Murex-trading-system-pdf

Murex-trading-system-pdf

Trading-impuls-sistem
Trading-strategi-nse
Kode sistem perdagangan kurir


Inwestowanie-na-rynku-forex Option-trading --- berpikir-luar-the-box Apa-adalah-the-terbaik-biner-pilihan-broker Malaysia-forex-trader Perbedaan-moving-average-dan-weighted-average Stock-options-tax-as-income-or-capital-gain

Nilai kami orang-orang kami Memimpin penerbit b2b, yang mengkhususkan diri dalam komunitas profesional online dan interaktif Dengan berbagai layanan termasuk situs web, publikasi email, penghargaan dan acara industri, Sift Media memberikan konten bermerek asli kepada lebih dari setengah juta profesional di bidang akuntansi, TI, SDM Dan pelatihan, pemasaran, dan usaha kecil. Dengan menghasilkan konten berkualitas dan melibatkan pemirsa profesional kami di beberapa titik sentuh, kami menawarkan peluang pemasaran unik dari merek b2b yang menghasilkan laba atas investasi yang sesungguhnya. Nilai Kami Kami percaya dalam menciptakan konten, memungkinkan percakapan dan mengubah peluang bisnis, baik untuk khalayak bisnis maupun klien periklanan kami. Dengan berfokus pada konten dan mendorong keterlibatan masyarakat, kami bertujuan untuk menciptakan lingkungan yang terpercaya dan unik bagi merek bisnis dan profesional bisnis untuk mengoptimalkan hubungan. Orang-orang kami Orang-orang kami adalah aset terbesar kami dan kami beruntung mendapatkan beberapa talenta digital terbaik di negara ini. Dengan tim manajemen senior, manajer kampanye dan akun berpengalaman, editor pemenang penghargaan, dan tim produksi dan teknologi terdepan, kami memiliki struktur dan kualitas yang membedakan kami dari penerbit lain. Cari tahu lebih banyak dan temui tim di bawah ini. Tom Dunkerley Direktur Keuangan Steven Priscott, Menyaring Sejarah Kami Didirikan oleh Andrew Gray, David Gilroy dan CEO Ben Heald saat ini, Sift menawarkan layanan informasi khusus industri yang memanfaatkan internet dengan mengintegrasikan berita dan konten web tradisional. Dengan latar belakang Bens di bidang akuntansi, diputuskan bahwa ini adalah pasar eksplorasi pertama dan pada tahun 1997 AccountingWEB.co.uk lahir. Rumusnya berhasil, dan dalam 12 bulan daftar sirkulasi telah meningkat dari 10 menjadi 4.000, dengan pendapatan dihasilkan dari iklan dalam buletin mingguan mingguan. Sift Media sekarang menjangkau lebih dari 700.000 profesional bisnis terdaftar setiap bulan dan memberikan lebih dari 5 juta tayangan halaman di seluruh portofolio 11 judul di Inggris dan Amerika Serikat. Tidak hanya kami terus mengembangkan beberapa komunitas bisnis online yang paling setia dan terlibat, kami memberikan solusi terdepan untuk pengiklan. Untuk riwayat yang lebih rinci, kunjungi situs perusahaan kami. Jika Anda ingin bergabung dengan salah satu penerbit paling menarik di Inggris dan Anda yakin memiliki gairah dan keterampilan untuk menjadi bagian berharga dari tim, mengapa tidak memeriksa lowongan kami saat ini. Siapa Siapa E-Faktur Itu hanya membutuhkan 2 Langkah-langkah untuk melengkapi entri Anda di WHO IS OF E-INVOICING (berlaku sampai 15 Maret tahun berikutnya, EUR 199): 1. Kirimkan logo Anda, embed kode video dan teks Anda melalui email 2. Bayar dengan kartu kredit Memimpin E -Solusi Penyedia dan penyedia layanan Kami terus-menerus memindai pasar untuk layanan E-Faktur dan meneliti penawaran. Di sini kami menyajikan daftar solusi E-Faktur dan penyedia layanan terkemuka: Solusi Perangkat Lunak ASG membantu pelanggan dengan lingkungan TI yang kompleks memecahkan masalah di seluruh perusahaan mereka. Solusinya memberdayakan bisnis untuk mencapai produktivitas yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, mendapatkan pemahaman informasi yang tepat dan tepat waktu yang mendasari keputusan bisnis dan memenuhi kebutuhan kepatuhan dengan peningkatan visibilitas data lintas platform. ASG dengan bangga bisa mengatakan bahwa lebih dari 70 persen perusahaan Fortune 500 global mempercayainya untuk mengoptimalkan investasi TI mereka yang ada. ASG adalah penyedia global solusi teknologi mission-critical dengan lebih dari 1.000 orang yang mendukung basis pelanggan global di 4.000 pelanggan kelas menengah dan perusahaan. Asg Membuat pajak yang tidak terlalu mahal Avalara membantu bisnis dari semua ukuran mencapai kepatuhan terhadap pajak transaksional, termasuk PPN, penjualan dan penggunaan, cukai, komunikasi, dan jenis pajak lainnya. Kami memberikan solusi berbasis cloud yang komprehensif dan otomatis yang cepat, akurat, dan mudah digunakan. Platform Compatiance CloudTM kami membantu pelanggan mengelola kewajiban kepatuhan pajak yang rumit dan memberatkan yang dikenakan oleh otoritas perpajakan regional dan lintas batas di seluruh dunia. Avalara menawarkan ratusan konektor pra-bangun ke aplikasi ERP, e-commerce, dan bisnis terkemuka lainnya. Setiap tahun, perusahaan memproses miliaran transaksi pajak tidak langsung untuk pelanggan dan pengguna, mengajukan ratusan ribu dokumen kepatuhan pajak dan pengembalian pajak, dan mengelola jutaan sertifikat pengecualian dan dokumen terkait kepatuhan lainnya. Markas EMEA Avalaras berada di Brighton, Inggris, dengan kantor pusat A.S. di Seattle, WA dan perkantoran di seluruh A.S. dan London, Inggris Brussel, Belgia dan Pune, India. Avalara Aztec adalah perusahaan pembayaran terkemuka yang didedikasikan untuk merampingkan keuangan global. Dengan PayMe, produk unggulan perusahaan, pemasok sekarang memiliki solusi pembayaran dengan biaya rendah dalam 2 klik, dan perusahaan dapat dengan mudah mengamankan rantai pasokan mereka dengan biaya minimal. Its win-win payme.cloud B2Boost menyediakan Layanan Dikelola secara eksklusif untuk otomatisasi proses Order-to-Cash, ke perusahaan dan industri papan atas. Kami menyesuaikan dan mengoperasikan platform transaksional yang sesuai, mendukung proses dan komunitas mitra dagang Anda, as-a-Service. Platform kami yang unik dan fleksibel, berorientasi layanan memungkinkan kami menyediakan solusi dan layanan yang berdedikasi kepada pelanggan kami. Kami bangga dalam memastikan 100 kepuasan pelanggan dan dalam menciptakan nilai nyata bagi pelanggan kami. Tidak omong kosong Tidak ada penyedia layanan e-Faktur lainnya yang memahami konteks dan kebutuhan pemasok seperti yang kita lakukan. Tanya pelanggan kami B2boost B2BRouter menyediakan layanan faktur elektronik untuk perusahaan kecil hingga besar melalui portal berbasis web dan layanan integrasi yang andal dan aman. Kami mengoperasikan platform kami sendiri yang menyediakan akses ke jaringan PEPPOL dan berbagai jaringan eInvoicing publik dan swasta lainnya untuk memungkinkan pelanggan kami bertukar faktur elektronik dan dokumen pengadaan lainnya dengan SEMUA mitra dagang mereka. Visi model empat sudut kami tidak menghalangi kami untuk menawarkan layanan gratis kepada perusahaan-perusahaan kecil untuk memfasilitasi on-boarding mereka ke dalam ekonomi digital untuk pertukaran B2B: Lebih dari 30.000 bisnis terdaftar saat ini menukar faktur elektronik mereka melalui platform kami, menjembatani satu jaringan ( Termasuk EDI Value Added Networks) ke yang lain secara transparan, menilai layanan kami sebagai pilihan utama untuk faktur elektronik. Insinyur kami yang berpengalaman bekerja sama dengan komunitas standardisasi seperti UBL, CEN dan OpenPEPPOL untuk memastikan layanan dan pilihan standar kami selalu up-to-date. Lihatlah layanan dasar kami secara gratis atau menjadi pelanggan dan Anda akan mendapatkan keuntungan dari produk, layanan dan pengetahuan terbaik kami. B2brouter Basware adalah pemimpin global dalam menyediakan solusi pembelian-untuk-bayar berjejaring, layanan faktur elektronik dan pembiayaan inovatif. Jaringan perdagangan dan pembiayaan Baswares menghubungkan bisnis di lebih dari 100 negara dan wilayah di seluruh dunia. Sebagai jaringan bisnis terbuka terbesar di dunia, Basware menyediakan skala dan jangkauan untuk organisasi dari semua ukuran, memungkinkan mereka untuk mengembangkan bisnis mereka dan membuka nilai di seluruh operasi mereka dengan menyederhanakan dan menyederhanakan proses keuangan. Perusahaan kecil dan besar di seluruh dunia mencapai penghematan biaya yang signifikan, persyaratan pembayaran yang lebih fleksibel, efisiensi yang lebih besar dan hubungan yang lebih dekat dengan pemasok mereka. Cari tahu lebih lanjut di basware Die Bonpago GmbH, gegrndet 2000 von Dr. Donovan Pfaff, ist das fhrende Beratungshaus fr Financial Supply Chain Management (FSCM) di Deutschland. Das Unternehmen mit Sitz di Frankfurt am Main begleitet seither zahlreiche Kunden bei der Optimierung von Prozessen im Finanz- und Rechnungswesen. Bonpago, entstanden als Spin-off aus dem Lehrstuhl fr Perdagangan Elektronik und dem E-Finance Lab der Goethe-Universitt di Frankfurt, unterhlt intensif Kontes zur Wissenschaft und verknpft einen wissenschaftlichen Ansatz mit praktischer Intelligenz fr inovatif dan fleksibel Geschftsablufe mit hoher Akzeptanz. Zu den Kunden zhlen die ffentliche Verwaltung sowie Konzerne und der Mittelstand, insbesondere Versorgungsunternehmen dan Finanzdienstleister. Das Beratungsprogramm zur E-Rechnung ist modular aufgebaut, sodass die Untersttzung gezielt und effizient erfolgen kann. Bundesdruckerei GmbH yang berbasis di Berlin, Inggris, menawarkan Manajemen ID Penuh dengan solusi dan layanan sistem untuk identifikasi yang aman baik di dunia analog maupun digital dan merupakan salah satu perusahaan terdepan di dunia yang beroperasi di bidang ini. Portofolionya berkisar dari pengambilan data, pengelolaan dan enkripsi hingga produksi dokumen dan perangkat verifikasi hingga solusi kontrol perbatasan elektronik, perangkat lunak untuk infrastruktur keamanan tinggi, serta sistem paspor dan kartu identitas yang lengkap. Bundesdruckerei.de Comarch adalah perusahaan teknologi yang telah berkecimpung dalam optimalisasi proses bisnis selama 22 tahun. Portofolio perusahaan mencakup sistem pertukaran data elektronik (electronic data interchange / EDI). Comarch EDI adalah platform B2B, yang memberikan keunggulan kompetitif melalui pertukaran data yang cepat dan aman dengan mitra bisnis. Solusinya menyediakan otomasi pengolahan data di seluruh rantai pasokan: mulai dari proses pengadaan, melalui logistik, hingga pemrosesan faktur dan pembayaran. Comarch EDI memungkinkan penghematan dilakukan dan sesuai dengan persyaratan hukum dan ekologi. Di antara klien yang telah mempercayai Comarch adalah rantai ritel terbesar (misalnya Grup Metro, Tesco, Carrefour, Leroy Merlin), perusahaan FMCG (misalnya BIC, Johnson amp Johnson, LOreal, Unilever), perusahaan farmasi (misalnya GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi) dan Perwakilan dari sektor pasar utama lainnya. Wwwarchtrade-and-servicesedi Conexiom memungkinkan produsen dan distributor untuk fokus melayani pelanggan dan mengelola hubungan pemasok alih-alih memasukkan data. Solusi Conexiom yang dipatenkan oleh paten diciptakan oleh ecmarket, pengembang solusi cloud. Conexiom merevolusi praktik penjualan dan praktik bisnis yang penting dengan mengotomatisasi entri manual dengan akurasi 100. Conexiom dengan mudah mengubah pesanan pembelian pelanggan email dan pesanan tercetak dan faktur pemasok menjadi pesanan penjualan otomatis dan faktur, memungkinkan perusahaan untuk fokus pada pertumbuhan berkendara. Conexiom membantu organisasi di seluruh dunia mempertahankan keunggulan kompetitif. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, kunjungi conexiom Sebagai Penyedia Layanan Jerman terkemuka untuk e-Faktur, Supply Chain Finance dan pertukaran dokumen elektronik, crossinx mendukung perusahaan untuk menyadari potensi jaringan mereka. Solusi fleksibel dan terukur membingkai portofolio layanan yang komprehensif untuk pertukaran faktur, pesanan, dan dokumen pengiriman elektronik di seluruh dunia. Crossinx sepenuhnya mengelola semua proses bisnis keuangan berbasis dokumen antara perusahaan, pelanggan dan pemasok mereka. Manajemen Rantai Pasokan Keuangan berbasis awan ini memungkinkan konversi 100 ke proses elektronik yang tidak bergantung pada infrastruktur TI dan ukuran perusahaan yang ada. Karena keanggotaan crossinx dalam asosiasi faktur elektronik di Jerman (VeR) dan European Association (EESPA) terdapat banyak pilihan roaming di seluruh dunia untuk penyedia layanan. Solusi terintegrasi sesuai dengan semua persyaratan fiskal nasional dan internasional dan memenuhi persyaratan privasi dan keamanan data Jerman. Dengan lebih dari 30.000 perusahaan yang terhubung, volume faktur hampir 20 miliar Euro, sebuah tim yang terdiri dari hampir 60 pegawai operasional nasional dan multinasional dan tingkat ekspansi hingga 100 perusahaan yang berkantor pusat di Frankfurt merupakan pelopor dalam salah satu pasar dengan pertumbuhan tercepat di Dunia. Jaringan mitra mencakup antara lain dengan dua Bank Ritel terbesar di Jerman, Sparkassen Group dan Volks- und Raiffeisenbanken. Crossinx EdifactMx memiliki solusi khusus untuk mengirim dan menerima faktur elektronik, perangkat lunak kami tersedia untuk hampir semua jenis platform Windows, Unix, Linux, iOS, Android. Solusi kami berkisar dari aplikasi pada smartphone ke sistem kritis misi ERP yang kompleks, ini dapat diimplementasikan di rumah (di rumah) atau di awan. Kami berfokus pada implementasi yang kompleks yang menghubungkan bisnis logistik, operasi dan bisnis dengan volume transaksi yang tinggi dan terutama perusahaan besar dan perusahaan besar. Solusi telah diimplementasikan pada perusahaan dengan sistem ERP seperti SAP, Epicor, Kepler, Oracle, Infor, MS Dynamics, AS7400, IBM I Series 7, antara lain. Edifact.mx EESPA adalah Asosiasi Penyedia Layanan E-Faktur Eropa. Ini adalah Asosiasi Nirlaba Internasional (AISBLIVZW) yang diselenggarakan berdasarkan hukum Belgia. EESPA bertindak sebagai asosiasi perdagangan di tingkat Eropa untuk komunitas Penyedia Layanan E-Faktur yang besar dan dinamis, yang diambil dari organisasi yang menyediakan layanan jaringan, bisnis outsourcing, keuangan, teknologi dan EDI. Dibentuk pada tahun 2011 EESPA sudah memiliki lebih dari 50 anggota penuh dan associate. Eespa.eu E-COM didirikan pada tanggal 4 April 2006. Tujuan E-COM adalah untuk memberikan layanan EDI dan integrasi E-Invoicing ke seluruh mitra bisnis dan perdagangan di CIS (Ukraina, Moldova, Rusia, Kazakhstan). Dasar teknologi untuk keputusan bisnis telah menjadi ciri khas EXITE dengan sejarah pembangunan 25 tahun. Bidang kegiatan utama: Layanan EDI, E-Invocing, tanda tangan elektronik digital dll Hari ini E-COM bekerja sama dengan lebih dari 25K pemasok dan lebih dari 7000 klien di CIS. Kami bangga dengan kemampuan kami untuk memberikan solusi yang sangat sederhana atau kompleks kepada klien kami, tepat waktu dan sesuai anggaran, menggunakan perangkat lunak kami dan tim spesialis kami dari konsultan implementasi dan manajemen proyek yang berpengalaman. Ecom-infoeng e-PRIOR adalah platform berorientasi layanan, yang dikembangkan oleh DG Informatika Komisi Eropa, yang memungkinkan pemasok untuk menukarkan dokumen e-procurement standar dengan EC dan Institusinya. Versi open source dari e-PRIOR, yang disebut Open e-PRIOR tersedia secara bebas untuk Negara-negara Anggota dan dapat diimplementasikan dalam administrasi publik manapun. Platform terhubung ke PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement OnLine) melalui Access Point-nya sendiri, memfasilitasi pertukaran lintas batas dokumen e-procurement. Joinup.ec.europa.eu esdinamico memecahkan kompleksitas pelanggan yang terkait dengan Faktur, Pembiayaan dan Manajemen Rantai Pasokan, dan Solusi Pembayaran. Perusahaan menawarkan berbagai produk dan layanan yang mudah digunakan dan mudah digabungkan ke platform ERP atau situs web e-commerce. Solusi bisnis yang dikembangkan di dalam rumah memungkinkan kami memberikan dukungan khusus dan layanan pelanggan terbaik sehari-hari. Kami membantu perusahaan untuk fokus pada intinya, karena alasan ini, lebih dari enam ratus perusahaan kelas dunia di Kolombia, Ekuador dan Peru mempercayai esdinamico. Esdinamico Gosocket adalah jaringan B2B yang mengatur dan mengelola hubungan antara pembeli dan pemasok melalui penggunaan faktur elektronik yang sesuai di Amerika Latin. Dari koneksi ini memberikan layanan bernilai tambah dengan fokus pada supply chain finance. Didirikan pada tahun 2012, menghubungkan dengan lebih dari 500 juta faktur elektronik lebih dari 1 juta perusahaan di seluruh Amerika Latin. Aksesnya adalah melalui portal web gosocket. Yang juga dapat diakses melalui perangkat mobile baik dengan versi mobile web mereka m.gosocket atau melalui aplikasi asli untuk smartphone atau tablet iOS, Android, Windows Phone atau Windows 10. gosocket Sebagai EDI Managed terdepan di dunia dan mutakhir Penyedia Jasa, INPOSIA menerapkan layanannya di semua cabang dan proses. Proses pengiriman Just-in-Time yang rumit serta transaksi keuangan penting bisnis - semua mitra bisnis dan perdagangan dapat terintegrasi secara berkelanjutan dan kompeten di sepanjang rantai pasokan pelanggan dengan portofolio INPOSIA. INPOSIA tumbuh secara nasional maupun internasional, karena hubungan bisnis yang tahan lama dan tahan lama. Berkenaan dengan pentingnya keamanan data yang sangat besar, INPOSIA menjalankan layanannya di pusat layanan pemrosesan data yang sangat aman dan bersertifikat, berlokasi secara internasional dan dipilih oleh persyaratan pelanggan. Inposia.de Invoiceware International adalah pemimpin dalam pelaporan faktur elektronik dan fiskal Amerika Latin, memberikan solusi dan layanan yang mengurangi risiko dan biaya untuk mempertahankan kepatuhan di seluruh wilayah untuk perusahaan terbesar di dunia, termasuk Philips, Kellogg, DuPont, Pfizer dan Siemens. Jaringan Kepatuhan miliknya, platform cloud hibrida, memberikan manajer rantai pasokan dan keuangan proses peraturan yang mereka butuhkan sambil menghilangkan konfigurasi dan penyesuaian ERP untuk staf TI. Sambungan tunggal ke jaringan menyederhanakan mandat, implementasi dan manajemen perubahan berkelanjutan yang terkait dengan peraturan di Amerika Latin. Invoicewareint MACH ist als ganzheitlicher Lsungspartner ausschlielich auf den Sektor Publik spezialisiert dan bukan 30 Jahren in der Branche etabliert. Kernstck des Angebots ist die integrierte MACH ERP-Software fr ein effizientes Verwaltungsmanagement in den Bereichen Finanzen, Personal, ECM sowie Business Intelligence. Beratus-und Betriebslsungen runden das Angebot ab. Gemeinsam mit dem Bundesverwaltungsamt entwickelt MESH mati E-Rechnung nach ZUGFeRD-Standard. Mach.de MasterCard, (NYSE: MA), adalah perusahaan teknologi di industri pembayaran global. Kami mengoperasikan jaringan pemrosesan pembayaran tercepat di dunia, menghubungkan konsumen, lembaga keuangan, merchant, pemerintah dan bisnis di lebih dari 210 negara dan wilayah. Produk dan solusi MasterCards membuat aktivitas sehari-hari - seperti berbelanja, bepergian, menjalankan bisnis dan mengelola keuangan - lebih mudah, lebih aman dan lebih efisien untuk semua orang. Ikuti kami di Twitter MasterCardEU, bergabunglah dalam diskusi di Conversations Blog dan berlangganan berita terbaru. Mastercard Neopost ist ein weltweit fhrender Anbieter fr Postingbearbeitungslsungen und ein Hauptakteur rund um digitale Kommunikation und Transportservices. Wir glauben, dass Menschen der Schlssel zum Geschftserfolg sind. Deshalb sind unsere Produkte und Dienstleistungen darauf zugeschnitten, Ihrem Unternehmen dabei zu helfen, die Qualitt von Interaktionen zu verbessern und Menschen nher zusammenzubringen. Im Zeitalter der Multichannel-Kommunikation begleitet dan untersttzt Neopost Unternehmen dabei, neue und inovatif Wege zu gehen. Neopost bert Unternehmen, wie sie Synergien schaffen, die das Wachstum ankurbeln. Mit weltweiter Abdeckung sowie starker lokaler Prsenz bietet Neopost durchgngige Betreuung: telefonisch, online und vor Ort. Heute ist Neopost di 31 vertem Lndern, topi di Partnernetzwerk di mehr als 90 Lndern und einen Umsatz von 1,1 Mrd. Euro (2013). Mit seinen Produkten und weiterreichenden Programmen frdert Neopost verantwortungsvolles unternehmerisches Handeln und nachhaltige Entwicklungen. Zudem engagieren sich 6.200 Neopost-Angestellte auf der ganzen Welt dafr, die Interaktionen ihrer Kunden stimmiger und effektiver zu machen und ihnen so einen Wettbewerbsvorteil zu verschaffen, der eine Flle von Geschftschancen erffnet. Neopost ist im Kompartemen A des Euronext Paris brsengefhrt und im SBF 120 gelistet. Erfahren Sie mehr unter neopost.de Berkantor pusat di Houston, OFS Portal LLC adalah sekelompok pemasok beragam global yang membantu operator dalam menggunakan praktik terbaik industri saat mendigitalkan rantai pasokan mereka, mempromosikan pendekatan hemat biaya dalam membuat eCommerce menjadi kenyataan bagi kedua pemasok dan Operator. Keanggotaan terbuka untuk semua pemasok di Oil amp Gas. Anggota Portal OFS yang terkini termasuk: Baker Hughes, GE Oil amp Gas, Halliburton, Schlumberger Oilfield Services, Select Energy Services, dan Weatherford International. Ofs-portal OpusCapita mendigitalkan dan mengotomatisasi pembelian, penanganan faktur, pembayaran, pengelolaan kas dan pembiayaan pemasok. Dengan 200 juta transaksi elektronik yang diproses setiap tahun, dan 8.000 pelanggan di 54 negara, kami memiliki keahlian untuk melakukan pembelian dan pembayaran lebih mudah dan hemat biaya. Anda mendapatkan visibilitas, kontrol, dan kepatuhan end-to-end dari arus pengeluaran dan pengeluaran Anda. Opuscapita PAPERLESS adalah pemimpin Amerika Latin dari solusi faktur elektronik yang menyediakan layanan pembuatan, pemrosesan, pengelolaan dan pengawasan dokumen elektronik untuk perusahaan dengan dokumen standar dan berskala besar yang terdiversifikasi dan sangat terspesialisasi. Dengan pengalaman lebih dari 13 tahun dalam solusi ritel dan keuangan, perusahaan memegang posisi strategis dalam faktur elektronik dan kuitansi elektronik di Amerika Latin, memproses lebih dari 3000 juta dokumen elektronik setiap tahunnya. Paperlessla Sebagai pemimpin pasar dalam perangkat lunak aplikasi enterprise, SAP membantu perusahaan dari semua ukuran dan industri berjalan lebih baik. Dari kantor belakang ke ruang rapat, gudang ke etalase, desktop ke perangkat mobile, SAP memberdayakan orang dan organisasi untuk bekerja sama secara lebih efisien dan menggunakan wawasan bisnis secara lebih efektif agar tetap berada di depan persaingan. Aplikasi dan layanan SAP memungkinkan sekitar 310.000 pelanggan bisnis dan sektor publik beroperasi secara menguntungkan, beradaptasi terus menerus, dan tumbuh secara berkelanjutan. Dengan e-Documents SAP menyediakan solusi terpadu untuk dokumen elektronik yang dipersyaratkan secara legal. Ini melengkapi berbagai penawaran dari SAP dan SAP Ariba sehubungan dengan kolaborasi pemasok digital dan e-commerce. Getap OpenText Business Network menyederhanakan kompleksitas inheren dalam ekosistem mitra dagang, memberikan satu koneksi yang mendigitalkan semua arus informasi, baik itu pemasok, pelanggan, bank atau mitra berharga lainnya. Akibatnya, persyaratan pelanggan dipatuhi dan pemasok dikelola, sementara Anda berfokus untuk memberikan tujuan bisnis inti Anda. Jaringan Bisnis OpenText terdiri dari beberapa solusi, mulai dari integrasi B2B, E-Faktur, pengelolaan masyarakat, pengadaan barang, faks, pesan aman, dan pemberitahuan untuk melengkapi solusi Layanan Dikeluarkan B2B. Gxs Pagero menawarkan layanan e-order berbasis e-mail berbasis cloud. Kami membawa perusahaan bersama secara digital terlepas dari ukuran, volume, lokasi dan sistem ERP. Semua layanan dilakukan di platform kami Pagero Online sebuah jaringan bisnis global. Layanan cloud Pagero Online mendukung proses P2P (buyer side) dan O2C (supplier side) yang lengkap. Semua layanan kami didasarkan pada konsep kami Proses tanpa sentuhan, di mana kami menganalisis data dan atau kombinasi data untuk mencapai tujuan pelanggan dari proses dengan keterlibatan minimum manusia. Pagero OpenPEPPOL adalah asosiasi nirlaba internasional yang bertanggung jawab atas tata kelola dan pemeliharaan spesifikasi PEPPOL yang memungkinkan bisnis Eropa untuk dengan mudah menangani secara elektronik dengan pembeli sektor publik Eropa dalam proses pengadaan mereka. PEPPOL bukanlah platform eProcurement melainkan menyediakan seperangkat spesifikasi teknis yang dapat diimplementasikan dalam solusi dan layanan eProcurement yang ada untuk membuatnya dapat dioperasikan di seluruh Eropa. Peppol.eu PwCs Global e-Invoicing dan e-Archiving Network menyatukan ahli proses, teknologi, pajak, hukum dan akuntansi yang membuat realitas kasus bisnis e-Faktur Anda Selama lebih dari 15 tahun sekarang, PwC telah berada di garis depan e-Faktur dan E-pengarsipan PwC telah meletakkan dasar-dasar untuk Petunjuk e-Invoicing pertama dan kedua, membantu Komisi Eropa dalam melaksanakan proyek e-PRIOR, dan terlibat dalam beberapa forum e-Faktur. Sebagai pemimpin pasar dalam perangkat lunak aplikasi enterprise, SAP membantu perusahaan dari semua ukuran dan industri berjalan lebih baik. Dari kantor belakang ke ruang rapat, gudang ke etalase, desktop ke perangkat mobile, SAP memberdayakan orang dan organisasi untuk bekerja sama secara lebih efisien dan menggunakan wawasan bisnis secara lebih efektif agar tetap berada di depan persaingan. Aplikasi dan layanan SAP memungkinkan sekitar 310.000 pelanggan bisnis dan sektor publik beroperasi secara menguntungkan, beradaptasi terus menerus, dan tumbuh secara berkelanjutan. Dengan e-Documents SAP menyediakan solusi terpadu untuk dokumen elektronik yang dipersyaratkan secara legal. Ini melengkapi berbagai penawaran dari SAP dan SAP Ariba sehubungan dengan kolaborasi pemasok digital dan e-commerce. Getah SAP Ariba adalah bagaimana perusahaan terhubung untuk melakukan bisnis. Jaringan Ariba menghubungkan lebih dari dua juta perusahaan dari 190 negara, menciptakan pasar digital yang dinamis dimana pembeli dan pemasok dapat saling bertemu, berkolaborasi bersama dan mendapatkan lebih dari 2,5 miliar perdagangan setiap hari. Pelanggan SAP Ariba dapat memproses lebih dari 90 faktur melalui pengiriman elektronik, mengotomatisasi alur kerja yang dibutuhkan untuk memperbaiki akurasi, mengurangi waktu siklus dan meningkatkan produktivitas di kantor belakang bagi pembeli dan pemasok. Dengan SAP Ariba, pembeli dapat memperpanjang pilihan pembiayaan rantai pasokan ke pemasok mereka, meningkatkan jumlah hutang beredar (DPO) untuk pembeli, sekaligus meningkatkan arus kas dan hari penjualan yang beredar (DSO) untuk pemasok. Ariba Die Schtze Consulting AG untersttzt seit ber fnfzehn Jahren neben privatwirtschaftlichen Auftraggebern vor allem ffentliche Verwaltungen im Projektmanagement ebenso wie in der praktischen Realisierung von IT-Projekten. Seit mehreren Jahren begleiten wir die bundesweite Entwicklergemeinschaft ePayBL im Einsatz moderner Verfahren zur Abwicklung elektronischer Zahlungsvorgnge und deren Anbindung an die Kassensysteme der Lnder. Einen Einblick di die Einsatzmglichkeiten der ePayBL gibt die Schsische Basiskomponente Zahlungsverkehr hier: Wie alle Module der ePayBL unterliegt auch die Rechnungslegungs-Komponente fortlaufenden Neuentwicklungen. Im Rahmen der Projektuntersttzung der ePayBL werden wir nun mati Umsetzung der E-Rechnung zur Weiterentwicklung der ePayBL-Komponenten begleiten. Die Erstellung elektronischer Ausgangsrechnungen und die medienbruchfreie Verarbeitung spielen hierbei ebenso eine entscheidende Rolle wie die Anbindung an und die Weiterverarbeitung in den eingesetzten Fachverfahren. Schuetze-consulting.ag Taulia memberdayakan organisasi untuk mengotomatisasi dan memaksimalkan diskon pemasok sambil memperkuat hubungan dan mengurangi gesekan dalam rantai pasokan keuangan. Melalui jajaran produk unggulan termasuk faktur elektronik, layanan mandiri pemasok dan pembiayaan pemasok, Taulia memungkinkan beberapa merek paling inovatif di dunia untuk benar-benar bermitra dengan pemasok mereka. Taulia Tieto adalah perusahaan layanan TI Nordik terbesar yang juga memiliki kehadiran dan kemampuan pengiriman global yang kuat. Kami mempekerjakan lebih dari 13.000 ahli dan beroperasi di lebih dari 20 negara. Layanan siklus hidup Tietos secara penuh mencakup layanan berkelanjutan, konsultasi dan integrasi sistem dan produk spesifik industri. Kami adalah penyedia layanan perantara integrasi terkemuka di Eropa dan layanan e-faktur adalah bagian dari penawaran tersebut. Selain e-faktur penawaran Business Information eXchange (BIX) kami mencakup layanan e-trade dan pesan keuangan sehingga mencakup rantai nilai finansial penuh. Kami memproses lebih dari 1 juta transaksi business-to-business setiap hari dan ada lebih dari 2 juta konsumen yang mengakses layanan kami setiap hari. Tietobix Bundesdruckerei, DATEV, SGH, Neopost Deutschland, Asterion, BeCloud und b4value haben sich mit einer gemeinsamen technologischen Basis zu einem bislang einzigartigen Business-Netzwerk mit Namen TRAFFIQX zum Austausch von Geschftsdokumenten zusammen geschlossen. Damit beseitigen sie wesentliche Einstiegshrden fr Unternehmen zum elektronischen Dokumenten- und Datenaustausch. Bereits seit 2004 wird mit Untersttzung des Deutschen Forschungsinstituts fr Knstliche Intelligenz (DKFI) mit Sitz di Kaiserslautern eine Technologie entwickelt, mit der Geschftsdokumente zwischen Sendern und Empfngern unabhngig von der jeweiligen Systemumgebung ausgetauscht werden knnen. Der Zusammenschluss von Providern mittels einer gemeinsamen technologischen Dasar ist weltweit einzigartig und bietet durch die wegweisende Technologie und wirtschaftliche Unabhngigkeit jedes einzelnen Penyedia eine beachtenswerte Gre und Sicherheit. Dieses Netzwerk revolutioniert den Markt traffiqx TrustWeaver menyediakan layanan kepatuhan berbasis Cloud komprehensif untuk faktur elektronik dan dokumen legal lainnya yang penting untuk lebih dari 55 negara. Dari satu antarmuka teknis dan melalui konsep Compliance MapTM yang unik, lebih dari 60 vendor perantara integrasi B2B terkemuka di jaringan mitra kami secara otomatis memberikan kepastian hukum yang dapat dioperasikan kepada mitra dagang yang menggunakan solusi mereka, terlepas dari perubahan dalam undang-undang. TrustWeavers perpaduan unik antara komponen legal dan teknis memungkinkan organisasi modern untuk menerapkan strategi konsolidasi ERP, alur kerja, pengarsipan dan strategi konsolidasi B2B mereka dengan rasa hormat yang dijamin terhadap beberapa undang-undang nasional dan sektoral yang mengatur transaksi tersebut dan juga retensi jangka panjang dan kemampuan auditnya. Dalam bisnis sejak tahun 2001, TrustWeaver berkantor pusat di Stockholm, Swedia. Trustweaver Tungsten Corporation mempercepat perdagangan global dengan memungkinkan pelanggan merampingkan pemrosesan faktur, memperbaiki pengelolaan arus kas dan membuat keputusan pembelian yang lebih baik dari data pengeluaran terperinci mereka. Organisasi pembeli yang bergabung dengan Jaringan Tungsten, jaringan faktur elektronik yang memenuhi syarat terbesar di dunia, dapat mengurangi biaya pemrosesan faktur mereka. Tungsten membantu keuntungan membeli organisasi dengan menerapkan analisis pengeluaran real-time ke gudang data tingkat tinggi faktur tingkat tinggi memperbaiki kepatuhan mereka dan mengelola pemasok mereka dengan alat pengadaan yang mengganggu. Tungsten melayani 56 dari Fortune 500 dan 67 dari FTSE 100 dengan menghubungkan perusahaan dan agen terbesar di dunia ke ribuan pemasok mereka di seluruh dunia. Tungsten-network XimantiX ist mit seiner Layanan eBeleg Lsung darauf spezialisiert, Firmenkunden als SaaS-Provider dabei zu untersttzen, ihren Rechnungseingang undoder -ausgang mit direkter Sistem ERP Anbindung sicher, effizient und nachhaltig zu betreiben. Rechnungseingang: Nutzen Sie die Vorteile eine lernfhigen Systems. Verringern Sie jadi mati Aufwnde der Nachbearbeitung mengerahkan und das ganz ohne Onboarding-Prozess der Lieferanten. Rechnungsausgang: Layanan Der eBeleg - Ausgang bietet u.a. Durch die Untersttzung des neuen ZUGFeRD-Standar fr Unternehmen jeder Gre die Mglichkeit der Umsetzung eine vom Lieferanten bis zum Kunden optimierten, datenbasierten Prozesses an. Beim elektronischen Versand steht Ihnen abhngig vom gewnschten Ma an Sicherheit meninggal passende Lsung zur Verfgung. Paralel knnen Sie Kunden, die weiterhin eine papierbasierte Rechnung wnschen, einfach, sicher und kostengnstig aus einem System bedienen. Fr Kleinunternehmen lain EM B2C Umfeld bieten wir mit der Integrasi zum Layanan Pembayaran GiroCodegiropay als QR-CodeLink eine medienbruchfreie Bezahlung an. Unsere Kunden schtzen sangat tidak mengenal Lsung, ihre Anpassbarkeit dan tidak berpengalaman di kundenorientierte Arbeitsweise. Ximantix XMLdation adalah pemimpin dunia dalam pengujian standar pesan transaksi standar yang diujicobakan. Pada XMLdation, visi kami adalah membuat pengujian transaksi pesan keuangan, seperti ISO20022 XML, JSON-APIs dan lainnya, lebih mudah dan lebih cepat dari sebelumnya. Kami membantu orang-orang dan organisasi yang melakukan perancangan, implementasi, pengujian, penerapan, pemeliharaan dan onboard pelanggan di domain ini dengan mengembangkan teknologi baru ke layanan SaaS kami. Layanan XMLdation digunakan oleh lebih dari 20 bank di lebih dari 50 negara di seluruh dunia. Dirancang untuk mengurangi kompleksitas pengelolaan standar global dan peraturan bisnis yang spesifik, platform pengelolaan pesan terpusat myXML menyediakan pengelolaan siklus hidup, dokumentasi otomatis, kolaborasi multi-pengguna, dan generasi instan dari berbagai jenis transaksi pengujian. The XMLdation Validator, Simulator dan API sandbox membantu dalam menguji arus terhadap penyedia layanan transaksi dan dalam memahami arus balik untuk memfasilitasi pemrosesan dan otomatisasi langsung. Bank dapat menawarkan alat swalayan kepada klien mereka, memastikan dukungan yang nyata dan penghematan yang signifikan. Xmldation Solusi E-Faktur dan penyedia layanan Kami rencanakan untuk melihat lebih dekat solusi dan penyedia layanan E-Faktur berikut - ini adalah daftar pantauan kami: Daftar Sekarang Terlibat dalam hal yang diharapkan dalam sejarah Cobalah Hyperhistory: hyperhistory Link to Lost Worlds di waktu luang Anda, Jika itu adalah kesenangan anda Catatan dari webmaster Lost Worlds: Situs web ini cenderung memberi penekanan pada tanggal pertama sehubungan dengan pertanyaan terkait sejarah teknologi dalam sejarah-in-general. Pendekatan ini bekerja cukup baik untuk sejarah Modern (ilmiah) namun kurang begitu untuk sejarah kuno. Pada bulan Maret 2007, webmaster tersebut menemukan situs web pratinjau India yang tampaknya dapat diandalkan yang menyarankan bahwa sekarang, banyak sekali kencan pertama yang pernah diberikan yang berkaitan dengan berbagai literatur hingga SumeriaMesopotamia sudah ketinggalan zaman sekarang, atau sangat menyesatkan. Mengingat bahwa buku yang dikonsultasikan untuk kumpulan halaman web ini agak tua, bahkan ketika halaman awalnya dimulai, ini mungkin bisa diterapkan pada informasi yang diberikan di bawah di Sumeria. Yang pada gilirannya bisa mempengaruhi beberapa tanggal untuk Mesir Kuno. Netsurfers kemudian harus menganggap ini sebagai peringatan saat mereka mengeksplorasi topik mereka. - Ed From 10,000BC to 2000BC 1500BC: Regarded by some as a date for Middle Bronze Age. 2000BC: Brittany - Carnac: Major megalithic work: Erection of lines of great stones, or standing stones, maybe in parallel lines, running east to west, in sets half a mile long, ending in a semi-circular set of stones. 2000BC: Or earlier, the Beaker People (named for design of their drinking vessels), who know how to work copper, appear in France and the Low Countries, and British Isles. They came from either Spain or Central Europe. 2000BC: Uruk (Mesopotamia) reaches 60,000 population. Approx 2000BC: Time of the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon. From the Altai Mountains of Southern Russia and Central Mongolia, a cultural enigma thought to have been prompted by climate change, with ecological, economic and political changes. There occurred a rapid and large-scale migration west into north-east Europe, east into China and south into Vietnam and Thailand. In about five generations and involved from Finland in the west to Thailand in the east. Some commonalities noted are with metalworking, horse-breeding and riding. Some of the language groups so carried were the Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian and Lappish (Uralic group of languages.) (From Wikipedia pages various on Bronze Age developments) 2000BC from 3200BC: About now, according to West, appearance of the Cycladic civilization of the islands of the Aegean Sea. By 2000BC when the Cycladic period ended there had been a converging of the Cycladic and Minoan (Cretan) civilisation. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 2000-1600BC: Brutal climate change in North Africa. Circa 2000BC: First waves of invading Aryans arrive from, Persia into India. (This view by the 1990s was being widely discredited by both international and Indian researchers working in a wide range of fields, from archaic climatology to demographics to linguistics to literary history of the Rig Veda. The reader is warned that ideas of an Aryan invasion of India, whenever, are myths cast about by Eurocentric writers who ended up becoming thoroughly confused. But whether the Aryans were some of the, more or less, indigenous Indians, as some Indian writers declare, is less clear. The entire scenario needs much fresh research. -Ed) 2000BC: One date given for development of a hieroglyphic writing system on Crete, somewhat preceded by appearance of early palaces are Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia. By 1800BC this is replaced by Linear A writing for the Minoan language, which is non-Indo-European and still undeciphered. Linear A is ussed on Crete till about 1400BC when it was replaced by Linear B as used by Greek Achaeans. (From timelines various on Bronze Ages) 2000BC: (Gardner, Genesis ) Soon after 2000BC, Ur is sacked, by the king of nearby Elam. The city of Ur is rebuilt but is a lost power. Abrahams family resorted to Haran in the kingdom of Mari. Note: Ur is located 200 miles upstream of the Persian Gulf, on the River Euphrates, in a marshy area, and it may have been a port town, and if so, did it trade with Harappa in nw India URUK is 40 miles further north, as is called Erech in the Bible, URUK being site of todays city, WARKA, Nippur was 10 miles south of todays Baghdad. 2010BC: In 2010BC at Ur is king of Ur-Nammu. (Gardner, Genesis . p. 18) says the ziqqurat of Ur housed tablets for the extraction of square and cube roots, and triangulation formulae, though Euclids work in geometry did not appear till some 1700 years later. 2030BC: Sumerian King Amar Sin erects at Eridu a ziggurat, or step-pyramid. It was evidently built on top of earlier structures, perhaps as many as 17 temples. The earliest of these were perhaps one-roomed, with altars, offering tables and good-quality pottery. Dating the pottery might proceed back in time to 5000BC - and might make Eridu an antediluvian city 2040-2010BC: Thebes . Pharaoh Mentuhotep II reunites Egypt and founds new capital at Thebes. New era for royal authority, prosperity, Egyptian arts progress. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2050BC or later: A basic Sumerian belief iswas that rulership is derived from the gods. First, this was used by priests, then by rulers. From 2050BC, Sumerian rulers claimed descent from the Gods, or divine status of their person, but did they import this idea from the Egyptians (Source: McNeill, p. 66.) 2050BC: Before now, Sargon and Hammurabi have ruled in Mesopotamia, but now arrive the Gutians . moved into the flood plain from the north-east, and who rule for a century, to be replaced after revolt from within by the Third Dynasty of Ur, 2050-1950BC. 2050BC: A destruction of Troy. (Mellersh) 2060BC, Sumeria, some revival, with Third Dynasty of Ur, which falls to the Babylonians about 1950BC. 2050BC, Seahenge is built on coast of England. 2065BC: Terah . Terah is born son of Nahor, who is aged 29. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2094BC: Nahor . Nahor is born son to Serug, who is aged 30. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2100BC: Ur . Sumeria, The Ziggurat of Ur built by king Ur-Nammu. He establishes the first law code. Empire extends from Persian Gulf to Northern Mesopotamia. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2100BC to 1550BC: During Bronze Age, trade centres are Ugarit and MinoaCrete. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 2100BC, first constructions at Stonehenge, southern England. Druids. Problem of how such large stone is transported. Is Stonehenge an astronomical observatory of any kind New work on Stonehenge 28 November 2011 Last updated at 11:50 GMT Archaeologists make new Stonehenge sun worship find Two previously undiscovered pits have been found at Stonehenge which point to it once being used as a place of sun worship before the stones were erected. The pits are positioned on celestial alignment at the site and may have contained stones, posts or fires to mark the rising and setting of the sun. An international archaeological survey team found the pits as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project. The team is using geophysical imaging techniques to investigate the site. The archaeologists from the University of Birmingham and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection in Vienna have been surveying the subsurface at the landmark since summer 2010. Procession route. It is thought the pits, positioned within the Neolithic Cursus pathway, could have formed a procession route for ancient rituals celebrating the sun moving across the sky at the midsummer solstice. A Cursus comprises of two parallel linear ditches with banks either side closed off at the end. Also discovered was a gap in the northern side of the Cursus, which may have been an entrance and exit point for processions taking place within the pathway. These discoveries hint that the site was already being used as an ancient centre of ritual prior to the stones being erected more than 5,000 years ago, the team said. Archaeologist and project leader at Birmingham University, Professor Vince Gaffney, said: This is the first time we have seen anything quite like this at Stonehenge and it provides a more sophisticated insight into how rituals may have taken place within the Cursus and the wider landscape. 2100BC: A prince of Lower Egypt founds the United Middle Kingdom. 2100BC: Greece . The Mycenaean tribes invade the Peninsula of Greece. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2100BC: Approx, Boeotian Flood of Ogyges . (Ogyges as King of Thebes in Boeotia.) (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 2124BC: Serug . Serug is born son to Reu, who is aged 32. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2150-2100BC: Nimrod . Nimrod the grandson of Ham is said to found an empire including cities of Babel (Babylon), Erech, Accad (Akkad), in lower Mesopotamia. Then he goes north to found Nineveh and other large cities of Assyria. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2150BC: Approx: Groups of incursive Semites, called the Habiru by the Sumerians, begin to make their way into Mesopotamia from the west. These are not the Hebrew who followed Moses during the Exodus. (Robert Feather, The Copper Scroll Decoded ) 2156BC: Reu . Reu is born son to Peleg who is aged 30. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2160BC: Shinar-Tower of Babel . By legend, all people are united with one language, and in the land of Shinar, Mesopotamia, a great city is builded and a tower also of baked brick and bitumen. God scatters the people all over the earth, and confuses languages. That city is called Babel-Babylon. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2150-2100BC: Japheth . The descendants of Japheth are said to found the nations of Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea. The descendants of Ham are said to be ancestors of peoples in Canaan, Egypt, Crete, and Ethiopia. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2160BC-1786BC, Egypt, Ninth to Twelfth Dynasties. 2180BC, Akkadian Empire falls to barbarians invading from the north-east. 2180BC, Babylonians build first underwater tunnel under Euphrates using bricks and cut and cover method. 2185BC: Peleg . Peleg is born to Eber, who is aged 34. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2200BC: A number of settlements are found destroyed, the Argolid, Corinthia and the Cyclades. There may have been invasions from Anatolia of Indo-Europeans. By about 2000BC was another wave of invasions by Indo-European language speakers from the north. (Wikipedia pages various on Early Bronze Age) 2200BC approx: Near-equatorial regions of the Middle East suffer severe drought due to climate change due to changes in the climate-weather system known as The North Atlantic Conveyor Belt. The world experiences a mini-ice age and North Africa in particular suffers a severe dry-out. (Though there is no mention here of any specific dates for the desertification of the Sahara, which had once been well-watered and fertile.) The Old Kingdom of Egypt, dependent on the Nile River, falls due to widespread drought as the Nile flood fails for as long as 20 years. Climate problems also afflict civilized areas of the Greek mainland and the Akkadian-controlled areas of the Middle East. Findings in Egypt are supported by oceanographic research conducted on the bottom of the Gulf of Oman. (Taken from a screening of a documentary on new archaeloogy titled Ancient Egypt: Fall of the Old Kingdom on ABC TV Australia on 26 January 2010 - The Old Kingdom being the one which produced the Pyramids) 2200-2040BC: Egypt . Intermediate period between dynasties 7-10, a time of political and social chaos. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2200BC, serious drought throughout world, and especially in Middle East. 2200-2113BC, Period known as Ur III for Mesopotamia, Sumerian Revival, Law code known as Ur-Nammu formed, King Shulgi. 2200-1900BC: Palestine . Canaanite Palestine shows little cultural life. Nomadic shepherds overtake the countryside. Trade mostly ceases, cities decline, many cities are abandoned. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2200-1450BC: Crete . Palace culture develops. Fine craftsmanship used for buildings at Knossos, and in other palaces also. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2200-1766BC: China . Legend tells of the Hsia dynasty, few facts are available. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2200BC: Serious drought in Middle East. 2200BC-2000BC -3000BC: A problem of global climatic change : Regarding an SBS documentary screened in Australia on Ancient Apocalypse on 17 March 2002, on the Egypt of 5000 years ago. The Sphinx already exists at Giza, the Old Kingdom flourishes. Changelessness is the theme for the daily life of average Egyptians, but about 2200BC the Old Kingdom collapses. Egypt enters a dark age for 200 years. This era has mystified Egyptologists, there are no explanations for the chaos, etc. Why Was a fall due to death of a Pharaoh, and a following battle for power No, it was not due to political unrest. We find a little-known tomb, with an astonishing story to tell. the tomb of a local governor of an area just after the collapse of the Old Kingdom, an outstanding tomb which tells a story of famines, suffering of ordinary people, a poignant account of famine-horrors, giving succinct reports such as: the land is like a starved grasshopper. Despair and atrocities are committed in Southern Egypt. People ate their children, and what is written on the tomb walls is not folk tales, not mythology, it is an account, a proper report. But can any corroborative evidence be found Recent new archaeological evidence from Egypts far north reveals an extent of suffering on the Nile delta. One researcher is Donald Redford (US), who finds group-burials under reed matting, with tightly-packed bodies, nearly 9000 bodies, supine or on their side. But there are few grave goods found. The conclusion is that these people were very poor, but they all dated at the same period of death, from a community reduced to extreme poverty. Across Egypt, society, art, religion are all breaking down, literally everything of the Old Kingdom is breaking down. This devastation was apocalyptic, could it have had to do with the environment Was it a really sudden event The Nile dominates, of course, as with anything to do with Egypt. A researcher - is this tantamount to heresy in history - finds variations in the behaviour of Nile. It is not a steady river, and one in five floods anyway is a bad flood. Is such any clue to the collapse of the Old Kingdom, as a small drop in a flood can be a disaster, as Napoleon found when he came to Egypt and conquered it after a bad flood, as the country was weakened. Could the Nile possibly have faltered for as long as 200 years Was something bigger involved What other natural features could be examined A botanist examines various sites, including a desert zone once quite-populated. Evidence includes small cairns of stones from campfire areas. Traces of acacia tree, which no longer grows in the area, and charcoal of acacia, which grew with underground water. Thousands of pieces of such charcoal in the area are logged, dating to about 5000BC, indicating a dry savannah with trees, where people could live over long stretches of time. It seems that North Africa dries and becomes desert. Sand causes devastation, so do dust storms. (Poetry exists about such concerns). Dates about desertification dont quite fit a new theory, as this is all a gradual trend, over millennia, and nothing to do with the collapse of the Old Kingdom. A breakthrough for researchers comes from the hills of nearby Israel, in caves, forming a record of past climatic behaviour, from limestone stalactites and stalagmites. A record of ancient rainwaters, and ancient rain has two different types of oxygen light for wetter periods and heavy oxygen for dry periods. Use is made of a mass spectrometer to find ratios of light and heavy oxygen. One sample is found, 4200 years-old, fitting the period circa 2200BC. Something unusual an important change in the amount of rainfall, a 20 per cent drop, and a sudden and significant climate change the largest climatic event noticeable, even though Israel and Egypt have different climate systems. It is now necessary to know if the Israeli weather pattern is local or broader. Evidence is found from the glaciers of Iceland, where Gerard Bond, a geologist, examines ice near Greenland. He finds icebergs streaked with black ash from volcanic activity, dumped on glaciers, which become icebergs in North Atlantic, and dropped their ash to the ocean bottom. Bond has collected cores of ocean-bottom mud back 10,000 years, and in his searches for volcanic ash has found it in strange places, very much south, off Ireland. It also seems that then, icebergs were bigger, from colder areas there is a pattern to mini-ice-ages, and every 1500 years a distinct cold period occurs, lasting a couple of hundred years. Could this have affected Egypt One such cycle would have been affecting Egypt about 2200BC. An even more dramatic climate change is found by yet another researcher, looking for climate signals on ocean floors, who finds a far-reaching set of circumstances affecting the Mediterranean, off Africa, North Atlantic areas, the Greenland ice sheet, the US continent, and evidence is later found for the Indonesian region. The situation seems global, and it seems to coincide with the demise of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, a time which is colder and drier, harvests fail, people starve, all victims of a weather cycle. Maybe the sufferings are most acute in Egypt Donald Redford on the Nile delta in 1999 made an extra-macabre new find, indicating the extent of chaos, via a group of skeletons under a temple wall. Everywhere nearby is destruction, and if the dead are victims of a massacre, therefore matters are not accidental. Redford had found 18 bodies, including an old man (found as though he was warding off blows) over an old woman who lies over a child also a man with part of a wall fallen on his back. Elsewhere are two men by a pigs body. Also a fallen male teenager (decapitated) with a rat in his hands. The 18 people who died might have been murdered, though the bodies were not buried. It is a grisly scene, since no one came back to retrieve the bodies, no one cared. There was a hiatus in community life, so was the place abandoned as a temple is destroyed One piece of a puzzle is still missing: what of Egypt itself Does the Nile fail for decade after decade Crucial evidence comes from a lake, which is long-linked to the Nile by a tributary which enlarges with each flood. Is it possible to find the size of the lake at the time the Old Kingdom ends The mud at bottom of this lake is searched, cores are found, and there is a fascinating absence, there is no evidence of any sediments for the timeframe of the existence of the Old Kingdom - sediments and mud did not date back that far. So did the lake not exist prior to 2200BC But if it did exist before then, it must have dried-up completely for a long period, and perhaps any Old Kingdom sediments were simply blown away The Nile had been so low, it had stopped feeding the lake, and this was the only time the lake did disappear. This seems clinching evidence of a series of low-Nile floods, and a land turned to dust. Which would explain famines all over Egypt, and help explain scenes as described in the report-making tomb noted above. A researcher wonders, if all of upper Egypt had been driven to eating their children He finds from a first-hand account of 1200AD, when a doctor sees a famine in Cairo, the poor were so hungry they ate corpses, dogs, filth, and they roasted and cooked children - no sentimentality here, the truly unimaginable. So it may have been that one of the worlds great civilizations, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, ended hideously. 220BC Circa . (Follows from a university press release on the Net): Dr. Norman Hammond is Professor of Archaeology at Boston University and Associate in Maya Archaeology at the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. The leading authority in the field of Maya Archaeology, Dr. Hammond has directed numerous research projects and important excavations in Belize, Ecuador and in the Andes, and has also conducted field work in Libya, Tunisia and Afghanistan, and on Harvard Universitys project in Guatemala. He directed his survey in Ecuador under the auspices of the British Museum. Dr. Hammonds research interests include the emergence and decline of complex societies, as well as the history of archaeology. His current La Milpa project, begun in 1992, has as an international staff and is funded by the National Geographic Society and Boston University. Dr. Hammond has been a Visiting Professor at numerous academic and research institutes throughout the world, including Cambridge, Oxford, the Sorbonne, Jilin University (China), and the University of Bonn. He has also held a Dumbarton Oaks Fellowship. Dr. Hammond serves on the editorial boards of Ancient Mesoamerica, Antiquity, and the Journal of Field Archaeology, and is the archaeology correspondent for The Times (London). Among his many publications, Dr. Hammond is perhaps best known for his books, Cuello: An Early Maya Community in Belize (1991) Nohmul: A Prehistoric Maya Community in Belize (1985) Ancient Maya Civilization (5th ed.,1994) Lubaantun: A Classic Maya Realm (1975) and his co-edited volumes The Archaeology of Afghanistan (1978) Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory (1979). Dr. Harvey Weiss is Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology in the Departments of Anthropology and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at Yale University. From 1968 to 1973 he excavated at and directed a variety of prehistoric and early historic archaeological sites in western Iran, including Hajji Firuz, Godin Tepe, Hasanlu and Qabr Sheykheyn. In 1978 he initiated the Yale Tell Leilan Project in northeastern Syria, which aimed at elucidating important developmental patterns in the agricultural practices of northern Mesopotamia. In the early 1980s and through the 90s, Dr. Weisss attention moved to the forces that determined rain-fed agriculture in early historic West Asia. In 1993 he and his colleagues published the hypothesis and confirmatory data for a major and abrupt climate change that affected the region from the Aegean to the Indus at ca. 2200 BC. Since 1993, this climate change has become the focus of considerable research attention among scholars in the paleo-climatic and archaeological research communities and beyond. Dr. Weisss most recent studies have appeared in a range of publications including Science . The Sciences . Orient Express . The Dictionary of Art . and The Encyclopedia of the Ancient Near East . His research on climate change was published in numerous edited volumes, including most recently, Confronting Natural Disaster: Engaging the Past to Understand the Future (2000) and was the subject of his co-edited volume Third Millennium B.C. Climate Change and Old World Collapse (1997). Dr. John Malcolm Russell is Professor of Art History and Archaeology at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, where he teaches the archaeology of the ancient Middle East and Egypt. He is also the Associate Director of excavations at the ancient Assyrian city of Til Barsib, on the Euphrates river in northern Syria. Prior to the Gulf War, Dr. Russell was Associate Director of archaeological excavations at Nineveh, Iraq. The author of four books and numerous articles on ancient Assyria, his most recent book, The Final Sack of Nineveh (1998), investigates the destruction of Sennacheribs palace in Iraq as a result of the looting precipitated by UN sanctions. Dr. Russells discovery of a lost Assyrian sculpture in an English boys school and his exposure of the looting of Assyrian palaces in Iraq have been widely reported in the media both here and abroad. He has conducted excavations under the auspices of the University of Lige and the Universities of Berkeley and Columbia. Dr. Russell earned the distinguished Arthur Kingsley Porter Prize for best article in 1988, and his book Sennacheribs Palace without Rival at Nineveh received the Archaeological Institute of Americas James R. Wiseman Award for best archaeology book of 1991. He is author of The Writing on the Wall: Studies in the Architectural Context of Late Assyrian Palace Inscriptions (1999), and From Nineveh to New York: The Strange Story of the Assyrian Reliefs in the Metropolitan Museum and the Hidden Masterpieces at Cranford School . (1997). For further details, please contact the Department of Art and Art History, University of Connecticut, 860 486-3930. Web: art.uconn.edu 2220BC: Eber . Eber is born son to Shelah who is aged 30. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2250BC: Shelah . Shelah is born son to Arpachshad, who is aged 35. Tradition, and a generational problem, is also that Shelah is son of Cainan who is son of Arpacshad. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2276BC: Sargon dies subduing a revolt. (Mellersh) 2284BC: Noahs Ark . Noahs Ark comes to rest on a mountain in the Ararat Range in northern Mesopotamia. Noah and family leave the ark after one year and ten days. Noah offers a sacrifice, God promises never to again send such a flood. For the first time, humans are allowed to eat meat. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2283BC: Noah . Noah becomes the first keeper of vines. Also in 2283BC: Arpacshad is born son to Shem, who is aged about 100. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2285BC: Noah . The great flood comes, Methuselah, oldest of the biblical patriarchs, dies at age of 969. Noah is saved in the ark he builds, as in Genesis. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) (If the years given for his age are regarded merely as lunar months, Methuselah lived to about age 81 solar years.) 2294BC: Pharaoh Pepi II . Comes to throne as child and reigns for nearly a century. Kingdom begins to disintegrate. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2300BC-1700BC: Dates given for Middle Bronze Age - Old Elamite Period for Elam an ancient civilization east of Mesopotamia, on the Iranian platuea, centred on Anshan, and later Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Led on to the Gutian Empire. Meanwhile circa 2700BC-1700BC was the Bronze Age Oxus Civilization on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus). One centre was Altyn-Depe, another was Namazga-Depe. (From Wikipedia pages various) 2300BC approx: The first recorded insult, depicted on a wall of the tomb of Egyptian Ti in Saqqara, Egypt. Come here, you copulator Circa 2300BC: In Egypt, provincial rulers revolt and Semites from the North and Nubians from the South pour into Egypt. 2300BC: Appearance in Egypt of the Pyramid Texts. 2300 BC: Sargon unites Mesopotamia around capital, Akkad. 2300BC: All Mesopotamia including Sumer is conquered by Sargon of the Akkadians, a Semitic people, long-time neighbours of the Sumerians. Sargon wants a unified kingdom not sets of city-states, Sargon reigns for 56 years, the worlds first empire. When Sargon dies the hill-people of the Gutians from the north-east move in on the country, before the rise in Sumeria of Ur-Nammu. Circa 2380BC: Amorites from Arabia infiltrate Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia. (Is this a time of climate difficulty setting off peoples movements) 2300BC, 4th millennium BC: Re transition from gathering to hunting. Some cattle raisers. Dead are buried in villages, children in jars. Use of ground stone axes. Settled mixed farming by 4th mlnm, Indus Valley. Mature Indus civilization 2300BC to 1750BC. Trade with Sargonid Sumer and the Harappans in Mesopotamia. Bahrain the depot. Traded with India, Afghanistan, Iran and Arabia. Weights and measures mean efficient organisation. Note port at coastal town of Lothal on Gulf of Cambay. May have domesticated elephants by now. About 1800-1700BC the Indus civilization collapsed, a change in nature, floods or drought, or due to the advance of the Aryan hordes. But eg, town planning ceased. Iron came in about 1000BC with no break in settled culture. 1800BC and 1000BC, arrive waves of Aryan invaders into Iran and north India. About 1000BC to 600BC, is a change of geographical focus in Aryan literature. Trade with south India is important after 100BC, especially for spices, and by then, the Romans used the monsoon for the sea crossing. Early Buddhist caves in India, used by 200BC and later. Circa 2300BC: Worlds earliest known poet, Enheduanna . daughter of Sargon of Akkad, writes hymns in honour of great temple and gods of the land, signed by herself as priestess of the Moon god . (JamesThorpe) 2331BC: Sargon of Akkad usurps the throne. (Mellersh) 2385BC: Noah . Noah aged 500 has three sons this year, Shem, Ham and Japheth. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2340-2180BC, Mesopotamia, Akkadian Empire rises, Sargon (C2371-2316) united Mesopotamia around capital Akkad, later named Baghdad.) 2340BC: Sargon . King Sargon creates first Mesopotamian empire by uniting Sumerian cities. Founds Akkad as his capital. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) By 2350BC: Tin has to be brought to Sargons rule in Sumeria from as far as Central Europe. By now, chronic warfare due to improved metal weapons, bothers the unity of Sumers city states. Circa 2375BC: Lugalzaggisi . of Umma, is the first recorded king of Sumer to unite most cities under his lordship. More unification a generation later with conquests of Sargon of Akkad. (Akkadian is a Semitic tongue unrelated to Sumerian). (Source: McNeill, p. 60.) 2400BC-2200BC: Egypt, Belief arises about Osiris from 3000BC are more formalized by 2400BC-2200BC in the Pyramid Texts. (Robert Feather, The Copper Scroll Decoded ) 2400BC: Circa . Semitic king Sargon I of Akkad conquers Sumerians and establishes empire extending from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean. 2400BC: Date for discussion of Chinese Neolithic life. And re China, it seems use of grain agriculture moves from Middle East to Northern China. 2400BC: Troy commands sea traffic into the Black Sea. (Mellersh.) Circa 2400BC: Urukagina is king of Lagash, Sumeria. Perhaps, the king protects the weak from priestly oppression. A central act of the king is annual ceremonial marriage between king and goddess of the city. By now from 3000BC, major cities can dominate smaller cities, though unstably. (Source: McNeill, p. 61). 2400BC: Mining . Egyptians mine copper in the Sinai, and import much cedar from Lebanon. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2400BC: Metallurgists from Anatolia arrive on Cyprus to work with copper, tin and bronze. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 2400BC: Use in Egypt of Star Clocks . 2400BC: Use of canals . The governor of Upper Egypt of the 6th Dynasty builds a shipping canal to bypass the waterfall at Aswan, the first cataract of the Nile. Large canals were also used about now at Lagash, in Sumer, Southern Iraq. 2430BC, earliest known date for slaves being sold in Mesopotamia. 2450BC: Worlds earliest-known metal pipes (water transfer), from an Egyptian Fifth Dynasty mortuary temple of Pharaoh Sahure at Abusir. 2450BC: Heliopolis . Priests at Heliopolis promote worship of sun god, Ra, and pyramid texts show use of funerary customs, prayers, hymns, and spells. Ptah-Hotep, vizier of the pharaoh, composes a book of wisdom for his son, as much used in later generations. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2475BC: Central America . Corn (maize) is domesticated for foodstuffs. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2500BC approx: A flask sent as a present to Darius I, Emperor of Persia, with a message inscribed in four languages, Elamite, ArcadianArkaddian, Egyptian and Old Babylonian (cuneiform) which if found a century ago could have become a kind of Rosetta stone. Part of an exhibition now in Sydney with an unusual story. And, where did the Queen of Sheba live Who were the Hittites, anyway The flask is from a collection of items mosaics, sarcophagi, terra-cotta figurines from Syria, jewellery from Ancient Egypt, Phoenician ivory inlays,Sumerian seals and many items from the cradles of civilisation. All a collection created by Dr. Elie Borowski . a Jewish art dealer from Toronto, Canada, who during 45 years collected thousands of items and donated most of the US12 million needed to house them in a museum after Jerusalem donated a prize site. The focus of the entire collection is The Bible as the moral and spiritual source of Western Civilisation, Borowski says. Though after Jerusalem donated a site for the museum, some items had to be sold off to finance project completion. (Reported Weekend Australian in Sydney on 9-10 May 1992) 2500BC, Walled cities in Mesopotamia suggest period of insecurity. Independently of Ukraine, horse is domesticated in China. 2500BC, Egypt uses ships to import gold from parts of Africa. In China, establishment of system re equinoxes and solstices and lunar year of 360 days changes to a sun-moon cycle. Austronesian Expansion reaches Indonesian areas, Celebes, North Borneo and Timor. 2500BC: Start of period of moves of stone-age people from mainland South-East Asia to islands of Indonesia. 2500BC: Use of walled cities in Egypt and Mesopotamia suggests insecurity. 2500BC: The beginnings of the great respect for Isis and Osiris in Egypt The Snake and the Bull are chief religious symbols in Minoan Crete Ishtar worship is prominent in Mesopotamia. 2500BC: India: The Indus Valley civilization is at its peak (Indus-Sarasvati), a prehistoric culture with about six large inland cities, with populations of about 30,000, many villages, and ports on the coast and up rivers. Its territory embraces todays Pakistan and stretches into Iran to the west, to Turkmenia and to Kashmir in the east, to beyond Delhi in south-east. Architecture is governed by various astronomical principles. Weights and measures demonstrate mathematical sophistication. (Hancock, Underworld ) 2500BC and before: In the Indus Valley, major cities flourished from around 4,500 (YearsBeforePresent) to 3,700YBP in areas now desert. We know the local farmers grew wheat, barley, melons, dates, and perhaps cotton. Between 15 and 30 inches of rain fell yearly, allowing rhinoceroses, elephants, and water buffalo to flourish. Lamb attributes this fertile period to the warmer climate, which led the monsoon rains to spread farther north. (From a website reviewing book on climate change by H. H. Lamb, Climate History and the Modern World ) 2500BC: Earliest record of a voyage into unknown seas . A four-year expedition from Egypt to mysterious land of Punt, for incense, myrrh, gold, ebony and dwarfs. See J. H. Parry, (Consultant), Readers Digest Discovery: The Worlds Great Explorers: Their Triumphs and Tragedies . Sydney, Readers Digest, 1978. 2500BC: Helwan, Egypt . Australian researchers (from Macquarie University in Sydney) find a tomb in an ancient cemetery from 4500 years ago, at Helwan, cemetery for Memphis, near the Cairo of today. Team leader for the researchers is Dr. Christiana Kohler, Australian Centre for Egyptology. The mostly-intact and mostly-undisturbed tomb (with skeleton) belonged to a craftsman circa 2750BC. (Reported 29 April 2000) Circa 2500BC: Climate problems: (From a website): Records for the past 4,500 years generally indicate that temperatures were lower than the Holocene thermal maximum. A general cooling, known as the Iron Age neoglaciation, occurred between 2,500 and 4,500 years ago. 2500BC: Death pits of Ur . Royal cemetery of Ur, dated circa 2500BC, unknown till the 1920s, when discovered by Sir Leonard Wooley, human sacrifice re grave of Queen Shubad, skeletons of 68 women of the court with gold or silver head-dresses, mass sacrifice of attendants, and with Queen Shubad also, soldiers armed with spears, and two ox-wagons with slain animals, no signs of violence, all died voluntarily, maybe with poison or narcotics. See Readers Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years . Sydney, The Readers Digest Association, 1973-1974. Hal. 53. 2500BC: First known explorations by sea as deliberate attempts to find new lands, as Egypt sails down Red Sea to the mysterious Land of Punt . presumably the coast of Somalia. By 1500BC, Egypt has sailed the Arabian Sea as far as the island of Scotra. Egypt being largely treeless relies on supplies of cedar timber from Lebanon. 2500BC: First use of fortified castles, in Southern Spain and Portugal. 2500BC: Egyptians used potters wheel but did not see any use for wheeled carts for nearly 1000 years more, to 1500BC. About 2500BC: At Thetford in Eastern England, are miners at Grimes Graves, who sink more than 2000 shafts, into the chalk. Looking for superior supplies of flints. Artefacts here include skeleton of a miner killed by a rock fall. 2500BC: Evidence of dental surgical technology arises in Stone Age Denmark, eg, drilling an upper molar to relieve an abscess. By AD100, a Syrian doctor, Archigenese, had developed methods of drilling to enable cleaning of diseased material from decaying teeth. In Roman times, bad teeth were pulled by barbers. In medieval China, teeth fillings are conducted. (Toothpicks are known in Sumer from 3000BC toothbrushes were used in China by AD1000). About 2500BC: Beaker People from Holland and the Rhineland move into Britain and introduce metalwork. Their origins are uncertain. 2500BC: Approx: First Kingly Dynasty of Ur . Mesopotamia. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) C2500BC: Use of skis in Norway by the Rodoy man. Rodoy is a small island of Northern Norway. 2500BC: South America . Craftsmen in Peru use gold for decorative objects. In Egypt, use of papyrus as a form of paper, made from reeds growing by the Nile. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2500BC: Pakistan . A complex civilization develops in Indus Valley, India. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2500BC: Third Pyramid at Gizeh . Pharaoh Menkure builds Third Pyramid at Gizeh. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2500BC or earlier: JamesThorpe, suggest worlds earliest irrigation works are by early farmers of Geokysur, southern Russia. By about 2800BC-2500BC, the Egyptians began possibly the earliest major dam, near Helwan, south of Cairo. Canals are used in Iraq by 2500BC, the Al-Gharrif waterway, from River Tigris. 2500BC: Sumerians are first to develop cooking ranges on which pots and pans could be placed for a variety of cooking purposes from 2500BC. (JamesThorpe). King Midas . 1957AD-2500BC: Turkey, Following a discovery of a tomb in Turkey, chemical analysis by 1999 reveals what wealthy people dined on. Barbecued lamb or goat, plus spicy stew (olive oil, honey and wine) with lentils. A mixed drink of grape wine, barley beer, mead. At Gordion, capital of the then-powerful Phrygian kingdom. The area is now that of central Turkey, Ankara. A king aged 60-65 was buried in a log coffin in a mound 50 metres high and 300 metres round. See a 1999 issue of the journal, Nature . The tomb was discovered in 1957 by University of Pennsylvania researchers including Dr Rodney Young, and supposedly held King Midas. By 2500BC: McNeill suggests that the distribution of European megaliths suggests that seafarers have travelled and have influence from the Middle East to Western Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. (From McNeill). From 2500BC: Indus River allows development of a civilization with writing, use of copper and bronze, monumental structures of burned brick, carved statues and distinctive seals. Great cities appear of the Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Systematic city-planning. Trade with Indus and Mesopotamia by 2500BC, possible sea-borne contact with Sumer. (From McNeill). 2500BC: Armour . first use being the helmet, of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver. Possibly, earlier helmets had been of leather By Mycenaean times, full body armour was in use. The Chinese used armour, bronze plates with leather, by 1400BC. Similar in Egypt by same date. (Independent inventions) (Source: JamesThorpe). 2500BC: With The Standard of Ur, the worlds first-known army. Sumerian warriors wear leather armour and carry pikes. Around 2300BC, Sargon the Great of Babylonia creates the worlds first empire. Earliest-known professional army, 5400 soldiers. Use of chariots. (Source: JamesThorpe) 2500BC: Earliest known police force, in Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty. 2500BC Date for regular use of honey as a sweetening agent. 2500BC: Swiss lake-dwellers use poppy seeds, possibly for cakes, or crushed, as oil. 2500BC: A form of todays sitting toilet probably invented in the Indus Valley, built of brick, evidence found at Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan, by Sir Mortimer Wheeler by 1944 or after. Similar by 2300BC at Eshunna, Diyala River, Iraq. Also at Mohenjo-Daro by now, large public baths or temple bath Plus, houses with private bathrooms. (JamesThorpe) 2500BC: Hunting economies give way to herders and agriculturalists in Kazakhstan and Central Siberia. (The hunters arrived about 3500BC.) (Source, McNeill, p. 38). Some use of bronze, mining. 2575BC: Egypt, building of pyramids. 2550BC: Sphinx . Pharaoh Khafre builds second Gizeh pyramid and the Sphinx. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2520BC-2494, Egypt, Reign of 4th dynasty Pharaoh Khafre. (Date from Hancock and Faiia). 2430BC: Earliest record of slaves being sold in Mesopotamia. 2480BC: Great Pyramid at Giza begun 2570BC: Gizeh . Pharaoh Khufu builds Great Pyramid at Gizeh. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2589-2566BC: Cheops . Reign of Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops). (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2600BC, first use of paved roads in Egypt. 2600BC: First recorded voyage on Mediterranean, as 40 shiploads of cedar are exported Lebanon to Egypt. Egypt has little affinity with the sea and relies for commerce on the Minoans and the Phoenicians. 2600BC: China . Silkworms are first cultivated in China. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2600BC: Third millennium BC, Dilmun (Tilmun) is Sumerian name for the island of Bahrein. Now an important trading centre. 2600BC: Crete, with first flowering of Greek Bronze Age culture. from 2600BC-2000BC. Strong influence of eastern ideas. Middle Minoan or first palace period, 2000-1700BC, second palace period, 1700BC-1400BC, during which population of island increases greatly. Knossos built. 2600BC-2300BC: Building dates for Pyramids of Giza, Egypt, coinciding with major building period for Stonehenge in Southern England. (Was there any connection) (Date from Hancock and Faiia) 2600BC-2500BC: Egyptian youths might customarily be circumcised with copper knives. The custom arose in Africa and spread into the Middle East. 2600BC: Possibly apocryphal: In China, the mythical Yellow Emperor lays the foundation of medical knowledge, which includes an early sex manual . (A man finds ways to absorb yin without losing yang.) 2600BC: The Eskimo Aleut language is separated from other Eskimo languages. Re Aleutian Islands being isolated - those islands once part of the Bering Strait land bridge. The Chaluka midden is about 1000BC, midway between pre-Eskimo and Eskimo (Inuit) era. 2600BC: The Early Minoan Period on Crete: Beginning of trade and contact with the East, especially Anatolia and Egypt. Bright period is from 2000BC to 1700BC. Crete may have some dependencies on the Greek mainland. 2600BC: Sumerian royal funerals . In Sumeria, royal cemetery of Ur, kings buried with retinue of relatives and servants who apparently are mass-poisoned when their master dies. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2600BC: Egyptians . conquer Sinai and Lower Nubia. They also sail to Phoenicia for cedar timber. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2650BC: one of the first major Egyptian pyramids built, rather more a mastaba design. 2650BC: Egypt: Start of great pyramid building. (Financial Times World Desk Reference) 2650BC-2500BC: Fourth Dynasty in Egypt. 2670BC: The First Pyramid . as a stepped pyramid, is built for Pharaoh Zoser at Sakkarah, the necropolis of Memphis, capital of Egypt. Also, Imhotep, physician of Zoser, writes first known treatise on surgery . (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2657BC: Gilgamesh of Uruk revolts against Kish. (Mellersh) 2675BC: Mesopotamian flood as in Epic of Gilgamesh . (Mellersh) 2686BC: And less, end of the Egyptian Archaic period which formed what was distinctive of Egypts pharonic civilization, and beginning of period to 2181BC, forming the Old Kingdom, the great age of pyramid building and peaks in artistic and intellectual endeavour. Then troubles, and order not restored until 2040BC. From about 2700BC to 1700BC: The civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Indus develop separately, (McNeill, p. 187.) By 1700BC, steppe warriors are more active and destabilise more settled areas. Barbarians have better war technology. 2700BC: Ur, graves show fine arts, distant trade for gold, gems, spices. 2700BC, Graves of Ur give evidence of long distance trade, 2700BC in some views is a date for Early Bronze Age. 2700BC: Evidence that by about 2700BC, domestication of horse . by a nomadic Aryan people with an Indo-European language ranging the steppes of Black and Caspian seas. Their horses are mentioned in the clay tablets of their southern neighbours. (Caspian pony of Iran). The Medes raised Nisean horses in west Iran. In Afghanistan were the Bactrian horses. (Arabia was once a land of trees and rivers.) (Edwards). Circa 2700BC: Earliest-known Chinese medical writing is attributed to The Yellow Emperor, Shih Huang Ti, partly due to conversations with his ministers, Qi Bo and Lei Gong. A proposition was than in ancient times, people used to live 100 years instead of the 50 years more common in their own, due to proper practise of The Tao, the way. (See general theories on breathing, yin and yang, etc.) 2700BC: Evidence that by about 2700BC, domestication of horse . by a nomadic Aryan people with an Indo-European language ranging the steppes of Black and Caspian seas. Their horses are mentioned in the clay tablets of their southern neighbours. (Caspian pony of Iran). The Medes raised Nisean horses in west Iran. In Afghanistan were the Bactrian horses. (Arabia was once a land of trees and rivers.) (Edwards). Circa 2700BC: First stone-built tomb for an Egyptian king. (One of the last kings of the Third Dynasty.) 2700BC: A biblical walled city west of the Dead Sea, Israel, is destroyed in 2700BC resettled about 1100BC - inscribed pottery about 600BC. 2700BC: China . Herbal medicine and acupuncture first used in China. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2700BC: Sumerian city of Ur comes into prominence. (Mellersh.) The worlds first-known doctor, Lulu . practiced in Sumer around 2700BC. (Doctors also begin to appear in Egyptian records 2600-2100BC.) 2750BC: Tyre . Tyre founded as city by Phoenicians. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2750BC: Helwan, Egypt . Australian researchers (from Macquarie University in Sydney) find a tomb in an ancient cemetery from 4500 years ago, at Helwan, cemetery for Memphis, near the Cairo of today. Team leader for the researchers is Dr. Christiana Kohler, Australian Centre for Egyptology. The mostly-intact and mostly-undisturbed tomb (with skeleton) belonged to a craftsman circa 2750BC. Reported 29 April 2000. 2750BC: Likely date of founding of Troy on the Turkish coast. (Mellersh). 2800BC: Copper and Bronze tools arrive for use in mainland Greece. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) About 2800BC-2500BC: Britain: Building of Stonehenge I by Neolithic or New Stone Age people. Stonehenge II from 2130BC (probably built by Beaker People, since as mariners they imported Welsh bluestone). Stonehenge III about 2075BC. Follows, building by the Wessex People of Stonehenge IIIa, IIIb, IIIc. Theories have been advanced that the builders of Stonehenge were Druids, Danes, Romans, Saxons, Phoenicians, Hypoboreans, the Irish, Atlanteans, or Mycenaean Greeks. Or, ancient astronauts (). 2750BC: Babylon . Writing of the Gilgamesh Epic earliest-known written story, with story of Utnapishtim . saved in an ark from a Great Flood. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2800BC, Pyramid of Djoser built near Cairo. 2800BC: Gilgamesh Pyramid of Djoser near Cairo. 2800BC: Stone . Stone is now used for much building and for carved statuary. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2800BC: China . Legend tells that the emperor Fu Hsi develops concept of yin and yang as a means of referring to the equilibrium of all things. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2885BC: Noah born . Noah is born son of Lamech, who is aged 182 years. Noah is first patriarch born after death of Adam. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 2900BC: In Sumer, the Shurrupak Flood. Shurrupak is an antediluvian city about 100km north of Eridu on the Euphrates River, the birthplace of Zisudra, the Sumerian Noah. This was a riverine flood, not a sea inundation as with UrEridu. The furthest-inland of any antediluvian city of Sumer would have been Sippar, which was dedicated to the sun-god, Utu. By legend, Sippar (City of the Sun) is where knowledge of the antediluvian race was hidden before the flood and preserved for the use of survivors. But in the story of Sippar, the Noah figure is named Xisouthros, who when asleep is visited in a dream by a god who warns him humanity will be destroyed in a terrible deluge and orders him to build a large boat. Sacred wisdom is to be inscribed on precious tablets and buried underground at Sippar. (Hancock, Underworld ) 2900BC: Approximate date for beginning of Bronze Age in Mesopotamia, ending with the Kassite Period. 2900BC: Major period of Mesopotamian chronology period when city states flourished under separate dynastic rulers, to end with the founding of the dynasty of Akkad in 2334BC. 2900BC: Greek sub-Neolithic period, to 2500BC Dimini in Thessaly, new pottery, break with earlier culture. 2900BC: Tower as Babel appears as in the building of Sumerian temple towers. (Mellersh) 2900BC: Mesopotamians use square-sailed boats Mesopotamian canals for irrigation also used for boat passage and cargo, and Magar supplies timber for boats. Egypt had ships by 2780BC. The Code of Hammurabi mentions shipping. Pharaoh Necho in 600BC asks Phoenicians to circumnavigate Africa. Time of the Sea People was first naval battles. Navigation is by knowing the wind and stars, use of sounding lead and line for depth. (See E. G. R. Taylors history of navigation). 2954BC: Enoch dies . Enoch, who lived close to God, is rewarded by not dying, but by being taken bodily to heaven at an age of 365 years. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline ) 3000BC: To 1400BC West finds that Miletus a city on the eastern Aegean Sea in Turkey was a trading post set up by colonists from Milatos in Crete. It became the only Ionian city mentioned by the Greek poet Homer. Ionians were non-Caucasians, with at last partly an African descendancy. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3000BC: One date given for beginning of Aegean Bronze Age, or, Early Bronze Age. (3000BC-2000BC). 3000BC: Large villages begin to appear in South America. (Financial Times World Desk Reference) 3000BC, Bantu expansion of Africa, West Africans move north and displace Pygmies and Khoisan groups. Philippines settled by Austronesian expansions. First art with genuine religious content, first map of Moon found at Knowth, Ireland. Concepts used such as bureaucracy, surplus, warehousing, taxes, accounting, gold mines. 3000BC, Start of Bronze Age in Greece, Minoans, Mycaeneans. 3000BC: Sea level reaches present level, temperatures two degrees warmer than currently. 3000BC: The Dawn of the Dingo . DNA data released at a recent conference at University of New South Wales, Sydney, on origins of modern humans, seems to indicate that the Australian Dingo may be the descendant of a single pregnant female dog brought to Australia from Indonesia about 3000BC. Some 211 dingos from all states of Australia have been compared in terms of their mitochondrial DNA by researchers, geneticist Alan Wilton and Prof. Peter Savolainen of Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. The oldest Dingo remains in Australia have otherwise been dated around 3500 years ago, or about 1500BC. It anyway seems that only a few dogs, a pair, or just one pregnant dog started the Australian population. In return, it seems that lice common to kangaroos have been found on dogs in South East Asia. Otherwise, the research on human origins presented at the conference tended to support the out-of-Africa theory. (Reported 30 September 2003 in Australia) 4000BC-3000BC: Beginnings of the use of copper in MeditNear East. Possibly, some domestication of horse by 3700BC (Note from Edwards) 3000 BC: Bureaucracy, hoarding of surplus, warehousing, taxes, accounting, gold mines. 3000BC: Reports arise by 1 April 2003 that in a desert area near Cairo, a 5000-year old mummy is found in a wooden coffin found within an area of mud-brick tombs from Egypts First Dynasty. 3000BC to 500BC: Period of Early Mythopoeic Thought in religiouscultural life: 3000BC: Evidence that the Scythians of the Altai mountains of Western Siberia had been tenders of reindeer before they became horse people, but they are horse people by 3000BC. 3000BC: Domesticated horse used in Europe, eg Sweden there is also a mystery horse, Tundra Horse, remains of which have been found with mammoths in Siberia, such horse remains in Valley of the Yana, in north-east Siberia, where winter temperatures are below those of the North Pole. (Edwards) 3000BC: Presumed introduction of horses into Europe. 3000BC: Cross-fertilisation of people and cultures as horse cultures swept back and forth across Asiatic steppes, the Ukraine, to west Europe and to present day Iran and Iraq, over Medit, to India and China, for five thousand years the horse contributed, say from 3000BC (Edwards) 3000BC: Horses . domesticated on the Eurasian steppes. About 3000BC, horses were introduced into Palestine by Hyksos in 2nd Millennium BC, about 1500BC, with war chariots. First biblical mention of the horse is in Joseph, Genesis 47:17 JewsHebrews are forbidden to keep large numbers of horses as for war purposes. 3000BC: Beginning of period as Pharaoh is worshipped by the Egyptians 3000BC: Iran - South-East: City, river and trading life exists by now. Pre-3000BC: Philippines: First immigrants arrive to Philippines (7000 islands). They are from Malaysia, a primitive people with no knowledge of agriculture. Hunters and gatherers. Later joined by a more advanced people from Indonesia, the two peoples merging into a tribal system termed Barangay. 3000BC: People to be known as Iberians go to Spain from Africa, mingling with Celtic tribes from the north during C4thBC - the so-called Celiberian culture. 3000BC: Iran - South-East: City, river and trading life exists by now. Pre-3000BC: Philippines: First immigrants arrive to Philippines (7000 islands). They are from Malaysia, a primitive people with no knowledge of agriculture. Hunters and gatherers. Later joined by a more advanced people from Indonesia, the two peoples merging into a tribal system termed Barangay. 3000BC: People to be known as Iberians go to Spain from Africa, mingling with Celtic tribes from the north during C4thBC - the so-called Celiberian culture. 3000BC: Use of written numbers is found in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. 3000BC: Use of hieroglyphs (sacred carvings) in Egypt, with some 700 characters. 3000BC: Egypt, Belief arises in Osiris. Views on Osiris are more formalized by 2400BC-2200BC in the Pyramid Texts. (Robert Feather, The Copper Scroll Decoded ) 3000BC: The population of Egypt is 870,000 by 3000BC. (Robert Feather, The Copper Scroll Decoded ) 3000BC: Oldest furniture used by humans . See Catal Huyuk, Turkey. By 3000BC, Stone Age Scotland, Orkney Islands, beds, dressers or sideboards. Also in the Orkneys, the oldest-known lavatories and sewage-disposal systems. (Orcadian site, Skara Brae, Orkneys). At this same time, spring-mattress beds in Egypt. (JamesThorpe) 3000BC: Uruk in Iraq has a population of 50,000 people. (JamesThorpe) 3000BC: Inter-city warfare is already a defect in Sumerian life. Cities tend to be unprotected by hordes from elsewhere. Priestly rule cannot cope and secular kingship arises. Kingship is conferred on rulers of Kish (in the North, speakers of Akkadian, after a major flood. (Source: McNeill, p. 59). The model for kingship is perhaps the authority of a field commander. Sumerian civilization a city civilization, and a city may have developed from an overgrown village mostly farmers, but irrigated land is in tracts owned by a god, and administration is on its behalf by priests, One or more temple communities constitute a city. This magnified work forces, perhaps even several-thousand strong. Sumerian theology has it that men is created to free the gods from working for a living. (Source: McNeill, p. 51.) 3000BC: Papyrus, first made by Egyptians. 3000BC: Approx: Sumeria: Earliest written evidence of a calendar system using both lunar and solar data, using an intercalary month. This gives a year of 360 days (the reason a circle is divided into 360 degrees). By 1300BC, the Chinese use a lunar calendar similar to that of the Sumerians. 3000BC: Date for carving of ja de in Liaoning Province, north-east China. (JamesThorpe). 3000BC: Date for use of bread and beer (from the same cereal) on large scale in Egypt and Iraq. Sumerians were the first great beer drinkers. (JamesThorpe). The Sumerians make wine from dates as well as grapes. Perhaps 40 per cent of Sumerian grain goes to beer-making. (JamesThorpe) 3000BC: By 3000BC, grain-growing agricultural people are working in Europe, along the coast of North Africa, into India, across the Iranian plateau to Central Asia. Of such areas, it was Mesopotamia which had the best-irrigable river valleys. 3000BC: Or before: Use of the traction plow in Middle East. Crude plows are used as recorded in earliest Sumeria and Egypt. After now, rise of the river valley civilizations. But in China, first use of plow perhaps as late as 350BC during Chou Dynasty. 3000BC: Chariot . First known depiction of a chariot. At Tell Agrab, Iraq. Four wild asses (onagers) pull a chariot. The chariot with scythed wheels as used by the Celts against Romans in Britain date from the Persian emperor Cyrus (559-529BC). (Source: JamesThorpe). 3000BC: By now, The rivers Nile and Indus now seem tamed for human purposes via use of irrigation. (Source: McNeill, p. 82). Their civilizations begin to rival Mesopotamia. Before 3000BC: Sumerians etc, a cluster of great inventions, irrigation, wheeled vehicles, sailing ships, metallurgy, oven-baked andor wheel-turned pottery, The Third Dynasty of Ur is 2050BC-1950BC. (Source: McNeill, p. 53). 3000BC: Crete . Beginning of Bronze Age Minoan culture on Crete. Also date for first settlement of Greeks at Athens . World population is now about 100 million. In Europe are now seen great stone monuments. The Sahara area, previously well-wooded, but overworked and overgrazed, begins to suffer desertification . (Dateitems from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline. The Five Mile Press Ltd. Balwyn, Australia, 1992) An Australian archaeologist, Dr Christiana Kohler . of Macquarie University, Sydney, hopes to be able to illustrate the cultural forces shaping the first Egyptian forms of society and rulership after researching a burial ground Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan is about 25km south of Cairo, and one of three sites used for the burial of people from Memphis, Egypts first capital city, from about 5000 years ago. The site in question, with about 10,000 tombs, is about 1.5km by 800m, officially under the control of the Egyptian Antiquities Authority, but in fact is under pressure of modern development. The Helwan area was researched in the 1940s, but artefacts in up to 157 boxes could not be displayed for lack of space. They remained forgotten in a museum basement until Egypts antiquities were re-inventoried only a few years ago. Dr Kohler then became aware of their existence, and, amazingly, managed to gain permission to pursue research, ahead of a world-wide field of other interested scholars. A question is: how did Egypt become a unified kingdom (Reported 21 February 1998, The Sydney Morning Herald ) 3000BC: approx, The First City appeared in Mesopotamia, about BC3000. Christian op cit says Uruk was a city of 50,000 people with well-fortified walls by 3000BC. Soon, the entire population of southern Mesopotamia lived in cities. See Lewis Mumford, The City in History . 1961. Mumford died in 1990 and believed that modern cities (worth living in) had been created by the civilising of technology in the name of society. Lewis Mumford defines the city as, a structure specially equipped to store and transmit the goods of civilisation, sufficiently condensed to afford the maximum amount of facilities in a minimum of space, but also capable of structural enlargement to enable it to find a place for the changing needs and the more complex forms of a growing society and its cumulative social heritage. - in his book The City in History . 3000BC: Approx, Date for erection of stone circles in Britain, at Callanish in the Outer Hebrides probably older. (Date from Hancock and Faiia.) 3000BC: Women practice medicine in Egypt a school of medicine operates at Heliopolis. (See Rosalind Miles book) 3000BC: Ukraine, Engraved on a vessel of silver is the worlds earliest map . By 2300BC: in Northern Iraq, a local map indicates canals and a landholding. By 1500BC appears a map drawn to scale of the Babylonian city of Nippur. 60BC, Appearance of a Babylonian world map, the first such world map . Note that by the time of Alexander the Great, Greeks thought that India was a small peninsula jutting into the sea forming the edge of the world. Alexanders travels proved this wrong. 3000BC: Flood is mentioned in Nippur stele about 3000BC. (Bacon, Atlas) 3000BC: The Goddess appears everywhere in the known world, in statues, shrines and written records, and see Jaynes book here the double-eye figure was a symbol of the (human) vulva Ishtar of the Babylonians is the cosmic uterus, the stars of the zodiac her raiment. (Miles) 3000BC: Evidence that the Scythians of the Altai mountains of Western Siberia had been tenders of reindeer before they became horse people, but they are horse people by 3000BC. 3000BC: Domesticated horse used in Europe, eg. Sweden there is also a mystery horse, Tundra Horse, remains of which have been found with mammoths in Siberia, such horse remains in Valley of the Yana, in north-east Siberia, where winter temperatures are below those of the North Pole. (Edwards) 3000BC: Legend of Arabia that Baz . great-great-grandson of Noah . was the first to attempt domestication of the wild horses of the Yemen. Arabs divide the history of the horse into four periods, Adam to Ishmael, the son of Abraham and first ancestor of the desert Bedouin, reputed to be the first man to ride a desert horse, Ishmael to Solomon, Solomon to Mohammed and then from The Prophet onwards. 3000BC: Cross-fertilisation of people and cultures as horse cultures swept back and forth across Asiatic steppes, the Ukraine, to west Europe and to present day Iran and Iraq, over Medit, to India and China, for five thousand years the horse contributed, say from 3000BC (Edwards) 3000BC: Approx, Sumer . first king of Sumer is Etana of Kish, about 3000BC he stabilized the lands, and raised his temple to Enlil at Nippur. Origins of the Sumerian people are still unknown. Possibly migrating Africans or Afro-Asiatics (See The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3000BC to 1500BC: Assur a city on the Tigris, named for its god, Assur, a god similar to Enlil and Marduk. Before 3000BC: Megaliths erected in Europe and Palestine. (See J. I. Packer, Merrill C. Tenney, William White Jnr, (Eds.), The Bible Almanac . Nashville, Thomas Nelson, 1980.) 3000BC: Beginning of civilization in Crete. 3000BC: Horses . domesticated on the Eurasian steppes. About 3000BC, horses introduced into Palestine by Hyksos in 2nd Millennium BC, about 1500BC, with war chariots. First biblical mention of the horse is Joseph, Genesis 47:17 JewsHebrews are forbidden to keep large numbers of horses as for war purposes. 3000BC: Continuous occupation at Benin, Southern Nigeria, since 3000BC to present day at some point, bronze is cast by the lost-wax method. 3000BC: or earlier, Founding of Byblos . present day Gebeil, later the chief Phoenician port, East Medit, north of Beirut. Main centre of trade with Egypt. Byblos is origin of the word bible. 3000BC. Latter half of 3rd Millennium BC, Corded warebattle axe culture, North European plain, individual burial as a practice, especially for adult males use of twisted cord, horse bones, so perhaps nomadic herdsmen (). In this period, wheeled vehicles first reached Northern Europe, with wooden wheels of solid wood in three pieces as in Holland and Denmark. More contact for these peoples. 3000BC-1750BC: Peru develops a vertical economic system, as lower villages traded food with the seasonally nomadic herders of the higher elevations. 3000BC: Casting of large statues by the lost-wax method, in Mesopotamia. (Lost-wax is cire perdue .) About 3000BC to 2000BC: Human occupation at South Siberia, Neolithic stock breeders and hunters, burials using low mounds, stamped pottery, some copper work. 3000BC: By about 3000BC in Egypt on a great roll of leather, the original of the later famous Memphite Theology is set down, possibly on a leather scroll, with a reference to the creator God Ptah quarrels of the gods Horus and Seth, describes the construction of the royal god-house at Memphis, and indicates the various gods are variations of Ptahs voice or tongue. 3000BC: The wheel in use in Sumeria. (Mellersh). BC: Babylon is now a prosperous city: The Assyrians now use the block wheel as imported from lower Mesopotamia. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3000BC: Presumed introduction of horses into Europe. 3000BC: Use of pigs in New Guinea highlands. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 3000BC: Approx, Arrival of post-flood arrivals in Australia. Use of the (domesticated) dingo dog. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) Circa 3000BC: The speakers of Austronesian languages begin to populate Taiwan, Philippines, Malaysia, the Indonesian Islands, Madagascar and the more remote islands of the Pacific Ocean. (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World . The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue JulyAugust 2005) 3011BC: Adam dies . Adam dies at age of 930 years. (Many of the first generation of biblical patriarchs live about 1000 years) (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3200BC: Begins the Bronze Age in the Egyptian Protodynastic period, perhaps to be associated with the unification of North and South Egypt (Upper and Lower) of 3150BC. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3200BC: To 1200BC: The original Canaanites appear in Canaan, and are the ancestors of the later Iron Age Phoenicians (active from 1200BC), despite indications to the contrary in classical literature, West says. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3400BC: Appearance of first writing in Egypt. 3300BC, invention of writing, Sumerians with cuneiform, maybe used also in Egypt, Sumerian city-states emerge, Sumerians develop the wheel, and the 60-second minute. 3300BC: Use of numerical notation tablets Iceman mummified in Swiss Alps. 3300BC: Otzi the iceman. October 1991: Otzi . the iceman, is discovered by German tourists in the South Tyrol region of Italy, in the Otztaler Alps on the Austrian-Italian border near Switzerland, altitude 3200m above sea level. His head is seen emerging from meltwater of the Similaun Glacier. The tourists take a picture, notify the caretaker of a lodge nearby, and move on. Later, police damage Otzis bow as they extract the body from the ice. Some of his clothes are torn, a hole is accidentally drilled in his hip. Later the body is forced into a coffin and an arm is broken. He becomes the find of the century. He has a fascinating tool kit, a superbly-crafted bow, and near him are animal bones, grain and dried fruit. New Scientist magazine reports on him by January 1992. Otzi-mania developed. About 20,000 museum visitors now view him per year in a specially-designed chamber. Various scenarios arise on Otzis situation. One of the first was from Konrad Spindler, director of Institute of Alpine Studies at University of Innsbruck, who thought Otzi lost his way and died of cold in a storm or blizzard, quoted in New Scientist . Was he a shepherd who had lost his way Other views were that he was a warrior, a hunter, a chieftain, or a shaman. Was he injured, did he have a stroke Had he been ostracised About 60 teams of scientists were to range over the remains and surviving artefacts. Otzis people were farmers raising cattle, sheep and goats. They hunted red deer, Ibex and Chamois and by 2900BC, thousands of their villages dotted Europe. Otzi was aged about 46, about 160cm tall. If a reconstruction of him is accurate, he was quite handsome. By 11 August 2003 (in The Australian newspaper . story by Leigh Dayton), he is depicted as aged about 46, killed or dying about 3300BC after being shot from behind with an arrow, which a companion removed before he stitched the wound. The friend was also injured, and DNA tests have shown the friends blood was on the back of Otzis jacket. But blood from different people was on the arrowhead and a nearby knife blade. Otzis tools bore traces of animal blood, and included a copper axe, a stone-tipped knife, bow and arrows, a drill, a multi-purpose scraper, a stone-flaker, flintstone and tinder for fire-making. Otzi was evidently born in the South Tyrol area of Italy, and his DNA resembles that of modern Europeans living in Northern Europe. His remains reside with South Tyrol Archaeology Museum, Bolzano Italy while his artefacts are kept in Mainz. He lived near Juval, a copper-age (Neolithic) site in the area. He was possibly a skilledspecialist hunter of the mountain goat (Ibex). Why did he die One scenario is that he and his companion, on an ordinary hunting trip, became involved in a territorial fight on a high alpine pass. Both are injured, and Otzi shortly dies, lying knife-in-hand in the shelter of a rock face. Before August 2003, scientists interested in the case had not realized Otzi was with a companion, though they knew he had been shot by an arrow. A revised scenario lately arises from archaeologist Tom Loy, who is expert in prehistoric tools and is director of Institute of Molecular Bioscience in Brisbane at University of Queensland. Loy believes Otzi was expert at hunting Ibex and also Chamois, which might have led him into disputed territory. Otzis gear when he died was in neat condition. He did not simply collapse, but was organized. Loy and his students have examined blood specimens from Otzis antler-skinning tool, his stone-tipped knife, two of his arrows, and his axe-handle. Three sequences of DNA came from three different people. It appears, one such person had been leaning on Otzis shoulders for support. The wounding arrowhead bothering Otzi had been discovered in 2001 by pathologist Eduart Egarter-Vigal and radiologist Paul Gostner of the Bolzano hospital. Examination of DNA proposes new scenarios. 3067BC: Lamech . Lamech is born as son to Methuselah, who is aged 187 years. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3100BC: An early date for the appearance of bronze-made artefacts found in the Majiayo Culture of China. To 2700BC. But some scholars prefer to date the Bronze Age in China from about 2000BC. It perhaps depends whether China first imported bronze goods before it began to manufacture its own. 3100BC-2650BC: First three dynasties of Egypt. Sumeria influences the development of Egypt. 3100BC-2650BC: Egypt develops with influences from Mesopotamian culture, as indicated by evidence from art, metallurgy, use of the potters wheel, mud-brick monumental buildings. Before 3100BC, nothing like a Sumerian city state. exists in Egypt. (From McNeill) 3100BC, in Egypt, first crushing of grapes, fermenting and wine-making. 3102BC: Date given in Indian tradition for the beginning of the Age of Kali (Kali Yuga), when people will become more wicked and violent. This is also one date for the traditional death of Krishna. Hancock sees it as a date for the end of the city of Dwarka. (Hancock, Underworld) 3100BC: First-known clay tablets used, carrying writing. 3100BC: When areas of the Nile Valley are still uncivilized (ie, Neolithic), arises Menes . a single ruler, and his political unification lasted about 900 years. His rule may have been pre-dated by priests, chieftains or priest-kings governing limited areas. Was Menes a pastoralist-conqueror from the south Early Egyptian civilization becomes a product of the ways of the royal household which became a city in itself. (Source: McNeill, p. 87.) 3100BC: Evolution of hieroglyphs . pictorial script evolved for writing the ancient Egyptian language. By 3100BC: Scribes are at work writing in Mesopotamia. (Cambridge Hist) 3100BC: Legend has it that Thebes was founded by Menes . north Egypt capital, seat of creator God Ptah (who created by an utterance), on west bank of Nile opposite Cairo. Not originally called Memphis, burials over period of 3000 years. Lost tomb of King Horemheb found there. Mastaba - and the Iseum, the newly-found burial place of the mothers of the Apis bulls. Memphis, Egyptian creator God Ptah, chief cult centre, earthly manifestation was The Bull. Sacred Apis bull quartered at Memphis. Embalmed bodies of Apis bulls were at Saqqara. Re Temple of Serapis lined by sphinxes. A small temple built by a 30th Dynasty Pharaoh, before which stood a semi-circle of Greek poets and philosophers. See Serapeum Ramses IIs reign put two Apis bulls in embalmed state. Apis bull cult probably predates Egyptian dynastic history, as bulls were buried in cemeteries in Badarian culture. Pharaoh probably ate dead Apis bulls to regain strength. Only one Apis bull per time, selected from all Egypt per markings. Bull was interred like a pharaoh, had his own harem of cows. Dead Apis bulls became the funerary god, Osiris-Apis. Mothers of Apis bulls were sacred cows. (Anything such as a link re Indian sacred cows - Hindus Cows were associated with Isis. Miles says, first mention of Thebes, the Goddess ordered a wooden lingam of Osiris set up in her temple, as a phallus. (Miles) 3100BC-2900BC: Jemdet Nasr, a small site northeast of Babylon . Protoliterate period in Mesopotamia. Use of pictograph tablets. 3100BC: Approximate date for the construction of Newgrange . in Ireland. Newgrange, ostensibly a neolithic tomb, also has the remarkable properties of a precise solar (and lunar) calendar, which allow the suns rays to illuminate the inner chambers only on the Winter Solstice. It is also the site of the oldest-known map of the Moon (carved on a rock called Orthostat 47, circa 4800 years old). Newgrange is one of the most important, and most ancient, scientific sites in the world. It is conservatively estimated to be at least 500 years older than the Egyptian pyramids and 1000 years older than Stonehenge. Submitted by Matt Johnston, 20 January 2001 31 00BC: Pharaoh Menes . Unites scattered tribes of upper and lower Egypt and near modern site of Cairo founds major city, Memphis . (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3100BC: Begins the classical dynastic period for Egypt, uniting upper and lower Egypt by legendary king, Menes . possibly the historical King Narmer. Archaic period here to 2686BC. Magan: a distant land trading with Mesopotamia, 3rd and 2nd mlnm. Possibly Gulf of Oman and Indus Valley. But at times, texts describe it as Ethiopia. Trade in timber, gold, copper and semi-precious stones. The people named Cush are equal to the Kish, according to (Packer et al . Cush is Ethiopia .) 3100BC: Use of oared boatsships in Egypt. Somewhat later the Egyptians are exploring the Mediterranean Coast. By 2300BC the Egyptians have an organised navy of merchant transport vessels. 3200BC, Egypt, First formation of the first single Old Kingdom by Narmer, more development of hieroglyphics in Egypt, embalming of the dead. 3200BC: About now, according to Larry West, appearance of the Cycladic civilization of the islands of the Aegean Sea. By 2000BC when the Cycladic period ended there had been a converging of the Cycladic and Minoan (Cretan) civilsation. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 3200BC: From now the Bronze Age begins for the Eastern Mediterranean, according to Larry West, and more a peaceful era as mutual trade was preferred to war, more so as the people involved had a common African (or ethnic) heritage. From 9500BC to about 5200BC and down to here: The Bronze Age begins, when in the Eastern Mediterranean region, various civilizations established wide-ranging trade networks using ships, but based on the economy of Egypt, Previously, The African people of the Saharan Sojourn had created their own agricultural revolution, live a a settled lifestyle, live with domesticated plants and cattle, use metal objects replacing stone objects, use tanning of animal skins (which involves controlled use of chemicals), pottery, weaving, stone-construction, villages to a good design, deep wells for water sourcing, the worlds first-known astronomical structures aligned with stars. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 3200BC: Pictographs of Sumeria . In Sumeria is developed form of writing known as pictograph. In Canaan, Palestine, a culture develops, and is unbroken till nomads overtake it in 2300BC. Walled cities are found, with narrow cobbled streets. Trading centres include Hazor, Megiddo, Shechem and Jebus. By 3200BC, Canaanites at Megiddo erect a large stone altar (8 metres in diameter) as a high place for worship. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3200BC: Beginning of Aegean Bronze Age in eastern Mediterranean. Establishment of wide-ranging trade networks. Tin and charcoal were imported to Cyprus where copper was mined. Some tin may have come from Britain, but it is also thought that some tin was mined at Ugarit. Navigatioon as already well developed. Also involved by about 3000BC was the Minoan civilization of Crete and Helladic people of the Greek mainland. (From Wikipedia pages various on Bronze Ages) Circa 3200BC: Menes has united Upper and Lower Egypt for irrigation control. 3200BC: Stringed instruments (lyres), used at Ur in Sumer. Invention of the lyre credited to the god Enlil. The lyre seems to have inspired the lute by 2300BC and the lute long later gave rise to the guitar. In India via the Greeks, the lute became the sitar An adapted lute became the violin. A 1487 opinion is that the Catalans had invented the guitar. (JamesThorpe) The Sumerians used a seven-noted scale like our own, allowing harmonies. Circa . 3200BC: Early evidence of use of wheeled vehicles in Sumer. 3200BC: The Bronze Age begins in earnest. Trade centres establish far-ranging trade networks managed by Crete, Mycenae (mainland Greece), Cyprus, Ugarit, Byblos and Egypt. Central to affairs is the Egyptian demand for bronze tools for masonry work, exchanged for gold and surplus grain. Egypt required copper, tin, pottery, olive oil, wood, in exchange for grain, gold, lien and papyrus as a writing material. Egypt was also buying ready-made ships by 3000BC. The trade networks shipped tin from wherever, to wherever copper was mined, for bronze production. Tin came from Kestel near Tarsus, from Cornwall in Britain. from Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. There was also a copper mine at Timna on Gulf of Aqaba. An old dating for tin-bronze works was in Turkey about 3500BC, and those copper workiers may have migrated to Cyprus by 2400BC. Egypt took much gold from Nubia, and the land of Punt was a trader, although Punt is still not-well-identified by historians. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3200BC or earlier: Possibly rediscovery of Sodom and Gomorrah . Two of five lost Cities of the Plains, located probably north of the ancient northern coast of the Dead Sea, Palestine, Sodom and Gomorrah, may be rediscovered. NASA satellite pictures now appear to indicate sunken buildings where they cities may have been. Mysteries of the research here involve cemeteries for up to 500,000 people, in an area now a desert, cemeteries perhaps as old as 3200BC. Perhaps, the area was devastated 5000 years ago by an earthquake which let loose pitch which caught fire Hence the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by fire Later, the waters of the northern Dead Sea rose. A mini-submarine will be needed to explore a test area about 365m deep. The researchers involved in the story include: NASA satellite picture editors, Michael Sanders, biblical scholar born in Leeds, now in Irvine, California, and a scuba-diver, Rich Slater. And a late 1960s-working archaeologist, P. W. Lapp, who had excavated on the Lisan Peninsula of the Dead Sea. Archaeologists Walter Rast and Thomas Schauh worked in the same area during 1973-1979. (Reported by 19 October 1998) 3250BC: Earliest wheeled vehicles in Sumeria used for both farm vehicles and war chariots. 3250BC: Wheeled cart is in use in Mesopotamia and Caucasus. Use of solid wooden wheels, which are in three parts strapped together. 3254BC: Methuselah . Methuselah is born as son to Enoch who is aged 65. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3300BC: China: First ruler of China is Fu Xi. 3300BC: Domestic lighting: By 18000BC, Stone Age cave artists use stone lamps filled with animal fat to light their way. By 3300BC, ordinary homes in Egypt are lit with pottery bowls with a wick floating in oil. (JamesThorpe). 3319BC: Enoch . Enoch is born as son to Jared, who is aged 162 years. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3309BC: March 10: A primordial Maya god, named GI by scholars, begins his mythical reign. 3300BC: Approximate date for appearance of Bronze Age work on Indian subcontinent, with the beginning of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappans, who used copper, bronze, tin and lead - their culture preceded the Iron Age Vedic Period but confusingly the Harappans can also be dated 1700BC-1300BC). (Wikipedia pages various on Bronze Ages) 3400BC: More to come 3500BC, Austronesian expansions, settlers from South China reach Taiwan. 3500BC: Worlds Oldest Leather Shoe Found In Armenia - A perfectly preserved shoe, 1,000 years older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and 400 years older than Stonehenge in the UK, has been found in a cave in Armenia. The 5,500-year-old shoe, the oldest leather shoe in the world, was discovered by a team of international archaeologists and their findings will publish on June 9th in the online scientific journal PLoS ONE . The cow-hide shoe dates back to about 3,500BC (the Chalcolithic period) and is in perfect condition. It was made of a single piece of leather and was shaped to fit the wearers foot. It contained grass, although the archaeologists were uncertain as to whether this was to keep the foot warm or to maintain the shape of the shoe, a precursor to the modern shoe-tree perhaps (From GeneaNet e-mail newsletter, 12 June 2010.) 3500BC, first pyramids made of earth are built in Peru. 3500BC-2400BC, Sumerian period in Mesopotamia, city states arise of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Gilgamesh, ziggarauts, use of cuneiform. By 3500, population of Uruk is about 10,000 (). 3500BC: City of Kish in Mesopotamia, first known use of writing, a scribe carves a tablet of solid limestone with a foot, a hand and a sledge, picture-writing. Plus some marks which are probably numbers. 3500BC: Beginning of colonisation of Britain, a process completed by 30000BC. Circa 3500BC: (Gardner, Genesis . p. 21): By 3500BC is ate for a stone-built tomb in an area with no stones, Ur, with riches as splendid as those for Tutankhamun, for wife of A-bar-gi, Queen Shub-ad. 3500BC: Ugarit, or Ras-Shamra, on Syrian coast of Mediterranean. Opposite Cyprus, means field, 5 major phases, 3500BC and before, blasted by the Sea Peoples in about 1200BC, most important texts are about 1400BC seafaring is important. An important God is Baal . 3rd mlnm 1200BC, the Sea People destroy Ugarit an ancient Syrian city near the coast, going back to 3rd mlnm. Mid-3rd mlnm BC, Copper mining at Los Millares, inland from coast of se Spain, cemetery of passage graves. Millaran culture of south Spain and Portugal. Phoenicians: Semitic inhabitants on coastal Levant Egyptians and Akkadians wanted their wood from 3rd mlnm. Phoenicians turned to trade as their coastal fringe could not support city populations. Traded in cedars and murex dyes Phoenician monopoly of Tyrian purple. Developed writing for their trading, the alphabet. Byblos, Sidon, Tyre, and their Punic colonies were at Moroccan coast, Malta, Cadiz in Spain, Carthage, Sardinia, Palermo, Sicily. Eye temple: Re Jaynes and eyes, at Tell Brak, Akkadian frontier outpost, on tributary of River Khabur on Syrian-Iraq border, at beginning of 3rd millennium, four eye temples, re use of votive amulets, re use of imagery of eyes. 3rd mlnm, lapis lazuli only mined at Badakhshan in Afghanistan, so its occurrence is useful in tracing trade indications. Luwians, or, Luvians: Indo-Europeans invading Anatolia in 3rd Mlmn BC, in province of Assuwa, west of the Hittites, and Hieroglyphic Hittite and Lycian are dialects of Luwian. Rock mounts and springs near Manisa may have religious significance. 3rd mlnm BC: In Europe, colonization of North European plain and introduction of the plough, first necessitated mining for flint, as stone needed for axes to clear forests. North Europe, across to Russia, mines put through chalk to get to flint. 4th mlnm copper mined at Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Iron Age: Use of iron begins in 3rd mlnm, developed by the Hittites and kept a closely-guarded secret until they fall to the Sea People. about 1200BC. Iron technology spread quickly through West Eurasia. Established in Greece and Italy soon after 1000BC, then spread through Europe. It is no accident that as iron spread, bronze-based wealth collapsed, and the decline of Greece after Peloponnesian Wars, 431-404BC, Greek imports disappeared from Celtic Central Europe and less than two years later, Celts began their expansion south to Southern Italy and sacked Rome in 385BC, east via Danube to Greece, an attempt to lessen the impact of Greek trade. 3300BC: Beginning of Early Bronze Age in Egypt and about the Aegean Sea. Use of tin mines of Kestel and copper from Cyprus. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3400BC: Hieroglyphics . Priests in the Nile Valley begin to develop form of writing known as hieroglyphics. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3400BC: One date for beginning of hieroglyphic writing began in Egypt. 3400BC: Prehistory ends in Iraq when the Sumerians became literate. Same in Greece by 1000BC. Rene has 3400BC as one of the earliest dates for Sumer. 3400BC: Flood . Major flood at Sumerian city of Ur . (Origin of the people of Sumeria is still unknown). (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3400BC: North America: Date for Watson Brake Mound Complex of eleven mounds, with connecting ridges on about 20 acres and seems to have been little-inhabited and also not used for ceremonial purposes. About 1400BC, appearance of Poverty Point Mounds, and 2000 years later, the Mississippi Temple Mounds were built. See Science Now . 19 September 1997) For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html Circa 3450BC: One of various dates given: The first cities appear along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, north of what is now the Persian Gulf. The cities made up the Uruk culture named after the principal city of Uruk, which corresponds to the Biblical Erech. The culture invented writing, the lunar calendar, used metal and built monumental architecture. The cities remained independent for almost a thousand years. 3440BC: Desertification of Sahara beginsproceeds. 3481BC: Jared . Is born as son to Mahalalel, who is aged 65. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) Circa 3400 BC: The opium poppy is cultivated in lower Mesopotamia. The Sumerians refer to it as Hul Gil, the joy plant. The Sumerians would soon pass along the plant and its euphoric effects to the Assyrians. The art of poppy-culling would continue from the Assyrians to the Babylonians who in turn would pass their knowledge on to the Egyptians. From website based on book: Opium: A History . by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd. 1996. e-mail infoopioids 3500BC: Uruks cities reach 10k population use of cylinder seals the wheel. 2001AD- 3500BC: Approx: Newly-discovered rock art sites reveal that prior to what is now regarded as Egyptian civilisation , before and after the building of the pyramids, areas distant from the Nile were populated by an unknown pastoral people, driving their cattle from one watering place to another, about 4000BC if not earlier. The people producing the rock art were, stylistically, the same as the people producing pottery art in Egypt. The areas being researched are Wadi Hammamat and Wadi Barramiya. Some recurring images are the dragging of boats, and figures with large plumes in their hair. Egypt began to turn into desert from about 3500BC. Before then, the landscape was rather like todays African savannah. The Egypt of 4000BC is going to need a rethink, is one early conclusion. A researcher helping analyse the rock art is Dr. Toby Wilkinson of Christs College, Cambridge University. (Reported in world press on 30 December 2000) 6700BC: From 6700BC to 5500BC or so, and then from 3800BC to 3400BC (or 4000BC to 3600BC), occurs the desertification of the Sahara . not due to human misuse of environment, but by changes in the earths orbit and a tilt of the axis. This has been claimed by Martin Claussen and co-researchers of Germanys Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, engaged in climate-modelling research on variables including weather, oceans, vegetation over several thousand years. (See a 15 July 1999 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters . The effects were very severe, ruining ancient civilizations and socio-economic systems. The change to North Africas climate and vegetation was abrupt, and a green Sahara only supported desert shrubland within a few hundred years. Rivers and streams dried up. The habitations of the area are now remembered only via rock paintings. The people may have been forced to move west to the Nile Valley and other river valleys which could support civilization - especially the Tigris and Euphrates. Similar changes occurred in what is now Arabia. The changes were added to by atmospheric and vegetation feedback, more than by effects from oceanic reactions. The model used by the researchers led to a conclusion that the desertification of North African began about 3400BC plus or minus 30 years, with the area earlier covered by annual grasses and low shrubs, as assessed from fossilized pollen. Another factor modified by the change i n the tilt of the earths axis, from 24.14 degrees to the present 23.45 degrees, was that the Northern Hemisphere, which had enjoyed more summer sunlight, had also amplified the African and Indian summer monsoon. Credit for material here goes to American Geophysical Union. The above is based on material found at the ClimateArk website (once at): climateark.orgarticles1999sahturnd.htm 3500BC: Sumerians and Babylonians use sexigesimal (base 60) number system, according to historian Eric Temple Bell. 3500-3100BC: In Egypt the Knife of Gebel-el-Arak was made with an ivory handle carved with hunting and battle scenes. (It is now in the French Louvre.) 3500BC: First Neolithic farmers inhabit Denmark. 3500BC: Earliest-known evidence of olive oil cultivationproduction, in Bronze Age Palestine. 3500BC: Model for town-planning using right-angles, an early example is about 3500BC for a population of 12,000 from Rahman Dehri, on the Western Indus Plain, India. (JamesThorpe) 3500BC: Cotton is cultivated on the coasts of Peru and by 2000BC cotton textile manufacture is common in Ur, Sumeria. (JamesThorpe) 3500BC: And later: During its heyday, Babylon had probably a population of 500,000. JamesThorpe. Their model for town-planning used right-angles, an early example is about 3500BC for a population of 12,000 from Rahman Dehri, on the Western Indus Plain. (JamesThorpe). 3500BC: Beginning of institutions, and ideas, ceremonies, techniques, so that by 3000BC, begins the civilization of the Sumerians, whose origins are unknown. Their language is unknown, skeletons provide no information on their racial origins. Their religion and art give prominence to animals. Did they arrive by sea from the south as some recorded traditions indicate Their records have little word magic. (Source: McNeill, p. 49.) 3500BC to 1600BC: Tepe Hissar, site in Northern Iran, near Caspian Sea, Sassanian palace found. 3500BC: UrukWarka, Biblical Erech, important site, 3500BC to 3100BC. Proto-literate. Linked to Nippur. Shrines to Anu and E-anna. Later ziggarauts. 3500BC: Chasseen culture widespread in France (Celts) - Middle Neolithic culture. Date. but 3500BC, From the 4th Millennium onwards, currency was hoarded, often in large quantities, exchanged in precisely measured amounts by weight. Not really in common use till 500BC. Currency of two kinds. Special and general purpose. General can be used for most purposes, and was bronze, which could not be hoarded to be equivalent to gold prices. Gold coinage for gift exchange or bride prices, never to be used for subsistence goods. Currency might not even be exchanged, but used as a standard for relative values of things or even people. 3500BC: probable painting of Boats of the Dead Caves (third flooding) in Niah Caverns, Borneo. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 3500BC: Evidence that the solid wheel is being used as a roller, Sumerian graves. (Edwards) 3500BC: Sumeria . Sumeria now has a group of commercially-orientated city states, including Ur, Erech, Nippur, Larsa, Eridu, Lagash, Kish. About 3500BC, Semitic peoples, probably from Arabia, invade Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. In Europe, farmers begin using cattle for pulling ploughs and carts, also for meat and milk. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3546BC: Mahalalel . Mahelalel is born as son to Kenan who is aged 70. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3600-3000BC: On Malta the GantijaGigantija phase, with the construction of the first megalithic temples. 3600-1700BC: Neolithic jade pieces represent some of the oldest of Chinese art. 3600BC: Metals in Asia . In Southwest Asia, Bronze is developed as an alloy of copper and tin, as harder, and better for tools and weapons. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3616BC: Kenan . Kenan is born as son to Enosh who is aged 90. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3700BC: Wheel . The wheel is invented, probably in Sumeria. Development of basket-making. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.) 3706BC: Enosh . Enosh is born as son to Seth who is now 105 years old: (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) Circa 3761BC: The first year of the Jewish calendar that begins with Rosh Hashana. 1997 was year 5758 3800BC: By 3800BC appears Sumerian city of Uruk with its temple, the first true city on earth, (though what of Catal Huyuk) Uruk has municipallocal councils, evolved from 5500BC, with cobbled streets and drainage systems. From (Gardner, Genesis . p. 9) the inheritors of the farming Halfans of Tel Halaf, Mesopotamia have become world leaders from about 10,000BC, but there is a baffling cultural expansion from after 4000BC. 3811BC: Seth . Adam and Eve have son Seth, to replace Cain as legitimate heir of Adam, who is now aged 130 years. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3880BC: Murder . Cain murders Abel in a squabble over the naturecontentintent of proper sacrifices. God drives Cain into exile in eastern lands. Cain marries and builds a city. Between 3880-2500BC, many of Cains descendants help develop human culture: life for nomadic herders and urban dwellers, art of music, crafts of metalwork. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3882BCL (Gardner, Genesis ): An average date for appearance of Adam is about 3882BC, in era of Near Eastern Bronze Age. 3881BC: Rivalry develops between Cain and Abel. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3900BC circa: Fresh migrants move from the Saharan area into Egypt, clearing and irrigating land, planting barley and an early form of wheat named emmer. Raised cattle and pigs, wove linen and baskets. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 3938BC: Abel . Adam and Eve have son, Abel, whose name means vapor. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3939BC: Cain . Adam and Eve have son Cain, whose name means spear. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 3940BC: Expulsion from Garden of Eden Adam and Eve after The Fall are expelled from Garden of Eden. They are forced to work in agriculture. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) Circa 3940BC: The downturn in temperatures and the drying of the climate led to the disappearance of several civilizations and to great disturbances in those that did survive. The earlier period of fine warm weather, Lamb hypothesizes, may be the origin of archetypal landscapes such as the Garden of Eden. After the warmest period, the earth seems to have cooled. (From a website reviewing book on climate change by H. H. Lamb, Climate History and the Modern World ) 3941BC: Garden of Eden Adam and Eve are placed in the Garden of Eden. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 4000BC-1000BC: Caucasians (according to the Kurgan Hypothesis) from the colder northern areas of Eastern EuropeRussia, referred to as Indo-Europeans (an ethno-linguisitc group) start migrating east, west, south and north. They were copper workers. The main Indo-European group possibly rose by 3000BC in Eastern Europe but broke up by 2500BC and its people emigrated hither and thither. Some went to Greece, some to Italy, some crossed Iran and Afghanistan to enter India, some even into Western China. They reached Iberia (Spain) by about 1800BC. They perhaps go by the names of Aryans or Semites. Aryans, a male-dominated society, are thought to have come from the western end of the Pontic-Caspian steppes in Eastern Europe. They had a hierarchical organisation, used domesticated horses and wheeled vehicles, were quite aggressive and were quite interested in religious ideas. replacing matriarchical religion and society with patriarchal. People of such ilk ended in Anatolia (Caucasian Hittites), the Aegean, Western Europe, Central Asia and Southern Siberia. One thing they did need to do was learn from the cultures which had populated the Bronze Age in the southern regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The rise of Semitic peoples is more problematical, as they do not seem to appear before the early Iron Age, and are not associated with ancient Mesopotamia or the Akkadians. There seems to be no pure Semitic race genetically or linguistically. Semiocentric assumptions tend to ignore the contributions of African descendancies to the peoples of the Middle East. (Attitudes drawn from Bibilical studies tend to associate the rise of the Semitic people with the Biblical Shem as father of the Hebrews.) The proto-Semitics probably date from 4800-4500BC. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 4000BC: Height of the present warm interglacial, and seas rise about now. (Shreeve, Neandertal ) 4000BC (From BBC Headlines news story of 31 October 2012) Archaeologists in Bulgaria say that have uncovered the oldest prehistoric town found to date in Europe. The walled fortified settlement, near the modern town of Provadia, is thought to have been an important centre for salt production. Its discovery in north-west Bulgaria may explain the huge gold hoard found nearby 40 years ago. Archaeologists believe that the town was home to some 350 people and dates back to between 4700 and 4200 BC. That is about 1,500 years before the start of ancient Greek civilisation. The residents boiled water from a local spring and used it to create salt bricks, which were traded and used to preserve meat. Salt was a hugely valuable commodity at the time, which experts say could help to explain the huge defensive stone walls which ringed the town. Extremely interesting. Excavations at the site, beginning in 2005, have also uncovered the remains of two-storey houses, a series of pits used for rituals, as well as parts of a gate and bastion structures. A small necropolis, or burial ground, was discovered at the site earlier this year and is still being studied by archaeologists. We are not talking about a town like the Greek city-states, ancient Rome or medieval settlements, but about what archaeologists agree constituted a town in the fifth millennium BC, Vasil Nikolov, a researcher with Bulgarias National Institute of Archaeology, told the AFP news agency. Archaeologist Krum Bachvarov from the institute said the latest find was extremely interesting. The huge walls around the settlement, which were built very tall and with stone blocks. are also something unseen in excavations of prehistoric sites in south-east Europe so far, he told AFP. Similar salt mines near Tuzla in Bosnia and Turda in Romania help prove the existence of a series of civilisations which also mined copper and gold in the Carpathian and Balkan mountains during the same period. BBC Europe correspondent Nick Thorpe says this latest discovery almost certainly explains the treasure found exactly 40 years ago at a cemetery on the outskirts of Varna, 35km (21 miles) away, the oldest hoard of gold objects found anywhere in the world. 4000BC, domestication of horse in Ukraine. First iron object appears in Egypt. In Sligo, Ireland, is a tomb observatory re both sun and moon. 4000BC: People of Taiwan off China move to Malay Peninsula and the Moluccas of Indonesia. (Levathes, When China Rules The Seas ) 4000BC If about 16,000BC is the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, meaning rising seas, then possibly the lower-lying areas of Mesopotamia are inundated around 4000BC Or to 3500BC Oppenheimer in Eden in the East calls such relatively short-term flooding, the Flandrian transgression, affecting many parts of Asia. If so, Hancock speculates that Eridu of Sumer may have been the last old city to be built at the post-glacial high water point. Or, was it simply not flooded (Eridu is a little north-west of modern Basra in Iraq, Ur was about 20km away.) In addition, about 2030BC, Sumerian King Amar Sin erects at Eridu a ziggurat, or step-pyramid. It was evidently built on top of earlier structures, perhaps as many as 17 temples. The earliest of these were perhaps one-roomed, with altars, offering tables and good-quality pottery. Dating the pottery might proceed back in time to 5000BC - and might make Eridu an antediluvian city (Hancock, Underworld ) 4000BC: Plowing with oxen, irrigation by Nile, earthworks deforestation 4000BC: Sheep are favoured for wool in some areas. 4000BC-2000BC: North Africa: Sahara is desertified, its people to the north go to Egypt, to east and south, and mingled with existing peoples. Built cities, founded empires with high levels of civilization. The first Negroes were probably fishermen of the Niger and Nile about 4000BC. (Readers Digest, The Last Two Million Years . p. 204) Circa 4000BC: People of France develop a culture of farming. 4000BC: Cyprus in the Mediterranean is inhabited, by 2200BC it is the worlds largest supplier of copper. 1997: 4000BC: The comet Hale-Bopp visits the inner solar system about this time. It next appeared in 1997. 4000BC: India has civilization on Indus River. By 2400BC, Indus River civilization in present day Pakistan, from farmers of the area since 4000BC - several cities notably are Harappa and Mohenjo Paro, these cities abandoned about 1750BC: (does this fit a climate-change theory). Evidently as floods change course of the Indus River, cities were mud-buried. Not discovered till 1922. These people also invented the bullock cart. One of their gods is later called Shiva. Indus legacies are inherited by the lighter-skinned Aryans, who came to the Indus after 2000BC. See Readers Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years . Sydney, The Readers Digest Association, 1973-1974. Circa 4000BC: The Pistol Star, located between the Earth and center of the Milky Way, was first seen with infrared equipment in the early 1990s. Estimated to be 25,000 light-years away with a radius of 93-140 million miles, to be formed 1-3 million years ago and shed much of its mass in violent eruptions estimated to have occurred about 6000 years ago. 4000BC: Sumerians appear soon after 4000BC, though it is not known where they appeared from, the Sumerian language stands alone. In Sumeria is a great flood about 4000BC, or 3800BC, by when the kingly and priestly empire is firmly cemented. (Gardner, Genesis . pp. 37-40). 4000BC: Gardner in Genesis of the Grail Kings gives rise of Mesopotamian city states at about 4000BC, as soon after 4000BC begins Sumer. 4000BC: Circa: On Malta, the Hypogeum, a complex of rock-cut chamber tombs, dated to this time. They were discovered in 1902. (Much discussed in Hancock, Underworld .) 4000BC: The Orkney Islands are inhabited since about this time. Circa 4000BC: In Poland the archaeological site at Oslonki uncovered some 30 longhouses and 80 graves. 4000BC: Chiefdoms of northern Europe are trading in amber. Circa 4000BC: The last woolly mammoths, Mammuthus primigenius . become extinct on Wrangel Island, north of the Arctic Circle. 4000BC-3000BC: The Indo-European language group divides into different branches 4000BC: McNeill feels that Mediterranean seafaring must have begun about 4000BC, when Neolithic settlements first appeared on Crete. By 3000BC, the Cretans are unmistakably trading much with Egypt. By 2000BC, the Trojans have a seafaring influence based on a Cretan model. (From McNeill). 4000BC: By 4000BC, when surface-available flint was used up, sub-surface flint-mining began, in Western Europe. But copper mining began at Rudna Glav, in Serbia, by 4500BC. Miners used antler-picks. The Balkans are a major source of copper. (JamesThorpe) 4000BC: Approx: Date for use of sugarcane (from New Guinea) in Hindu India, which regarded sugar as a basic necessity. Oddly, by 75AD, sugar was still a novelty to Romans. (JamesThorpe) By which time, 75AD, Rome imported spices from the Moluccas (Indonesia) cloves and cinnamon. Peppers came from AlexandriaIndia, white pepper from Southern India, cassia from Vietnam. 4000BC-3500BC: Dates for earliest use of lapis lazuli, (blue gemstone) from southeast Afghanistan, for decorations. It is found at Egyptian sites as early as 3000BC. 4000BC: The Hittites settle around Cappadocia in present-day Turkey. 4000BC: Skilled goldsmiths (Thracians) live in the area of Varna, now in Bulgaria, on the Black Sea. 4000BC: Stone tablets show use of cheese as early as this time. 4000BC: Evidence is found of tuberculosis in a Neolithic burial ground near Heidelberg, where the skeleton of a young man shows fusion of the fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae. 4000BC: Circumcision is part of religious rites in Egypt and Greece dated at about this time. 4000BC: The Nile . Groups of settlements appear on Nile Delta and south along the river. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 4000BC: Beginning of use of irrigation in major river valleys. (Source, McNeill, p. 45.) Eg. Tigris and Euphrates. 4004BC: St Augustine counted about 6000 years of bible genealogies, Johannes Kepler in 1598 calculated the earth was made on 3877BC, Sunday, 27 April, at 11 am. Bishop James Ussher of the Anglican Bishop of Armagh, a respected Bible scholar, in 1654 (and assuming that the various ages given of the various patriarchs meant something useful) found the universe separated from the void in 4004BC at 9 am on Sunday, 23 October. Ussher also found Adam and Eve to be in Eden for 18 days only, and that Noah landed on Mt Ararat on Wednesday, 5 May, 1491BC. (Note from Cloud) In Thomas Robinsons, The Bible Timeline . (The Five Mile Press Ltd. Balwyn, Australia, 1992.), many problems of chronology are noted. Robinson notes that Judaism since the C15th has counted 3761BC as the date of creation. The Early Christian Church using the Septuagint, dated the creation at about 5500BC. For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 4000BC: British archaeologist Leonard Wooley at Tel Muqayiar, possible site of Ur, a flooded clay level Wooley dated about 4000BC. (Note from Friedrich) From 4000BC: Wine in use in Nile Valley, and also beer, the belief being with Egyptians that Osiris had taught them how to brew beer. See re Noahs later reference to wine - re technology of viticulture and wine-making. 4000BC: First written language appears, in temple of Goddess as Queen of Heaven, at Erech, modern Uruk, in Sumeria, and her girlishly erotic love poetry, explicit, with her brother. At Nineveh the goddess Ishtar beds the Assyrian king, Ashur-bani-pal. Matriarchy abounds. (Miles) 4000BC-3000BC: An Eastern Neolithic culture in provinces of Southern Shantung, Northern Chekiang. 4000BC: By 4000BC, groups venture about the Mediterranean, in boats. Eg, to Italy, Sicily, Malta, Northern Africa, to Southern France. Eastern Spain and Portugal. 4000BC: In Iran and south-west Europe, smiths now make copper axes. 4000BC: Urbanisation begun: Greece, as with Mycenaean civilization. 4000BC: About now, extensive occupation at a huge tell at Hama, the old Syrian city of Hamath. Long sequence of occupation. 4000BC-3000BC: Beginnings of the use of copper in MeditNear East. Possible, some domestication of horse by 3700BC (Note from Edwards) 2001AD- 3500BC-4000BC: Approx: Newly-discovered rock art sites reveal that prior to what is now regarded as Egyptian civilisation , before and after the building of the pyramids, areas distant from the Nile were populated by an unknown pastoral people, driving their cattle from one watering place to another, about 4000BC if not earlier. The people producing the rock art were, stylistically, the same as the people producing pottery art in Egypt. The areas being researched are Wadi Hammamat and Wadi Barramiya. Some recurring images are the dragging of boats, and figures with large plumes in their hair. Egypt began to turn into desert from about 3500BC. Before then, the landscape was rather like todays African savannah. The Egypt of 4000BC is going to need a rethink, is one early conclusion. A researcher helping analyse the rock art is Dr. Toby Wilkinson of Christs College, Cambridge University. (Reported in world press on 30 December 2000) About 4000BC, flood in Sumer, in time of king Uta-naphishtim. 4000BC: Presumed advent of monumental architecture, Middle East. 4000BC, Practice of Astrology by Sumerians. Modern Astrology said to be practiced by 200AD. Phases of the Moon are indicated on artefacts of the Ice Age Period about 30,000 years ago. 4200BC: At Eridu is principal deity Enkidu . God of the Waters. (Mellersh). 4200-3800BC: On Malta the Zebbug phase indicates evidence of collective burials. 4200BC: Or 5th mlnm BC: Near River Euphrates, near Ur, tell of Al Ubaid. With primitive reed huts, pottery, but not metal. Cemetery dated 4200BC. Early dynastic temple. Ur a Sumerian city, one early ruler was Mesanepada, had city Ur-Nammu, had ziggarat, and tremenos or sacred enclosure. Dynasties here 2112BC to 2004BC. Later, bulls, daggers, chariots, and later, Sargon I, the chief priests of Sumeria composed a hymn praising God, The Exaltation of Inanna . mankinds first-known poem this first God and the first-known priest-poet being female. The god of prehistory was a woman, the Great Mother, her first priest-poet was Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon I . (Miles) Jaynes - By 4300BC: Eridu god-houses system of residences spread over Mesopotamia. By 3600 BC, Jaynes has in Egypt, eg Gerzean cultures, had carved tusks with bearded heads and black targets for eyes, hand size godlets for the individual human, and similar on the Euphrates, eye idols as for the goddess Ninhursag eyes on statuary seem important, re eye contact important to primates and as times goes on, statues with prominent eyes become more widespread. Bicameralism different mental state of mind as compared to our own modern state, are evident in hieroglyphics, hieratic and cuneiform all beginning about 3000 BC. 4300BC: Neolithic farmers move into Britain from Europe. Early Neolithic People, or, Windmill Hill people (near Avebury). Burial in long earthen barrows, work with megaliths or great stones. 4300BC: Sydney, Australia: New fossil evidence from some Sydney beaches (such as Cronulla) reveals that 6000 years ago circa 4300BC, coastal New South Wales enjoyed a tropical paradise. Findings come from University of New England researchers Peter Flood, Dr Bob Haworth and Bob Baker. There had been dramatic changes in sea levels and climate which perhaps relate to why Egypt stopped building pyramids, why human migration into the Pacific stepped up. The Aboriginal population in southern New South Wales was expanding. Research has been conducted at sites such as Bundeena, Broken Bay and on the Hawkesbury River, modifying assumptions about sea levels being stable for 6000 years. See a recent issue of journal Marine Geology . (Reported 4 December 1999) 4431BC: Timbers of a possible ship of this time were found off Hayling Island near Portsmouth, England, in 1997. But it is thought the structure might also have been a causeway. 4500BC, First gold jewellery in area of Varna, Bulgaria. 4500BC: Evidence arises of agriculture in south-central Andes Mountains, South America. (Financial Times World Desk Reference) 4500BC: Northern Oman has a ceramic tradition dating back to this time. 4500BC: Approx. Great quantities of gold jewellery are discovered in the 1970s in a cemetery at Varna, near the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria. The gold had been panned from local rivers, melted, then hammered, and some objects made were facial ornaments or penis coverings. Also a case is noted of burial-with-retinue. (JamesThorpe) 4500BC: (One of various dates possible): Horses are first domesticated in what is now the Ukraine. Hunters who eat them wild find that they can milk them, tame and ride them. 4500BC-4200BC: The Skorba phase on Malta is marked by a growing population, with increased forest clearance for agriculture and grazing that may have led to erosion. Obsidian on Malta from the islands of Lipari and Panteleria indicates links to the outside world. 4500-2000BC: A sacrificial dump in Guanghan, Sichuan Province, in China was uncovered in 1976. Large quantities of elephants tusks reveal that elephants roamed the area. Human figures, monster masks, and tree fragments made of bronze tubes were also found. 4500BC-4000BC: Timeframe for discussion of the Danubian cultivators, in central and western Europe, ie, north of the Mediterranean. These new folk take up forest areas while earlier-arriving hunters keep to the hilltops and slopes. 4500BC: China: Does it develop independently of rest of world, but with some of its cultures influenced by sophisticated hunters and gatherers in the South and perhaps Thailand. (Note: In Thailand still remains a custom of sending young women into long-term prostitution). 4500BC-4210BC: Long habitation at Mersin, huge tell of Yumuk Tepe, south of the Taurus mountains in Cilicia, and in 4500BC a fortress destroyed by fire. Early Bronze Age is poorly represented. 4600BC: More to come 4700BC: Approx, Date for Standing Stones and earthen mound at Carnac, France, plus one megalithic passageway orientated to the winter solstice. (Date from Hancock and Faiia). 4800BC: Sundaland, the continental shelf linking parts of Asia due to low sea levels is still exposed. Mainland China links to Taiwan, the Malay Peninsula is linked to Sumatra, Borneo and Java. The forefathers in China of the Yi people move down the highlands of Central China. Later they raft across to Java and Sulawesi of Indonesia. Then to New Guinea and Australia, which at the time has an inland sea. Levathes adds, in the Willandra Lakes area of New South Wales is a possible base of Australias first-known inhabitants in a settlement of up to 300,000 people. It appears that Archaic Chinese become early Melanesians, Australians and New Guineans. Meanwhile, Asians north of the Yangtze River go across the Bering Strait area to Alaska and south into North America. (Levathes, When China Rules The Seas ) 4900BC: Better understanding of hieroglyphics . Australians are shining again with their research on Ancient Egypt. Egyptologists from Macquarie University, Sydney, have been working at the southern outskirts of Cairo at Helwan, a burial place of Memphis, the first capital of United Egypt. The team has found 20 formerly non-excavated tombs (of non-royals) with very early examples of hieroglyphics, and tombstones dating from around 4900BC. Hieroglyphic writing had been invented only a few centuries earlier. The researchers include excavation team leader Dr. Christiana Kohler, and David Pritchard from the universitys ancient history department. (Egyptian archaeologist Zaki Saad made the first excavations of the Helwan site in the 1940s-1950s, but his findings were not published.) (Reported in Australia by 29 January 2002). About 5000BC in Bulgaria Archaeology: 7000 year-old village found near Bulgarian town of Shoumen From SofiaEcho by 27- July 2010 A settlement dating back about 7000 years has been discovered by a hill near the village of Ivanovo, in Shoumen municipality, in eastern Bulgaria, Bulgarian National Television (BNT) reported on July 26 2010. The settlement, 900 sq m in area, lies between two rivers on the south face of the hill. In spite of its natural defences, the settlement was fortified with a defensive wall of unusual shape, BNT said. The shape of the fortification was not circular or oval-like, which was typical for the time but an irregular pattern resembling an octagon, archaeologist Svetlana Venelinova said in a television interview for BNT. Additionally, the entire settlement was encircled by a moat outside the fortification. The houses within the settlement faced south, and some of them were two-storeys high and aristocratic. We found copious amounts of wood in the houses, which suggests that in those days people were aware of hydro-insulation techniques, installing wood planks on the floor, Venelinova said. The artifacts unearthed suggest that those residing in that settlement enjoyed a high social status, the report said. 5000BC, Extra regulation of the calendar of Egypt, positing 360 days, 12 months, each of 30 days. Nile settlers use the annual cycle of flood to advantage. 5000BC: Copper metallurgy starts in the Balkans region and spreads fairly rapidly. The later Beaker culture spread copper and bronze technologies plus Indo-European languages, the people being Afro-Asiatics. The Beaker culture however was exhausted by about 1800BC. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 5000BC: Advanced agriculture appears on Crete in the Mediterranean. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 5000BC: Sling missiles are used for warfare in Turkey, also for scattering animals approaching or disturbing domesticated animal stock. The stone missiles seen in Turkey are similar in shape to stones used for similar purposes in Hawaii, and were also used by the Ancient Greeks. 5000BC: Euphrates irrigation Nile settlers harness the regular cycle of floods. 5400-5000BC: Archaeologists have determined that wine was made in villages in Irans remote Zagros Mountains about this time. Wine jars were dug up near the ruined village called Hajii Firuz Tepe and analyzed to have contained a retsina type of wine. 6000BC-5000BC: First domestication of the horse on Eurasian steppes, probably by Aryan tribes, Indo-European languages, Caspian and Black seas, basic herding techniques, man follows animals to pasture. Neolithic wall-drawings of breeding efforts, and a riding tribe would be far more mobile, which in turn fed the animals better. Horses used for all kinds of transport. (Edwards) 5000BC: At Yugoslavia, Lepenski Vir, on the banks of the Danube River, about 5000BC are 59 houses of wood and stone, with plastered floors, with unusual small sculptures thought to be fish gods. 5000BC: Sheep of the old world are domesticated, along with goats, cattle, pigs, dogs. 5000BC: Mexico-Peru: People grow pumpkins, squashes, avocados. Certain types of maize grows in Central America by 5000BC. 5000BC: Farm communities are evident in the Balkans, north to Hungary. To Western Greece, and south-east Italy. 5000BC: Symbolic art: Appears in the BalkansRomania, intellectual curiosity, and worry - see an attractive small sculpture of a man sitting on a four-legged stool with hands propped thoughtfully to his face - thoughtfully worried. 5000BC: War has become endemic in almost all human societies. 5000BC: Since the last glacial phase, an interglacial has been in effect, beginning about this time. 5000BC: Stone age farmers and fisherman inhabit the area around Byblos, Lebanon. Archaeologists at Byblos find at least 12 layers of civilizations that date back 7000 years. Circa 5000BC: A complex of slabs and stones in southern Egypt that may date this far back is found during field work ending in 1997. The site includes 10 slabs, some 9 feet tall, 30 rock-lined ovals, 9 burial sites for cows, and a calendar circle of stones. They are thought to have been constructed by cattle-herders and used for astronomical observations. 5000BC: Shell and fishbone middens indicated a fishing village of this time at Ras al Hamra in Qurum, Oman. 5000BC: The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act gives large portions of prime bear habitat to the Alutiiq people, who have hunted and fished on their island for 7000 years. 5000BC: Native people are traveling through the Barrens, northwest of Canadas Hudsons Bay. 5000BC: Dried-up riverbeds as well as cave paintings indicate that at this time the Sahara was a land of flowing rivers, lush green pastures, and forests. 5000BC: On Malta the Ghar Dalam cave near the harbour of Marsaxlokk reveals bones of domesticated animals and potsherds. 5000BC: The human population is about 5 million at this time. Circa 5000-3500BC: The pre-dynastic period of Egypt. 5000BC: Statuette at Hacilar in Turkey re Mother Goddess in the act of love, and it may be about now, that men take over from women, intervening in earth fertility with agriculture, leading to rise of the domination of men. (Miles) 5000BC: Evidence of reindeer being used to pull sledges in northern Europe, meaning it was domesticated some 2000 years before the horse (). And since reindeer existed in Outer Mongolia, so maybe the idea to domesticate the horse came after such use of the reindeer Even providing the idea for the saddle (Edwards) 5000BC: Pottery created (Middle East). (Packer) 5000BC: The dingo appears as a dog in Australia, probably linked with the Indian wolf, and with it came spear throwers, boomerangs, shields, fine pressure flaking, blades and stone tools, eg, around Murray River and Queensland, stencilled hands and painted motifs, all probably coming from India (). The Australian Aboriginals have no horticulture and are descendants of a Paleolithic Age hunting people. By 5000BC: North America: Beginning of Californian prehistory. 5000BC: Middle Stone Age, Land of Holland, etc, is drowned, shrinking the world of Mesolithic Man. By 5000BC: Hunter-gatherers and farmers co-exist, as to present day. By 5000BC: The agricultural colonisation of the alluvial valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, and Nile, is spreading rapidly and there is a city of 10,000 people on the western edge of the Nile delta. Settlement at Ur and the dynasties of Egypt begin. The date 5000BC is given by geologists as the Holocene Thermal Maximum, to 3000BC, with a warmer and moister climate than today. 5000BC: Was the Flood of Noah real Explorer Robert Ballard (who found the Titanic ) has found a stone-and-timber structure under about 100m of water some 19km off the Turkish coast. Does the evidence prove that humans lived there, only to be inundated as the European glaciers melted Site artefacts include carved wooden beams, wooden branches, stone tools. (Reported in Australia, 15 September 2000) 5000BC: Use of deep-sea fishing in areas such as the coasts of Ireland and Scotland. 5000BC: To 3000BC. Use of copper tools, the potters wheel, rise of crafts and trades, writing, maritime trade, use of olive oil, early bronze production (an alloy of tin and copper). )Dawn of The Copper Age. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 5000BC: One earlier date for origin of Sphinx in Egypt, in pre-dynastic times, and 2500 years earlier than more orthodox dates, a date arising from work of Prof. Robert Schoch. (Date from Hancock and Faiia, p. 93) Circa 5100BC: A slate plaque from pre-dynastic Egypt is carved with scenes of battlefield carnage on one side and leaf-munching antelope on the other. It was part of an exhibit at the Guggenheim. ( New York Times . 6 July 1996, p. b9) 5150BC: Approx: Sea of Marma spills into Black Sea, flooding. Some writers feel this long later produced a folk memory to be known as The Flood of Noah. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 5200BC, more food production in Egypt, probable influence of sw Asia, Fertile Crescent. But in view of Larry West, see below, re the desertification of the Sahara region. 5200BC: From 9500BC to about 5200BC: The African people of the Saharan Sojourn create their own agricultural revolution, live a a settled lifestyle, live with domesticated plants and cattle, use metal objects replacing stone objects, use tanning of animal skins (which involves controlled use of chemicals), pottery, weaving, stone-construction, villages to a good design, deep wells for water sourcing, the worlds first-known astronomical structures aligned with stars. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 5200BC: Islands of Maltese archipelago are uninhabited till now when Neolithic farmers from Sicily settle there. By 2200BC, Malta had a (Megalithic) temple-building civilisation which remains mysteriously unexplained, or not well-explained. Hancock suspects that the settlement of Malta was much earlier, Paleolithic. (Hancock, Underworld ) 5300BC: The now-famous Ice Man, named Otzi, found in the Similaun Glacier, Italy, was marked with the oldest tattoos yet found. Included was a cross on his left knee. From Egypt-The Sudan are found women with tattoos from about 2000BC. 5400BC: Flood (Noah) was a real flood in 40,000 square miles of Euphrates Valley about 5400BC-4200BC. (Stenman) 5400BC: An early date for the dawn of wine storage in the Zagros Mountains - Hajji Firuz Tepe and Godin Tepe. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 5500BC, Further use of pastoralism in Sahara, potters wheel is used in Mesopotamia. 5500-4000BC: In Japan at the Sannai Maruyama site in northern Honshu, uncovering of postholes of houses and longhouses, graves, figurines and animal remains of the early-to-middle Jomon period. 5500BC: The Mediterranean floods the Bosporus narrows. (Hancock, Underworld ) 7000BC to 5500BC: The people of Taiwan move to the Philippines. (Levathes, When China Rules The Seas ) 5500BC. Tower of Babel, based on ziggarat of Babylon. 5500BC-400BC: City of Ur . west bank of the Euphrates, Uruk period a beginning of writing under Sargonic dynasty about 1740BC, Ur devastated, and later the river bed shifts. Moon god of Ur. For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 5500BC: Pre-agricultural settled life on the coast of Peru, use of woven textiles. 5500BC: Great Flood of Noah (Reported 2003, late July): Robert Ballard, discoverer in 1985 of remains of Titanic . now has an excavation submarine named Hercules His goal now is to find more on The Great Flood of Noah, dated by some at about 7000BC, when the Black Sea, once a freshwater lake, is slowly inundated by rising levels at end of Ice Ages by the Mediterranean. Ballard now suspects this happened more like 5500BC, and more quickly than has been thought, with salt water pouring into Black Sea with 200 times the force of Niagara Falls and rising 15cm per day, so devastating huge tracts of land. 5500BC: A date becoming current for explanations of the Flood of Noah, andor the Flood of Gilgamesh in Mesopotamia. Views are now current about the Ryan-Pitman theory, a view from two geologists concerning bank-up of ice-waters above the Black Sea, whilst human habitation developed at lower altitudes (perhaps on the Anatolian Plateau). About 5600-5500BC, the banked-up waters burst, producing a flood of 50 trillion tons of water. Further proof of this theory may arise from ongoing research on the bottom of the Black Sea for signs of cross-periodcross-cultural human habitation. Documentary broadcast on ABC TV Australia on 29 July, 2001, made with help of Dr. Kate Spence of Cambridge University, UK. 5500BC to 2000BC: Major multi-period tell at Nova Zagora in Bulgaria. 5500BC: Farming villages in Mesopotamia use of potters wheels. 5500BC: Metalsmithing Workers in Mesopotamia and Egypt are now more skilled in working copper, gold and silver. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 5550BC: Black Sea suffers catastrophic salt flood from the Mediterranean. 5600BC, great flood as rising seas of Mediterranean burst into Bosporus area to Black Sea area, there are more than 200 distinct flood stories extant, of which 85 per cent mention a large ship which helps to save human race from extinction. Circa 5600BC: The Mediterranean Sea, swollen by melted glaciers, breaches a natural dam that separates it from the fresh water lake later known as the Black Sea. Sea water from the Mediterranean poured in for as long as two years. An ancient coastline with this date is verified in 1999. see 2348BC 5750BC: Approx: Rapid sea-level rise by Mesopotamia, and in Sumer, long period of antediluvian kings. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) About 5800BC: Denmark, Germany and England experience coastline loss, Chinese coastal sea levels rise. Major flooding of coastlines about 5600BC. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 5800BC: Mesopotamia and Civilization, eg 5800BC, nomads begin to form settlements, on lower Tigris and Euphrates, with mud huts to protect from winter storms - various wars by 4000BC, the dominant of these settlers were those from Central Asia, probably. Early Sumerians used tools of stone and flint, and built large temples, by 3500BC, had laid foundations of early civilization, civilized life, developed into separate city states, captives of battle provided basis of a class of slaves. See Readers Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years . Sydney, The Readers Digest Association, 1973-1974. Hal. 50. 6000BC, Better food production in western and central Europe and Indus Valley in India, using south-west Asian crops and animals, Euphrates area use of irrigation, and agriculture develops independently in north-central China, possibly millet. 6000 years ago: Use of horticulture in Papua New Guinea highlands. 6000BC-5000BC: Third Great Global Flood due to de-glaciations. A period of hell for Europe according to Hancock, perhaps preceded around the world by 7000 years of climatic instability and increased volcanic activity. (Hancock, Underworld ) 6000BC: Mesopotamia: In the Middle Tigris Valley is a date for civilization, using irrigation techniques, with surpluses of wheat, barley and linseed, large houses built of mud brick, which the historical Sumerians later used as building material. (Hancock, Underworld ) About 6000BC: Catal Huyuk . Turkey, people here have houses with bulls horns, re a Mother Goddess, other animalsimages depicted include vultures who are attacking headless human figures, depictions of womens breasts, human skulls on benches and they had domesticated the dog. 6000BC, The village of Catal Huyuk in Turkey, where 32 acres had 40 shrines to Mother Goddess, as maiden, mother and crone. (Miles) Or does Catalhoyuk go back even to 8,000BC as a settled area Today it is a mound about 20m high on a bleak Anatolian plateau. It was discovered in 1958 by British archaeologist James Mellaart (who was banned from the site in 1965). Catalhoyuk has become a magnet for new-age goddess cultists pining for a primeval matriarchy to adore. What Catalhoyuk, settled for only about 1000 years, population from 3500-8000, did give to humanity was hundreds of rectangular mud-brick houses on about 12ha of land, rooms, grain bins, fireplaces, pottery, tools, art on plastered walls, in-house burials, animal bones, bullhorns and a lot of figurines. But the meaning of the peoples culture remains unavailable. See Michael Balter, The Goddess and the Bull: Catalhoyuk: An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilisation . Simon and Schuster, 2006, 400pp. Circa 6000BC: First settlers arrive to Ireland from Europe. Initially are tribes of Celts, Picts, Erainn. 6000BC: Discovery of use of metals in Iran and Turkey, by the time of Catal Huyuk. Smelting of either copper or lead. 6000BC: Most people of Northern Persia and the Bosporus area are farmers. There are farmer settlers also perhaps of the Northern Aegean area and maybe even on Crete. 6000BC: Prehistoric farming and organised village life begins in Iran. Circa 6000BC: A more advanced Neolithic people migrate to Europe from the Middle East bringing with them a new Y chromosome pattern and an agricultural way of life. 6000BC: The site of Lepenski Vir on the Danube River at the Iron Gates gorges is occupied by people living in huts. Sculpted boulders at the site represent the first monumental art from central and eastern Europe. Circa 6000BC: Bronze age settlements are established and later found in Moldova. 6000BC: Ash from ancient campfires of this time are found in Muscat, Oman, in 1983. Circa 6000BC: Lead beads are fashioned in Anatolia by craftsmen whose forced-air furnaces are able to reach 1,100 degrees, the melting point of galena, a common mineral of lead. Circa 6000BC: The milodon, a giant sloth, becomes extinct in South America. 6000BC-4000BC: The Pleistocene-Holocene date line, i.e. the end of the Glacial Epoch, is perhaps best-marked at the end of the last rapid rise in sea level between 6-8 thousand years ago. 6000BC: At Catal Huyuk in Central Turkey, women use polished mirrors of obsidian. Polished bronze or copper mirrors were used in Egyptians 2900BC in the Indus Valley between 2800BC-250BC. 6000BC: In Greece, Thessaly, to 3000BC, main evidence from Sesklo Culture . Use of undefended hilltop residences. 6000BC-5000BC: First domestication of the horse on Eurasian steppes, probably by Aryan tribes, Indo-European languages, Caspian and Black seas, basic herding techniques, man follows animals to pasture. Neolithic wall-drawings of breeding efforts, and a riding tribe would be far more mobile, which in turn fed the animals better. Horses now used for all kinds of transport. (Edwards) By 6000BC: Advent of farming in Europe, plus new art in pottery. For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 6000BC, Eastern Europe and especially the se achieved prominence due to proximity to the Near East, so village-based agriculture used in Greece. In Hungary by 5000BC: Some 1000-2000 years before agriculture appears in northwestern Europe. Cultures strongly influenced by ancestral areas in Western Turkey, especially re figurines and painted pottery. South-east European sites are now commonly tells, deep deposits resulting from continuous occupations, eg, Bulgaria, examination of which helps re examination of Troy. Other sites in Yugoslavia, Romania. Linear Pottery Culture here, and the Tripolye Culture in 4th millennium reaching into north shore of Black sea, eg, copper. Copper minedfound in Carpathian and Balkan mountains. Developments in the steppe areas meant that southeast tell cultures disappeared. Use of horses. Some techniques fused into the Bronze Age. Continuing eastward drift, explain the east-ward ideas of the Thracians and Dacians. (Editors note: Debates have raged amongst scholars since 1987 or earlier about dating to be used for Early and Late Bronze Age eras. One debate is about whether dates given should be absolute (a particular year seen chronologically in world history) or relative (approximate dates compared within a given era). This website prefers absolute dates, as far as they can be found, partly as its compares activities in diverse regions, but also in the light of an event such as the volcanic explosions which ruined civilization on the Island of Thera (Santorini) and probably via tsunami ended the (Minoan) regimes on Crete. This website feels that absolute dates, if accurate are preferable, and if various suggestedcompeting absolute dates can be given, or have to be given, it is, overall, preferable to render them instead of working with relatives dates within eras. Thus, we will be glad when anyone can suggest a positive absolute date (BC or BCE) for the volcanic explosion of Thera. - Ed ) 6000BC -5800BC approx: Does a huge underwater landslide off Storegga, Norway, trigger a series of 10 metre tsunamis which make Britain an instant island Waves sweeping over eastern Scotland, scattering bands of hunter-gatherers, and breaching the land bridge between Britain and Europe The question arises as evidence of a major tsunami is detected via a 25cm band of sediment in cliffs of east and north Scotland and in Norway. Britain at the time was connected to Holland and Denmark by a low-lying land bridge. Sea levels are rising and ice sheets and glaciers are retreating. A researcher on such questions is Prof. David Smith, geologist at Coventry University, speaking to a British Association science conference in Glasgow. (Reported 22 September 2001) 6000BC: Western Europe, hunting and gathering being overridden by settled agriculture. Use of Impressed Ware came via the Mediterranean area, re cockle shells pressed into pottery. Established on coasts and islands of Mediterranean by now. Other styles are from the Danube area, south Germany and northern France by 5000BC. Shifting agriculture due to poorer soils, long timber-framed buildings in which people and animals lived at either end. Mortuary chambers are builtmegalith. It is possible that metallurgy may have developed independently in Spain and Portugal. Metallurgy in Italy from Greece, in Germany from Eastern Europe. Battle Axe people in Central Europe introduced idea of single burial as a new rite, as communal burial was practiced in western Europe. Control of long-range trade is enhanced. 6000BC: Hunting-gathering tradition in Andes, to 4000BC. Shifting residences in environmental niches. By 6000BC: Recognizable pottery found over much of Near East. By 6000BC: Jaynes notes a community of 32 acres with almost every house excavated having four or five rooms nestled around a gods room in which were statues. By 6000BC, farming communities spread throughout much of the Near East. By 5500, the Eridu god houses of Sumer were set on mud-brick platforms, early versions of what became ziggurats and this sort of monumentalism spread over the whole of Mesopotamia by 4300BC. 6000BC: Approx: The last of three sudden ice-melts, resulting in flooding of Sundaland (Indonesian area), flooding the Arabian Gulf, swamping the coast of China. Following one of the ice-melts, cracks in the earth unleash volcanic activity, earthquakes, and huge oceanic super-waves. Seas in general rise about 500 feet or 120 metres. Ice melts approx 12,000BC, 9500BC, 6000BC. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) See Stephen Oppenheimer, Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia . London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998. 6000BC: Date for first growth of rice as a domestic crop in Asia. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 6000BC: To 5,500BC. Desertification of the Sahara. An exodus of people from Saharan region moves to Egypt to begin what became the Egyptian empire. There had been a 5.9ky climatic event resulting in the aridification of the Sahara and Southern Mesopotamia forcing migrations to riverine areas, hence the world of Egypt and Sumer. Maybe about this time, Asiatics resident in Northern Iraq moved to the Mediterranean area, becoming a mixed AfroAsiatic race and involved in the economy of the Bronze Age. Such people might millennia later be termed Ethiopians but they probably influenced the people known as Semitics, and people in Greece. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 6000BC: Hunting nomads descend from high grasslands, worldwide. 6200BC: A century of cooler temperatures due to glacial melt 6200BC: Worlds first use of boats at Pesse in Holland, a simple dug-out canoe. 6200BC: Copper is now used to make tools. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) Circa 6200BC: An abrupt cooling got started 8,200 years ago, but it aborted within a century, and the temperature changes since then have been gradual in comparison. Indeed, weve had an unprecedented period of climate stability. (Greenhouse Timeline) William H. Calvin, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, The Atlantic Monthly . January 1998, Volume 281, No. 1, pp. 47-64. 6200BC: Archaeological records show traces of domesticated cattle back to this time. About 6250BC to 5400BC: Huge Neolithic site on Konya plain of Anatolia: some pre-pottery, agriculture uses irrigation, cattle breeding, trade and industry, access to houses by ladder to roof, dead are buried under the sleeping platforms shrines are distinguished only by decoration, bull heads. About 6300BC: People of the Levant, in todays Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, parts of Southern Turkey, are in the fullness of Neolithic life and technologies. They use settled villages with communal buildings, pottery, domesticated animals and (as a result of the agricultural revolution) grow cereal and legumes. They have developed art, politics and astronomy as well. (Drawn from Civilisations True Dawn, article by David Robson in New Scientist 5 October 2013, pp. 32ff.) 6400BC: Equatorial sea levels about 19-24 metres below present shorelines, but a cold snap reduces levels maybe six metres for about 400 years. Then a huge ice slip from Canada, out via the Hudsons Bay area, raises some levels, to maybe 25 metres. (Oppenheimer, Eden in the East ). 6500BC: Beginning of the Ubaid period for Southern Mesopotamia. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 6500BC, beginning of trade between farming communities, in Near East, eg for obsidian (a volcanic-glass for tool-making), exotic products. By 6500BC is Jericho, in Jordan Valley, massive stone walls, oldest known continuously inhabited place on earth. By 6500BC: Neolithic farming techniques with Middle Eastern origins have spread into Asia to move into valley of Yellow River, China a different agriculture from monsoon-area agriculture. 6500BC: Farms are developed in area around Greece and Aegean Sea, cattle domesticated in AnatoliaTurkey. (Financial Times World Desk Reference) 6500BC: The Agricultural Revolution is only beginning to get underway. But even by now, the people of Jericho in Israel are erecting their third set of defensive city walls. (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis . p. 155). 6500BC: Approx. Israel: Near the kibbutz of Shaar Hagolan, in Jordan Valley near Sea of Galilee, a Neolithic village remains are found under some ponds. Half the artefacts are sickles, half are for hunting game. So, planting and hunting. Young sheep are used for food, so the sheep (wild mouflon ) are domesticated. (See Shanidar cave of Northern Iraq). There is a population explosion (Lost Worlds wonders if the population explosion helped intensity need to settle agriculturally, what is cause and effect here). (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis . pp. 166-168) 6500BC-6000BC: Arenal, Central coast of Peru . a pre-ceramic site, mostly hunters. 6500BC: A date for the earliest flax textiles, a girls skirt in a cave at Nahal Hemer in the desert of Judea. (JamesThorpe) 6500BC: In 1963 science writer Alexander Marshack completes a book on the rise of civilization, and at Ishango, on headwaters of Nile, Central Africa, Stone Age site, found an inscribed bone, possibly recording lunar phases. Similar markings on objects of 13,000BC-11,000BC. (From JamesThorpe) 6500BC: In Middle East, wild-grain gatherers of Middle East. Village sites created for sedentary, agricultural life, and guarded against animals date from about 6250BC plus or minus 200 years. Handling grain is womens work. Idea that fecundity of spirits of animals, vegetables, blend with earth, sky, sun so, rise of Middle Eastern fertility cults. Use of moon calendar, time-reckoning. 6500BC: Beginnings of Middle Eastern agriculture, as ice cap has disappeared from Continental Europe. Shift from Paleolithic to Mesolithic tool kits. By now, hot winds seem to have already begun to form the Sahara Desert. (Source, McNeill). 6500BC: Taming of the wild bull, quite an achievement, and so it becomes the sacred animal of prehistory, although embraced in female-orientated fertility cults. Horse has a male principle, cattle are female and these are the two aspects of fertility. 6500BC: Pre-pottery late Neolithic Anatolian site. A variety of cultures down to 4500BC. 6500BC: The Agricultural Revolution is only beginning to get underway. But even by now, the people of Jericho in Israel are erecting their third set of defensive city walls. (Ardrey. Hunting Hypothesis . p. 155). 6500BC: Approx: Israel: Near the kibbutz of Shaar Hagolan, in Jordan Valley near Sea of Galilee, a Neolithic village remains founds under some ponds. Half artefacts are sickles, half are for hunting game. So, planting and hunting. Young sheep are used for food, so the sheep (wild mouflon ) are domesticated. (See Shanidar cave of Northern Iraq). There is a population explosion (Lost Worlds wonders if the population explosion helped intensify needs to settle agriculturally, what is cause and effect here). (Ardrey. Hunting Hypothesis . pp. 166-168) 6500BC: Anatolians at Can Hasan, Taurus Mountains. transition from late Neolithic to Chalcolithic, the Early Bronze Age is soon to begin. Or, in Anatolia, the copper age. A small fortress is established at Troy. Settlements at Lemnos and Lesbos. Troy II was Priams Treasure. Some early Bronze Age history in references in Akkadian texts and by what the Hittites say of their predecessors, the Hattians, who spoke a different language. 6500BC-5800BC: Earliest signs of rice use in China but unknown if wild or any domesticated variety is used. Some Vietnamese sites are of archaeological interest in this period. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East .) 6777BC: North-West India: A proposed start point for chronology of civilization in India. (Era of the Seven Rsis - Sages - the so-called Saptarishi calendar.) This is about the time when India is introduced to regular agricultural cultivation (wheat, barley, pulses) and animal domesticationhusbandry, at Mehrgarh (on the Bolan River, foothills of the Himalayas) in Baluchistan. Developments may have begun 1000 years earlier and included mud-brick houses but did not include ceramicspottery. Hancock explores the idea that the settlers of Mehrgarh may have been global-flood-refugees from Sundaland, South-East Asians. Oppenheimer suggests something similar for the first city-builders of SumerMesopotamia in his Eden in the East . that they were Sundaland flood-refugees. In any case, Hancock argues for a development phase for refugees from flood-ravaged areas. (Hancock, Underworld ) 6700BC: From 6700BC to 5500BC or so, and then from 3800BC to 3400BC (or 4000BC to 3600BC), occurs the desertification of the Sahara . not due to human misuse of environment, but by changes in the earths orbit and a tilt of the axis. This has been claimed by Martin Claussen and co-researchers of Germanys Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, engaged in climate-modelling research on variables including weather, oceans, vegetation over several thousand years. (See a 15 July 1999 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters . The effects were very severe, ruining ancient civilizations and socio-economic systems. The change to North Africas climate and vegetation was abrupt, and a green Sahara only supported desert shrubland within a few hundred years. Rivers and streams dried up. The habitations of the area are now remembered only via rock paintings. The people may have been forced to move west to the Nile Valley and other river valleys which could support civilization - especially the Tigris and Euphrates. Similar changes occurred in what is now Arabia. The changes were added to by atmospheric and vegetation feedback, more than by effects from oceanic reactions. The model used by the researchers led to a conclusion that the desertification of North African began about 3400BC plus or minus 30 years, with the area earlier covered by annual grasses and low shrubs, as assessed from fossilized pollen. Another factor modified by the change i n the tilt of the earths axis, from 24.14 degrees to the present 23.45 degrees, was that the Northern Hemisphere, which had enjoyed more summer sunlight, had also amplified the African and Indian summer monsoon. Credit for material here goes to American Geophysical Union. The above is based on material found at the ClimateArk website (once at): climateark.orgarticles1999sahturnd.htm 6800BC: Oldest-known pottery at Catal Huyuk in Turkey, (Ardrey, Hunting Hypothesis . p. 56) (Although a claim from Japan for pottery use is a little earlier.) Circa 6800BC: Jarmo in northern Iraq is later said to be the first town. Circa 7000BC: Early Danish Mesolithic: In the Maglemose culture large amber pendants are hardly changed. 7000BC, At Abu Hereya, see elsewhere, switch in seemingly 100 years, that is, abruptly, from gazelle hunting to raising domesticated sheep and goats. Plus grow lentils, cereals, peas. About 7000BC and later: Neolithic Africans have moved north to the Levant and to the Balkans bringing with them, agriculture, a settled lifestyle and skilled crafts. West feels that the Ubaid, settlement of Uruk, andor the Sumerian civilization cannot be understood with reference to such post-Africans. Later, such people influenced life of the Mediterranean, Middle East, Crete, Cyprus, Greece, Anatolia, Sumeria (Mesopotamia), Assyria, Arabia and Canaan. Migrations of North Africans across the Sinai area preceded the rise of the Natufians. There arose a mixed AfroAsiatic race with Bronze Age centres at Ugarit, Cyprus, Kestel, Rhodes and Crete, dealing in commodities such as tin, copper, wine, olive oil. Tin for the Bronze Age came partly from the Kestel mine north of Tarsus while copper came from Cyprus. But generally, Egypt dominated trading. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 7000BC The pig is domesticated in Greece. 7000BC: Japan: Lacquerware dating back 9000 years and understood to be the worlds oldest such specimens have been found in a town in northern Japan, which may even suggest the lacquering technique may have originated in Japan and not China. Six items including hair decorations and bracelets have been found. (15 June 2001) Circa 7000BC: Introduction of domestication of animals, but maybe as early as 15,000BC in France. Use of a horses bridle. 1500BC, Earliest known use of metal-made horse bits. Circa 7000BC: China: A flute dating to this time is found in the 1980s in Jiahu. Six flutes made from the hollow wing bones of cranes were found in Zheng-zhou province from about this time. 7000BC: The site of Catal Huyuk in south-central Turkey marks the worlds first urban centre. Circa 7000BC: In 1903 a skeleton of a man 9000 years old is discovered in the underground caves at Cheddar, 130 miles west of London, England. Circa . 7000BC: The first regular milking of animals is begun in the Shara about this time. Circa . 7000BC: Some American Indian graves in Newport Beach, CA. are believed to be of this age. 7000BC: An alteration in the Earths magnetic field has occurred. 7000BC: Jericho . Palestine, possibly the oldest town in the world. If not earlier than 7000BC. By 7000BC is has earliest-known fortifications, and is surrounded by a stone wall thirteen feet thick, ten feet high, with a solid stone tower at centre with a spiral stairway. All this is before pottery is used (Source: JamesThorpe). 7000BC: Presumed advent of first farming communities . Domestication of cattle led to custom of castrating calvesbulls to reduce their aggression. For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 7000BC: Crop cultivation in North, Central and South America. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East) 7000BC: In Jericho, shrines to worship of Mother Goddess . (Miles) Robinson, The Bible Timeline, mentions that some archaeologists date use of a tower at Jericho from 7000BC. Circa 7000BC: Introduction of domestication of animals, but maybe as early as 15,000BC in France. Use of a horses bridle. 1500BC, Earliest known use of metal-made horse bits. 7000BC: Probable domestication of goats, pigs and cattle in herds - though it is thought that poultry were first used for religious divination of their eggs, and such divination might have been a motive for domestication of goats, sheep and even cattle. (Edwards) Around 7000BC: Early traces of proto-pottery in Anatolia. 7000BC-6000BC: Hacilar in sw Anatolia prepottery, Neolithic . houses of small, mud-plastered rooms, skulls found but no burials. 7000BC: A race, the Aryans, appears, possibly IraniansPersians, Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf, central desert depression, trade routes of the East passed south of the Caspian, settled in 9th and 8th mlnms. Domesticated flocks etc. Pottery. Female figurines, Dalma culture about 4000BC irrigation for Azerbaijan on the main east-west trade route, in 6th mlnm. After 7000BC: Author Jaynes has first chamber tombs in Europe and Asia, with graves of highest-status personages filled with furniture, ornaments and vessels of food. 7000BC-9000BC: Period in which Sabre-tooth Tiger becomes extinct. 7260BC-5620BC: Approx: Neolithic settlements on Malay Peninsula. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) 7300BC-7000BC: Some Caucasians were in the Americas (Washington-Minnesota areas) in the Stone Age. (Date from Hancock and Faiia, p. 19). Did the earliest Americans all resemble todays Asians 7300BC: A skeleton of this age is found in July, 1996, by the Columbia River in Kennewick, Wa. USA. It is named the Richland Man. The 9300-year-old bones are later studied and determined to be most closely-related to Asian people, particularly the Ainu of northern Japan. It is concluded in 2000 that he was an American Indian. The bones were dated to 7514-7324BC. 7500BC, First use of Neolithic polished stone tools in East Asia in China. 7500BC: Farmers not warriors spread languages . In an innovative study, New Zealand researchers looked at an existing idea that a tribe of nomadic herders called the Kurgans of Central Asia who domesticated the horse and invaded Europe had spread an original language around 4000BC. Dr Russell Gray of Auckland University and a colleague examined a sample of worlds from 87 languages and treated them as though they were DNA. The languages were the basic stock of Indo-European languages, such as Basque, English, Lithuanian, Gujarati, Romany, Walloon, Breton, Hindi and Pennsylvania Dutch. The task was to find the descent of the words. Some of the words of the sample used were: fire, star, dog, earth, blood, woman. The basic store of words was spread by Hittite-speaking farmers of Anatolia who invented agriculture. Language was spread by the plough, not the sword. Dr Grays family tree of languages began in Anatolia (modern Turkey), with agricultural villagers who spoke a version of Hittite. They used pahhur for fire and watar for water. Linguists are reportedly cautious about the findings. (Reported in Australia 29-30 November 2003 in weekend newspapers from a recent issue of journal Nature ) 7500BC: Jericho . Palestine: A fortified city, with a stone tower 9 metres (30 feet) high. Some say it is the oldest-known monumental structure in the world (). (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline, The Five Mile Press Ltd. Balwyn, Australia, 1992) 7500BC: 1973: US archaeologists in Greece uncover evidence that people went to sea as early as 7500BC. 7500BC-6800BC: South-east Anatolia, use of copper, a mine, some pottery, clay bricks. 7500BC-6000BC: Major river deltas form, such as fertile alluvial plans of Mesopotamia, Ganges of India, Chao Phraya of Thailand, Mahakam of Norndeo, Yangtze in China. (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East ) Another long leap in time. 8000BC, end of last ice age, flooding of areas between landmasses, see re AustraliaTasmania, New Guinea, farmers have settled at Ali Kosh, north of confluence of Tigris and Euphrates. 8000BC: Goats domesticated in Iraq. 8000BC: And before - Ice ages have pushed horses southwards, and when the land bridges between America and Asia disappeared, we had four types of horse, the horse in Europe and nearer Asia, the asses and the zebra of north and south of Africa and the onager of the Middle East. (Note from Edwards) 8000BC approx: Upper Pleistocene Period: (128,000 to 10,000 years ago, or 8,000BC). Period when modern Homo sapiens appears. The earliest evidence of modern human habitation in northern Eurasia once again comes from the area from the Altai mountains to the Amur valley, where sites dating to approx. 40,000BC have been uncovered. Were the entire habitable southern and easternmost portions of Siberia was the home of small nomadic bands of Stone Age hunters as early as 35,000BC Rock paintings of horses and other animals have been found as far north as the upper Lena River valley and date earlier than 25,000BC. (At times when much of western Siberia was still covered in ice or water.) During this time, either before the last great cold period (before 25,000BC or after 12,000BC) bands of Siberians crossed over into the northernmost extremities of the Asian Pacific Rim and entered present-day Alaska, quickly populating the Americas (all habitable areas of North and South America show evidence of settlement by 9,000BC, think some). 8000BC: Our civilizations began to emerge right after the continental ice sheets melted about 10,000 years ago. Civilizations accumulate knowledge, so we now know a lot about what has been going on, what has made us what we are. We puzzle over oddities, such as the climate of Europe. (Greenhouse Timeline) William H. Calvin, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, The Atlantic Monthly . January 1998, Volume 281, No. 1, pp. 47-64. 8000BC: Approx: Ice Ages and warming, The Thames once flowed into the Rhine River. About 8000BC, Britain becomes an island, and the Bering Strait land bridges are formed. With warming there is less meat in the forests as forest animals are smaller, there is less point in following migrating animals. In North America is a switch from hunting Mammoth to bison in 9000BC-8000BC. 8000BC: There is good evidence that the continental crust is capable of some plastic flow, and the rebound is shown most dramatically in parts of the Baltic, the Arctic and the Great Lakes regions of North America where Pleistocene beaches and coastal features are now raised high above sea level and some are tilted. The process seems to have been going on for the last 10,000 years and is still continuing. 8000BC: About now the inhabitants of Mesopotamia (centered about modern Iraq) begin using distinctively-shaped clay tokens - spheres, disks, cones, cylinders, triangles, among others- to keep track of foodstuffs, livestock, and land. 8000BC: The Holocene (completely-recent) Epoch. Our current age began 10,000 years ago. 8000BC: Mesopotamia develops primitive writing. Circa 8000BC: Traces of a man-made shelter from this time are found in northern South Africa north of Johannesburg. Circa 8000BC: The potato is first cultivated some 10,000 years ago by South American Indians. In the 16th century Spanish explorers brought potatoes back to Europe, where it was first used primarily as livestock feed. The potato was introduced to North America in the 17th century. In the 18th century, the poor of Europe began to use potatoes as a replacement for cereals in their diets. The failure of the potato crop in Ireland in 1845-46 led to great famine and pushed tens of thousands of Irish to emigrate to the United States. 8000BC-7000BC: In the early Mesolithic Period the climate warms and settlers of the Paleolithic follow the deer north. Those who stay mix with the fishermen who move from the west to form the ethnic groups of Baltic culture. 8000BC: Obsidian exported from the area between the Taurus Mountains and the River Euphrates, from Nemrut Dag. The population here was deported to south Mesopotamia in 708BC. Heracles was supposedly at Nemrut Dad in 50BC. 8000BC-4500BC: Mesolithic Period. 8000BC: Earliest date for an urban centre surrounded by farming - Jericho, in southern Palestine. By about 7000BC it has about 2000 people and good fortifications. Catal Huyuk was founded about 6700BC, at 30 acres being four times the size of Jericho. By 3000BC, Uruk in Iraq has a population of 50,000 people. (JamesThorpe) (JamesThorpe). 8000BC: Seemingly a new mode of life arises in western Europe, as new populations arrive from the East, with additions to the usual tool kit which include bow-and-arrow, fish nets, dugout canoes, sleds, skis, plus domesticated dogs which assist the hunt. Mesolithic Period is 8000BC-4500BC: By 8000BC: The 8th millennium, Elam and Elamites, in sw Iran, bordering Iraq. Fertile, well-watered, chief city is Susa, has extensive trade with the East, and cultural advances including writing appeared very early here. Reached its golden age in 1300BC-1100BC. 8000BC: Approx: A view: Some 6,000-10,000 years ago, the influx of new information that arose with the development of agriculture overtaxed the capacity of human memory. Our ancestors came up with a remarkable solution: written language. View adapted from William Crossman, Compspeak 2050: How Talking Computers Will Recreate An Oral Culture By The Mid-21st Century . nd 8000BC: Final phase of Neolithic period. In Canaan are small settlements with houses erected over holes in the ground about 5 metres wide, and topped with thatched rooves. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 8000BC: Estimate: World population approaches more than five million. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 8000BC to 3500BC: Mesolithic period, as in Britain, ice sheets retreated further north, making most of Britain habitable. Sea levels rise and Britain is an island by 6000BC. Colonization of Ireland by 6000BC. 8000BC-5000BC: Approx: Earliest known date for winemaking, given that grapes were eaten in Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon. In Georgia, Russia, grapes were cultivated - for wine (JamesThorpe) Egypt by 3000BC had developed the earliest large wine industry. About 8000BC: Surprising new theory is proposed. Civilization by way of the use of monumental buildings may have preceded enjoyment of The Agricultural Revolution. Middle Eastern settlements had existed (such as Wadi Faynan or Nevali Cori) which display innovations such as settled villages with communal buildings, but without the paraphernalia of the Agricultural Revolution - farming and the use of domesticated animals. The people are still hunter-gatherers, though not nomads, but have the ability to group in settlements for purposes of religion, hunting and feasting. The people in particular have communal cult buildings with macabre artworks. Art includes a sculpture of a snake moving across a mans head, a bird of prey landing on entwined twins, depictions of big cats, wild aurochs, foxes, birds, insects. T-shaped megaliths with faceless, oblong heads, human arms. At a settlement named Gobekli Tepe were megaliths but also the basics of the Agricultural Revolution. The remains are in three levels, the oldest dated from about 9000BC, with a labyrinth of circular sanctuaries about 30 metres in diameter, housing megalithic monuments, three times the height of a man, some of which had belts and robes, presumably god-like figures. Some megaliths have carvings of wild animals such as snakes, scorpions, hyenas. Human bones have been found in such remains. The degree of social complexity (ideological complexity) evidenced was a surprise to archaeologists. Yet such sites lack signs of developing farming, such as domesticated corn. Or signs of permanent settled living. Was Gobekli Tepe a place for pilgrimage, for celebrations and gatherings What bonded the people was ideology, not the expansion of food security. Or was it that the need to feed people attending such gathering which accidentally led to the discovery of settled farming. Since the area gives evidence of use of the first kind of wheat to be domesticated. It might have been that hunting-gathering to feed such regular gatherings led to seeds being dropped close by, so that the results of cultivation were discovered accidentally Related, the domestication of animals (pigs, sheep, cattle) might have grown due to religious, not economic motives Archaeologists however remain uncertain about the use of local water supplies, or not, as evidence for this remains weak. All round, and with cross-comparison of ancient sites found in Syria, it seems that ancient hunter-gathering people had complex society and used megaliths and large, art-decorated buildings (up to as large as two tennis courts) before they enjoyed an Agricultural Revolution. This remains a surprise to researchers. The social complexity was bonded by ceremonies, ritual and symbols, a collective sense of identity was built. Further, networks existed which linked various ceremonial centres, and so, human groups. Out of the mix grew the discoveries essential for a slow agricultural revolution. (Ideas from Jens Notroff of German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. Drawn from Civilisations True Dawn, article by David Robson in New Scientist 5 October 2013, pp. 32ff.) 8000BC: And before - Ice ages have pushed horses southwards, and when the land bridges between America and Asia disappeared, we had four types of horse, the horse in Europe and nearer Asia, the asses and the zebra of north and south of Africa and the onager of the Middle East. (Note from Edwards) For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html A major time in Wests theory re outcomes of the desertification of the Sahara Region of North Africa which went on to 6000BC. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . 8000BC approx: Upper Pleistocene Period: (128,000 to 10,000 years ago, or 8,000BC). Period when modern Homo sapiens appears. The earliest evidence of modern human habitation in northern Eurasia once again comes from the area from the Altai mountains to the Amur valley, where sites dating to approx. 40,000BC have been uncovered. Were the entire habitable southern and easternmost portions of Siberia was the home of small nomadic bands of Stone Age hunters as early as 35,000BC Rock paintings of horses and other animals have been found as far north as the upper Lena River valley and date earlier than 25,000BC. (At times when much of western Siberia was still covered in ice or water.) During this time, either before the last great cold period (before 25,000BC or after 12,000BC) bands of Siberians crossed over into the northernmost extremities of the Asian Pacific Rim and entered present-day Alaska, quickly populating the Americas (all habitable areas of North and South America show evidence of settlement by 9,000BC, think some). 8000BC and later: Holocene Period (meaning fully recent, for the present, post-Ice Age period of Earths history beginning about 8,000BC. The last great ice sheets melt in northwest Eurasia. The Ob River begins to empty into the Arctic, draining much water from Western Siberia and opening that area to modern human settlement for the first time. The Holocene is the time when peoples moved from the southeastern and Pacific fringes of Siberia into the Arctic and northwestern parts. (The Native Siberian peoples surviving today do not show evidence of being closely related to Native Americans, it is said.) The climate changes led to overhunting by humans, killing off many big-game animals in the Northern Hemisphere. Importantly, the East Asian continental shelf was flooded to become the Yellow Sea. One result is the adoption of sedentary farming by people living in Southwest Asia (present-day Turkey, Iraq) and China. Thus, in terms of human culture, the beginning of the Holocene coincides wi th the Neolithic Revolution . 8500BC, first farmers, domestication of pea, wheat, olive, sheep in southwest Asia. It seems that gazelle hunters on the same site as Abu Hureyra, a permanent village of rectangular mud brick houses connected by narrow alleyways. 8500BC: In Peru, people grow beans and potatoes. Pumpkins are raised in Middle America. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) 9300BC-8500BC: Period when due to deglaciation, the Persian Gulf area is subjected to significant flooding. Earlier, it has been dry land. (Hancock, Underworld ) 8500BC-7500BC: Settlement at Catal Huyuk . Turkey. With 1000 brick-built dwellings on about 30 acres, population about 7000. Growing of wheat, barley, and cattle-herding. Making of pottery and simple metal tools, weaving of linen clothes, use of jewellery and mirrors of polished volcanic stone. Not known till excavated in the 1960s by British archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes. 8600BC: Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) lived in temperate climates throughout Europe and western Asia from about this time to a last record in Ireland at 10,600 years ago. 7000BC-9000BC: Period in which Sabre-tooth Tiger becomes extinct. Ancient settlers of Egypts western desert 9000BC-7000BC: THE HEAD of Egypts Supreme Council of Antiquities has announced that American archaeologists have unearthed evidence of a settlement in Egypts western desert about 9000 years ago. The settlement is believed to be one of the oldest in the world. (Reported 28 February 1998) 9000BC to 4000BC, Sahara becoming less humidmoist, has lakes, wild animals, cattle-tending, pottery making, domesticate sheep and goats, maybe some grain crops, millet and sorghum. 9000BC: Pigs domesticated in Turkey. 9000BC: Shanidar cave in the Kurdish mountains of modern Iraq is occupied by Mesolithic people. It is occupied by modern Paleolithics about 32,00BC, and by Neandertals from about 48,000BC to 44,000BC. In Iraq, Umm Dabaghiya was occupied by about 6000BC, featuring murals and floors made by large clay slabs plastered with gypsum and often painted red. (Hancock, Underworld ) 9000BC: The town of Chemi Shanidar, later part of Iraq, was the largest city of the time with 150 people. 9000BC: Southern Chinese people cross straits of Formosa to Taiwan. (Levathes, When China Rules The Seas ) Circa 9000BC: Plato (allegedly, later) wrote that the island continent of Atlantis existed about this time. In 1998 Richard Ellis wrote an account of the Atlantis literature: Imagining Atlantis. Atlantis - Where was it . Rumours are surfacing again about the site of long-lost Atlantis, somewhere off Cuba. An unmanned submarine has been sending ghostly video images of massive stones in oddly symmetrical square and pyramid shapes, located in an 8km-square area on a deep-ocean plain off Cubas western tip. The images are in care of a company contracted by the Cuban government to seek oilgas reserves and maybe the wrecks of old treasure ships, Canadian firm Advanced Digital Communications (spokesman Paul Weinzweig). The firm uses side-scan sonar and computerised global positioning equipment. The Atlantis location was discovered in 2000, but Weinzweig has been careful to not use the A word. Its all rather strange, weird and unexplained. Someone glad about it all though is an anthropologist from California, George Erikson, who co-wrote a book which predicted Atlantis would be found off the tropical Americas. Other locations for Atlantis are near the Greek coast, off Crete, or off Gibraltar. (Reported 12 October 2002 by Washington Post ) 9000BC-8000BC: In Neolithic times Mongolia is the home of small groups of hunters, reindeer breeders, and nomads. (gobiexpeditions) 9000-4000BC: The finest record of Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples exists in Denmark, due to the countrys numerous bogs. 9000BC: Mesopotamians use spinning and weaving. About 20,000BC, Paleolithic Man uses the needle for sewing. 9000BC: (See George F. Bass, A History Of Seafaring . London, Thames and Hudson, 1972.) On a ship, a 34-ton cargo would be equal to 340 pack horse weight. Sailors preceded shepherds and farmers, in Greece, about 9000BC, exploring the Aegean, using obsidian for scrapers and double-edged knives gained from Melos 8th mlnm BC of obsidian scrapers in caves. Men used dugouts, rafts or skin-covered coracles. 4th mlnm, clay model is oldest-known of a sailing vessel in a grave in southern Mesopotamia, Uruk period. Egypt had boats with sickle shape. 9000BC-8000BC, In Near East, appearance now of phalluses, in impressive size, and profusion, and here see Campbell, Masks of the Gods, Occidental Mythology . re displacement of Mother Goddess cults by matriarchy. (Miles) 9000BC: Mesopotamians use spinning and weaving. 9000BC: Domestication of the sheep in herds. (Edwards) 9000BC: One of the first settlements ever found has been Catal Huyuk . use of bulls horns in benches, to 8400BC, in Central Turkey, 50 miles from sea. By 9000BC: The Natufians of Israel were burying their dead in ceremonial graves and dwelling in structures with pavings, and had had three different permanent towns with about 200 people and here Jaynes suggests social control was bicameralism - via sound hallucination from oneself or ones king, a voice within coming from the right side of the brain, the voice of a god, heard from within. About 9000BC, at Eynan, the kings tomb is remarkable, and Jaynes thinks that the commands given by the king lived on in the hallucinations of his people king is propped up in his house, and not actually seen as dead until his voice has stilled, that is, until his subjects stop hallucinating him - though dead, the king is still a god and some structures here prefigure the later ziggarauts of Mesopotamia - origin of the idea the king is dead, long live the king - and so the voice of the new king gradually became fused with the voice of the now newly-dead king - By about 7000 BC, agriculture had become the predominant subsistence of farming areas, the Levant, Zagros area, sw Anatolia, and in the Hacilar culture of Anatolia, human crania were set in floors, which Jaynes thinks points to bicameralism. About 8000BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic, to 6000BC, eg, Jericho. 9000BC-8000BC: Evidence of human habitation at bottom of South America, Fells Cave, Patagonia, extinct mammals as eaten by man. Period at end of last continental glaciation. 9000BC approx: Site of Atlantis discovered . By recreating views of changing sea levels from thousands of years ago, as reported lately in New Scientist . a French professor, Jacques Collina-Girard, of University of Provence, Ais-en-Provence, now suspects that Atlantis may have been on, or part of, an ancient archipelago with an island in front of the Pillars of Hercules, near where Plato described, outside the Straits of Gibraltar. The island is now a shoal called Spartel or Majuan Bank on sea charts. The archipelago helped form an enclosed sea, about 80km by 20km, providing a real cultural universe for people. The location may have provided a maritime stepping stone for sailors between Europe and North Africa. But about 11,000 years ago the rise of post-glacial sea levels quickened to about 1.8 metres per century, according to records made from coral reefs. The island was swamped. Atlantis, Plato suggested, was perhaps larger than Libya (Africa) and Asia put together Prof Collina-Girard feels it was only about 15km by 5km. Prof. Collina-Girard has also examined patterns of human migration from Europe into Northern Africa at the height of the last Ice Age, 19,000 years ago, or about 17,000BC. (See also a recent article in journal Comptes Rendus de lAcademie des Sciences . and newspaper reports of 22 September 2001) About 9000 years ago: Alcohols Neolithic Origins - Brewing Up a Civilization By Frank Thadeusz in SPIEGEL ONLINE International in late December 2009 Did our Neolithic ancestors turn to agriculture so that they could be sure of a tipple US Archaeologist Patrick McGovern thinks so. The expert on identifying traces of alcohol in prehistoric sites reckons the thirst for a brew was enough of an incentive to start growing crops. It turns out the fall of man probably didnt begin with an apple. More likely, it was a handful of mushy figs that first led humankind astray. Here is how the story likely began -- a prehistoric human picked up some dropped fruit from the ground and popped it unsuspectingly into his or her mouth. The first effect was nothing more than an agreeably bittersweet flavor spreading across the palate. But as alcohol entered the bloodstream, the brain started sending out a new message -- whatever that was, I want more of it Humankinds first encounters with alcohol in the form of fermented fruit probably occurred in just such an accidental fashion. But once they were familiar with the effect, archaeologist Patrick McGovern believes, humans stopped at nothing in their pursuit of frequent intoxication. A secure supply of alcohol appears to have been part of the human communitys basic requirements much earlier than was long believed. As early as around 9,000 years ago, long before the invention of the wheel, inhabitants of the Neolithic village Jiahu in China were brewing a type of mead with an alcohol content of 10 percent, McGovern discovered recently. McGovern analyzed clay shards found during excavations in Chinas Yellow River Valley at his Biomolecular Archaeology Laboratory for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum. The bearded archaeologist is recognized around the world as an expert when it comes to identifying traces of alcoholic drinks on prehistoric finds. He ran so-called liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on the clay remnants from Asia and found traces of tartaric acid -- one of the main acids present in wine -- and beeswax in the shards pores. It appears that prehistoric humans in China combined fruit and honey into an intoxicating brew. Clever Survival Strategy Additionally, plant sterols point to wild rice as an ingredient. Lacking any knowledge of chemistry, prehistoric humans eager for the intoxicating effects of alcohol apparently mixed clumps of rice with saliva in their mouths to break down the starches in the grain and convert them into malt sugar. These pioneering brewers would then spit the chewed up rice into their brew. Husks and yeasty foam floated on top of the liquid, so they used long straws to drink from narrow necked jugs. Alcohol is still consumed this way in some regions of China. McGovern sees this early fermentation process as a clever survival strategy. Consuming high energy sugar and alcohol was a fabulous solution for surviving in a hostile environment with few natural resources, he explains. The most recent finds from China are consistent with McGoverns chain of evidence, which suggests that the craft of making alcohol spread rapidly to various locations around the world during the Neolithic period. Shamans and village alchemists mixed fruit, herbs, spices, and grains together in pots until they formed a drinkable concoction. But that wasnt enough for McGovern. He carried the theory much further, aiming at a complete reinterpretation of humanitys history. His bold thesis, which he lays out in his book Uncorking the Past. The Quest for Wine, Beer and Other Alcoholic Beverage, states that agriculture -- and with it the entire Neolithic Revolution, which began about 11,000 years ago -- are ultimately results of the irrepressible impulse toward drinking and intoxication. Available evidence suggests that our ancestors in Asia, Mexico, and Africa cultivated wheat, rice, corn, barley, and millet primarily for the purpose of producing alcoholic beverages, McGovern explains. While they were at it, he believes, drink-loving early civilizations managed to ensure their basic survival. Archaeologists have long pondered the question of which came first, bread or beer. McGovern surmises that these prehistoric humans didnt initially have the ability to master the very complicated process of brewing beer. However, they were even more incapable of baking bread, for which wild grains are extremely unsuitable. They would have had first to separate the tiny grains from the chaff, with a yield hardly worth the great effort. If anything, the earliest bakers probably made nothing more than a barely palatable type of rough bread, containing the unwanted addition of the grains many husks. Its likely, therefore, that early farmers first enriched their diet with a hybrid swill -- half fruit wine and half mead -- that was actually quite nutritious. Neolithic drinkers were devoted to this precious liquid. At the excavation site of Hajji Firuz Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of northwestern Iran, McGovern discovered prehistoric wine racks used to store airtight carafes. Inhabitants of the village seasoned their alcohol with resin from Atlantic Pistachio trees. This ingredient was said to have healing properties, for example for infections, and was used as an early antibiotic. The villages Neolithic residents lived comfortably in spacious mud brick huts, and the archaeologist and his team found remnants of wine vessels in the kitchens of nearly all the dwellings. Drinking wasnt just a privilege of the wealthy in the village, McGovern posits, and he adds that women drank their fair share as well. A Mysterious Inscription In Iran of all countries, where alcohol consumption is now punishable by whipping, the American scientist found vessels containing the first evidence of prehistoric beer. At first he puzzled over the purpose of the bulbous vessels with wide openings found in the prehistoric settlement Godin Tepe. Previously known wine vessels all had smaller spouts. McGovern was also perplexed by crisscrossed grooves scratched into the bottoms of the containers. Could it be some kind of mysterious inscription But back in the laboratory, he isolated calcium oxalate, known to brewers as an unwanted byproduct of beer production. Nowadays, breweries can filter the crystals out of their brew without any difficulty. Their resourceful predecessors, working 3,500 years B.C. scratched grooves into their 50-liter (13-gallon) jugs so that the tiny stones would settle out there. McGovern had discovered humankinds first beer bottles. The ancient farmers in Godin Tepe harvested barley from fields near the village and mashed the crop using basalt stone. Then they brewed the ground grain into a considerable range of varieties, enjoying a sweet, caramel-flavoured dark beer, an amber-hued lager-like concoction, and other pleasant-tasting beverages. Around the same time, the Sumerians were paying homage to their fertility goddess Nin-Harra, whom they considered to be the inventor of beer. The creators of Mesopotamian civilization scratched instructions for brewing beer onto small clay tablets in Nin-Harras honor. The main ingredient in their variety of beer was emmer, a variety of wheat that has since nearly disappeared. Thus the human project that started with the first hominids to stumble around under fruit trees reached completion with these prehistoric beer drinkers. Moderate alcohol consumption was advantageous for our early ancestors, McGovern speculates, and they adapted to it biologically. It is a legacy that still burdens humankind today. The archaeologist, however, sees himself as reasonably balanced in this respect. Ancestors on one side of his family, the McGoverns, opened the very first bar in their hometown of Mitchell, South Dakota. On the other side, however, an especially puritanical branch of the family originated from Norway and strictly avoided alcohol consumption. 9000BC: Prehistoric desert cultures in North America. 9000BC: To 3500BC. North Africa: Begins the Sahara Sojourn, where a Neolithic (African-based) people, Nabta Playa, become involved in an agricultural revolution, living a settled lifestyle, living off cattle by 9000BC and grain by 8000BC. Such people were migrating north by 9000BC. Metal objects replaced stone, by 6000BC. They tanned animal skins, used pottery, used weaving by 6000BC, used some below-ground stone construction, used villages in pre-planned ways, used deep wells for water, and had the earliest-known megalithic observatories for Astronomy, aligned with the stars by 4500BC. Pottery was also usedinvented in the Levant by 9820BC. Religious worships and respectful burials were known by 8000BC. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 9000BC: A date for an early occupation of the city known as Jericho in Palestine. Item from Larry West, from his 2012 PDF update of his editions 1 and 2 of Our Common African Genesis . About 9000BC: Jericho boasts a Tower of Power. The worlds first skyscraper A society of hunter-gatherers (but with no agricultural revolution yet) have built an 8-metre tall tower and a staircase for it, out of stone. There is no evidence by now of invasions in the area, so it is probably not a fortification. The Tower of Jericho has quite puzzled archaeologists. The Tower seems to have been built for religious, astronomical andor social reasons, to help bond a society to itself. (Drawn from Civilisations True Dawn, article by David Robson in New Scientist 5 October 2013, pp. 32ff.) 9220BC: Dating of clovis points on projectile in American big game hunting tradition, for mammals and giant bison. The more sophisticated point was the Folsom point. 9300BC approx: Where did domestic cats originate Some say they derive from an African wild cat, Felis silvestris lybica . which are native to North Africa and south-western Asia. It is thought that cats were first domesticated in ancient Egypt about 3800BC as a way to control mice. However, a cat skeleton has recently been found in Cyprus in close proximity to a 9500-year-old human burial site, which tends to suggest that cats were domesticated much earlier in Asia. Circa 9400BC: Then, about 11,400 years ago, things suddenly warmed up again, and the earliest agricultural villages were established in the Middle East. (Greenhouse Timeline) William H. Calvin, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, The Atlantic Monthly . January 1998, Volume 281, No. 1, pp. 47-64. 9500BC: Romito 2, a dwarf from a cave in Italys Calabria region, suffered from a form of chondrodystrophy, a lack of normal cartilage growth, and stood no more than four feet. That he lived to about 17 years of age indicates group support. He was found buried with an old woman, possibly his mother. Circa 9500BC: Two cultures of migrating hunters lived in the present territory of Lithuania in the second half of the 10th millennium BC. One group came from the banks of the middle Vistula river in the south-west. The other was from the north-west of Europe. 9500-6100BC: The Neolithic site of Abu Hureyra, 40 miles downstream from Jerf el-Ahmar, Syria, was flooded under the waters of the Taqba Dam in the 1970s. 9500BC: See D. S. Allan and J. B. Delair, When The Earth Nearly Died: Compelling Evidence of a Catastrophic World Change, 9,500BC . Bath, UK, Gateway Books, 1995. 9600BC: Radiocarbon date for the cave paintings at Le Portal, France. The last period of cave art is called Magdalenian. 9800BC-9600BC: Sri Lanka: After an examination of mythology, proposed date for the formation of the First Sangam in Kumari Kandam (Tamil Kingdom in Dravidian lands now drowned between southern India and Sri Lanka). Tamil traditions speak of three great floods, of 16,000BC, 14,058BC, 9564BC. (Hancock, Underworld ) 9600BC: Proposed date for destruction of Atlantis, which is possibly located according to Russian geographer Vitacheslav Koudriatsev on the Little Sole Bank, on a now-underwater plateau called the Celtic Shelf, 200km south-west of British Isles and Ireland, now 57 or more metres underwater. Atlantis disappears as ice-melt makes for global flooding. We also find that work on the Gulf of Mexico indicates various global flooding 12-11,000 years ago. There is also dramatic climate-warming. Hancock proposes three periods of major flooding, about 13,000BC-12,000BC, then 10,000BC-9000BC, then 6000BC-5000BC. Part of the flooding problem is that on the major continents, meltwater for thousands of years was held behind ice dams, which finally gave way, releasing enormous volumes of water. The result is that sea levels can rise in abrupt steps. There may also have been increased levels of volcanic activity due to rebound of the earths crust once its weights of ice are shifted. These ideas of global super-floods were first put forward by Cesare Emiliani in Science magazine in 1975. His views intrigued sci-fi writer Isaac Asimov. (Hancock, Underworld ) 9600-8500BC: Some dozen villages piled one on top of the other occupied the site of Jerf el-Ahmar at a bend of the Euphrates River. In 1999 Syria flooded the area under the Tishrin Dam. 9600BC: Poseidon the God of the Sea founds Atlantis where he falls in love with a mortal, Cleito and has ten sons by her, the chief son being Atlas, hence Atlantis. (Stenman) Atlantis being in Atlantic Ocean. Egyptian legend re great Atlantean empire about 9600BC, and a mighty land beyond Straits of Gibraltar, then a chain of islands, then another huge continent the Atlanteans conquered east to the borders of Egypt and Greece. (Stenman) Cretan bull ceremony comes from Atlantis 9600BC: Also a mighty civilization in Greece, rivalling Atlantis. (Stenman) 9600BC: Idea that Old Egypt was an ancient colony of Atlantis - hence many Egyptian beliefs. (Stenman). Lemurians were 12-15 feet tall and Madam Blavatsky the founder of the Theosophical Society believed in the Lemurian Theory. (Stenman). Velikovsky redated Platos date for the Atlantis catastrophe. 9600BC: Mystic Edgar Cayce suggested Atlanteans had an amazing technology before it sank about 10,000BC. (Stenman) 9600BC: Wisconsin digs back in time: An archaeological dig in the southern part of Door County, Wisconsin, USA, researched by a team from Marquette University in Milwaukee, has revealed tiny kernels of burned corn and a milling stone which dates to about 1200AD. They also found various chipped stone, broken pots, arrowheads, spear points, burnt wood, bone fragments and rubbish pits, artefacts from the Oneota tribe. Under the artefacts were found layers of even older artefacts, which may stretch back as far as about 9600BC. New data may also be developed concerning glaciationsdeglaciation. (Reported 5 September 2003) 9600BC: Also a mighty civilization appearing in Greece, rivalling Atlantis. (Stenman) 3 October 2001: TV documentary screened in Australia suggests that Atlantis may be off the coast of Cuba. For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 10,000BC-7000BC: Homo Sapiens seems to appear in North America, a previously uninhabited land. (Their skeletal characteristics remain unclear.) (Source, McNeill, p. 22.) 10,000BC or so, End of current Ice Age, agriculture is introduced to Europe from the Near East. Zagros mountains of Iran and Iraq seem a focus point. 10,000BC: The Paleolithic period comes to a close. 10,000BC: This marks the approximate time of the Natufian cultural stage, just before the domestication of plants and the spread of settled farming groups. The Natufians were the last group to occupy Kebara cave in Israel for a long period. 10,000-3500BC The Neolithic or New Stone Age. 10,000-400BC: The Jomon culture of Japan is associated with the introduction of rice agriculture and the use of metal, and probably came from the Asian mainland. 10,000BC An alteration in the Earths magnetic field has occurred (according to some). 10,000BC and previous: Humans (Upper Paleolithic Period) dated to about 10,000BC at Mezin, Ukraine, and Buret, Siberia, and later. 10,000BC or later: Date for perhaps the worlds oldest pottery, a vessel found at the Ishigoya Cave on Hunshu, Japan. (JamesThorpe) 10,000BC: Approx: New Guinea: A glass artefact perhaps 10,000 years old. () Artefact held by Australia Museum. (Reported by 2 February 2002) End of Last Ice Age is about 10,000 years ago. (Neolithic Period is New Stone Age.) 10,000BC: Estimated population of the world about 10 million as humanity starts farming. (Estimate by David Christian, Assoc. Prof of History at Macquarie University) 10,000BC: Mesopotamia: The alluvial plain created by the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and their tributaries, modern Iraq, east is the Zagros mountain range. Few natural resources, agriculture depends on irrigation, settled by 10,000 BC. By 8000-6500BC some domesticated sheep, farming, clay buildings, imported obsidian. Native copper Pottery from 6000BC-5600BC, lowland settlement on plains of North Iraq, Hassuna culture. Samarra and Halaf cultures, possibly co-contemporary. 4200BC, Late Ubaid culture, less pottery quality but more quantity. Lizard headed figurines, cast copper, stone stamp seals, End of 4th mlna, monumental architecture and invention of the wheel, and of writing. attributed to the arrival of the Sumerians, but maybe long local development. New urban communities arise. In second half of 3rd milnm, the Semitic Akkadians united Mesopotamia for the first time. Guti invasion from the East led to downfall of Akkadians and after some chaos, the Sumerians achieved power again. More Semitic arrivals and so came the Arameans, Isin-Larsa and Old Babylonian dynasties at beginning of 2nd mlnm. Hammurabi of Babylon in 1792BC-1750BC sought to unite Mesopotamia, but in the north, Assur city rich and powerful, and began Old Assyrian Period, trading, even to Anatolia, merchant colonies. Hittite raid destroyed Babylon in 1595 BC, and later the Kassites seized main power from Dur Kurigalzu. 10,000BC: Cutting back of the Niagara Falls gorge took about 12,000 years. (Note from Cloud) About 10,000BC: Jaynes believes there arises the innovation of the human use of names, as part of evolution in Africa. 10,000BC, onset of post-glacial period - and in Europe the growing population use non-indigenous cereals, sheep and goats. From about 10,000BC: In terms of the Carleton S. Coon theory, that there were five basic races each deriving from five originally geographical areas Capoid, now nearly extinct Congoid Caucasoid Mongolid and Australoid, use of this distinction coinciding with end of the Pleistocene era. Mongoloids had the area America, Asia and Pacific basin, and south into Australoid, Caucasoid (white and near white), dispossessed the Capoid of North Africa, who went south and confined the Congoids in Congo Basin and Sudan. By 1492, there had been enormous expansion in numbers of the Congoids and Caucasoids. Theory becomes widely discredited. 10,000BC: Seas had mounted on Australia, and there had appeared in Australia a new people, more like the modern Australians, possibly a strain of Solo Man, who mixed with the Tasmanians and produced a sub-race which became the dominant people. 10,000BC: North-West Argentina, river terrace site at Ampajango, with crude bifacial tools, in the Mesolithic Era, 10,000BC to 8000 BC, whilst humans adapting to a warmer, post-glacial environment. This is the threshold of the bicameral period, with the mechanism for social control which can organize large populations of people in a settled city situation, for which the presupposition is agriculture recession of the glaciers meant an increasingly arid Near East, and gathering for food no longer sufficed, perhaps, re climate. had to cultivate plants a climatic challenge to which agriculture and tending herds was the response the best studied Mesolithic culture is the Natufian, in Israel about 12 miles north of the Dead Sea, and about 10,000 BC, the Natufians were hunters, cave-dwellers, worked bone and antler, used flints, drew animals on caves as did people at Lascaux in France, had teeth or perforated shells as ornaments. Lascaux cave art of bulls the largest figures, deer and horses. plus fine engravings. Cave paintings used as communication, told nomadic hunters what kinds of food was in area. Early cave paintings depict horse as source of food. Huge deposits of horse bones in France in Solutre, Lascaux, La Madeleine, re reliance on horse herds, eg driving them over a cliff. (Edwards) Lascaux caves, Cro-Magnon, oldest examples of high conceptualization. (Note from Cloud) 10,000BC: Strangely, about 8000-10,000 years ago, the horse became extinct in its place of origin, America. Also disappearing were sloths and mastadons. There is no explanation for this, climate change or some disease, still one of the worlds great unsolved mysteries. In Asia was the Asiatic Wild Horse, still loose in Mongolia in 1881AD but largely hunted to extinction, and also hunted to extinction was the plateau horse, Tarpan, in East Europe and the Ukrainian steppes, one large herd in Poland, while north Europe had a slow and heavy horse now extinct Forest Horse as in Scandinavia about 10,000 years ago. Forest Horse became extinct in the Deluvial period, modern horses are therefore a cross-breed of the Tarpan and Asiatic Wild Horse, in winter the Tarpans coat turns white Tarpan probably the forebear of the Arab horse. First association between man and horse was between hunter and hunted. In later stages of Ice Age, primitive man used wild horses for food. (Note from Edwards) For timelines for Antiquity 45000BC to 3501BC, Check Website: mediahistorytimeprehist.html 10,000BC: The Horse. and so for about 250,000 years was an interchange of horses between America, Asia and Europe, and this probably continued for most of the 800,000 year Ice Age which began in Pleistocene and extended to 10,000 years ago. (Note from Edwards) 10,000BC: Atlantis . Mystic Edgar Cayce suggested Atlanteans had an amazing technology before it sank about 10,000BC. (Stenman) 10,000BC: Grain, goats and dogs are domesticated in the Near East. Use of tools such as stone adze, rope, oven-hardened pottery, sickles and knives of flint set in bone. In North America, use of stone spear and arrowheads that were accurately worked. (Item from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline, The Five Mile Press Ltd. Balwyn, Australia, 1992) 10,000BC-15,000BC: To 3000BC, as agriculture displaces horticulture. (Miles) 10th millennium BC: Jericho is occupied, a depot on the main East-West trade route, in 8th mlnm, pre-pottery Neolithic culture fortified Jericho. Built a round tower 9m in diameter. Amorites came there at end of 3rd mlnm. Amorites later occupy city of Larsa. 12,000BC-10,000BC: A proposed date for the breachingflooding of the Strait of Hormuz. (Hancock, Underworld ) 10,000BC: Earliest years given in Packer for Bible prehistory. (Packer) 10,000BC: Mesopotamia, the alluvial plain created by the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and their tributaries, modern Iraq, with the Zagros mountain range in the east. Few natural resources. Agriculture depends on irrigation. Area settled by 10,000BC. By 8000-6500BC some domesticated sheep, farming, clay buildings, imported obsidian. Native copper Pottery from 6000BC-5600BC, lowland settlement on plains of North Iraq, Hassuna culture. Samarra and Halaf cultures, possibly co-contemporary. 4200BC, Late Ubaid culture, less pottery quality but more quantity. Lizard-headed figurines, cast copper, stone stamp seals, End of 4th mlna, monumental architecture and invention of the wheel, and of writing. attributed to the arrival of the Sumerians, but maybe long local development. New urban communities arise. In second half of 3rd milnm, the Semitic Akkadians united Mesopotamia for the first time. Guti invasion from the East led to downfall of Akkadians and after some chaos, the Sumerians achieved power again. More Semitic arrivals and so came the Arameans, Isin-Larsa and Old Babylonian dynasties at beginning of 2nd mlnm. Hammurabi of Babylon in 1792BC-1750BC sought to unite Mesopotamia, but in the north, Assur city rich and powerful, and began Old Assyrian Period, trading, even to Anatolia, merchant colonies. Hittite raid destroyed Babylon in 1595 BC, and later the Kassites seized main power from Dur Kurigalzu. 10,500BC: Wild grain is harvested along the Nile River, Egypt, and early stone sickle blades appeared for a grain-grinding culture. (Drawn from The Architects of the Neolithic Revolution and Bronze Age by Larry West (Texas USA) treating views on the people-movements of the Bronze Age with reference to Blacks out-of-Africa in areas of Europe north of Africa.) 14000BC-4000BC: Sundaland is submerged and the people of South China take to the seas to Indonesia and to Polynesia. (Levathes, When China Rules The Seas ) About 18000BC: Evidence is found about the shores of Sea of Galilee of foundations for mud-and-brushwood huts used for human habitation. The people are presumably hunter-gatherers. 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