil Moisture Accounting Model. Small Stream Flooding : Flooding of small creeks, streams, or runs. The Simplified Dam Break (DAMBRK) Model. Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model : A model which simulates snow pack accumulation, heat exchange at the air-snow interface, areal extent of snow cover, heat storage within the snow pack, liquid water retention, and transmission and heat exchange at the ground-snow interface. A sample of either freshly fallen snow, or the combined old and new snow on the ground. This is obtained by pushing a cylinder down through the snow layer and extracting it. The mass of snow per unit volume which is equal to the water content of the snow divided by its depth. The combined total depth of both the old and new snow on the ground. An instrument used to measure snow water equivalents. Snow pillows typically have flat stainless steel surface areas. The pillow below this flat surface is filled with antifreeze solution and the pressure in the pillow is related to the water-equivalent depth of the snow on the platform. One great advantage of snow pillows over a snow survey is the frequency of observations, which can be as high as twice per day. A 1-34 inch square, semi-permanent stake, marked in inch increments to measure snow depth. A portable rod used to measure snow depth. An automated network of snowpack data collection sites. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), has operated the Federal-State-Private Cooperative Snow Survey Program in the western United States since 1935. A standard SNOTEL site consists of a snow pillow, a storage type precipitation gage, air temperature sensor and a small shelter for housing electronics. Snow Water Equivalent : The water content obtained from melting accumulated snow. A flat, solid, white material, such as painted plywood, approximately two feet square, which is laid on the ground, or snow surface by weather observers to obtain more accurate measurements of snowfall and water content. Flooding caused primarily by the melting of snow. The total snow and ice on the ground, including the new snow, the previous snow and ice which has not melted. Soil Conservation Service : The former name of a branch of the United States Department of Agriculture, renamed the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). NRCS has responsibilities in soil and water conservation, and flood prevention. Water contained in the upper regions near the earths surface. The ratio of the water which will drain freely from the material to the total volume of the aquifer formation. This value will always be less than the porosity. A structure over or through which excess or flood flows are discharged. If the flow is controlled by gates, it is a controlled spillway, if the elevation of the spillway crest is the only control, it is an uncontrolled spillway. Some various types of spillways include. Auxiliary or Emergency Spillway. A secondary spillway designed to operate only during exceptionally large flood flows. Allows inflows from large storms to be released from the reservoir before the water level raises high enough to overtop the dam. Fuse Plug Spillway. An auxiliary or emergency spillway comprising a low embankment or a natural saddle designed to be overtopped and eroded away during flood flows. Primary (or Principal) Spillway. The spillway which would be used first during normal inflow and flood flows. Shaft or Morning Glory Spillway. A vertical or inclined shaft into which flood water spills and then is conducted through, under, or around a dam by means of a conduit or tunnel. If the upper part of the shaft is splayed out and terminates in a circular horizontal weir, it is termed a bellmouth or morning glory spillway. Side Channel Spillway. A spillway whose crest is roughly parallel to the channel immediately downstream of the spillway. Siphon Spillway. A spillway with one or more siphons built at crest level. This type of spillway is sometimes used for providing automatic surface-level regulation within narrow limits or when considerable discharge capacity is necessary within a short period of time. The elevation of the highest point of a spillway. An issue of water from the earth a natural fountain a source of a reservoir of water. A vertical staff graduated in appropriate units which is placed so that a portion of the gage is in the water at all times. Observers read the river stage off the staff gage. The level of the water surface above a given datum at a given location. Stage I Precipitation Processing. The first level of precipitation processing, occurring within the WSR-88D computer and performed for each volume scan of the radar. Base reflectivity data are converted to a precipitation estimate for each grid in the radar umbrella using a complex algorithm that includes quality control procedures, a ZR relationship, and a bias adjustment using data from a ground-based precipitation gage network. Several graphical and digital products are produced for Weather Forecast Office (WFO) operations and subsequent processing. Stage II Precipitation Processing : The second level of precipitation processing, occurring within the WFO Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) and performed on an hourly basis. Stage I precipitation estimates are further refined using data from additional precipitation gages and other sources such as rainno rain determinations from satellite imagery. Stage II may also be executed at RFCs for backup purposes. Stage III Precipitation Processing : The third level of precipitation processing, performed interactively at RFCs. Stage II precipitation estimates from multiple radars are mosaiced into an RFC area-wide product for use in river basin hydrologic modeling operations. RFC forecasters can review the mosaiced product, interactively edit areas of bad data, and substitute gage-only fields into portions of the mosaiced radar based product. Stage IV Precipitation Processing : The fourth level of precipitation processing, performed automatically andor interactively at NCEP. Stage III precipitation estimates from RFCs are mosaiced into a Nation-wide product for use in various real-time forecast activities and forecast verification operations. The process of continually updating river forecasts for the purpose of incorporating the effects rain that has fallen since the previous forecast was prepared. The goal of using QPF is to minimize stair-stepping. A basin constructed to dissipate the energy of fast-flowing water (e.g. from a spillway or bottom outlet), and to protect the streambed from erosion. Large logs, timbers or steel beams placed on top of each other with their ends held in guides on each side of a channel or conduit providing a temporary closure versus a permanent bulkhead gate. (1) Water artificially impounded in surface or underground reservoirs for future use. (2) Water naturally detained in a drainage basin, such as ground water, channel storage, and depression storage. The equation for the conservation of mass. A hydrograph representing the total flow or discharge past a point. Precipitation that does not infiltrate into the ground or evaporate due to impervious land surfaces but instead flows onto adjacent land or water areas and is routed into drainsewer systems. A site along a stream where the stage (water level) is read either by eye or measured with recording equipment. Refers to the surface waters of an approved planning area exhibiting common hydrological, natural, physical, biological, or chemical processes. Segments will normally exhibit common reactions to external stresses such as discharge or pollutants. Water flowing in the stream channel. It is often used interchangeably with discharge. Sinking down of part of the earths crust due to underground excavation, such as the removal of groundwater. A location where observations are taken or other services are furnished by people not located at NWS offices who do not need to be certified to take observations. Subsurface Storm Flow : The lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream channels than runoff. This also called interflow. The volume of a reservoir between the maximum water surface elevation for which the dam is designed and the crest of an uncontrolled spillway, or the normal full-pool elevation of the reservoir with the crest gates in the normal closed position. An indented area in the lands surface, such as a pit, pond, or lagoon. The runoff that travels overland to the stream channel. Rain that falls on the stream channel is often lumped with this quantity. Water that flows in streams and rivers and in natural lakes, in wetlands, and in reservoirs constructed by humans. Long-term withdrawal from the aquifer of more water than is being recharged. Snow Water Equivalent Height of water immediately downstream of the dam. (Various datums may be used.) The line of maximum depth in a stream. The thalweg is the part that has the maximum velocity and causes cutbanks and channel migration. An instrument used in surveying to measure horizontal and vertical angles with a small telescope that can move in the horizontal and vertical planes. The runoff in inches from a rain of specified duration that causes a small stream to slightly exceed bankfull. When available, flood stage is used instead of slightly over bankfull. Tipping-Bucket Rain Gage : A precipitation gage where collected water is funneled into a two compartment bucket 0.01, 0.1 mm, or some other designed quantity of rain will fill one compartment and overbalance the bucket so that it tips, emptying into a reservoir and moving the second compartment into place beneath the funnel. Tipping buckets provide a measurement of both intensity and amount of precipitation. Toe of Dam (Upstream and Downstream) : The junction of the face of a dam with the ground surface. A drain which carries seepage away from the dam and can allow seepage quantities to be measured. Total Gross Reservoir Capacity : The total amount of storage capacity available in a reservoir for all purposes from the streambed to the normal water or normal water or normal pool surface level. It does not include surcharge, but does include dead storage. A hydrograph or similar plot for an extended-range time horizon showing one of many scenarios generated through an ensemble forecast process. Trace (of Precipitation) : A rainfall amount less than 0.01 of an inch. Water discharged into the atmosphere from plant surfaces. A screen located at an intake to prevent debris from entering. The time required for a flood wave to travel from one location to a subsequent location downstream. The thickness or opaqueness of water caused by the suspension of matter. The turbidity of rivers and lakes increases after a rainfall. A temporary point whose elevation is determined by additions and subtractions of backsights and foresights respectively. A current below the upper currents or surface of a fluid body. The lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream channels than runoff. This also called subsurface storm flow. Unit Hydrograph (or Unitgraph) : The discharge hydrograph from one inch of surface runoff distributed uniformly over the entire basin for a given time period. Unit Hydrograph Duration : The time over which one inch of surface runoff is distributed for unit hydrograph theory. Unit Hydrograph Theory : Unit Hydrograph Theory states that surface runoff hydrographs for storm events of the same duration will have the same shape, and the ordinates of the hydrograph will be proportional to the ordinates of the unit hydrograph. For example, the hydrograph for of storm runoff will be half that of that from the unit hydrograph. Universal Type Weighting and Recording Gage : A gage which collects precipitation and then converts the weight onto an inked pen movement which traces on graph paper fixed to a clock driven drum. The part of the dam which is in contact with the reservoir water. On earthen dams, this slope must be protected from the erosive action of waves by rock riprap or concrete. Urban Flash Flood Guidance : A specific type of flash flood guidance which estimates the average amount of rain needed over an urban area during a specified period of time to initiate flooding on small, ungaged streams in the urban area. Flooding of streets, underpasses, low lying areas, or storm drains. This type of flooding is mainly an inconvenience and is generally not life threatening. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) : As part of the Department of the Army, the Corps has responsibilities in civil and military areas. In civil works, the USACE has authority for approval of dredge and fill permits in navigable waters and tributaries thereof the USACE enforces wetlands regulations, and constructs and operates a variety of water resources projects, mostly notably levee, dams and locks. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) : The Federal agency whose mandate was to reclaim the arid west of the United States. Operating in 17 western states, this agency builds, operates and maintains a variety of irrigation, power, and flood control projects. The U.S. Forest Service. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) : The Federal Agency chartered in 1879 by congress to classify public lands, and to examine the geologic structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. As part of its mission, the USGS provides information and data on the Nations rivers and streams that are useful for mitigation of hazards associated with floods and droughts. The locus of points just above the water table where soil pores may either contain air or water. This is also called the zone of aeration. A device fitted to a pipeline or orifice in which the closure member is either rotated or moved in some way as to control or stop flow. Areas within the floodplain subject to potential high damage from waves. These sometimes appear on flood insurance rate maps. Any surface flow such as a river, stream, or tributary. Land area from which water drains toward a common watercourse in a natural basin. The amount of water, in inches, obtained by melting a snow sample. The alteration of the constituents of a body of water by man to such a degree that the water loses its value as a natural resource. Water Supply Outlook : A seasonal volume forecast, generally for a period centered around the time of spring snowmelt (e.g. April-July). The outlooks are in units of acre-feet and represent the expected volume of water to pass by a given point during a snowmelt season. The outlook categories include Most Probable, Reasonable Maximum, and Reasonable Minimum. Water Supply Outlook (ESS) Product : A public product issued by a Forecast Office which contains narrative and numeric information on current and extended water supply conditions. The level below the earths surface at which the ground becomes saturated with water. The water table is set where hydrostatic pressure equals atmospheric pressure. The time period form October 1 through September 30. Weighing-type Precipitation Gage. A rain gage that weighs the rain or snow which falls into a bucket set on a platform of a spring or lever balance. The increasing weight of its contents plus the bucket are recorded on a chart. The record thus shows the accumulation of precipitation. (a) A low dam built across a stream to raise the upstream water level (fixed-crest weir when uncontrolled) (b) A structure built across a stream or channel for the purpose of measuring flow (measuring or gaging weir) (c) A structure built into a levee or river bank that allows water to flow from the main river channel into a bypass channel during time of high flows. An approach to floodproofing which usually is a last resort. Flood waters are intentionally allowed into the building to minimize water pressure on the structure. Wet floodproofing can include moving a few valuable items to a higher place or completely rebuilding the floodable area. Wet floodproofing has an advantage over other approaches: no matter how little is done, flood damage will be reduced. Thousands of dollars in damage can be avoided just by moving furniture and appliances out of the flood-prone area. An area that is regularly wet or flooded and has a water table that stands at or above the land surface for at least part of the year. A National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. A river gage comprised of a weight which is lowered to the water level. The weight is attached to a cable and as the weight is lowered, a counter indicates the length of cable released. The stage is determined from the length of cable required to reach the water level. The empirical conversion relationship between radar reflectivity and precipitation rate. A reference zero elevation for a stream or river gage. This zero can be referenced (usually within ten feet of the bottom of the channel) to mean sea level, or to any other recognized datum. Zoned Embankment Dam : An embankment dam which is comprised of zones of selected materials having different degrees of porosity, permeability and density. The locus of points just above the water table where soil pores may either contain air or water. This is also called the vadose zone. The locus of points below the water table where soil pores are filled with water. This is also called the phreatic zone.
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