Option-trading-demo-software Pilihan periode-stok berkala Trading-strategy-arbitrage Online-trading-apa-is-it Online-trading-training-in-hyderabad Stock-options-cashless
Inovator produk perangkat lunak untuk badan-badan pemerintah vertikal dan konstruksi konstruksi Arsitektur -1111 Konstruksi (AEC) SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd didedikasikan untuk berinovasi produk perangkat lunak kelas dunia yang dapat diandalkan dan terpercaya untuk niche vertikal Arsitektur-Teknik-Konstruksi (AEC). Produk kami memungkinkan pelanggan mengurangi biaya, meningkatkan produktivitas, memiliki kontrol yang efektif dan meningkatkan pemanfaatan sumber daya dalam hal orang, infrastruktur dan layanan pelanggan. Produk kami bereputasi: AutoDCR merupakan produk pemenang penghargaan nasional, yang telah merevolusi proses pengawasan rencana bangunan di badan pemerintah. Saat ini diimplementasikan di 50 ULB di India PWIMS Public Works Information Management System, aplikasi Commercial Off-the-shelf (COTS) berbasis web untuk mengelola proses fungsional inti dari perencanaan, pengadaan dan pemeliharaan pekerjaan di organisasi pekerjaan umum. OPTICON perangkat lunak manajemen konstruksi yang kuat yang dirancang khusus untuk organisasi konstruksi. Dengan modul yang dibuat dengan cerdas untuk proyek, keuangan, mesin pabrik, proyek bangunan Anda terjamin akan keuntungan positif. Layanan BIMALA Proyek virtualisasi semakin penting dari hari ke hari. Dengan tersedianya model 3D, sebelum dimulainya konstruksi sebenarnya memiliki kelebihan banyak. Dengan BIM, desain tetap konsisten, terkoordinasi, dan lebih akurat di semua pemangku kepentingan. Dengan 750 orang pengalaman bertahun-tahun dan studi mendalam tentang SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd telah mengembangkan produk ERP e-governance dan konstruksi yang mengingat kebutuhan spesifik pelanggan kami, Anda dapat yakin bahwa bisnis Anda ada di tangan yang baik. Produk dari SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd menjamin: Peningkatan produktivitas Fokus pada fungsi inti bisnis Anda Peningkatan garis bawah Pertahankan aset perusahaan Anda Berinvestasi dalam waktu dan uang dalam teknologi bisnis SoftTech Engineers Pvt. Ltd adalah rekan terpercaya di tryst Anda untuk sukses.Beli An Envelope Making Machine Lebih dari 20 tahun pengalaman dalam industri amplop di ujung jari Anda, beri tahu kami kebutuhan Anda dan kami akan merekomendasikan mesin manufaktur amplop terbaik yang ditawarkan pasar. Kami telah membeli dan menjual peralatan amplop selama bertahun-tahun, dan memiliki rekam jejak yang memiliki lebih dari lima benua (referensi tersedia berdasarkan permintaan), dengan pelanggan yang sangat puas di Utara, Tengah, dan. Baca lebih lanjut Beli Printer Press Jet Halm Lihat Amplop Printer Dijual Jetwarehouse dengan bangga menjual Halm Jet Presses yang digunakan dalam kondisi Rebuilt, Checked, atau As Is. Memiliki pengalaman lebih dari 17 tahun dalam membantu pelanggan menemukan mesin amplop mereka, kami membantu Anda dan mengatasi ketidakpastian yang mungkin Anda miliki. Lebih dari sekadar menjual mesin produksi amplop atau printer amplop, tujuan kami adalah memastikan Anda mendapatkan yang terbaik. Baca lebih lanjut Jual Mesin Envelope Anda Apakah Anda memiliki printer amplop Press Jet Halm yang tidak lagi sempurna memenuhi kebutuhan pencetakan amplop Anda mungkin terlalu kecil, mungkin terlalu tua, mungkin Anda sudah membeli pengganti Apakah Anda memiliki Ampler amp Dunnebier, F.L. Smithe, Diamond, dan Rotovac menggunakan mesin amplop yang ingin Anda jual Apapun alasannya, pertimbangkan Jet Press bekas atau amplop bekas Anda. Baca lebih lanjut Amplop Mesin Pemotong Mati Jika Anda memiliki mesin pembuat amplop kosong yang diberi makan, dan mencari mesin untuk memotong lembaran kertas menjadi kosong amplop Kami dapat menawarkan peminta push pull Pull older die. Serta model semi otomatis (HOBBS autotronics) dan pemotong mati die diprogram (FL SMITHE PHP series III, WINKLERDUNNEBIER diprogram untuk memotong mesin pemotong mati, dan banyak lagi), kirimkan email singkat kami dengan Anda. Baca lebih lanjut Beli Mesin Membuat Amplop Lebih dari 20 tahun pengalaman di industri amplop di ujung jari Anda, mari kita. Beli Printer Tekan Halm Jet Printer Amplop Lihat Dijual Jetwarehouse dengan bangga menjual Halm Jet yang baru. Jual Mesin Envelope Anda Apakah Anda memiliki printer amplop Press Jet Halm yang tidak lagi sempurna. Amplop Die Cutting Machines Jika Anda memiliki mesin produksi amplop kosong, dan mencari a. LIHAT PENAWARAN BESAR KAMI PADA MESIN LINGKUNGAN. Kami membeli, menjual, menyewakan amplop printer amplop membuat mesin. Selama bertahun-tahun, Jetwarehouse Inc. telah membantu pelanggan di seluruh dunia untuk memilih mesin amplop terbaik yang ditawarkan pasar. Entah Anda adalah perusahaan pemula kecil, produsen printer, surat, atau amplop yang ada yang ingin melakukan upgrade, atau hanya perlu menjual mesin amplop Anda, Jetwarehouse Inc. dapat membantu. Kami menjual dan menyewakan printer amplop bekas yang telah kami bangun dengan hati-hati, dan saat kami memasangnya, kami mengembalikannya dengan garansi 90 hari untuk suku cadang dan tenaga kerja. Kami juga memiliki printer amplop dalam kondisi 8220 seperti is8221 dan 8220checked8221. Jika Anda memiliki Halm Jet Press bekas untuk dijual, kami tertarik untuk membelinya. Kami menjual dan membeli mesin pembuat amplop yang diproduksi oleh WinklerDunnebier, F.L. Smithe, Diemond, dan Rotovac. Silahkan email atau telepon 404-542-7171 agar kami bisa membantu anda. Jetwarehouse dengan bangga menjual dan menyewakan yang digunakan dan membangun kembali Print Amplop Press Jet Amplop (1, 2 dan 4 warna) untuk pelanggan yang ingin mencetak amplop yang telah selesai. Press Jet Halm memungkinkan Anda mencetak amplop dengan offset basah, dengan jumlah sampai 60.000 amplop per jam. Kami menyukai Printer Amplop Press Jet Halm karena Halm adalah produsen printer terkemuka di dunia yang memproduksi mesin amplop berkualitas tinggi. Printer amplop yang sudah dibangun kembali dan bekas kami harganya jauh lebih murah daripada printer baru namun kinerjanya sebanding. Printer kami yang telah dibangun kembali dilucuti, dan bingkai telanjang dibersihkan dan dilukis. Kami mengganti rantai, rol, bantalan dan pompa dengan bagian baru. Pengkabelan dan elektronik dikerjakan ulang dan diperiksa. Saat memasang printer enveloper yang telah dibangun kembali, kami mengembalikannya dengan garansi 90 hari untuk suku cadang dan tenaga kerja. Mesin Pembuatan Amplop Jetwarehouse Inc. menjual dan membeli mesin pembuatan amplop buatan produsen Jerman WinklerDunnebier dan rekannya dari Amerika Serikat F.L. Smithe. Mesin pembuatan amplop bisa menghasilkan lebih dari 1000 amplop per menit. Mesin tersedia untuk menghasilkan amplop kecil, menengah atau besar, tutup segel lurus, dompet surat, flap sisi dalam dan luar, jendela amplop, dan tutup segel dengan gumming yang dapat dimencet, gusi tekanan sensitif, atau penutup segel segel. Mintalah saran kami untuk mempelajari mesin amplop mana yang menjadi pilihan terbaik Anda untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dan anggaran pencetakan Anda. Kami telah membangun kembali mesin amplop yang hadir dengan garansi dan pemasangan 90 hari kami, dan juga yang lainnya di 8220 seperti kondisi is8221 atau 8220checked8221. Gerbang India adalah simbol kota yang paling dikenal. Dibangun untuk memperingati kunjungan Raja Monarki Inggris George V ke India pada tahun 1911. Mumbai (Marathi.) 1. sebuah kota metropolis kosmopolitan, yang sebelumnya dikenal dengan nama Bombay. Adalah kota terbesar di India dan ibu kota negara bagian Maharashtra. Mumbai pada awalnya merupakan konglomerasi dari tujuh pulau di garis pantai Konkan yang dari waktu ke waktu bergabung untuk membentuk kota kepulauan Bombay. Pulau ini pada gilirannya bergabung dengan pulau tetangga Salsette untuk membentuk Greater Bombay. Kota ini memiliki perkiraan populasi metropolitan sebesar 21 juta (2005), menjadikannya salah satu kota terpadat di dunia. Mumbai tidak diragukan lagi merupakan ibukota komersial India dan merupakan salah satu kota pelabuhan yang dominan di negara ini. Alam mumbais sebagai kota India yang paling eklektik dan kosmopolitan dilambangkan dengan kehadiran Bollywood di dalam kota, pusat industri film dan TV Hindi yang berpengaruh secara global. Ini juga merupakan rumah bagi populasi kumuh terbesar di Indina. Distrik edit Mumbai Selatan (Benteng, Colaba, Bukit Malabar, Nariman Point, Garis Laut, Tardeo) Wilayah tertua di Mumbai. Berisi pusat kota Mumbais dan dianggap sebagai jantung ibukota komersial India ini. Lingkungan terkaya di negara ini terletak di sini, yang memerintah di antara tingkat properti tertinggi di dunia. Harga real estat di Mumbai Selatan sebanding dengan yang ada di Manhattan. Ini adalah daerah wisata utama Mumbai dan rumah bagi sebagian besar museum Mumbais, galeri seni, bar, restoran kelas atas, ritel mewah dengan merek seperti Armani, zegna, Hermes, Sangeeta Boochra, dan lain-lain Gateway of India. South Central Mumbai (Byculla, Parel, Worli, Prabhadevi, Dadar) Dulu menjadi industri Mumbais, namun mengalami penurunan saat industri melakukannya. Kini kawasan ini telah dirubah menjadi lokasi kantor kerah putih. Rumah bagi kebun binatang Mumbais, wajah Worli, dan kuil untuk apa yang orang anggap dewa penjaga kota. Saat Anda bergerak ke Utara, ia berubah menjadi wilayah kelas menengah yang bagus. Mumbai Utara Tengah (Dharavi, Matunga, Vadala, Sion, Mahim) Terutama daerah kelas menengah atas, kecuali Dharavi, yang berisi daerah kumuh terbesar kedua di Asias. Kawasan ini dikembangkan segera setelah kemerdekaan Indias, karena adanya gelombang imigrasi. Bagian dari para migran adalah pengungsi dari partisi tersebut. Mumbai Barat (Bandra, Khar, Santa Cruz, Juhu, Vile Parle, Andheri, Versova) Berisi Mumbais di pusat kota lainnya dan merupakan rumah bagi orang-orang kaya yang ingin memiliki lingkungan yang lebih damai. Ini memiliki beberapa pantai. Rumah bagi komunitas Kristen yang besar dan gereja paling terkenal di kota ini. Ini juga dimana bandar udara domestik dan internasional berada. Mumbai Timur (Kurla, Vidyavihar, Ghatkopar, Vikhroli, Kanjur Marg, Bhandup, Mulund, Powai, Thane, Kalyan) Ini adalah benteng kelas menengah yang kokoh. Mulund dan Ghatkopar adalah rumah bagi masyarakat kelas menengah atas dan atas, banyak dari kalangan pengusaha Gujarati. Pelabuhan Suburbs (Chembur, Mankhurd, Govandi, Trombay) Sebelum pengembangan Navi Mumbai sebagai kota satelit Bombay, wilayah ini dulunya hanya diketahui keberadaan pusat penelitian atom. Sekarang ini diketahui sedang dalam perjalanan ke Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Utara (Manori, Jogeshwari, Malad, Borivali, Gorai, Mira Road, Bhyander, Naigaon, Vasai Nala Sopara. Virar) Ke sinilah Anda pergi untuk menemukan pantai yang tidak kotor. Selain ini, hanya korban lain dari bom kota luas Bombays. Berisi Taman Nasional Sanjay Gandhi dan situs warisan tertua Mumbais: Kuil Kanheri, Mahakali, Jogeshwari, dan Mandapeshwar yang dipahat dari abad ke-1 SM sampai abad ke 5 Masehi. Pagoda Vipassana Global adalah sebuah monumen penting di Gorai, Mumbai, India. . Pagoda tersebut berfungsi sebagai monumen perdamaian dan harmoni. Monumen ini diresmikan oleh Pratibha Patil, Presiden India pada tanggal 8 Februari 2009. Terletak di utara Mumbai di daerah yang disebut Gorai dan dibangun di atas tanah yang disumbangkan di semenanjung antara sungai Gorai dan Laut Arab. Dunia Essel, taman hiburan terbesar Indias juga terletak di pulau gorai, disamping pagoda vipassana global. Barat dan Tengah, Timur dan Barat Seorang pengunjung ke daerah pinggiran Mumbais akan dengan cepat mengetahui bahwa pinggiran kota terbagi menjadi Barat dan Tengah. Anda juga akan mendengar sisi Barat dan sisi timur. Berikut adalah penjelasan singkat untuk yang bingung. Daerah pinggiran Barat dan Tengah dinamai sesuai jalur kereta api lokal yang melayani daerah masing-masing. Kereta Api Barat dan Tengah adalah jalur kereta api yang melayani bagian barat dan tengah India. Keduanya memiliki kantor pusat di Mumbai. The Harbor Line adalah jalur feeder yang menghubungkan daerah pelabuhan dengan jalur Central dan Western. Ini juga menyediakan konektivitas ke pinggiran timur laut Mumbai dan di bangsal ke Navi Mumbai. Sebagian besar daerah ini tidak terletak di dekat pelabuhan. Hampir semua daerah di Mumbai memiliki sisi Barat dan sisi Timur. Barat berarti Barat dari jalur kereta api dan Timur berarti Timur jalur kereta api. Misalnya, Mulund (Barat) berarti daerah itu berada di sebelah barat stasiun kereta api Mulund. Dalam alamat, Barat dan Timur disingkat, yaitu Mulund (W) dan Mulund (E). Mumbai adalah kota yang dibangun dalam gelombang migrasi yang berurutan. Lingkungan memperoleh karakter mereka dari masyarakat yang menetap di sana terlebih dahulu. Lingkungan ini terlalu banyak untuk daftar dan tidak ada cara yang biasa diterima untuk mengelompokkan lingkungan ini ke distrik yang lebih luas. Tapi kira-kira, dari selatan ke utara, begitulah kota berkembang. Memahami ukiran di Elephanta Caves Mumbai adalah kota metropolitan yang ramai dan beragam dengan bakat tersendiri. Semangat kewirausahaan dan kecepatan hidup yang berdenyut memberikan kontras yang tajam dengan sebagian besar wilayah India lainnya. Nama edit Ada banyak perdebatan mengenai nama asli kota. Ada yang mengatakan nama kota Mumbai sekarang adalah nama aslinya dan merupakan nama yang berasal dari Mumba, nama dewi Hindu setempat Mumbadevi, dan Aai, yang berarti ibu di Marathi. Yang lain mengklaim bahwa Bombay adalah versi Bom Bahia yang terkenal, sebuah nama yang diberikan oleh orang Portugis untuk berarti Beautiful Bay dan kemudian dibuat populer oleh Inggris sebagai nama negara Bombay. Nama tersebut secara resmi diubah dari Bombay ke Mumbai pada tahun 1995. Meskipun Bombay dan Mumbai keduanya digunakan, orang-orang yang secara eksplisit menggunakan Bombay pada umumnya adalah pembicara non-Marathi sedangkan pendukung Mumbai terutama berbicara Marathi. Di Barat, Mumbai telah menjadi lebih umum diterima untuk menghindari kontroversi. Hal ini juga sayang disebut sebagai (Mumbai kami). Sejarah Meskipun tujuh pulau yang sekarang membentuk kota ini memiliki sejarah yang telah lama tercatat seperti tempat lain di India, perjalanan mereka untuk membentuk kota Mumbai benar-benar dimulai pada tahun 1498, ketika orang Portugis membawa mereka pulang dari Sultan Gujarat. Mereka membangun sebuah permukiman, benteng, dan gereja, (termasuk Gereja Portugis yang tampak aneh sampai sekarang.) Namun, mereka tidak dapat memperoleh banyak kepemilikan mereka dan tujuh pulau tersebut diserahkan ke Inggris pada tahun 1661 sebagai bagian dari Mas kawin Catherine de Braganza saat dia menikahi Charles II dari Inggris. Dia juga tidak tertarik dengan pulau-pulau itu, dan dia menyewakannya ke British East India Company selama 10 tahun di tahun 1668. Perusahaan East India membangun dermaga, pos perdagangan, dan benteng yang akan membentuk pusat syaraf kota. . Mereka juga memulai proses reklamasi tanah yang panjang dan bergabung ke pulau-pulau, sebuah kegiatan yang berlangsung sampai tahun 1960an. Pelabuhan tersebut menarik perhatian industri dan komunitas kewirausahaan seperti Parsi, Gujarat, dan Marwaris (dari Rajasthan) bermigrasi dan mendirikan perusahaan dagang dan pabrik pada akhir abad ke-19. Industri menarik tenaga kerja migran dari berbagai belahan negara. Gelombang migrasi yang berurutan membentuk karakter kota dan lingkungannya. Kota yang berutang keberadaannya pada usaha Inggris juga merupakan tempat kelahiran Kongres Nasional India, yang memainkan peran penting dalam gerakan kemerdekaan. Kota yang pabriknya dibangun oleh para industrialis dari seluruh negeri adalah ibu kota negara bagian Maharashtra, yang diukir pada jalur linguistik untuk speaker Marathi. Pada tahun 80an, biaya tenaga kerja dan kerusuhan yang tinggi memaksa penutupan banyak pabrik tekstil dan kota mengalami penurunan sejak mulai pulih pada akhir tahun 90an. Tingginya populasi memberi tekanan pada infrastruktur. Jaringan kereta api dan jalan telah mengalami perbaikan yang mantap selama tahun 90an, namun karena besarnya tugas, jalan-jalan tampaknya terus dibangun. Mumbai kini telah menemukan kembali dirinya sebagai pusat industri Jasa. Pada bulan Januari 1993, setelah hancurnya Masjid Babri di Ayodhya. Gelombang kerusuhan menyapu kota, dengan lebih dari 1000 orang terbunuh, sebagian besar adalah Muslim. Hubungan antara berbagai kelompok etnis di kota telah tegang sejak saat itu, dengan beberapa serangan teroris (lihat Stay safe) menambahkan bahan bakar ke api. Budaya dan sikap mengedit Mumbai adalah kota paling kosmopolitan di India. Dibandingkan dengan negara bagian lainnya, kota ini cukup liberal. Dengan masuknya imigran reguler dari India, warga yang dikenal sebagai Mumbaiker, telah menunjukkan toleransi yang luar biasa terhadap budaya lain, menjadikannya sebagai peleburan budaya sejati. Namun belakangan ini, toleransi ini terkadang membungkuk di bawah tekanan eksternal. Antara tahun 60an dan 80an, ada kebencian terhadap pembicara non-Marathi yang mengambil pekerjaan. Kerusuhan antara tahun 1991 dan 1993 antara orang-orang Hindu dan Muslim memang berusaha mempengaruhi semangat ini, namun kota ini sebagian besar berhasil pulih dari keadaan ini, walaupun perpecahan yang serius tetap berlangsung karena kenangan tetap tercoreng. Perubahan iklim Mumbai memiliki tiga musim panas, monsun, dan musim dingin utama (musim panas yang lebih ringan). Waktu terbaik untuk berkunjung adalah selama musim dingin antara bulan November dan Februari. Kelembaban juga kurang selama musim dingin, saat iklim menyenangkan suhu minimum 17 derajat celcius dan maksimal 30-31 derajat. Musim panas adalah dari bulan Maret sampai Mei dengan harga tertinggi di rendah sampai pertengahan 30an (kira-kira 80-90F). Panas dan lembab selama ini. Juni sampai September adalah musim hujan ketika kota ini dilanda hujan lebat. Kota ini terbawa banjir dua atau tiga kali dan kehidupan normal terganggu pada musim ini. Iklim lembab hampir sepanjang tahun karena kota ini terletak di pantai. Get in edit Dengan pesawat edit Mumbai memiliki konektivitas yang sangat baik dengan sebagian besar kota besar di seluruh dunia, termasuk, New York, London, Dubai, Singapura, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur untuk beberapa nama. Jika Anda terbang dari Eropa umumnya lebih murah untuk terbang dari London, dan ada banyak penerbangan setiap hari. Sebagian besar sektor domestik juga terkait dengan Mumbai, menjadikannya pusat penerbangan tersibuk kedua di negara ini. Airport edit Terminal Domestik yang baru dibuka 1B Bandara Internasional Mumbais Chhatrapati Shivaji (IATA BOM) (ICAO: VABB) 2 adalah bandara tersibuk kedua di India dan salah satu gerbang internasional utama ke negara ini. Banyak maskapai penerbangan internasional seperti British Airways, United, Emirates, Malaysia Airlines, Lufthansa, Qantas, dan Singapore Airlines, terbang ke Mumbai. Maskapai murah juga terbang ke kota. Bandara ini terdiri dari dua terminal (untuk keperluan domestik amp internasional) - kedua terminal menggunakan wilayah udara yang sama namun berjarak 4km. Ada sebuah bus shuttle gratis yang menghubungkan mereka tapi bersiaplah untuk penundaan yang lama melalui keamanan. Pergi dari Domestik ke Internasional Anda dibawa ke luar bandara dan Anda akan masuk kembali melalui Keberangkatan Internasional. Terminal Terminal Domestik 1 Terminal 1A. Melayani Air India Terminal 1B. Melayani berbagai perusahaan penerbangan swasta, seperti Jet Airways, Indigo, SpiceJet, amp GO Air Terminal domestik mengalami upgrade yang telah lama tertunda. Terminal 1B sekarang memenuhi standar internasional dan pekerjaan sedang berlangsung di Terminal 1A. Terminal 2 Terminal Internasional Terminal internasional baru (T2) dibuka pada tahun 2014 menggantikan terminal internasional lama. The Sahar Elevated Access Road, disingkat SEAR, adalah jalan akses ekspres yang berdedikasi tinggi di Mumbai yang menghubungkan Western Express Highway (WEH) di dekat persimpangan Hanuman Nagar di Vile Parle, dengan ramalan Terminal T2 dari Bandara Internasional Chhatrapati Shivaji . Ini memudahkan akses yang lebih mudah dan cepat ke komuter yang menuju ke dan dari bandara. Ke dan dari bandara edit Bandara ini berjarak 28 km dari pusat kota. Ambil taksi kupon prabayar untuk meminimalkan kerumitan. Jangan pernah membayar lebih dari Rs 450-600 untuk taksi prabayar. Jumlah ini akan membawa Anda sampai ke titik paling selatan Colaba, kawasan wisata utama. Meskipun dimungkinkan untuk membawa taksi dengan meteran ke tujuan akhir Anda, selalu ada taruhan yang lebih aman untuk mengambil taksi prabayar, agar tidak dibawa ke tempat tujuan Anda melalui rute yang lebih panjang, sehingga meningkatkan pembacaan meter Meskipun tidak wajib untuk Membayar biaya tambahan untuk barang bawaan Anda, tip Rs 50-100 harus selalu dihargai. Berhati-hatilah dengan counter prabayar utama di sebelah kiri saat Anda meninggalkan terminal. Ada penipuan yang terkenal dengan karyawan di sini menggantikan tagihan rupee 500 Anda dengan uang kertas rupee 100 dan memberi Anda perubahan untuk yang terakhir. Ada banyak kantor taksi prabayar yang semuanya berurutan saat Anda keluar dari bandara, jika seseorang menawarkan tarif yang sangat tinggi, cukup berjalan ke jendela berikutnya dan seterusnya sampai Anda menemukannya dengan harga yang bagus. Pergilah ke kantor taksi dan beli kupon untuk dibawa ke pengemudi. Kupon tersebut akan memiliki nomor registrasi taksi yang tertulis di dalamnya. Pastikan Anda naik taksi itu. Jangan menerima tumpangan dari seseorang yang mengaku sebagai supir taksi karena mereka mungkin mengenakan harga yang jauh lebih tinggi yang dirancang untuk menargetkan wisatawan. Biaya akan tergantung pada area umum yang Anda butuhkan untuk sampai ke dan akan mencakup semua biaya tol yang harus dibayar. Sebagian besar hotel premium akan mengatur mobil sendiri yang merupakan alternatif yang jauh lebih baik. Sementara kebanyakan pembalap tidak memiliki masalah mengantarkan Anda ke hotel dan persimpangan utama, jangan asumsikan sopir Anda akan terbiasa dengan hotel yang kurang dikenal dan lain-lain. Sebelum berangkat, pastikan Anda telah mendapatkan alamat lengkap dari tujuan Anda. Dengan mengambil langkah ekstra ini, Anda harus menghindari penundaan. OLEH ANGKUTAN UMUM: Bagi yang tidak mau menggunakan taksi sampai ke pusat kota, naik bus 337 atau 308 (halte bus di luar pintu masuk kelas 6) ke terminal yang merupakan stasiun Andheri (ongkos bus Rs 14), berjalan kaki singkat. Ke stasiun kereta Andheri, lalu naik Harbour Line (Biru) menuju ujung CST, (ongkos kereta Rs 10 dibeli dari kantor tiket, tapi sepertinya tidak ada yang memeriksa tiket di kereta macet yang penuh sesak). Kereta alternatif adalah mengambil garis merah garis Barat ke Dadar, lalu beralih ke jalur Green Central menuju CST. Perlu dicatat adalah bahwa garis pelabuhan biru melewati perbukitan Dharavi, dilaporkan merupakan daerah kumuh terbesar di Asias. Parkir di bandara suntingan Dibayar parkir tersedia di bandara. Tuduhannya adalah Rs 60 per empat jam untuk mobil. Parkir jangka panjang tersedia di area premium, namun sangat mahal harganya, yaitu Rs 600 per hari. ATM edit Ada terminal ATM di daerah kedatangan internasional dan banyak penukaran uang di dekat pintu keluar juga. Perangkap turis sunting Seperti di kota lain, masyarakat setempat mungkin bisa memanfaatkan turis yang tidak mengenal kawasan ini. Meskipun Anda terikat untuk bertemu dengan banyak turis yang berbeda saat Anda berada di Mumbai, orang harus sadar bahwa ketika taksi Anda naik ke bandara, seorang pria akan lebih mungkin mengeluarkan barang bawaan Anda dari bagasi, memasukkannya ke dalam gerobak, Dorong ke terminal meminta biaya bagasi Rs 500 di sepanjang jalan. Tidak ada biaya bagasi yang terbaik untuk menolak tawaran mengambil gerobak dan mendorongnya sendiri. Anda bisa menari di jalanan dan terlihat seperti orang idiot juga sampai pencuri itu melarikan diri karena merasa malu. Dengan kapal edit Banyak organisasi perjalanan sekarang menawarkan kapal pesiar ke Singapura, Malaysia, Dubai, dll. Meskipun industri pelayaran masih berkembang, Mumbai dapat dicapai dengan kapal pesiar semacam itu. Feri dari Ferry Wharf memungkinkan akses murah ke pulau dan pantai di sekitar kota dan gua Elephanta. Dengan kereta api kereta api di India Layanan kereta api komersial pertama dimulai pada tanggal 16 April 1853 pada pukul 15.35 pada pertemuan pertama antara VT (sekarang Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus) dan Thane. Kereta tiba di Mumbai dari seluruh India. Jalur tengah melayani konektivitas ke India Selatan. India Timur. Dan bagian dari India Utara. Stasiun utamanya adalah Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus (dahulu bernama Victoria Terminus, yang dikenal sebagai VT), Dadar Terminus, dan Kurla (Lokmanya Tilak) Terminus. Garis Barat menghubungkan ke negara-negara bagian Barat Gujarat. Rajasthan. Dan beberapa bagian dari India Utara. Termini utamanya adalah Mumbai Central dan Bandra Terminus. Konkan Railway 3 (yang merupakan jalur yang dikelola secara terpisah dan baru dibangun) berjalan melalui pantai Konkan Maharastra yang indah dan merupakan cara yang baik untuk melakukan perjalanan dari Goa, Mangalore dan Kerala. The Lokmanya Tilak Terminus (LTT) adalah tujuan jalur kereta. Dengan jalan edit Dengan mobil edit Jalan raya nasional nomor 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 17, dan jalan tol Mumbai-Pune memancar dari kota yang menyediakan tautan ke seluruh wilayah negara ini. Kondisi jalan umumnya lebih baik daripada di bagian lain India. Taksi biru ber-AC yang nyaman tersedia di Pune dan Ahmednagar-Nashik dari seberang Bus Bus Asiad di Dadar dan Lakhamsi Nappoo Rd dekat stasiun kereta api timur Dadar. Jarak dari berbagai kota ke Mumbai adalah: Jika Anda mengunjungi dari kota terdekat seperti Pune, Bangalore, dll, maka ada pilihan lain untuk menggunakan layanan taksi bersama yang dimulai oleh cabs4share amp7mcar di mana Anda memiliki pilihan untuk berbagi perjalanan dengan wisatawan lain. Jika Anda mencari satu cara drop cab.One cara drop layanan taksi Dari bagian manapun dari Maharashtra Anda dapat mengambil satu cara layanan mobil ke Bandara Mumbai dan Bandara Mumbai ke kota lain Dengan bus edit Mumbai dilayani dengan baik oleh bus dari tempat tujuan di India. Layanan Bus Asiad Terminal bus, yang dikenal dengan sebutan Terminal Bus Asiad di Ambedkar Rd di Dadar timur merupakan hub lain dari tempat bis melakukan perjalanan ke Pune dengan frekuensi reguler 15 menit sampai 1 jam. Dadar dan Pune terhubung dengan baik oleh bus Shivneri ber-AC yang nyaman yang dioperasikan oleh State Road Transport Corporation. Tarifnya berkisar dari Rs 100 300 dan bus bervariasi dalam kenyamanan mulai dari yang biasa hingga mewah dengan AC. Rute lain yang tersedia adalah Mumbai - Satara, Mumbai - Nasik. Cara termudah untuk mencapai terminal adalah menyeberang menggunakan jembatan kaki pejalan kaki ke Dadar East dari Dadar Terminus dan berjalan lurus sepanjang jalan (kurang dari 5 menit) ke Ambedkar Rd. Bus Pribadi Ada juga sejumlah operator bus pribadi yang mengoperasikan sejumlah besar layanan dari Mumbai ke sebagian besar kota besar seperti Udaipur, Ajmer, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Indore, Nashik, Aurangabad, Hyderabad, Belgaum, Hubli, Bangalore, Mangalore, Trichur Dan Goa. Untuk Pune, bus berangkat setiap 10 menit. Pasar Crawford, Dadar T.T, Sion, Chembur dan Borivili adalah titik awal utama. Beberapa operator swasta yang andal adalah - National, Sharma, VRL, Konduskar, Dolphin, Paulo dan Southern Travels. ST Bus The MSRTC (Mumbai Central Road Transport Corporation), (Mumbai Central: 91 22 2307 4272 91 22 2307 6622, Parel: 91 22 2422 9905 Dadar: 91 22 2413 6835) yang biasa dikenal dengan ST, mengoperasikan layanan ke Mumbai dari berbagai kota. Di Maharashtra. Mumbai Central adalah Terminus terpenting di kota ini. Semua kota besar di Maharashtra dan negara bagian terdekat terhubung melalui Mumbai Central Terminus. Depot ST lainnya yang penting ada di Parel, Nehru Nagar-Kurla, dan Borivali. Anda bisa mendapatkan bis untuk seluruh Maharashtra dari depot ini. Tapi dari Mumbai Central Anda akan mendapatkan bis kapan saja dan juga bus State Transport lainnya. Kualitas bervariasi. Sunting sebagian Sebagian penduduk Mumbais mengandalkan transportasi umum ke dan dari tempat kerja mereka karena kurangnya tempat parkir, kemacetan lalu lintas, dan kondisi jalan yang umumnya buruk, terutama di musim hujan. Namun, naik taksi dan mobil setidaknya sekali di kota. Jika Anda tidak terbiasa dengan jalan di India, perjalanan dengan becak otomatis bisa menjadi petualangan penghalang hati, kematian-menentang, hukum-of-fisika-bending di dalam kendaraan yang terasa seperti itu bisa berantakan pada kecepatan lebih dari 30 kmh dengan Sopir yang menganggap ragu Schumacher. Dengan taksi edit Black amp Yellow Top Taxi edit Taksi murah dan berlimpah (15-18 seharusnya cukup untuk membawa Anda dari satu ujung ke ujung kota yang lain). Sebagian besar taksi di Mumbai adalah mobil berukuran sedang (tidak ber-AC), dilukis hitam-dan-kuning (hitam di bagian bawah dan kuning di atap). Anda bisa memanggil taksi dari jalanan. Namun, banyak yang cukup reyot, kotor, dan membawa meter tarif mekanik yang bisa dirusak sesekali. Semakin lama, taksi perdana yang ketinggalan jaman ini, yang biasa disebut sebagai taksi Fiat, digantikan oleh Hyundai Santro yang kecil namun efisien dan Suzuki Altos, dengan meter elektronik. Juga, menurut hukum, supir taksi hitam dan kuning tidak bisa menolak ongkos. Jika pengemudi menolak, ancaman untuk mengajukan keluhan ke polisi terdekat biasanya melakukan triknya. Menghitung Tarif Taksi Menghitung tarif taksi dengan membaca meteran mekanis dan mengubahnya menjadi tarif dengan menggunakan kartu tarif, mungkin tampak seperti sistem yang rumit. Namun cukup sederhana. Baca saja meterannya, hitung ongkosnya dengan mencocokkan pembacaan meteran dengan kartu tarif untuk sampai pada tarif yang harus dibayar akhir - tarif minimumnya adalah Rs 21 untuk 1,5 km pertama dan kemudian Rs 1 untuk setiap 100 meter. Rencana prabayar memiliki ongkos yang dikumpulkan di awal dan dengan demikian pembacaan meter tidak berlaku. Untuk biaya malam (tengah malam sampai 5 pagi) tandai ongkosnya pukul 25. Dengan barang bawaan yang besar, tambahkan kira-kira Rs 10 per potong. Cukup berguna untuk memiliki Taxi Meter Card yang dikeluarkan oleh The Mumbai Traffic Police. Namun, melalui undang-undang lalu lintas, kartu Tarif wajib dan harus disediakan oleh sopir becak tanpa pajak kepada orang yang lewat atas permintaan. Anda dapat mengaksesnya secara online di situs Polisi Lalu Lintas Mumbai 4. Keluhan juga dapat diajukan secara online menggunakan situs yang sama. Ada aplikasi smartphone yang bisa menghitung tarif untuk Anda berdasarkan kartu - ini sangat berguna. Beberapa pengemudi mungkin lupa kartu tarif, atau supir becak otomatis dapat memilih kartu taksi, yang harganya lebih mahal. Pastikan meter telah diatur ulang sebelum Anda pergi - jika pengemudi Anda menolak untuk menggunakan meteran, ambil cabrickshaw lagi. Seseorang dapat melakukan pra-perkiraan tarif Taksi dan Tarif Otomatis menggunakan situs web 5. Anda harus memasukkan nama Dari lokasi dan Ke nama lokasi dan layanan akan menghitung jarak, tarif dan juga menunjukkan peta Google dengan rute. Jika Anda memiliki barang bawaan tambahan, bagasi (taksi) dari taksi tidak akan menyediakan tempat yang cukup - satu koper besar adalah semua yang sesuai di sana. Menyewa taksi dengan carrier papan atas akan lebih baik. Top carrier dapat menampung hingga tiga koper besar. Sebelum memulai perjalanan, pastikan barang bawaan terpasang kencang ke kapal induk. Umumnya, satu-satunya cara untuk memanggil taksi standar adalah memanggil es di jalan. Ini tidak akan menjadi masalah jika Anda berada di dalam batas kota (yaitu North Central Bombay dan di bawahnya). Jika Anda berada di pinggiran kota, akan sulit untuk menemukan taksi karena mereka telah berkompetisi dengan becak otomatis yang lebih murah. Otoritas Transportasi Negara Bagian Maharashtra juga telah memperkenalkan fasilitas on-call untuk memesan taksi ini, seseorang dapat menghubungi 022-61234567 untuk memesan taksi hitam dan kuning (Non-AC) dan CoolCabs (AC). Jumlah maksimum penumpang yang diperbolehkan untuk melakukan perjalanan secara resmi adalah empat tiga di kursi belakang dan satu di depan. Sabuk pengaman tidak wajib bagi penumpang taksi dan kebanyakan taksi hitam dan kuning standar bahkan tidak akan memasangnya, meski mengharapkannya pada merek yang bermerek. Penerimaan taksi pribadi Namun, jika Anda menginginkan tumpangan ber-AC yang nyaman dengan biaya tambahan kecil sebesar 25 persen dari taksi normal, yang terbaik adalah melakukan perjalanan dengan layanan taksi bermerek yang beroperasi dengan tarif yang disetujui oleh pemerintah. Layanan ini mengoperasikan armada modern dengan driver terlatih. Anda bisa mendapatkannya pada pemberitahuan 30-60 menit, bersih, ber-AC, dilengkapi dengan digital, tamper-proof meter, tepat waktu, jujur, dan dilengkapi GPS-monitor, yang membuat mereka jauh lebih aman setiap saat. Jika menggunakan ponsel, Anda menerima SMS dengan nama driver, nomor ponsel dan nomor mobil 30 menit sebelum jadwal keberangkatan. Biaya adalah Rs 27 untuk kilometer pertama dan Rs 20 untuk kilometer berikutnya, dengan biaya tambahan 25 malam (tengah malam-5:00). Beberapa bisa dipesan secara online. Ikuti sistem antrian untuk naik taksi. Cukup sering, turis dan pengunjung baru dikeroyok oleh supir taksi yang tidak bermoral. Kebanyakan pembalap jujur, tapi yang tidak jujur cenderung berkerumun di sekitar stasiun kereta api dan bandara dimana mereka bisa lebih mudah menemukan pengisap. Kecuali Anda mengambil taksi prabayar, selalu meminta taksi untuk pergi dengan meter dan jangan takut untuk mencari taksi lain jika pengemudi menolak. Pada awal perjalanan, pastikan meteran terlihat dan menunjukkan pembacaan faremeter yang rendah. Kabin Uber Ola dan GetMeCab juga mudah didapat, dan dapat didekati baik dengan menghubungi layanan pelanggan, melalui aplikasi seluler atau melalui situs web mereka. Beberapa tujuan yang paling disukai dekat Mumbai seperti Adlabs Imagica, Lonavala, Khandala, Alibaug, Kanakeshwar Mandir, Kolad, Shirdi, Pune dll dapat dieksplorasi dengan menyewa layanan taksi outstation untuk perjalanan satu arah atau pulang-pergi. GetMeCab (menyewa taksi GetMeCab), 91 9015154545 (infogetmecab), 6. GetMeCab adalah agregator penyewaan mobil online yang menyediakan solusi taksi keluar-stasiun di dan sekitar Mumbai untuk teman-teman perjalanan kami. Pesan taksi dengan getmecab dan jelajahi Mumbai dengan nyaman dan nyaman. 160edit Tetap aman sunting Jika Anda bepergian sendiri, terutama di malam hari, maka selalu melihat meteran sendiri dan kemudian membayar ongkosnya. Jika Anda sendiri, duduklah di depan sehingga Anda bisa melihat meternya. Most frauds take place at railway terminuses and at the airport. By auto-rickshaw edit Auto-rickshaws are only allowed to operate beyond Bandra in the western suburbs and beyond Sion in the central suburbs. They are not issued licenses in the downtown areas. Before departing, ensure that the meter is visible and shows the flag-down reading as 15.00, which is the minimum fare. If the the number is higher, insist that the driver flags it down once again. The meter remains at 17.00 for the first 1.5 km and the fare is Rs 1 for every 100 meters beyond the first 1.6 km. The meter also keeps ticking if you are waiting andor are stuck in traffic. The waiting charges are 1 rupee or 100 meters per minute Its quite handy to have a copy of the meter card issued by The Mumbai Traffic Police. However, these days Auto rickshaws are fitted with an electronic display fare meter that displays the fare Distance travel led Waiting time. Auto-rickshaws are slower than cars and have terrible suspensions. Pregnant ladies are most strongly advised not to travel by auto-rickshaws since the combination of rash driving, poor suspensions, and horrible road conditions have quite often led to serious complications. The auto-rickshaw is a slow and uncomfortable vehicle and not recommended for very long distances. By bus edit Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (known as BEST ) 7 provides efficient and comprehensive services connecting up all places of the city and the suburbs. Some services also link the city with the extended suburbs like Navi Mumbai, Thane, and Mira-Bhayanadar areas. Seats are almost always occupied. There are bus stops all over the city. There is usually a crowd and queue. You have to get in through the rear entrance and off at the front. Tickets are issued by a uniformed conductor after you get in. Special seats are marked for Ladies, Senior Citizens, Handicapped, Expectant Women, and Women with infants. They can get in from the front. Buses run from 5AM to midnight. Selected routes run beyond these timings, but much less often. Average frequency between buses ranges from five to 30 min depending on the route. Fares are reasonable and buses can be traveled during peak hours, unlike trains which are far too crowded. Some trunk routes do get extremely crowded however. Peak hours also have traffic snarls which may depend on the area traversed and the state of the roads. What connects Electric supply and Transport BEST got into transport by starting a tram company. Now, of course, it runs buses that run on diesel amp CNG, not electricity. The company is still in charge of electricity distribution for South and Central Mumbai. Buses are numbered and the final destination is marked on the front in Marathi and on the side in English. Generally, buses around the city and trunk routes would be in the 1-199 series. Buses in the western suburbs would be the 200 series while those plying in the central and eastern suburbs would be in the 300 and 400 series. Services to Navi, Mumbai are in the 500 series and buses to the Mira-Bhayander area are in the 700 series. The BEST website has a nifty tool 8 that will help you plan your journey. BEST has introduced the DayPass (Cost for adults Rs 70 (across Mumbai, Mira-Bhayander, Navi Mumbai and Thane) - for children its less), a ticket valid all day (until midnight) on all buses except Express and AC services. AC Day Pass costs Rs 150- (across Mumbai, Mira-Bhayander, Navi Mumbai and Thane) - a ticket valid all day (until midnight) on all BEST AC amp Non-AC buses. But any of such Day Pass can be availed by only those passengers who hold the SMART Photo ID Card(cost Rs. 25-) issued by BEST. By train edit Mumbai suburban railway route map Suburban rail network edit Most people travel in Mumbai using the Suburban Rail Network commonly referred to as Locals. Mumbai has an extensive network, with three lines the Western Line, the Central Main Line, and the Harbour Line. Mumbai is a linear city and the Western Line travels from Churchgate to Virar via Mumbais Western Suburbs. The Western line provides North-South connectivity. Slow local trains (MEMUs-Main Line Electric Multiple Units) may go beyond till Dahanu Road as well. The Central Main Line travels from Mumbai CST (Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus), aka VT Victoria Terminus to Kalyan via Mumbais Central Suburbs and Thane. with some slow services running beyond to Karjat, Khopoli, and Kasara. The interchange point between the Western Line and the Central Line is Dadar. The Harbour Line has a common stretch between Mumbai CST (aka VT Victoria Terminus) and Vadala. The harbour line splits into two spurs, the main one running to Mumbais Eastern Suburbs and Navi Mumbai, up to Panvel. The Interchange point of this line with the Central Main Line is at Kurla. The other spur of the Harbour Line runs up to Mahim on the Western Line and runs parallel up to Andheri. The interchange stations with the Western line are Bandra and Andheri. Trains on all lines start operations after 4AM and close operations between midnight and 1AM. Second class travel is very cheap. However, it is advisable to buy first class tickets as the economy class is extremely crowded. First Class can be quite expensive and if four people are travelling together, a taxi might be better. There would always be queues and it would be advisable to buy coupon booklets. If you are a tourist, you can buy a Tourist Ticket. It costs Rs.275 and you can travel in first class compartments of all the three lines during the entire day. Ensure the location of the first class compartment before the train arrives. You may ask fellow passengers or the vendors at the various food stalls. An easier way to spot the location of the First class compartment is to check the station walls painted with red and yellow slant stripes. Avoid using local trains during rush hour (first class or otherwise). Rush hour is 8:30AM-10:30AM towards CST and Churchgate and 5:30PM-8:30PM in the opposite direction. If you must transit during rush hour . avoid, at all costs, standing near the train car entry, as you will be swamped by a frantic, every man for himself, stampede of men attempting to get on the car. Take no offense if you are pushed and shoved about, as passengers jostle for a spot. As you near your exit station, ensure that you are as close as possible to the train door, as experienced commuters, will be begin the mad run to be first on, or off, the car before the car comes to a full stop If you stand any chance of getting onoff before the train depart, you must be equally aggressive in your focus to exitenter, remember no one will take offense if you make contact with others, as you wriggle by Last, but not least, exitingentering a train before it comes to a full stop is not something to be taken lightly, one misstep can send a person onto the rails with an amazing ease Leave the stunts to the experienced locals. There are special coaches for women on both classes. These are designated by green and yellow slant stripes, spot these stripes on the station walls and youll know where the ladies compartment is. These are generally less crowded and safer. But very late at night, it might actually be safer to travel by the general coach than the first-class womens coach, as the latter may be absolutely empty except for you. From 11.15pm - 6:30am the ladies compartment towards the northern end is open to general public. Sometimes they have a cop guarding the coaches, but sometimes they wont. Use your judgment. Mumbai Metro edit The Mumbai Metro was launched on Sunday, the 8th of June 2014. An inaugural offer of Rs 10 as fare for the month. Now the fares range from Rs. 10-40 depending on the distance between the stations. Stations: Mumbai Metro has 12 stations in the V-A-G corridor namely Versova, D.N. Nagar, Azad Nagar, Andheri, Western Express Highway. J.B. Nagar, Airport Road, Marol Naka, Saki Naka, Asalpha, Jagruti Nagar and Ghatkopar. The Andheri metro station is connected to the Andheri Western Railway Station (andheri local station). It is also important to note that the Airport Road station is 2kms away from the international airport and not directly connected to it. Schedule: The 1st train leaves from Versova at 05:35 hrs and last train leaves at 23:12 hrs. The 1st train leaves from Ghatkopar at 05:31 hrs and last train leaves at 23:39 hrs. There is a train every 4 minutes during peak hours and every 8 minutes on non-peak hours, Sundays and public holidays. Ref: reliancemumbaimetrotrainschedule.html By ferry edit These are a few intra-city ferry services: Gateway of India to Elephanta caves Fast boats and Catamarans operated by private operators. These are moderately priced. This is the only way to get to Elephanta Caves. Marve Jetty (Malad) to Manori Jetty Cheap ferry connecting Manori and Gorai. Also services for Esselworld (Amusement Park). Versova (Andheri) to Madh Jetty Cheap ferry connecting MadhErangalAksaMarve. Gorai (Borivali) to Gorai Beach Low cost ferry connecting Gorai BeachEsselworld. By car edit Travel agents and hotels can arrange private chauffeur driven cars to provide services. Expensive by comparison with taxis, they are the most trusted, secure, and comfortable way to travel around the city. Driving in Mumbai can be difficult, because of poor driver discipline, but chauffeur driven services are very reasonable. These can be arranged by travel companies or online from the countries of origin. However, if one wants to drive cars themselves, the option of self-drive rental cars also exist. Zoom car and Just Drive are two service providers of such cars. By bike edit It is also possible to navigate the city and its outskirts with bikes. Although, tourists may find it extremely difficult to ride bikes due to poor road conditions. There are very few bike rental services in Mumbai and some of them allow online advanced booking like: Born to ride ( Born to Ride ), ( 2 kms. from Versova Metro ), 9. Rs 1800-5000day. ( 19.14. 72.81 ) 160edit Talk edit Mumbai is Indias melting pot a confluence of people from various parts of India, but dominant are people from the west, then north, and followed by the south. Marathi is the state and city official language used by State Government agencies, municipal authorities, and the local police, and also the first language of most locals. However, being Indias largest city and main commercial centre, Mumbai is now also home to migrants from other parts of India who do not speak Marathi. A local variant of Hindi. with strong Bollywood influence, called Bambaiya Hindi serves as the lingua franca and although almost everyone can understand normal Hindi, you may get an interesting reply from some. Most educated locals will be trilingual in Marathi, Hindi and English. English is widely used in the corporate world and in banking and trading. At most places, you will be able to get by with Hindi and English, as most people you will encounter can communicate in broken English at the very least. However expect to hear more regional languages including Gujarati. Kannada. Telugu. Tamil. Sindhi based on work amp location. According to 2011 census Mumbai has a literacy rate of 94.7, higher than the national average of 86.7. Locals in Mumbai can manage to speak in broken English and those working in corporates and belonging to middle, upper middle and high class can speak fluent english. See edit add listing The game of names The names of Mumbais monuments tell us the story of which way political winds were blowing when they were built. In the late 19th century the British named everything after their Queen, so we had Victoria terminus, Victoria Gardens, and the Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute (built in 1887 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Her Majestys coronation). In the early 20th century, they named everything after the Prince of Wales. After independence the colonial names could not be retained of course, so they were renamed. Depending on whether the city was suffering from bouts of nationalistic pride or Marathi pride at that time, they were named after either Jawaharlal Nehru (the first Prime Minister of India) or Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj (King Shivaji, who founded the Maratha empire in the 18th century). Often, they were named after Shivajis mother, Jijabai. The advantage of this was that using Veermata Jijabai (Courageous mother Jijabai) for a place that was earlier named for Victoria maintains the same abbreviation, so Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (formerly Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute) is still VJTI. For a traveller, the practical problem would be that many places have multiple names. Multiple places are named after Nehru, Shivaji, or Jijabai, so you need to be careful about specifying which place you need to get to. Few important names changes to remember are: Victoria Terminus is now Chhtrapati Shivaji Terminus Jacob Circle is now Saat Rasta or Sant Gaadge Maharaj Chowk Kings Circle is now Maheshwari Udyyan Kurla Terminus is now Lokmanya Tilak Terminus There is a lot to see in Mumbai, but the typical tourist sights are concentrated in South Mumbai. By Indian standards, Mumbai is a young city and much of the land comprising the city did not exist until it was claimed from the sea over three centuries ago. It is therefore, a pleasant surprise to find rock cut caves such as the Elephanta, Kanheri, and Mahakali within city limits. Colonial buildings edit The British built a magnificent city within the walls of Fort St. George, which lies at the southern extremity of the city. Some fine examples of the Gothic revival, Neo-classical style and Indo-Saracenic style are seen within this area. To get the best South Mumbai experience, stroll around the wide streets of the area right from Churchgate to Colaba. These areas are all beautifully planned and have wide and clean pavements unlike the rest of the city. Famous monuments to be seen in this area are the Gateway of India, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Victoria Terminus) building, the Municipal Corporation and Police Headquarters and the Chhatrapati Shivaji Vastu Sanghralaya (formerly, the Prince Of Wales museum). The famous Taj Mahal hotel is located just opposite the Gateway of India. The Mumbai University buildings and the High Court are also excellent examples of colonial architecture in the city. There are a lot of other modern structures to look at in this area. The area known as Marine Drive (right from Chowpatty beach to NCPA) is home to a large number of buildings built in the Art Deco style. Mumbai is second only to Miami in the number of Art Deco buildings. some famous buildings in this style are the Eros and Regal cinemas. Museums and galleries edit Some of the most famous museums and art galleries in India are found here. The Kala Ghoda area in South Mumbai teems with them, particularly the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (Prince of Wales Museum) 10. and the National Gallery of Modern Art 11. Once again, most of them are concentrated in South Mumbai. Also worth planning a visit is Jehangir Art Gallery, also at Kala Ghoda, displays changing exhibits by notable artists. The plaza next to the gallery also regularly displays exhibits of various artists. Situated in Nehru Complex in Worli is Nehru Centre Art Gallery at Worli, a gallery dedicated to young and promising talent along with established artists. Also within the complex is located a permanent exposition, Discovery of India, which attempts to cover every aspect of artistic, intellectual and philosophical attainment of India through ages. The exposition spreads across 14 galleries and reflects true identity of the country. On the other end of the complex, Nehru Science Centre - which has a separate entrance from Mahalaxmi race course road, has a permanent exhibition on interactive and exciting science related exhibits highlighting science principles in fun yet educational way. Beaches edit Mumbai has a few beaches, including one in the downtown area. But they arent that great and the water off Mumbais coast is extraordinarily dirty. The relatively better ones are in the Northwest Mumbai area. However, they are a great place to see how the locals spend their Sunday evenings, with various food and game stalls. There are other beaches to be found such as the Girgaon Chowpaty in South Mumbai, Juhu beach in the western suburbs and Aksa Beach in Malad. The currents dont seem strong, but particularly in the rains, lots of people die from drowning, so avoid getting in the water (especially at Aksa Beach). A word of advice to women: Bombay beaches are not the kind you can wear swimsuits to, particularly two-pieces. Zoos, parks and gardens edit Mumbai has a justified reputation as a concrete jungle, but there are some nice pockets of greenery within the city. It is also one of the rare metropolises to have an entire national park within its borders. (Borivali national park also known as Sanjay Gandhi National Park12 ). You will not visit Mumbai for them, but if you are already here, they make a nice escape from the din and bustle. It also houses the ancient Kanheri Caves crafted out of rocky cliffs, which dates back to 2,400 years. Entrance fee: IndiansForeigns 3030 Besides, at Andheri in the North there is a nice little Bhavans Nature Adventure Centre offering nature trails, animal care sessions and adventure activities, interesting for children and youngsters 5 minute walk from Azadnagar metro station and 15 minute walk from Andheri station The city zoo (Veermata Jijabai Udyan) is in Byculla and is a colonial relic which is surprisingly well-preserved. The animals may look rather emaciated, but the sheer diversity of trees on this lush zoo is worth a trip. Some city parks are very well-maintained and combine history as well. The Hanging Gardens on Malabar Hill offers stunning vistas of the Marine Drive. Opposite the Hanging Gardens, there is another park which is known as Kamla Nehru Park, famous for the striking shoe-shaped structure which has been filmed in various Bollywood movies Further in South Mumbai, the Mumbai Port Trust Garden, is another hidden gem. This is set off a small side street off the Colaba Causeway 2-3 kms south of the main section. Once again, lovely views of the port, the naval yards, and sunset. In central Mumbai, there are the Five Gardens. Mainly used by walkers in the morning, it is a mess in the evenings. But the gardens encircle some historic, art deco residences. Markets and crowds edit Mumbai is probably worth visiting just for its street markets, the hustle of vendors, and the madness of the crowds. If you are interested in buying handicrafts, brass items, crystals or jewelry, then, you should head to Colaba market or can visit Silver Centrre by Sangeeta Boochra inside cottons at kemps corner for authentic indian jewellery. Modern buildings and malls edit Once the British left, the zeal to wipe away the traces of colonial rule was, unfortunately, not matched by the enthusiasm to build a new city that matched the grandeur of the British-era buildings. Now, while the shabbiness of the socialist era is thankfully being replaced by architecture with an eye on aesthetics, the new malls, multiplexes, and office buildings that are coming up are indistinguishable from those anywhere else in the world. Still, they are worth a look, especially if you want to have a look at Indias success story. Skyscrapers exceeding 60 stories now dominate the skyline. For long, Inorbit Mall was the only mall offering a lot of variety for shoppers. Palladium, built within the High Street Phoenix, broke the monopoly of Inorbit Mall. From state of the art interiors to international brands, the Palladium has everything. Nirmal Lifestyles Mall in Mulund and Metro Junction Mall in Kalyan used to be two of the largest malls in Mumbai. R-City in Ghatkopar is now the biggest and best mall in the City. Located in the central suburbs, they are quite popular in the city. Powai is a modern central mumbai suburb with European looks. Powai houses the Indian Institute of Technology and is built around fabulous lake. Most of the construction is in a township format and is privately built. It houses twenty top of the line restaurants, two large convenience stores, a handful of coffee shops and entertainment areas. Initially built as an upmarket self contained township, Powai has now grown into a business process outsourcing hub in Mumbai. The township reflects both characteristics you will often find families shopping and twenty somethings hanging out in tables next to each other. Religious places edit Mumbai has temples, mosques, churches, Parsi agiaries, and even a few synagogues reflecting the diversity of its citizens. While these are naturally of interest if you are a believer, some, like the Portuguese church at Dadar are worth visiting just for their unique architecture. Haji Ali Dargah is one of the most visited places in Mumbai. The Dargah Sharief is built on a tiny islet located 500 meters from the coast, in the middle of Worli Bay, in the vicinity of Worli. People from different religion and places visit this places. More than 80,000 people visit dargah every week. One notable monument in the northwest suburbs of Mumbai is the Global Vipassana Pagoda (Global Pagoda). Gorai, Mumbai. It is a meditation centre that can seat 8000 people. Vipassana literally means meditation, and the centre runs 10-day meditation courses and 1 day mega course on Sundays. The courses are free of cost but you would have to register for them in advance on their website. Siddhivinayak temple of Mumbai is very famous. It is located in Dadar and you can easily get a taxi to go to the temple from the Dadar railway station. The city also boasts of Jewish places of worship predominantly in the area called Byculla.In this area the three prominent sub castes amongst inhabiting Jews of Mumbai lived. They were Bagdadi Jews, Bene Israelis and the locals who had converted over a period of time and lived in the hinterland. There are two Hare Krishna (ISKCON) temples located near the Juhu beaches and Chowpatty beaches. They are very popular tourist attractions ranking in the top 5 Mumbai attractions (tripadvisor) The devotees perform active worship of Lord Krishna and one can hear and participate in the sacred Hare Krishna chanting. Itineraries edit Two days in Mumbai - your guide to spending two days in the city. Camping edit There are many spots near mumbai in which you can go for camping. Camping can be done safely on spots such as Lonavala, Tungarli Lake, Valvan Lake, Rajmachi, Mahableshwar, Panchgani, Kashid amp Phansad. You can try out letscampout 13 for more options on camping near Mumbai. Rusticville 14 offers excellent hill top camping at Tikona near Lonavala. Weekend Getaways edit Mumbai is in close proximity to hill stations, beaches and jungles. Places like Matheran, Lonavala, Alibaug, Khandala Panchgani and Mahabaleshwar are some of the destinations which can be done over a weekend. There are several companies that connect all of these places with individual travelers and corporate travelers from Mumbai. LifeIsOutside. 91 88800 36677 (bookingslifeisoutside ), 15. LifeIsOutside has a good collection of short breaks and weekend getaways within driving distance from Mumbai. It also has a decent selection of group outing options 16 160edit ZaraHutke. 91 98670 00918 (infozarahutke.in ), 17. ZaraHutke.in brings to you Offbeat Stays amp Experiences, Farm Stays, Home Stays, Eco Retreats, Beach Resorts amp Weekend Getaways in Mumbai, Maharashtra amp Goa 18 160edit Do edit add listing There is a lot to do in Mumbai, but lack of space means that for outdoorsy activities, you need to head north, often outside city limits. In the Northwestern suburbs and Thane, you will find opportunities for water sports like H2019 at Girgaum Chowpatty. There are two golf courses in the city, the more famous one in Chembur20 in the Harbor suburbs. Mumbai has a vibrant theater scene with plays in many languages including English, Hindi, Gujarati, and Marathi. While South Mumbai has frequent performances, the best organized theater effort is at Prithvi theater, Juhu in the Western Suburbs. There are plenty of opportunities to enjoy Indian classical music and dance. While not a patch on the Sabhas of Chennai, you will find frequent performances of Carnatic music in Shanmukhananda Hall, Matunga in the South Central suburbs. Mumbai is also usually the first stop for Western pop and rock stars visiting India, which they usually do when they are over 50. The Rock scene is very good in Mumbai. These are very safe to go to and are recommended for rock fans. Most bands cover heavy metal acts like Pantera, Six feet under, and Slipknot, but at places like Not just jazz by the bay, there are treats for Jazz fans, as well. To try to find places with specific music tastes try asking students outside Mumbais colleges. Western classical music performances are rarer. However most classical music performances along with other art forms are regularly performed at NCPA 21 and Tata Theatre 22. both situated next to the the narrow strip at Nariman Point. Experience Bollywood plan a trip Film City located in Goregaon and enjoy the first hand experience of Bollywood shooting Watch a Movie you are in the land of Bollywood. Expect whistles and clapping by crowd in admiration of their celebrities on the screen. Most of the cinema halls run both popular and new Bollywood as well as Hollywood movies and some even screen ones in regional languages. Some of the popular Hollywood screening cinema halls in South Mumbai are Eros opposite Churchgate, Metro on M.G.Road, Regal in Colaba, Sterling next to CST Station, and New Excelsior in Fort. Checkout newspaper listing to get the list of latest screenings. Visit Essel World . a large amusement park in Gorai Take A Dip at Water World Visit museums and art galleries Pub Hopping . The number and variety of Pubs in the city allow for an enthralling Pub Hopping opportunity. Borivili National Park . or go for Flamingo watching in Chembur (check with Bombay Natural History Society for further info). Do Rock Climbing, Adventure, learn about plants, insects, birds, interact with Animals at Bhavans Nature Adventuree Centre Andheri Watch Cricket for free cricket is has a national games stature in India, and Mumbaiites revere that every day of the year. Azad Maidan (Azad ground) near C.S.T. Railway station, ground opposite to Ruia College in Matunga and Shivaji Park in Dadar west are some of the best places to witness the cricket fever for free. Look out and you may be even lucky to witness ongoing game of cricket on some of the empty streets of Mumbai. Temples there are so many religious places around in the city (both old and new) that one can plan a day long itinerary on that. Start with Mahalkshmi Temple, Banganga Temple, Siddhi Vinayak, Afghan Church, Mahim Church, Haji Ali. the list will get really long. Take a Slum Tour . Tours from Reality Tours and Travel 23. or Be the Local Tours 24. can be set up to walk through Dharavi, one of Asias largest slums and the heart of small-scale industry in Mumbai. Both groups are socially conscious: Reality Tours and Travel uses 80 of their profits to support the activities of their sister NGO, while Be the Local is run by students in Dharavi. Both offer tours from Rs 500 which take 2.5-3.5 hours. Reality Tours and Travel also offer a long tour for Rs. 1200 which includes a trip to Dhobi Ghat, the largest open air laundry in the world as well as the red light district. Short walks are also available from Be the Local while Reality Tours and Travel provides other city tours (including a Bicycle Tour, Market Tour, Night Tour, and a Public Transport Tour.) Note: Photos are not permitted during either groups tour of the slum, out of respect for the residents. If you must have that slum pic, just provide your guide with your email details, they will be happy to arrange to email you a nice set of pics. Cruise on a Harbor Cruise cruises from Gateway of India leave every 30 min daily except during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep). Rs 40. Join for Heritage walks 25 organized by two architects, these walks take you around various historic and architecturally significant areas of the city. Walks are organized on the third Sunday of every month (with a break from June through August for the monsoons) and the route varies each time. The walks last around 90 min. Rs 100 ( Discounted rates for students and the physically challenged ). Walk along Marine Drive also known as Queens Necklace . this beachside promenade is worth a ride. A walk can be planned from Girgaon Chowpati (Girgaon beach) all the way upto Nariman Point. Be carefull and avoid this area during heavy rains. Take a morning walk on Juhu beach Celebrate at the Kala Ghoda Festival . 26. The arts and crafts festival is held in the last week of Jan or first week of Feb annually in the historic precinct of Kala ghoda in Mumbai. Taj private yacht if you can afford it (at 300hr, including drinks amp meals), rent the Tajs private yacht (has two sun decks and three bedrooms) for a cruise around the Mumbai harbor. Poonawallas Breeders Multimillion on the last Sunday of February, the glitterati of Mumbai dress up for the Ascot of Mumbai at the Mahalaxmi Race Course. With High Tea, amazing hats, and hundreds of ordinary punters staking their little all on the outside chance, this is the event to attend in Mumbai so try to cage a ticket if you happen to visit around then. Enjoy theatre amp performances Mumbai offers unlimited opportunities to theatre lovers and there are regular shows across theatres in the city. Check newspapers on latest shows as well as performances at prominent halls such as Prithvi Theatre, NCPA, Tata Theatre. Get crowded . and try catching suburban trains at peak times. You are warned though. Chowpati Jayenge Bhel Puri Khayenge as it says in the lyrics of one of the Bollywood movie song, go to beaches (specially in the evenings) and enjoy local favorite Bhel Puri while the sun sets in the Arabic sea. Festivals edit While many religious festivals are celebrated by people in Mumbai, a few of these are essentially public and social occasions, where the traveler can participate. Organized festivals amp events edit Mumbai Festival (Jan) Sample the vibrant culture of the city. The festival covers theater, sports, fashion, food, and shopping. Banganga Festival (Jan) The musical festival is organized by Maharashtra Tourism (MTDC) 27 annually at Banganga Tank on Malabar Hill. Elephanta Festival (March) Organized by Maharashtra Tourism 28. the festival of music and dance at Elephanta Caves has in the past festivals have seen performances by renowned artists like Alarmel Valli, Sanjeev Abhyankar, and Ananda Shankar and traditional Koli dances as well as traditional food. 7PM-10PM ( Ferries start at 4PM ), Rs 300 per day (includes to and from journey by ferry from Gateway of India to Elephanta Island ) Mumbai Wine Fest (Feb) Wine connoisseurs across the city gather to sample wines, enjoy the culinary delights while soaking in the cultural extravaganza put up at Kala Ghoda. Religious festivals edit Holi (March) is often known as The Festival of Colours. It is held every year on the day of the full moon in the Hindu calendar month of Phalgun (March). During this time, the country dances, bathes and celebrates life in all the colours of the rainbow imaginable. Janmashtami (JulAug) Birth Anniversary of Lord Krishna. Earthen pots full of curd are strung high up across the streets. Young men stand on top of one another to form a human pyramid and attempt to break the pots. Ramadan-Id Muslim festival marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan. Marked by feasting at many places. Non-Muslims can also join in. Ganesh Chaturthi (AugSep) is one of Mumbais most important and colorful festivals. During the 10 day celebration, Lord Ganesh is worshiped in millions of homes. See the colourful processions and participate in them. The Lalbaug, Parel, Matunga and Dadar areas represent some of the best large scale decorations. On the last day of the festival, processions are carried out to bid bye to the loved deity in the sea. These presentations are colourful and carry a celebration fever. The best places to watch them are Girgaon and Dadar chowpati (beach) or the main roads such as Ambedkar road from where the processions are carried out. Mt. Marys Feast (Sep) The feast in honor of Our Lady of the Mount is celebrated with great solemnity at St. Marys Church, Bandra. A week long Bandra fair is held during this time attracting huge crowds. Navratri (SepOct) is a 10 day festival, where nine of the nights are spent in worship and entire Mumbai swings to the rhythm of Garba and Raas dances of Gujarati community. Diwali (OctNov) Festival of Lights. Start of New Year and opening of new accounts. Worshiping of Goddess Laxmi. Participate in the fireworks and view the bright lights. Christmas (Dec) This is charcterised by midnight (nowadays held around 8-9PM on Christmas eve due to restrictions on loud speakers) masses in churches and is usually followed by a number of private parties all across the city. Sports edit Mumbai inherits the cricket fever justifiably and has 3 of the finest Crickets stadiums namely Brabourne Stadium (Churchgate), Wankhede Stadium (Marine Lines) and D.Y.Patil Stadium (Navi Mumbai). Several of international cricket matches and domestic championships such as IPL have been played in these stadiums. Watch out for upcoming cricket stadium to join the cricket frenzy crowd. Apart from these, Ruia College, Shivaji Park, Azad Maidan, Marine Lines are some of the places where live cricket action can be seen for free. Alternatively if you are a football (soccer) fan, you may want to visit Cooperage Football ground (Colaba) for a local league match. For swimming enthusiasists, Mahatma Gandhi Swimming Pool (Dadar W) is the place to visit. For horse racing, head straight to Mahalakshmi Race Course (Mahalakshmi). Powai hosts some of the finest Golf fields. For others there are many sport activities including Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton which can be practised at various clubs. Gyms are plenty and can be easily found. Learn edit Work edit Nariman Point and Fort are the commercial hubs of the city and the most sought after destinations. There is a significant expatriate population working in the banks and financial services industries. Bandra-Kurla region has come up in recent years too, but remains less desirable. Advertising industry is a prominent industry in Mumbai. Many of the top advertisings companies such as Lintas, OampM, Saatchi amp Saatchi, Contract, Trikaya Grey have their offices in the city. A good idea to make quick money is to work part-time in a BPO or a call center most of which are concentrated at Mindspace, Malad(W) and Hiranandani Gardens (Powai). A part-time job can pay you as much as Rs 15,000 a month for just six hours a day for five days in a week. Only good for English speaking travelers. Foreigners can also earn a quick buck as extras in Bollywood movies. Pay rates average Rs 500-700 for a full day (8AM-8PM). Bring a book as there is alot of time spent sitting around, so its not something do do for the money. Normally you wont have to look for them as they will be asking tourists near Leopolds or your hotel manager may ask you when you book in. Buy edit add listing Visa and Master cards are widely accepted in the city shops. Many shopping establishments also accept American Express, Diners and host of other cards. However, some of the small shops or family-run shops may not accept these cards and some handy cash can be of help here. ATMs are widely available and many debit cards accepted as well. If you have an Indian bank account or credit card, you may not need to carry too much of cash. If you are a foreigner, it is a good idea to carry some cash to avoid charges while using your credit or debit card. In general, costs in Mumbai are higher than the rest of India, though they are still much lower by Western standards. Jewellery edit Silver Centrre by Sangeeta Boochra . 29 located at inside cottons opposite gangar opticians. mehta mansion. kemps corner. mumbai ( landline - 022-23649720 ) . is a govt approved Jeweller for generations - designer Sangeeta Boochra is the leading jewellery designer of the country. Oldest Jewellery brand in Silver Jewellery. Here you will find exquisite jewellery for all age groups. they do tribal. traditional and contemporary jewellery which has the essence of India. The brand continuously work towards the upliftment of the Indian Artisans and Kaarigars who work in the villages and do not have a platform to showcase their work. They have tribal Jewellery from Rajasthan. Madhya Pradesh. Gujrat. Tamil Nadu. Kashmir etc. The designer gives her own design signature to all the pieces. A must recommended place to buy jewellery when in India. The prices are affordable and an air-conditioned shop with english speaking staff. The quality of items is quite good. You can pay with credit cards . The brand is from Johari Bazar Jaipur and is more then 119 years old. Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles The shopping experience in the city is a study in contrasts. At the lower end of the spectrum are street vendors. Existing at the borderline of legality, entire streets have been given over to these hawkers and in many places it is impossible to walk on the footpaths, because they have blocked the way. On the other hand, these vendors often give you a great bargain though you will have to haggle a lot and be careful about what to buy. Theres nothing like taking a local along to shop for you. Some famous shopping streets are: Chor bazaar . ( get down at the Grant Rd station on the Western Line. The market is on the east side of the station ). Chor Bazar which literally translates to Thief Market is a colloquial term used to refer a place selling stolen items. It consists of number of interconnecting by-lanes with street vendors hawking a wide variety of items from antiques to shoes to car accessories etc. The place can be quite a surprise for the number and type of items on sale. A great place to spot bargains and bartering is a must. Shop with a keen eye - look out for fakes or second hand items that are shoddily repaired and can be passed out for a quick buck. Fashion Street . ( from Chruchgate Station start walking towards Flora Fountain make a left turn and its a block down ). Best place in Mumbai to buy cheap clothes. Bargaininghaggling skills are a must if you want to shop here Offer to pay 14 of the asking price or less and then work your way upwards. Colaba Causeway . is filled with tourists and locals. It is located very close to the Gateway of India. It is a place where you will be able to find many authentic Indian souvenirs, antiques, carpets, and chandeliers. But foreigners will have to be very careful, as all these stores are road-side stalls. What may seem a good price that the person has quoted to you, it will actually be a rip off. Do not settle for anything more than one-fourth the quoted price. If they refuse a price just walk away and they will call you back quoting a lower price. Normally, the more you buy, the less you will have to pay for each individual item. Zaveri Bazaar . Best known jewelry Market, all at one place. Mangaldas Market . for silk and cloth Bhuleshwar Market . for fruits and vegetables Dadar (W) Flower Market . Visit early morning to see colourful and wholesale flower market in action Crawford Market . It is now officially known as the Mahatma Jyotirao Phule Market. But locals still refer to it by its old name. It is within 10 minutes walking distance from the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus on the Central Line in South Mumbai. Earlier it was the major wholesale trading market for fruits amp vegetables. Now it houses shops selling imported items such as food, cosmetics, household and gift items. Family-run shops . Or one could do shopping at family-run shops, where the items are behind the counter and one has to ask the salesperson to get items from the list. The traditional way to buy sarees or jewelry is to go to a shop where you sit on a bedspread laid out on the floor and the salespeople bring out their wares one-by-one until you make a decision. Shops like Bharat Kshetra in Dadar have scaled this model up to such an extent that they have a two-storied complex where you can do the same. Shopping Malls . Mumbai has been experiencing a boom in malls in the past few years. You can combine your shopping, dining out, and watching movies all in one place. What to buy edit Jewellery . Authentic jewellery by Silver Centrre ( Sangeeta Boochra ) Jaipur. inside cottons at kemps corner. Khadi clothing . Khadi is an authentic Indian variety of home spun cotton. Mahatma Gandhi advocated the use of khadi as a form of satyagraha against the use of foreign goods and a form of rural self-employment for India during the pre-independence days. Check out the Khadi Gram Udyog Bhavan located at 286, DN Road, Near the Mumbai GPO amp Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus. It is run by the Khadi Gramudyog Vikas Samiti 30 which is an umbrella organization started by the Mahatma himself which today has evolved into a government registered unit promoting the use of khadi. A good place to buy souvenirs including khadi Indian flags. These are similar in type to the ones used during the freedom struggle. It also houses other forms of fabrics like pure cotton wool, and silk. Items on sale include Blankets, Sweaters, Shirt pieces, Sandals, Shoes, Folders, Files, etc. All the items are hand made. Some of the items make use of natural straw. They also offer a collection of handmade paper products. Traditional clothing amp handicrafts . State government operated emporiums such as those for Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jammu amp Kashmir etc sell state specific items of clothing and handicrafts. These are located in places around South Mumbai or the shopping arcades of Five Star Hotels. There is also a Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Emporium located near the Gateway of India beside the Tendulkars restaurant. The items on display include embroidered clothing, carvings, paintings, sculptures etc and are reasonably priced. Amongst the private labels, Fabindia 31 is a must visit for its variety of kurtas tunics, salwars, pyjamas, churidars amp dupattas. They also offer bedspreads, cushion covers, decorative pillows, quilts, table linens, home furniture etc. Just like the government owned emporiums, Fabindia operates on a cottage industries model where products are hand crafted by artisans and sourced from villages across India. Good quality, smart colours, trendy designs but prices are a bit on the higher side. Stores are located across Mumbai. Prrems - The Winter Wear Store houses a range of silk scarfs, made in India. It is located on Linking Road, Khar (West). Cotton clothes . Mumbai is great place to buy quality and cheaper cotton clothes. Amongst many notable shops and brands, Cottonworld is a place to look out for. Kurties and tunics . a must have in India. Linkin Laado has a wide range of classy kurties, fushion ethnic wear and exquisite dress materials in most sought after pure fabrics such as muls, cottons, maheshwari and chanderi silk etc in handblock prints and intrinsic chikankari work. The shop is situated at Link Square Mall, Shop No. F5, Opposite KFC, Above Croma, Linking Road, Bandra West. Dhoop . (translates into Sunshine or Incense) A quaint, stylist store where you can find really interesting quality crafts and home accessories. On the corner of Union Park, Near Olive, Off Carter Road in Bandra. Burlingtons . in the Taj is a tailor specializing in Indian outfits. Buy some material and get some clothes made up by a tailor. Its an incredibly cheap way to get quality made-to-measure clothes. Usually only takes a couple of days. Leather jackets . go to the main road in Dharavi. You can fit yourself with a leather jacket (they stitch it for you) of leather you pick. Usually takes just one day to get it and it costs around Rs 1,000-2,000. Antiques amp second hand items . Visit Chor Bazar for the best options and bargains Carpets, rugs and shawls Sarees . the best place to buy them is Dadar (both east and west). The place is buzzing 12 months a year. On Sundays the crowd can be maddening for outsiders. Good shops to buy Sarees are Dadar Emporium, Lazaree, Roop Sangam. On N C Kelkar Road and Ranade Road you can buy almost everything a woman needs. Bargain hard. Pashmina . cheap stuff is everywhere and decent shawls in every hue can be purchased at various markups in any hotel arcade. High-quality items in unusual colors and unique designs require more searching. The pashminas sold on Colaba Causeway are not anywhere close to pashmina. Prrems - The Winter Wear Store houses authentic Pashmina shawls. The Store is located on Linking Road, Khar (West). The business also houses every other winter wear garment, all manufactured in India. Indian musical instruments . Indian music has its own set of musical instruments such as Tabla, Harmonium, straight Flute that it relies upon. These can be bought at various music shops scattered across the city. Some well known shops are L.M.Furtado, Ghaisas amp Bros. Luxury Retail . Mumbai has witnessed a massive boom in luxury retail. All the brands you can buy in any other major city are available there. Bookshops edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles Mumbai has large number of organized book shops. However it also has number of streetside second hand book shops or displays that give opportunity to come across rare collections. Many of these roadside book shops can be prominently found, among many, near Flora Fountain, Maheshwari Udyyan (former Kings Circle) and Dadar west market. Tourist traps edit In a place without clearly displayed price tags (and sometimes even in places with), you will get charged about 3-4 times as much as a local if you seem like a tourist. Take a local with you if youre going to local markets to haggle. Haggling is much louder and ruder in India than elsewhere. Dont be afraid to haggle things down to 14 of the asking price. And most importantly remember that almost all stores that sell carpets, jewelry, handicrafts, etc. pay huge amounts of commission (25 up to even 50) to the cab drivers, hence avoid tourist taxis, cabs, etc. Another thing to remember is not to haggle just for the fun of it. The shopkeepers may take offense if you dont buy an item after they have agreed to your price. One of the places that you can trust is The World Trade Centre (in Cuffe Parade, near Hotel Taj President). Besides being the only World Trade Centre in Mumbai, this place has an amazing range of exquisite carpets, handicrafts, shawls, etc. with reputed government approved stores and state emporiums too. Ask for receipts everywhere including bars and check what you have been charged for. Dont ever accept a guide offer or escort of somebody from the street: You will certainly get conned. If some place (including cabs, eateries, stores, etc) claims it doesnt have change (this is highly unlikely), insist they get change from a neighbouring store. Groceries edit In addition to the local grocery stores which can be found on most of the streets, there are new additions to the city in the form of new big and small supermarkets and hypermarkets where you can get all the food items you need. Some of them are Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Hypercity, DMart, Spinach Local, Apna Bazaar. Eat edit add listing The dining experience at an upscale restaurant in Mumbai is more or less the same as anywhere else in the world. If you search hard enough, you will find cuisine from practically every part of the world represented in the city. But to get a real flavour of whats unique to Mumbai, you will have to go a little lower down the scale and experience the street food and Irani cafes. That is what is described here. For individual restaurants and other places to eat, go to the individual district pages. Dont leave Mumbai without trying: Gujrati, Maharashtrian and Kerala Thali Indian Chinese Goan seafood As many different kinds of chaat (Bhelpuri, Pani Puri etc) as your stomach can handle Pav Bhaji from one of Mumbais many restaurants. (Shiv Sagar near Juhu Beach is famous). Kebab rolls, Pattis, Keema Indian sweets- milky, delicious concoctions (try the kulfi falooda at Badshahs in Crawford market) Vada pav (the great Indian veg burger) South Indian food from an Udupi restaurant Bread Maska (Bread amp Butter) from an Irani Cafe Kingfisher Blue beer Alfanso Mangoes during summer season Specialty restaurants edit Seafood . Apurva (Fort right off Horniman Circle). If you want to eat some authentic Indian (Konkan) sea food you must visit the Bharat Excellensea. It is located next to the Horniman Circle and the Reserve Bank of India. It is becoming pretty expensive. In the slightly higher price range, Trishna (at Kala Ghoda in Fort) and Mahesh Lunch Home (also in Fort) are very popular amongst both locals and tourists. Peshawari . Andheri ,( at Maratha Sheraton ). Its sister restaurant Bukhara in Delhi has been recognised as the best Indian restaurant across the world. Try tandoori jhinga, the kebab platter, sikandari raan (leg of lamb), and mangoes and ice cream (only during summers), Kebab Corner (Hotel Intercontinental), Copper Chimney (Worli) Khyber (Kala Ghoda), and Kareems Malad Link Road in Malad W. International Cuisine edit Sushi . Sushi Caf (Santa Cruz West). Sushi Caf is a cozy little place. The decor, including the furniture, is all-white. Here, you can get 20 pieces of those delicious, delicately-flavoured chunks of white rice rolled with fresh fish and vegetables for just Rs 600. The food is as much a feast for the eyes as it is a treat for the tongue. They also do home delivery all over Mumbai. Sushi Caf, Shop No. 1, Ground Floor, Sainara Building, corner of North Avenue and Linking Road, Santa Cruz (West), Tel: 98336-50503, sushicafemumbai. Chinese . India Jones, ( Hilton Towers Mumbai ), Mainland China (Saki Naka), Lings Pavillion (Colaba), Golden Dragon (Taj Mahal Hotel), Great Wall (The Leela), Spices (JW Marriott), China Gate (Bandra), China White (Bandra). Bandra offers a range of Chinese Restaurants (32. Royal China at VT (behind Sterling Cinema serves some of the best DimSum the city has to offer). The new CG83 at Kemps corner is brilliant and the signature restaurant of Nelson Wang. Also new is Henry Thams. The food is brilliant as are the prices, however the bar is much more popular than the restaurant. Combination Oriental . India Jones ( Hilton Towers Mumbai ), Pan Asian (at Maratha Sheraton), Seijo, and Soul Dish (Bandra), Joss (Kala Ghoda) has some of the best East Asian food in the country and at moderate prices (compared to hotels). San Qi at the Four Seasons (Worli) combines East Asian and South Asian cuisine quite well. Japanese . Wasabi by Morimoto ( Taj Mahal Hotel, Colaba ) is Mumbais best and most expensive restaurant, but Japanese food is on the menus of most Pan Asian restaurants like Tiffin (The Oberoi, Mumbai), Pan Asian (Maratha Sheraton), India Jones (Hilton Towers Mumbai), and Spices (JW Marriott), Origami (Atria M all Worli). Also Japengo Cafe at CR2 Mall in Nariman Point serves up some sushi. Tetsuma, adjacent to Prive (probably best nightclub in town) serves an average sushi but other dishes are worth a try. Best to go there for a cocktail and a few starters. Tian cafe at Juhu is also a good place for sushi. Try the Teppanyaki restaurant at Tian. Italian . Shatranj Nepoli ( Bandra, Union Park ), Little Italy (Juhu next to Maneckji Cooper school), Don Giovannis (Juhu, opposite JW Marriott), Mezzo Mezzo (at the JW Marriott), Vetro (at The Oberoi, Mumbai), Celini (at the Grand Hyatt), Mangi Ferra (Juhu), Taxi(Colaba), Spaghetti Kitchen (Phoenix Mills, Parel). Lebanese Food . Picadilly, at Colaba Causeway, deserves mention for being the only restaurant to serve Lebanese food. Try their shawormas. Cost for a meal for one Rs 100-200. Alcohol is not served. Parsi . Their ancestors originating from Iran, the Parsis are a special community of people that one would associate Mumbai with. Parsi food is based on ancient Persian cooking. Go to Brittania at Ballard Estate or Jimmy Boy close to Horniman Circle. International brands edit Chilis . Central Avenue Road, Powai, Ventura Building, Hiranandani Business Park. Ruby Tuesday . shop No. 20, 2nd Floor, Inorbit mall, Malad (West) or at Shop No. 31, CR 2 Mall, Nariman Point, Mumbai OR Nirmal Lifestyle, Lbs Marg, Mulund West. T.G.I.F . Palladium mall,Phoenix High Street,Lower Parel or Infiniti Mall,New Link Road,Oshiwara,Andheri(West). Dunkin Donuts . multiple locations California Pizza Kitchen . 3 North Avenue, Maker Maxity, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra (East). Costa Coffee . multiple locations Subway . multiple locations Regional Indian edit South Indian . Dakshin (Maratha Sheraton) and Woodlands (Juhu) Bengali . Oh Calcutta at Tardeo Kashmiri . Poush at Andheri Punjabi . Preetams Dhaba at Dadar(E) and Urban Tadka at Mulund Goan Cuisine . Casa Soul Fry opposite to Bombay University in town Gujarati Thalis . Chetana at Kala Ghoda, Thackers at Marine Drive, and Rajdhani (multiple locations) General Indian . Sheetal Bukhara, Great Punjab (both in Bandra). More in Bandra. Vegetarian . Swati Snacks (Tardeo, opposite Bhatia Hospital) a gem of a restaurant, it does not take bookings and the waiting during peak meal times is usually 45 minutes every day of the week Little Italy located on Juhu Tara Road (Jugu), Andheri West opp. Fame Adlabs multiplex, Malad (above croma), New Yorkers on Marine Drive Opp chowpatty Creame Center on Linking Road, Bandra near Shoppers Stop and also on Marine Drive opp chowpatty Statua at Nariman point opp. Maker Chambers. Relish (Hotel Samrat Churchgate). Excellent vegetarian cuisine from around the world. Fusion . Zenzi (Waterfield Road, Bandra), Out of the Blue ( Pali Hill, Bandra). Lounge . Olive (Bandra), Rain (Juhu), Indigo. Speciality Deli . Indigo Deli (Colaba), Gourmet Shoppe (The Oberoi Shopping Arcade), Moshes (Cuffe Parade), Cafe Basilico. Cafe . Leopold33 and Cafe Mondegar (both near Regal Cinema, Colaba) are great places to while away time, eat cheap, and get a beer. Mocha (chain) is popular with the younger crowd. Deliciae, the dessert cafe which has some of the best desserts in town, located next to Olive Restaurant in Khar. 24X7 Coffee Shops . Trattoria (Taj President), Frangipani (Hilton Towers Mumbai), Vista (Taj Lands End, Bandra), Hornbys Pavilion (ITC Grand Central), Lotus Cafe (JW Marriott), basically all the big hotels have one. More coffee shops in Bandra34 Goan, Coastal . Goa Portuguesa (Mahim) near Hinduja Hospital. New and a must try is Casa Soul Fry (opposite Bombay University in town) which serves up Goan Cuisine. Mumbai Street Food . To experience the tastes and flavors of typical Mumbai chaat, and yet not expose oneself to the dangers of unhygienic street food, check out Vitthals Restaurant located on one of the lanes opposite Sterling Cinema (C.S.T.), but make sure you have a strong stomach. Vithal Bhelwalla (not the Vithal resaurant which is copycat) near VT station (behind Mcdonalds) is a safe option. Street food stalls edit Songs have been written about Mumbais street food and you will find that the hype is justified. You will find them at every street corner, but they are concentrated in beaches and around railway stations. Bhelpuri stalls . Selling what in the rest of India would be called chaat . In Mumbai itself, the term chaat is rarely used. Rolls . Essentially different meat and cheese grilled and served with some Roti and spice, these are cheap and cheerful for anyone with a stomach that can handle it. They are known to be spicy so always ask them to make it mild. Try Ayubs (Kala Ghoda), Bade Miyan (highly over-rated), Khao Gulli (Food Lane, near Mahim Hindu Gymkhana), or Kareems (Bandra). All are particularly busy after a night of heavy drinking. Vada pav stands . Fried potato stuffed in yeasty bread. Developed to provide nourishment to mill-workers in Mumbais burgeoning mills. Now they are found everywhere, particularly in the railway stations. This is a Mumbai specialty. In Vile Parle (West), try the one off S.V Road near Irla across from Goklibai School. One of the most popular ones are opposite Mithibai College which is about 15 mins walk from Vile Parle Station. Also try the one outside Grant Road Station and Churchgate Station. Sandwich stands . Uniquely developed in Mumbai, you wont find anything like it anywhere else in India or the world. Chinese food stalls . Youll find them at many places, but they are particularly concentrated near Dadar railway station. They all have a typical Indian twist added to it, which is why it is frequently called Indian Chinese. Although it is great tasting, the hygiene of these places leaves a lot to be desired. Bhurji . Either Egg bhurji or Paneer bhurji, a mash of eggs and chopped tomato, onion, chili, and lots of oil. Eaten on the side with some pav. Try the Maker Chamber area (near Crossroads 2, Nariman Point). Tip: cheap and tasty food stalls are concentrated around the citys colleges. Street stall food in India is fantastic, and dirt cheap (you can fill yourself up for Rs 20). However, do consider well what you are putting in your mouth. Almost certainly the water used is non-potable, street vendors dont seem to understand much about hygiene or hand-washing, and food safety standards are low, with flies buzzing over everything. Even locals steer clear of street food during the monsoons, when diseases run rampant. If the stall seems very clean, and if it clearly states that it is using Aquaguard or mineral water, go for it. Authentic Marathi cuisine edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles Mumbai, being home to large ethnic Marathi community, has its share of notable restaurants that offer authentic Marathi cuisine. Most offer both snacks and regular dining. Some of the snacks to check out are Sabudana Wada, Batata Wada, Missal, Kanda Poha, Uppit (or Upma), Shira, Alu Wadi, Thalipith, Zunka Bhakari,ghavane (neer dosa) and many more. Two notable appetizer are Kokam Sarbat and Solkadhi which are best enjoyed during hot summers. People say that many of these authentic Marathi restaurents are finding it difficult to survive competitions with other modern or fast food typed restaurants, but you will find Gajali, Malvan Kinara, Sindhudurg and many more have retained their own charm and clientele. Udupi restaurants edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles Mangalorians(and udupi) forms the highset tourist populations of Mumbai,and both the cities have almost same culture and architecture. Udupi restaurants (or hotels) are everywhere. They bear the name of the town of Udupi in Karnataka, but do not be misled into thinking that they specialize in the cuisine of Udupi. They serve pretty much everything, and that is their specialty. Usually strictly vegetarian, these restaurants were opened by migrants from the district of Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka (of which Udupi is a part), to satisfy the palates of other migrants from the district. Over time, they gained popularity as places to have South Indian food. As the tastes of their customers evolved, so to did their menus, so much that now you can find Mughlai, Indian Chinese, Bhelpuri, and other chaats in addition to South Indian stuff. Amazingly, some places serve imitations of pizzas, burgers, and sandwiches too They are fast food joints and sit-down restaurants combined. The reason to visit them is not to experience fine gourmet dining, but to have cheap, passably tasty and fairly hygienic food. There is no easy way to identify an Udupi restaurant they are not a chain of restaurants and they may not have Udupi in their name, so you will have to ask. Matunga(Central line) has the best south Indian fare in Mumbai. There are few restaurants which could well be heritage sites as they are more than 50 years old and still retain thier old world charm(and furniture). Irani cafes edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles Irani cafes are Persian styled cafes opened by 19th century Persian migrants from Iran. These cafes have a unique lazy atmosphere, display of day-to-day accessories including toothpastes behind the cashier, soaps and what nots(specially targeted at bachelor crowds) and furniture. Most of these cafes were located at the corner of the road or building and were chosen spots by commuters to spend time while the traffic died down. It was quite an usual sight to find people spending hours reading newspaper over a cup of tea for hours in these places. Sadly the new restaurents and fast food culture has almost removed these cafes from the maps, though few notables like Kyani amp Co. and Light of Bharat near Shivaji park still remain. The joints are best known for their Irani Chai, Bun-MaskaMaska Pav (bread and butter) and Egg Omlette. Also are popular their assorted snacks, like Kheema-na-Patice, samosas, mava-na-cakes, etc. One of the the best dish which is almost always on the menu is Kheema (prepared from ground meat) and pav (bread). Thalis edit If you order a thali (translated as plate), you get a complete meal arranged on your plate, with a roti or chappati, rice, and many different varieties of curries and curd. Ordering a thali is a popular option when you are hungry and in a hurry as it is usually served blazingly fast. Most mid-level restaurants have a thali on the menu, at least during lunch hours. Occasionally, they are unlimited, which means that some of the items are all-you-can-eat. The waiters serve them at your table. Of course, you find many varieties of them, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. There is the South Indian thali. The North Indian thali translates to Mughlai or Punjabi. Do try Gujarati or Rajasthani thalis if you can find them. They are sinfully filling and tasty. Rajdhani (At Crawford Market) serves up thalis in the Rajasthani style while Aram (near Mahim Church, Mahim), Ramanayak Udipi (At Matunga Station, east) serves up thalis in South Indian style and Shree Thakker Bhojanalaya (off Kalbadevi Road) do filling and fabulous Gujarati thalis. Fast food chains edit Surprisingly, there is no fast-food chain in Mumbai serving Indian cuisine. But Western chains like McDonalds 35. Subway36. Pizza hut37. Dominos38. Kentucky Fried Chicken39 etc. have many outlets all over the city. But if you are a weary Westerner looking for the taste of the familiar, be warned that all of them have rather heavily Indianized their menus, so you will find the stuff there as exotic as you found Bambaiyya food. However, Barista40. Cafe Coffee Day41. and Smokin Joes42 are all Indian chains, although they dont serve Indian food. While Barista and Cafe Coffee Day, as there names suggest, serve coffee and pastries, Smokin Joes serves decent pizzas and is headquartered in Carmichael Rd, Mumbai. International coffee chains like The Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, Aromas have recently set shop in Mumbai. Naturals is a chain of ice cream stores that serves up tasty and unconventional flavors of ice creams. Try their tender coconut or the coffee walnut ice creams. Its main branch is in Juhu in the Western suburbs (hence the tagline - Ice cream of Juhu Scheme), but it has franchises at many places including Marine Drive, Bandra, Nepean sea road, etc. Naturals is also famous for its seasonal Sitaphal or Custard Apple Ice-cream. Baskins-Robbins is an international ice cream chain having its presence throughout the city. Also there are a number of shops in malls amongst other places which serve Italian Gelato ice cream. What to eat edit Asking a local for suggestions is a fun way to try new things. Here are a few suggestions: Vada Pav . the vada is a mashed potato patty. Pav is a kind of bread that has its roots in Mumbai. (The word comes from the Portugese word po, for bread). The potato patty is sandwiched in the bread. Liberal helpings of three kinds of chutneys (sauces) are also added to the sandwich to make a seriously tasty snack. It is widely available on the streets and most folks price it Rs 6 a piece. If you feel uncomfortable with the hygiene of a particular stall, avoid it. In that case eating at. Jumbo Vada Pav 43 outlets, found almost at all train stations in the city, is a hygienic and safer options. Pav Bhaji . Part of the street food culture, this is mashed vegetables cooked in spices, topped with butter and served piping hot with pav. Widely available. For a variation, try the Pav Bhaji Dosa which merges Pav Bhaji with the South Indian Dosa. For the especially brave, ask for a plate of Masala Pav. It consists of two piece of Pav smeared with a generous helping of spicy paste. Bhel Puri amp sev puri . A classic Mumbai concoction, bhel-puri (or bhel for short) comprises mostly of puffed rice and assorted spices with a few chutneys. You can specify whether you want it spicy or bland and the vendor will make it for you. It is quite tasty and again ought to be had off the streets to get the real flavor. Most people though, like to flock to Juhu beach to try this out. Pani Puri . For first timers, this can be seriously intriguing. The vendor hands you a plate. Next he takes a puri (it looks like a golf ball, but brown in color), makes a small hole in it, and dips the puri into two jars. These jars contain water one tangy on a tamarind base, the other spicy on a mint base. He tops it off with some condiments and places the puri on your plate. You pick it with your hand and pop the whole thing into your mouth. The outcome is an explosion. Awesome. A word of caution here though. Make sure you dont have your pani puri from just any vendor. The best vendors use only packaged water. Stick to that and enjoy the taste. Indian-Chinese . Nothing like regular Chinese. For a typical Bambaiyya flavor, try the Chinese Bhelpuri . Hapus (Alphonso) mangoes . A must try, if you happen to be in Mumbai in the summers. Mewad ice cream . If you happen to be in Mumbai, it is recommended you avoid ice creams from the famous and expensive parlors and try out the cheap Mewad ice cream stalls. They are a lovely treat at their price and provide a lot of options. The vendors are found everywhere across the streets, but avoid those who appear unhygienic. Variations of world cuisine such as Tandoori Chicken Pizzas - the Bombay Masala Pizza at the Pizzeria on Marine Drive is legendary and well worth investigation - or McAloo Tikki burgers. Tipping edit Tip between 5-10 at sit-down places. If a place includes service charges on the bill, you dont need to leave an extra tip. Note the difference between service tax and service charges. Service tax goes to Government and not to the staff. While tipping is always good practice, you dont necessarily have to tip the bartender while at a bar. If you plan to be there a while though its a good idea to give him Rs 50-100 on your first drink to ensure a night of trouble-free service. You do not have to tip cab or auto drivers at all, and dont get out of the vehicle until they have given you full and exact change. Pubs amp bars edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles A recent police crackdown (June 2012) on many popular bar and clubs is underway, so be cautious when visiting lower to mid range bars. Mumbai is one of the most liberal cities in India when it comes to attitudes to alcohol. Bars exist at virtually every street corner and many of them advertise themselves as family bars and restaurants, which indicates that they are primarily restaurants where one can also have a drink. Other places are primarily bars, some of them might be sleazy. In South Mumbai and in the Western suburbs, you are likely to find many places where foreigners hang out. Mumbai is much more accepting of women drinking than the rest of India. A woman ordering a drink is unlikely to raise eyebrows even in mid-range bars, though if you are alone, you might need to look out for your safety. Nightlife in Mumbai spans the gamut from performances at five star hotels to discos. Dance bars which involve young, fully clothed women dancing mostly to Hindi film and pop music, have been shut down by the government for corrupting the morals of those who frequent those places. While the state high court has ruled that the crackdown was illegal, it will be a while before they open again as there are some technicalities involved to be sorted out. In Mumbai, alcohol is much more easily available than many cities in India. Drinking amp driving Driving under the influence of alcohol is not considered as a serious offence in India as compared to western countries 44 45. In the event of an accident the law does not deals with drink-drive offenders with severity. The punishment is a minor fine andor imprisonment for only up to 6 months. The driving license is suspended only for at least six months. Coffee shops edit There many coffee shops in and around Mumbai. Try the Cafe Coffee Day 46 and Barista 47 chains. Since late 2012, the holy grail of coffee shops, Starbucks has made its presence felt in Mumbai in a big way. Do check out the biggest and tastefully interior-ed Starbucks at Horniman Circle at Fort in South Mumbai. Then theres the Cafe Mocha chain of coffee shops which also serve fruit flavoured hookas South Asian smoking pipes. If a small coffee and cookies place is what you are looking for, try Theobroma . it has an outlet at Cusrow Baug in Colaba. There are also Costa Coffee outlets throughout the city. Those looking for a more native form of coffee can try the filter coffee, a milky coffee with origins from South India, from any Udupi restaurant. But nowadays hookahs are banned in restaurants, cafes and pubs in Mumbai. Sleep edit add listing Taj Mahal Hotel at night Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles It is very difficult to find good budget hotels in Mumbai. If you are a tourist or a business traveler, you may have to stay in South Mumbai, which is where both the business district and the touristy areas are. Lack of space means that even the cheapest hotel charges stratospheric tariffs. The state of public transport and traffic means that it is not really a good choice to stay anywhere else. In any case, things arent much better if you are looking for hotels close to the airport. You should be looking at the Western Suburbs in that case. There are many guest houses at Colaba, where you find most of budget foreign travelers stay. Other budget hotels are found near railway stations, such as Dadar or Santa Cruz, but most of them are absolute dumps. One safe and economical place to stay in Mumbai is the YMCA. Reasonably priced accommodations are available at the Colaba, Bombay Central, Andheri, and CBD Belapur Branches. Staff at the Windsor Hotel on Kumptha St have been accused assaulting a traveler on TripAdvisor. 48 One inexpensive alternative is to live with a local family as a paying guest. A list of available families can be obtained from the Government of India tourist office (91 22 2220 7433) opposite Churchgate train station. On the other hand, if money is not a problem, you can stay at the Taj in Colaba (the oldest in India), the Leela Kempinski, the ITC Grand Maratha, or the JW Marriott Mumbai, Renaissance Mumbai Hotel amp Convention Centre. Hotel listings are in the district pages. LGBT options edit There is already a lively late night, if somewhat subterranean, scene for gays, as well as social and political networks. However, you need to do your homework before arriving, as LGBT gathering spaces and organizations are not published or available at local newsstands. However, Bombay Dost (Bombay Friends) the only magazine catering to the community, after 7 years of running was closed and relaunched in 2009. Much of Mumbais LGBT scene is coordinated using social networking sites and groups. Use extreme caution robberies, hustlers, and even police entrapment are not unheard of, though a July 2009 judgment legalizing homosexuality might have saved you from the last one. Unfortunately, that was revised and declared criminal in 2013. Contact edit Landlines edit The area code for Mumbai is 22 (prefix 91, if you are calling from outside India). Phone numbers are eight digits long, but on occasion you will find a seven digit number listed. That is probably an old listing. They made the changeover from seven to eight digits a few years back, when they allowed private service providers to offer telephone. Just prefix a 2 to the number and it should work just fine. Pay phones edit Phone booths can be found all over the city. Though they are coin operated, there is usually someone to run the place. (Typically the phones are attached to a roadside shop). You need to keep putting 1 rupee coins into the slot to extend the talk time, so keep a change of 1 rupee coins handy with you. The person running the booth will usually have them. If you find a booth marked STDISD, you can call internationally or anywhere within the country. Fees will be charged according to the time spent and a meter runs to keep track of your time. You pay when you have finished your call. Often it is difficult to find one that is open early in the morning or late at night. Mobile phones edit Cell phone coverage in the city is excellent. There are many service providers offering a wide variety of plans. Among them are The MTNL 49. Vodafone 50. Loop Mobile 51. Airtel 52. Dolphin 53. Reliance 54. and Tata Indicom 55. It might be a good idea to buy a cell phone and use one of those prepaid plans to get yourself connected while you are in the city. All mobile numbers, are 10 digits long and begin with a 9, 8 or 7. Do not dial the city prefix for mobile numbers. If you dont get through to a mobile number, try adding a 0 before you dial it. Due to security threats, in order to purchase a SIM card you will need to provide formal identification. While Roaming in Mumbai the best app you should have in your mobile is m-Indicator. It will give you detailed Mumbai local information, Cab-auto fair, bus route, cinemas near by and many more Cybercafes edit Cybercafes are located at virtually on every street corner and the rates are quite low. Do note that they have probably not kept pace with advances in hardware or software, so if you find yourself in one of them, dont be surprised if you are stuck with a really small monitor, Windows 98, and Internet Explorer 5.0. Also data security could be an issue. As a caution, change your password after you use it at a cybercafe. Wi-Fi edit Finding Wi-Fi in Mumbai is very difficult due to security concerns. A few coffee shops such as Barista may offer access. You should start your search with Chembur, Pamposh, Phoenix Mall, Santa Cruz, and Sterling Baristas. Kanada. Indiabulls Finance Centre, Tower 221st Floor, Senapati Bapat Marg, Elphinstone Road West. 91 22 6749 4444. Also, most lobbies of upper-end hotels (eg. Taj, Oberoi Trident, etc.) will have Wi-Fi services if you wish to hang-out in their coffee shops. Please add to this list 160edit You can also find free Wi-Fi at the airport if you have an Indian phone number, provided by You Broadband. At Mexiloko (Shop 1, Bela CHS Ltd, 81A, Colaba Causeway, Colaba, Mumbai-400005), you can get Free Wi-Fi and you dont need a mobile phone. A staff will tell you a password. Postal amp courier services edit The Indian Postal services head office is housed at GPO, a magnificent colonial architecture on its own. next to C.S.T. railway station. The other main branch office can be found at Dadar(E) on Ambedkar Rd. Stay safe edit For a city of its size and global importance, Mumbai is quite safe. However, as with any foreign city, it is best to err on the side of safety and act according to your local environment. Here are a few basic safety tips: Littering is punishable with a INR 200 fine throughout Mumbai as part of the Clean-Up Mumbai initiative by the BMC. In reality, the chances of getting caught are extremely low. The fines are given out by the BMC and the police never bother if people litter right in front them. Keep your money and credit cards safe at all times. Always carry some cash as many places wont take cards. Do not display 500 and 1000 rupee notes in public. Beware of pickpocket-ting on buses and trains. Also beware of mobile, chain, or bag snatchers who operate in densely populated places, such as railway stations, busy roads, and traffic signals. Women traveling by train, especially on off-peak routes should travel in the second class where at least a few co-passengers are also found. Women (especially Westerners) should avoid crowded places, you might well get groped. Cases of men pinching or touching women are common in crowded public places, including nicer nightspots. Create a scene if this does happen to you, there will be enough people around that will come to your defense. In general, in Mumbai, if you are ever worried about your safety, make a loud scene. It is an extremely crowded city, and somebody is always around and willing to help. Women should never ever take lifts from strangers. Western women tourists should note that if they visit a disco or pub in Mumbai or India, dont take lifts or even get too friendly with strangers. You will almost certainly get conned, if not worse. Many Indian men presume that if youre foreign you must be easy. Men should also be careful, pay respect to ladies and maintain safe distance. Dont ever let an auto or taxi you are traveling in pick up any more people, or pull over before your final destination. Police can sometimes be almost as shady as criminals in Mumbai. At night, women should ensure if they are ever stopped by police, there needs to be a female police officer present or they are well within their rights in demanding the presence of a woman cop. Be aware of scams. Theres one man claiming to be a British citizen that will tell you that he has been mugged and lost his passport and so on and that he needs your help to claim some money from his brother in the UK. Just tell him you are in a rush or out of money because its a scam and he is just a good actor. There is another scam, in which a person (mostly taxi drivers) asks you for a change of 1000 INR currency note. If you give him two 500 INR notes in exchange for a 1000 INR note he will cleverly change one or both the 500 INR notes to 100 INR without you noticing. hence you may end up believing you gave him less money in return. He will ask you to pay the difference conning you of that cash. So Beware when someone asks you change for 1000 INR. Fraudulent SIM cards are not only sold on streets, but also in official-looking mobile phone stores. Never buy a SIM card if the vendor refuses to give you a receipt make sure that the SIM envelope is not open, and check prices against an official brochure. Violent crime in Mumbai is more or less like any other large Indian city. Most notably, terrorists have staged several murderous attacks in Mumbai, targeting banks and the stock exchange in 1993 (killing around 300), commuter trains in 2006 (killing over 200) and top hotels including the Taj Mahal Palace and Oberoi in 2008 (over 170 dead). The last of these saw foreigners, specifically Americans, Britons and Israelis, explicitly targeted for the first time. Emergency numbers edit Mumbai Police Control Room . 100 Police Infoline . 1090 D. G. Control . 91 22 22026636 Mumbai Police Head Quarter . 91 22 22625020 North Control . 91 22 28854643 East Control . 91 22 25233588 West Control . 91 22 26457900 South Div. . 91 22 23089855 Central Div . 91 22 23750909 Traffic Police 62 Traffic Control . 91 22 24937746 Traffic Helpline . 91 22 30403040 Railways edit Airport edit Santacruz Airport . 91 22 26156600 Sahar Terminal (NIPTC) . 91 22 26829000 Indian Airlines Enquiry . 91 22 26168000 Air India Enquiry . 91 22 22796666 Air Ambulance edit Fire Station . 101, 91 22 2307611123086181230611213 Coast Guard . 91 22 24376133, 91 22 24371932 Touts edit Recently, there has been a great rise in the number of complaints about harassment of innocent tourists in various destinations around the country. The Ministry of Tourism has adopted a strategy of introducing Audio Guide Devices at various places of interest around the country such as the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, etc. to provide reliable and factual information to tourists. It is wise to hire such devices as you can avoid being ripped off or ambushed by desperate touts itching to make a buck. The Ministry of Tourism has also announced its partnership with AudioCompass, a company specializing in creating Audio Tours of all places of interest in the country including Mumbai, in the form of Audio Devices available at the monuments and Smartphone apps that can be download from the App Store. Stay healthy edit Food As elsewhere in India, be careful with what you eat. Outside of major tourist hotels and restaurants, stay away from raw leafy vegetables, egg-based dressings, like mayonnaise, and minced meat are particularly risky. In short, stick to boiled, baked, fried, or peeled goods. Water Opinions on tap water vary, but most visitors choose to stick to the bottled stuff. Large bottles of water can be purchased at a very low cost. One note of caution, when buying water from street vendors, make sure the lid is sealed, there have been cases of bottles being filled with tap water, and sold as new. Fitness Numerous fitness centers exist throughout the city. Many exercise facilities and spas offer 24 hour memberships for visitors and are a popular way to unwind after a long day of touring in Mumbai. Smog can reach unhealthful levels, especially during the dry season. This, coupled with the summer heat and humidity, can make spending time outdoors quite unpleasant. Cope edit Maps edit City Map . Eicher has an excellent city-map of Mumbai with detailed listings. Familiarize yourself with it before you begin, or alternatively trace your route on it. Rs 30. BEST Route Map . Thanks to the density of bus routes in the city, the map is quite hard to decipher. Although bus routes are listed in the itinerary, you may have to find out about a few others if you plan to mixmatch the order of the sights. People are very helpful in general. Check the BEST Route Finder for detailed information on the routes. The map is available at news stands. Rs 10. Google Maps works brilliantly for most purposes Newspapers edit Local newspapapers can be handy and reliable sources for day to day updates about the city. The city has number of newspapers and other publication that list local happenings. The Times of India 64 has a supplement called Bombay Times . There are also other papers like The Asian Age 65. DNA 66. Indian Express 67. Hindustan Times 68 and Free Press Journal 69. For the business updates, check Economic Times 70. There are three very good local city tabloids called Mid-Day 71. Mumbai Mirror 72. and Afternoon . These papers are city focused and cover a lot of gossip, local news, and have plenty of entertainment listings. One could refer to these papers for any specific activity. In addition, Time Out now has an excellent Mumbai edition each month which can be picked up on street bookshops. It is a little more eclectic than the others listed here. Most newspapers would not cost more than Rs 3. All of these papers have information on arts, dance, eating out, food festivals, events, exhibitions, lectures, movies, theatre listings, concerts, seminars, and workshops. There are also many local newspapers in regional languages such as Lok Satta 73 (marathi), Maharashtra Times 74 (marathi), Saamna 75 (marathi), Navakal 76 (marathi), Janmabhoomi (gujrati), Mumbai Samachar 77 (gujrati) and Navbharat Times 78 (hindi) which cater to local and regional interests and tastes. Radio edit There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. Mumbai also has access to commercial radio providers such as Sirius and XM. Hospitals edit Individual listings can be found in Mumbais district articles List of Major Hospitals and health care centers: Asian Heart Institute. GN Block, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra(E), 400051 ( Bandra Kurla Complex ), 91 22 56986666 ( fax. 91 22 56986506 ), 79. 160edit Breach Candy Hospital. 60 Bhulabhai Desai Rd, 400026. 91 22 236433092363365136232242367188823672888 ( fax. 91 22 23630147 ), 80. 160edit Jaslok Hospital. 15 Dr. G. Deshmukh Marg, 400026 ( Peddar road ), 81. 160edit JJ Hospital. ( Byculla ), 82. 160edit KEM Hospital. ( Parel ), 83. 160edit Lilavati Hospital. A-791 Bandra Reclamation, Bandra(W), 400050. 91 22 26455889264558912643828182 ( fax. 91 22 26407655 ), 84. 160edit Nanavati Hospital. S. V. Rd, Vile Parle(W),400 057 ( Vile Parle ), 91 22 261255552612930226182255. 85. 160edit Orbit Eye Hospital ( Lasik Surgery ), 110111, 1st Floor,Markaz View, Next to Millat School, S.V Road, Jogeshwari(W), Mumbai -400102, Maharashtra India ( Jogeshwari(W) ), 91-22-2677 3600 2677 1133 (infoorbiteyehospital.in ), 86. 160edit Rushabh Eye Hospital. Chembur. 87. 160edit Sushrusha Hospital. Ranade Rd, Dadar, 400028. 91 22 24449161. 160edit Wockhardt Hospital and Heart Institute. ( Mulund ), 91 22 259077682593438925934387. 88. 160edit Utsav Eye Clinic ( Squint Eye Surgery ), 16, Hari Om Heritage, Plot no 8, Sector 21,Next to MTNL exchange, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 410210, India ( Kharghar ), 91-22-27742553 (utsaveyeclinicgmail ), 89. Mon to Sat 10 am to 9 pm. 160edit Sudha Tandon Fertility, IVF amp Endoscopy Hospital ( IVF amp Infertility Hospital ), Gagangiri Complex 18th Road, Near Dr. Ambedkar Udyan, Chembur (E), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400071, India ( Chembur ), 91 22 25280443 (infosudhatandoninfertility ), 90. 160edit Animal hospital edit Bai Sakarbai Dinshaw Petit Hospital for Animals ( Locally this hospital is known as Bail Ghoda (Bull Horse) Hospital. The Bombay Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) is also Headquartered there. Their ambulance rushes in answer to any call of distress to animals. ), ( Parel ), 91 22 24135285241354342413751824133598. 160edit Diagnostic centre edit List of Major Diagnostic, health care and Polyclinics: Soningra Polyclinic - Since 1984, catering the nation since last 25 years effectively and efficiently. B - Helal Bldg, Dr. Mascarenhas Rd, Mazgaon, 91 22 23715963, 91 22 2749662 Super Religare Laboratories Limited formerly Ranbaxy SRL 91 - Largest clinical reference laboratory network in India and in South East Asia. Plot 113, St 145 MIDC Andheri (E), 91 22 28237333, 91 22 30811111-99 Wellspring 92 - Another premier diagnostic laboratory owned by the Piramal group. Ganpatrao Kadam Marg, Near A to Z Industrial Estate, Off Worli Naka, Lower Parel(W). Along with the above they have other centers as well throughout the city. 24 hour chemist edit Parel Chemist. Opp. Wadia Maternity Hospital, Parel. 91 22 4131299, 91 22 24129751. 160edit Mumbai Medico. Bhatia Hospital, Tardeo. 91 22 23086641. 160edit Noble Chemist. Opp. AutoHangar Mercedes Showroom, Prabhadevi. 91 22 23853130. 160edit High CommissionsEmbassies edit Apart for the ones listed above there are consulates of a number of nations which can be can be found in the yellow pages directory. Get out edit By train edit The suburban train service, mentioned above, does a good job of connecting the surrounding cities. For trains to other Indian cities, the main reservation offices are at Churchgate, Mumbai Central, and Bandra on the Western line and CST and Dadar on Central line. There are special ticket windows and quotas for foreign tourists. For bookings and tariffs on train tickets to anywhere in India from Mumbai, visit Indian railways website107. To travel unlimited on the Mumbai you can use TOURIST TICKETMumbai Local Tourist Ticket provided by the Indian Railways. The Maharajas Express is a luxury train that will take you to Delhi. By road edit Mumbai Metropolitan Region The Mumbai Metropolitan Region around Mumbai is fast developing into a major conurbation. If you need to get to the surrounding cities of Thane, Navi Mumbai or Kalyan, bus services are available. TMT (Thane Municipal Transport) operates services in the Thane city and areas around it. The MSRTC (Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation), commonly known as ST, operates services from selected points in the city to the extended suburbs. From Dadar, services to Navi Mumbai and Panvel and from Borivali to Thane being the most prominent. Numerous other important routes are also covered in the MMR (Mumbai Metropolitan Region) by the MSRTC. NMMT (Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport) operates services in Navi Mumbai Area, and a few points around. They also have services from Mulund in Greater Mumbai. KDMT (Kalyan Dombivali Municipal Transport) operates in the Kalyan-Dombivali Area with a few connections to Navi Mumbai. Another option is to to book bus tickets online from RunBus 108 Redbus109 ,TicketGoose110 and Bookmyconnect 111 which has tied up with a number of large private bus operators all over India. By sea edit Raigad . district of Maharashtra lies just south of Mumbai. It is famous for its beaches and forts. You can get there by road or by ferry from Mumbai. The important ferry routes are: Ferry Wharf, Mazagaon, Mora (Uran ). Ferry Wharf, Mazagaon, Rewas (near Mandwa ). These are in the budget range. Gateway of India, Rewas. Fast boats and Catamarans operated by private operators. Service approximately every two hours, suspended during the monsoon season, i.e. May-Oct. From Rewas, take a bus or car to Alibag . By car edit Hill Stations Following are some of the hill stations that can be weekend gateways from Mumbai. Matheran (102 km1.5hrs): can be reached both by road and by train. For train option, take a suburban train to Neral and take hour long toy train to reach Matheran top. Alternatively it can be climbed. Lonavala (111.5 km, 1.5hrs) Best reached by road. Suburban trains do not ply to Lonavala, and may need to exchange train at Karjat or take en route long long distance train. Khandala (101 km1.5hrs) Check Lonavala. Mahabaleshwar (242km, 7hrs) Best reached by road. By air edit Lots of nearby destinations can be reached by short flights: Goa. Ahmedabad. Pune and Rajkot. to name a few. This is a guide article. It has a variety of good, quality information including hotels, restaurants, attractions, arrival and departure info. Plunge forward and help us make it a star 20 years of demat:A move that transformed share trading in India The National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL)mdashIndiarsquos first and largest repository of electronic securities on Thursday celebrated two decades of operations. Along with electronic trading, introduction of dematerializationmdashconversion of physical shares into electronic form--in the mid-90s was the other radical move that changed the character of the Indian market forever, and for the better. It gave another leg-up to the Indian market in its quest to rub shoulders with its global counterparts, eliminate frauds by companies and brokers, improve the efficiency of stock exchange clearing houses, reduce brokerage rates and attract more FIIs. The birth of NSDL was inevitable once the National Stock Exchange commenced operations in November with electronic trading, instead of the open outcry system being followed by rival Bombay Stock Exchange. Electronic trading made price discovery more efficient, it also sent volumes soaring. There were transactions happening everyday, but all the trades would be cleared once a fortnight. And therein lay the headache for the stock exchanges in settling the tradesmdashensuring that sellers got their money and buyers, their shares. Often, truckloads of share certificates would land up at the clearing houses of BSE and NSE. As an experiment, regional clearing corporations were tried out. But that did not work, the main problem being the transportation of physical shares. Then there was the problem of fake and forged shares. Many foreign institutional investors were reluctant to invest in India because of this problem. Companies were as guilty of forging share certificates as the brokers and other market players. Physical share certificates had distinctive numbers. Companies would pledge one set of shares with lenders, borrowing money against them. They would then print another bunch of certificates with the same distinctive numbers, and introduce them in the market through a friendly broker or through one of their own privately-owned companies. They could do so, safe in the knowledge that the original set of shares would be in the custody of the lenders so long as there was no default on the interest payments. Often, investors would not know if the shares were forged, unless they sent it to the company to get it registered in their name. But many investors never bothered to have the shares transferred to their name, and held it under what was known in market parlance as street name. Sometimes the shares would do a few rounds between buyers and sellers before they were eventually sent to the company to be transferred in the buyerrsquos name. And if the shares turned out to be fake or forged, the onus was on the broker (introducing broker) through whom the seller had sold the shares. The broker would then have to get his client to either replace the shares or return the money. That too was quite a task since some clients would quietly vanish after having sold the shares. The broker would then be held responsible for the fake shares. Quite a few small brokers went out of business, paying for the misdeeds of their clients. Due to the problem of bad deliveries, brokers became wary of accepting clients. The flip side of this was that investors found it difficult to get a good broker. That is because brokers would accept clients only if somebody would recommend them. The enactment of Depositories Act in August 1996 paved the way for establishment of NSDL, promoted by domestic institutions. The core team at NSDL had the option of going for either immobilisation or dematerialisation. In immobilisation, the physical share certificates remains with the depository in its vault. The depository would acknowledge the shares and make an electronic entry. NSDL chose to follow the example of Japan which had opted for dematerialization, than the US, which had chosen immobilization. The challenges faced by NSDL as it went about on its mission were threefold. First was to persuade companies to allow investors the option to hold shares in demat form. The second was to have a wide network of depository participants by getting banks and brokerages to be its agents, and thirdly to convince investors to hold shares in the electronic form. NSDL felt that the third part would be the most difficult since traditional investors would not be comfortable with the idea of holding their investments as an electronic entry. But to its surprise, the response to demat was much better than had expected. NSDL officials met up with many companies to sell them the idea of demat. Many companies signed up in the initial phase, but later the number stagnated. That was because many other companies were skeptical about the concept, and wanted to see for themselves how investors responded to it, before joining it. The next leg was more difficult: convincing banks to sign up with NSDL as depository participants. In the mid-90s, broking firms suffered from a lack of credibility. So while brokers were keen to sign up with NSDL, that did not help NSDLrsquos cause since retail investors did not trust the brokers enough to open a demat account with them. So NSDL had to get banks on its side to popularise the concept of demat. This was a slow process. It was difficult to explain capital markets to the banks. For some reason, they were averse to the idea of having anything to do with the capital markets. NSDL officials tried telling them that just as they held funds, it (NSDL) held shares. Finally banks saw the point. That was a key turning point for the concept of demat. Having a large network of depository participants was crucial to the success of dematerialisation. It would have been physically impossible for the NSDL to single-handedly cope with the massive volume of physical shares that had to be dematerialised. Investors would submit physical shares to the depositary participant, which would send those to the companyrsquos transfer agent after notifying NSDL. It was during the process of dematerialisation that many instances of fake shares came to light, which otherwise would have gone unnoticed. Many companies had more shares in circulation than were legitimately issued by them. Finally came the investors. Initially, there were two segments on the stock exchanges: the physical segment and the demat segment. In the beginning, liquidity in the physical segment was better, and that in the demat segment was a problem. This led to a vicious cycle wherein low liquidity discouraged investors from trading in demat shares, which in turn further reduced liquidity. That is when SEBI stepped in. The regulator ruled that institutional investors could buy the shares in any form. But if they had to sell those shares, it had to be in the electronic form only. That automatically ensured that institutions would dematerialize the physical shares they bought. This helped boost trading volumes in the demat segment. Dematerialisation immensely helped reduce the settlement risk and shortened settlement cycles, both of which were critical for upgrading the clearing and settlement system. And while retail investors were quicker to embrace the idea of electronic shares, the promoters of some of the reputed companies would need prodding from SEBI. It was only as late as June 2011 that SEBI made it mandatory for promoters of all listed companies to hold shares in the demat form only. Data available with the regulator showed that promoters of nearly 50 percent listed companies, still held shares in physical form. And these included quite a few blue-chip companies and public sector giants. As of December 31, 2016, the NSDL boasts of a little over 1.5 crore demat accounts. A very low figure for a country like India, which is trying to promote financial instruments over traditional asset classes like gold and real estate.