Perpajakan-stock-options-uk

Perpajakan-stock-options-uk

Trading-strategy-info-affiliate
Trading-signal-service
Trading-options-with-interactive-broker


No-loss-options-trading Option-trading-faq Online-trading-academy-xlt-password Bagaimana-untuk-perdagangan-biner-pilihan-ep -1 Ou-forex-penguasaan-2 Tu-hoc-choi-forex

Perpajakan sektor keuangan Negara-negara Anggota dan warganya ingin memastikan bahwa sektor keuangan memberikan kontribusi yang adil dan substansial terhadap keuangan publik. Selain itu, sektor ini harus membayar kembali setidaknya sebagian dari apa yang telah dibiayai wajib pajak Eropa dalam konteks operasi penyelamatan bank. Semakin banyak Negara Anggota melihat cara baru untuk pajak sektor keuangan, terutama dengan memperkenalkan pungutan bank dan pajak transaksi keuangan nasional. Inisiatif ini telah mempertaruhkan yang mengarah pada fragmentasi Pasar Tunggal untuk layanan keuangan dan sering terjadinya pajak berganda dan pajak non-pajak ganda. Proposal Komisi untuk Pajak Transaksi Keuangan bertujuan untuk menyelaraskan fitur utama dari inisiatif yang bertujuan untuk mengenakan pajak atas transaksi keuangan sehingga dapat meminimalkan risiko ini. The Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) Proposal 14 Februari 2013 hellip Pada tanggal 14 Februari 2013, Komisi Eropa mengajukan sebuah proposal untuk Council Directive yang menerapkan kerjasama yang disempurnakan. Seperti yang diminta oleh sebelas Negara Anggota yang terlibat, proposal ini mencerminkan lingkup dan tujuan proposal FTT yang asli, sementara juga memperkuat peraturan anti-relokasi dan anti-penyalahgunaan (lihat IP13115). Dokumen yang relevan dalam konteks ini adalah proposal itu sendiri (COM201371), penilaian dampak (SWD201328) dan ringkasannya (SWD201329), sebuah presentasi terbaru yang mengilustrasikan fitur, dampak dan fungsi kerangka kerja yang diusulkan, serta teknik yang tidak teknis dan lebih teknis. Jawaban atas pertanyaan yang diajukan mengenai fungsi dan dampak proposal. Metode dan persyaratan pengumpulan FTT ndash: Laporan Ernst and Young mengenai berbagai tantangan, solusi dan opsi untuk pengumpulan FTT UE, berdasarkan proposal Komisi. Melalui FTT, seperti yang diusulkan, sektor keuangan akan berpartisipasi dengan benar dalam biaya membangun kembali ekonomi dan memperkuat keuangan publik dari Negara-negara Anggota yang berpartisipasi. Pendapatan tahunan diperkirakan sekitar EUR 30 sampai 35 miliar, atau 0,4-0,5 dari PDB Negara Anggota yang berpartisipasi. Hellip dan jalan di depan Diskusi di kelompok kerja Dewan terkait segera dimulai setelah usulan Komisi diajukan. Dalam diskusi ini, semua Negara Anggota UE dapat berpartisipasi, namun hanya 11 Negara Anggota yang berpartisipasi yang berhak memilih dan menyetujui Petunjuk tersebut. Setelah disepakati di tingkat Eropa, Negara Anggota yang berpartisipasi harus mentranspos Instruksi tersebut ke dalam undang-undang nasional. Proposal awal 28 September 2011 hellip Pada bulan September 2011, Komisi Eropa mengusulkan Transisi Transaksi Keuangan yang harmonis untuk seluruh Uni Eropa (lihat (IP111085). Tujuan dari FTT yang diusulkan adalah: - untuk mencegah fragmentasi Pasar Tunggal itu Dapat dihasilkan dari berbagai pendekatan nasional yang tidak terkoordinasi untuk meleburkan transaksi keuangan, - untuk memastikan bahwa sektor keuangan menghasilkan kontribusi yang adil dan substansial terhadap keuangan publik, dan - untuk mencegah transaksi keuangan yang tidak berkontribusi terhadap efisiensi pasar keuangan atau ekonomi riil Inisiatif ini juga seharusnya menjadi langkah awal yang nyata untuk melakukan pajak atas transaksi semacam itu di tingkat global. Proposal tersebut adalah untuk menyelaraskan basis pajak dan menetapkan tingkat minimum untuk semua transaksi di pasar keuangan sekunder, setidaknya sekali satu partai Uni Eropa ( Lembaga keuangan) terlibat dalam transaksi ini. Tarif pajak minimum yang diperkirakan adalah 0,1 untuk perdagangan saham dan bo Nds, dan 0,01 untuk perjanjian derivatif seperti options, futures, kontrak untuk selisih atau swap suku bunga. Proposal tersebut mengambil pendekatan triple A, yaitu pajak harus berlaku untuk semua pasar (seperti pasar yang diatur atau transaksi over-the-counter), semua instrumen (saham, obligasi, derivatif dan lain-lain) dan semua pelaku (bank, bank bayangan, Manajer aset, dll.). Hal ini akan meminimalkan distorsi potensial di berbagai segmen pasar dan mengurangi risiko perencanaan pajak, substitusi dan relokasi. Hellip dan nasibnya Pada pertengahan 2012, Menteri Keuangan Uni Eropa memutuskan di ECOFIN bahwa mereka tidak dapat mencapai kesepakatan dengan suara bulat mengenai proposal untuk FTT Uni Eropa di masa mendatang. Meskipun demikian, sejumlah Negara Anggota menyatakan kesediaan yang kuat untuk terus melanjutkan FTT. Oleh karena itu, pintu terbuka untuk sebuah subkelompok Negara-negara Anggota untuk terlibat dalam prosedur kerja sama yang disempurnakan pada Transisi Transisi Keuangan yang sama yang diselaraskan di antara mereka sendiri. Pada akhir September 2012, Komisi telah menerima permintaan untuk tujuan ini dari sebuah kelompok yang terdiri dari 11 Negara Anggota. Mereka meminta izin untuk memperkenalkan sistem FTT yang umum berdasarkan cakupan dan tujuan proposal awal Komisi. Komisi menganalisis permintaan ini untuk memastikan kompatibilitasnya dengan undang-undang Uni Eropa, juga mempertimbangkan kepentingan Negara-negara Anggota yang tidak berpartisipasi. Pada tanggal 23 Oktober 2012, Komisi mengusulkan kepada Dewan untuk mengotorisasi kerja sama yang disempurnakan yang diminta oleh sebelas Negara Anggota ini (lihat IP121138). Parlemen Eropa memberikan persetujuannya pada tanggal 12 Desember 2012 dan Dewan Uni Eropa mengadopsi sebuah keputusan yang memberi wewenang kepada sebelas Negara Anggota untuk melanjutkan kerja sama yang diminta pada 22 Januari 2013 (lihat siaran pers Dewan) (hanya tersedia dalam bahasa Inggris). Apakah FTT seperti yang diusulkan sesuai dengan peraturan perpajakan internasional dan hukum Eropa Sementara itu, Inggris telah menantang legalitas keputusan 22 Januari 2013 Dewan untuk mengotorisasi kerjasama yang disempurnakan pada kerangka umum FTT dan cakupan dan tujuan dari Proposal komisi awal (lihat Kasus C-20913 Inggris v Council) yang mengklaim bahwa keputusan Dewan tersebut undang-undang yang berwenang memiliki efek ekstra-teritorial ilegal, dan tidak menghormati hak-hak Negara-negara Anggota yang tidak berpartisipasi. Tantangan hukum ini, bagaimanapun, tidak ada efek menangguhkan. Komisi dan beberapa Negara Anggota yang berpartisipasi membantah klaim bahwa kerangka kerja FTT yang harmonis seperti yang diusulkan oleh Komisi akan mengandung ketentuan dengan efek ekstrateritorial ilegal atau tidak menghormati hak-hak Negara-negara Anggota yang tidak berpartisipasi. Pidato (replyintervention) oleh Direktur Komisi EU untuk perpajakan tidak langsung, M. Bergmann dalam sebuah konferensi di Paris (23 Januari 2014) Legalitas prinsip counter-party dan proposal FTT sebagai catatan teknis semacam itu Aturan tentang saham pada saham Perpajakan Aturan di saham Inggris Ada tiga jenis pajak yang harus Anda bayar saat melakukan perdagangan saham. Pajak capital gain, pajak penghasilan dan materai. Namun Anda tidak perlu khawatir tentang menghitung materai seperti yang ditangani oleh broker Anda saat Anda memasuki perdagangan. Kewajiban saat ini yang Anda bayar untuk memasuki perdagangan adalah 0,5 jadi jika Anda membeli 10.000 saham, Anda harus membayar 50 langsung ke pemerintah. Modal keuntungan pajak atas saham Keuntungan Modal Pajak dibayarkan saat Anda memperoleh keuntungan dari saham Anda. Kerugian dari saham Anda dapat dikurangkan dari keuntungan untuk mengurangi jumlah pajak capital gain yang harus Anda bayar. Pajak penghasilan atas dividen Jenis pajak lainnya yang Anda bayar, pajak penghasilan, hanya akan terjadi jika Anda menerima uang dari dividen saham. Perhatikan bahwa Anda juga membayar pajak penghasilan atas gaji Anda (upah) oleh karena itu Anda perlu menambahkan uang yang diterima dari dividen ke gaji Anda sebelum menghitung berapa pajak penghasilan yang harus dibayar. Tanggal dan tunjangan pajak Inggris Pajak kenaikan modal harus dibayar pada tanggal 31 Januari setiap tahunnya. Tunjangan bebas pajak 20082009 saat ini adalah 9.600, dan keuntungan di atas 9.600 akan dikenakan biaya untuk CGT. Pajak penghasilan harus dibayar pada tanggal 5 April dan keringanan pajak 20082008 saat ini adalah 6.035. Setiap pendapatan yang diperoleh dari 6.035 di tahun ini akan dikenakan pajak penghasilan. Untuk informasi lebih rinci tentang pajak capital gain dan pajak penghasilan di Inggris, lihat halaman web resmi pemerintah di hmrc.gov.uk. Jika Anda berasal dari luar Amerika Serikat, mengapa tidak melihat akun taruhan spread dimana pajak capital gain tidak berlaku untuk kemenangan. Aturan perpajakan pada saham AS Undang-undang perpajakan mengenai saham di AS sedikit lebih sederhana daripada di Inggris. Di Amerika Serikat hanya membayar satu pajak yaitu pajak penghasilan. Keuntungan modal mereka atas saham hanya ditambahkan ke pajak penghasilan orang. Seperti di Inggris, kerugian modal bisa diimbangi dengan capital gain untuk mengurangi jumlah pajak yang harus dibayar. Orang-orang di AS juga memiliki dua tunjangan pajak, deduksi standar dan tunjangan pribadi sehingga mereka dapat melepaskan pendapatan kotor mereka. Tarif pajak AS untuk capital gain Pertama-tama untuk menghitung pajak yang harus dibayar untuk capital gain Anda perlu mengetahui braket pajak penghasilan yang menjadi milik Anda. 2009 Klaim pajak penghasilan AS Catatan: Jika Anda lajang dan penghasilan bersih Anda mencapai 25.000 Anda hanya akan membayar 10 pajak pada 8.350 dan 15 pajak sisanya. Kedua, setelah Anda mengetahui golongan pajak penghasilan Anda, Anda dapat menghitung berapa banyak pajak yang harus Anda bayar untuk keuntungan modal Anda dengan menggunakan tabel di bawah ini. 2009 AS mengenakan capital gain Cari tahu bagaimana Anda bisa menghasilkan uang di bursa saham turun 8211 shorting stock. Anda punya waktu untuk melakukan perdagangan saham sendiri. Dasar-dasar reksa dana. Hai. Sangat informatif, saya tinggal di AS. Ingin tahu apakah saya menganggur (membuat braket pajak saya yang terkecil) dan berinvestasi di NYSE atau NASDAQ, apakah saya akan berada di kelompok pajak terendah dalam hal Capital Gains Tax atau apakah itu tergantung pada seberapa banyak Im keluar dari saham? pasar. Thanks Hi there Shahzeb 8211 Di AS, ada dua tarif pajak yang berlaku untuk keuntungan penjualan saham (disebut Capital Gain) 8211 ada suku bunga capital gain jangka pendek dan jangka panjang. Tingkat suku bunga jangka pendek berlaku untuk keuntungan pada saham yang dimiliki kurang dari satu tahun. Tingkat suku bunga jangka panjang berlaku untuk keuntungan pada saham yang dimiliki setidaknya selama satu tahun. Secara umum, tingkat pajak capital gain jangka pendek Anda adalah tarif pajak efektif Anda untuk seluruh pendapatan Anda 8211 jadi jika Anda menganggur dan memiliki tingkat pajak yang sangat rendah untuk tahun tertentu, tingkat keuntungan modal Anda untuk tahun itu seharusnya sangat rendah . Jika ini adalah keuntungan jangka panjang, tingkat suku bunga pada umumnya lebih rendah (pada dasarnya Anda dihargai untuk periode holding yang lebih lama) dan dalam kisaran 0-20. Jika tarif pajak secara keseluruhan sangat rendah, Anda mungkin memenuhi syarat untuk tingkat suku bunga 0 jangka panjang. Kode pajaknya rumit, jadi sangat disarankan untuk membaca publikasi IRS dengan sangat teliti atau untuk berkonsultasi dengan penasihat pajak. Terimakasih atas infonya. Setelah membaca semua komentar di sini, saya memiliki satu keraguan: jika saya tinggal di Inggris namun memiliki saham di AS melalui broker Amerika dan rekening bank AS8230 apakah saya harus membayar pajak di Inggris jika saya menjual satu saham dan kemudian membeli yang lain Yang saya maksud: Saya tidak pernah mentransfer uangnya kembali ke Inggris. Nedeljko kontic mengatakan: Saya tidak akan menjual saham saya tapi tidak ada uang untuk membayar pajak terlebih dahulu, bagaimana cara membayar pajak. Ini untuk IRS. Jika tidak ada uang untuk membayar pajak, apa yang akan terjadi dengan uang dari saham saya. Terima kasih. Halo Nedeljko 8211 Anda hampir tidak akan pernah membayar pajak pada saat penjualan saat menjual saham. Umumnya, saat menjual saham Anda, seluruh hasil penjualan tersedia untuk Anda. Anda kemudian membayar pajak atas keuntungan saat mengajukan pengembalian pajak pada akhir tahun. Atau jika Anda memiliki kerugian, Anda mungkin memiliki potongan pajak. Jika Anda memiliki keuntungan dan kerugian dari penjualan saham yang berbeda, Anda mungkin akhirnya tidak harus membayar pajak sama sekali. Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasanGuide ke Inggris perpajakan untuk investor asing 1 Pendahuluan Penggunaan laporan Hooper amp Co (termasuk mitra, karyawan, agen subkontraktor dan karyawannya) tidak bertanggung jawab dan tidak bertanggung jawab dalam kontrak, tort atau sebaliknya kepada pihak manapun dalam Terkait dengan isi laporan ini. Setiap penggunaan laporan ini sepenuhnya atas risiko mereka sendiri. 2 Kehadiran Kena Pajak Suatu usaha asing yang beroperasi di Inggris tidak secara otomatis membuat kena pajak di Inggris. Agar dapat menanggung pajak perusahaan Inggris, entitas luar negeri harus melakukan perdagangan di Inggris melalui bentuk usaha tetap. Ada perbedaan antara perdagangan 8216 dengan 8216 Inggris dan perdagangan 8216 di 8216 Inggris. Sebuah perusahaan yang melakukan perdagangan 8216 dengan 8216 pelanggan di Inggris hanya cenderung menciptakan kehadiran kena pajak di Inggris jika juga memenuhi fungsi yang relevan di bawah ini. Perusahaan yang hanya membeli atau menjual ke pelanggan Inggris tidak mungkin menciptakan kehadiran kena pajak melalui kegiatan ini namun perlu dicirikan sebagai perdagangan 8216 di 8216 Inggris untuk menjadi kena pajak di sini melalui penciptaan bentuk usaha tetap. Seorang non-residen memiliki bentuk usaha tetap di Inggris jika: ia memiliki tempat usaha tetap di sini yang dengannya seluruh bisnis perusahaan dijalankan atau sebagian dijalankan, atau agen yang bertindak atas nama perusahaan memiliki dan biasa menjalankan wewenang di sini. Untuk melakukan bisnis atas nama perusahaan (asalkan agen tersebut bukan dari status independen yang bertindak dalam kegiatan usahanya). Oleh karena itu penting untuk meninjau kapasitas kontrak dalam kasus dimana penjualan dilakukan oleh agen yang berbasis di Inggris Tempat usaha tetap dimana bisnis dijalankan Jika tidak ada usaha yang dilakukan meskipun merupakan tempat tetap di Inggris maka tidak ada bentuk usaha tetap yang dapat ada. Oleh karena itu penting untuk menentukan di mana bisnis dijalankan. Hukum kasus menetapkan bahwa hanya mencari perintah di Inggris (secara langsung atau tidak langsung) bukan dengan sendirinya merupakan bukti perdagangan di Inggris. Di Grainger V Gough, diadakan perdagangan dengan sebuah negara melalui permintaan, tidak ada yang sama dengan perdagangan di negara tersebut: Pertama, menurut saya ada perbedaan yang luas antara perdagangan dengan suatu negara, dan melakukan perdagangan dalam negeri. negara. Banyak pedagang dan produsen mengekspor barang-barang mereka ke seluruh belahan dunia, namun saya rasa tidak ada yang mengira bahwa mereka menjalankan atau menjalankan perdagangan mereka di setiap negara tempat barang mereka menemukan pelanggan. Jika semua yang dilakukan pedagang dalam suatu barang tertentu Negara harus meminta perintah, menurut saya dia tidak dapat dikatakan cukup baik untuk melakukan atau melakukan perdagangannya di negara tersebut. Namun, walaupun kontrak tidak selesai di Inggris, perdagangan dapat dilakukan di Inggris. Sementara tempat kontrak disimpulkan penting, ini tidak menentukan. Di Pengadilan Banding di FL Smidth amp Co v F Greenwood diadakan (tanpa keberatan dari House of Lords) bahwa Ada indikasi dalam kasus yang dikutip dan kasus lain bahwa cukup untuk mempertimbangkan hanya di mana penjualan Kontrak dibuat yang menghasilkan keuntungan. Ini jelas merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dalam penyelidikan, dan, jika itu adalah satu-satunya elemen, penilaiannya jelas buruk. Kontrak dalam kasus ini dibuat di luar negeri. Tapi saya tidak siap untuk menganggap bahwa tes ini sangat menentukan. Saya bisa membayangkan kasus di mana kontrak penjualan ulang dilakukan di luar negeri, namun pembuatan barang, beberapa negosiasi persyaratan, dan pelaksanaan kontrak yang lengkap terjadi di sini dalam keadaan seperti itu bahwa perdagangan tersebut benar dilakukan di sini. Kesimpulannya, bisnis akan dijalankan melalui tempat tetap di Inggris jika lokasi di mana operasi berlangsung terjadi dimana keuntungan substansi muncul8221 (L Smidth amp Co v F Greenwood). Tidak mungkin ada bisnis yang dilakukan di Inggris pada tahun 8220, jika kegiatan tersebut dibatasi untuk menerima pesanan dari pelanggan Inggris yang mengirimkan barang ke pelanggan Inggris yang membeli barang dari pemasok Inggris Hal ini juga tercermin melalui definisi aktivitas 8220preparatory dan auxiliary8221 (lihat di bawah). Namun, tidak ada persyaratan bahwa kontrak benar-benar dapat disimpulkan di Inggris agar bisnis dapat dibawa pada 8220in8221 definisi hukum UK.The Inggris terus memberikan beberapa contoh tempat bisnis yang tidak lengkap yang dianggap telah diperbaiki. Tempat usaha seperti: tempat pengelolaan, cabang, kantor, pabrik, bengkel, instalasi atau struktur untuk eksplorasi sumber daya alam, tambang, sumur minyak atau gas, tempat tambang atau tempat lain Ekstraksi sumber daya alam, lokasi bangunan atau proyek konstruksi atau instalasi. Tempat usaha tidak harus disewa atau dimiliki oleh perusahaan non-residen itu sendiri, namun harus tersedia untuk digunakan oleh karyawannya. Personel yang menjalankan bisnis melalui tempat tinggal dapat (a) pegawai non-residen Perusahaan perseorangan atau (b) kontraktor yang dilibatkan oleh perusahaan non-penduduk Entah akan memiliki kapasitas yang diperlukan untuk menjalankan usaha non-residen Agar perusahaan non-penduduk memiliki tempat usaha yang harus diperbaiki, harus Melakukan kegiatan melalui tempat yang sama untuk jangka waktu tertentu. Perusahaan non-residen biasanya tidak memiliki bentuk usaha tetap jika hanya melakukan transaksi tunggal dari lokasi tertentu. Peralatan otomatis Peralatan otomatis dapat ditempatkan di tempat kerja lain, dioperasikan dan dikelola oleh karyawan mereka. Jika perusahaan non-residen tersebut terus menerima semua pendapatan dari peralatan tersebut, bentuk usaha tetap mungkin ada karena peralatan tersebut masih dioperasikan dan dipelihara 8220 untuk kepentingan sendiri8221 Agen dependen Suatu bentuk usaha tetap mungkin juga ada di Inggris jika ada 8220dependent agent8221 di Inggris. Ini didefinisikan sebagai agen yang bertindak atas nama perusahaan dan biasanya menjalankan kewenangan untuk melakukan bisnis atas nama perusahaan8221. Kewenangan agen untuk menyimpulkan kontrak dapat ditulis, lisan atau tersirat (yaitu tersirat berdasarkan perusahaan yang tidak terlibat aktif dalam negosiasi atau kesimpulan kontrak). Namun, ini secara khusus mengacu pada agen yang menyimpulkan kontrak dengan pelanggan. Kontrak disimpulkan untuk tujuan membangun bisnis di Inggris (misalnya perjanjian sewa untuk mendapatkan tempat) tidak akan termasuk dalam definisi ini. Adalah penting bahwa agen 8220habitually8221 menyimpulkan kontrak atas nama perusahaan non-residen. Jika kontrak sesekali disimpulkan, maka hal ini mungkin tidak menimbulkan bentuk usaha tetap, karena tidak memiliki tingkat keabadian yang diperlukan. Seorang agen akan diperlakukan sebagai kontrak penutup meskipun dia tidak benar-benar menandatangani kontrak. Negosiasi dan kesepakatan persyaratan kontrak utama akan merupakan 8220conclusion8221. Beberapa DTA yang lebih tua dari Inggris mengandung definisi yang berbeda tentang agen dependen, yang mengharuskan agen tersebut melakukan negosiasi dan menyimpulkan kesimpulan kontrak 8211 kontrak dalam kasus ini tidak termasuk negosiasi karena hal tersebut diidentifikasi secara terpisah. Ini harus dikontraskan dengan situasi di mana beberapa persyaratan kontrak dinegosiasikan di Inggris, namun sebagian besar persyaratan kontrak dinegosiasikan di luar Inggris. Karyawan perusahaan non-residen dapat menghadiri pertemuan sesekali di Inggris untuk membahas persyaratan kontrak tanpa harus menciptakan bentuk usaha tetap di Inggris. Agen Independen Agen independen, seperti broker atau agen komisi umum tidak dapat merupakan bentuk usaha tetap dari perusahaan non-penduduk asalkan dia tidak independen terhadap perusahaan tersebut, baik secara legal maupun ekonomis, dan bertindak untuk perusahaan non-penduduk dalam kursus normal. Bisnis. Persiapan atau Penambahan Ada pengecualian terhadap peraturan pendirian tetap jika kegiatan yang dilakukan di Inggris bersifat persiapan atau penunjang, biasanya disebut sebagai kantor perwakilan dewan perwakilan negara bagian28201. Contoh kegiatan yang dapat dilakukan persiapan dan penunjang meliputi: (a) menyiapkan profil manajemen perusahaan (b) memelihara database informasi industri (c) membantu analisis keuangan (d) industri pemantauan perusahaan (e) meneliti data pasar (f) memberikan informasi dan analisis (G) memelihara database kontak klien (alamat, profil dll) Penting untuk mempertimbangkan apakah kegiatan yang dilakukan di Inggris bersifat persiapan dan pelengkap dalam konteks perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Dimana, misalnya, bisnis perusahaan adalah menyediakan data riset pasar kepada pelanggannya kemudian melakukan riset pasar di Inggris tidak akan persiapan dan tambahan 3 Cabang atau anak perusahaan Setelah menyimpulkan bahwa kehadiran kena pajak telah dibuat di Inggris, ada sejumlah Dari kendaraan perdagangan di mana untuk memilih untuk beroperasi dari termasuk cabang, perusahaan terbatas dan terbatas swastaepublik dan perusahaan publik terbatas Eropa yang relatif baru, Societas Europaea. Kendaraan mana yang paling sesuai untuk Anda akan tergantung pada sejumlah faktor termasuk rezim perpajakan di negara tempat tinggal perusahaan induk, dan tersedianya perjanjian perpajakan antara Inggris, dan negara tempat tinggal dari perusahaan grup lain yang mana Inggris akan bertransaksi. Tabel berikut membandingkan aspek utama dari dua media perdagangan Inggris yang paling umum, cabang dan perusahaan terbatas swasta. Perlu dicatat bahwa perusahaan terbatas Inggris juga dapat diperlakukan sebagai cabang untuk tujuan pajak AS melalui pemilihan 8216check box8217. Tabel berikut menggambarkan perbedaan pajak dan hukum utama antara cabang dan anak perusahaan. Cabang Inggris dari Perusahaan Luar Negeri Ada peraturan khusus untuk periode yang lebih pendek dari setahun. Perusahaan diwajibkan untuk mengestimasi kewajiban pajaknya untuk periode akuntansi saat ini dan melakukan pembayaran angsuran berdasarkan estimasi tersebut. Jika perkiraan tersebut berubah, perusahaan perlu menghitung ulang pembayaran angsurannya berdasarkan angka revisi untuk memastikan bunga dan denda tidak timbul karena kurang bayar pajak. Untuk periode akuntansi 12 bulan, setiap pembayaran harus seperempat dari kewajiban pajak perusahaan yang diantisipasi untuk tahun tersebut. Perusahaan perlu menghitung pembayaran dengan cepat, karena bunga dan kemungkinan denda dibebankan pada keterlambatan pembayaran pajak. Kerugian apapun harus dikoreksi pada kesempatan paling awal dan hal ini dapat dicapai kapan saja dengan melakukan pembayaran dengan biaya 8220top-up8221. Jika ditemukan bahwa terlalu banyak pajak telah dilunasi dengan cicilan, klaim untuk pembayaran dapat dilakukan. Kelompok perusahaan dapat menyerahkan kelebihan pembayaran di antara anggota kelompok (yaitu jumlah kompensasi yang dibayarkan lebih rendah oleh satu perusahaan terhadap jumlah yang dibayar lebih rendah oleh perusahaan lain dalam kelompok yang sama). Ada juga Pengaturan Pembayaran Grup yang memungkinkan kelompok melakukan pembayaran angsuran secara kelompok, bukan perusahaan oleh perusahaan. Pengaturan semacam itu dapat digunakan untuk meminimalkan terpaan biaya bunga atas pajak yang dibayar terlambat dan persyaratan pencatatan. Tarifnya adalah ringkasan sebagai berikut: Tingkat penuh pajak perusahaan (sebelum 31 Maret 2008) Perusahaan harus menyimpan catatan yang memadai mengenai penghitungan angsuran mereka karena (termasuk perkiraan keuntungan) jika ada permintaan diajukan. Bunga dibebankan pada keterlambatan pembayaran pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi dari yang diterima dengan bunga kredit atas kelebihan bayar. Bunga yang dibayarkan dapat dikurangkan untuk keperluan perpajakan di tahun pembayaran dan biaya bunga dibebankan ke pajak perusahaan pada tahun penerimaan. Apabila perusahaan tersebut gagal membayar angsuran seperlunya, hukuman dapat dikenakan dua kali jumlah bunga karena keterlambatan pembayaran. Tarif pajak perusahaan Inggris Sistem pajak perusahaan Inggris didasarkan pada tarif tunggal yang berlaku untuk semua keuntungan yang dapat dibebankan. Tingkat ditentukan oleh tingkat keuntungan total. Tingkat penuh pajak perusahaan berlaku untuk semua keuntungan dimana jumlah yang dibebankan melebihi batas atas. Tingkat perusahaan kecil diterapkan pada semua keuntungan dimana jumlah yang dibebankan di bawah batas bawah. Keuntungan yang berada di dalam batas atas dan bawah tunduk pada tingkat penuh pajak perusahaan dikurangi pengurangan yang dihitung, yang pengaruhnya adalah untuk memangkas tarif pajak efektif dari tingkat yang lebih rendah ke tingkat bunga penuh karena keuntungan mendekati batas atas. Batas tersebut dipra-nilai untuk periode pengembalian pajak kurang dari 12 bulan dan dibagi antara perusahaan asosiasi, mengurangi keuntungan dari tingkat perusahaan kecil untuk kelompok besar. Contoh Perusahaan A memiliki keuntungan sebesar 130.000 untuk periode 6 bulan sampai 31 Maret 2009. Perusahaan A memiliki 5 perusahaan asosiasi. Tingkat atas 1.500.000 dikurangi dengan 612 untuk periode akuntansi singkat 750.000. Batas atas dikurangi dibagi antara 6 perusahaan (5 diri) 125.000. Karena keuntungan yang dibebankan lebih besar daripada batas batas atas batas batas dikenakan pada tingkat penuh 30 39.000. Jika perusahaan tidak diharuskan membayar cicilan, pajaknya akan jatuh tempo pada tanggal 1 Oktober 2007. Jika perusahaan diharuskan membayar cicilan dengan pajak akan jatuh tempo: 14 Januari 2007 19.500 14 April 2007 19.500. Anda akan mencatat bahwa hanya ada dua cicilan. Ini karena, walaupun cicilannya jatuh tempo 3, 9, 12 dan 15 setelah awal periode, semua pajak harus dibayar dalam waktu 3 bulan dari akhir periode. Total kewajiban dibagi antara jumlah angsuran antara kedua tanggal ini, dalam hal ini dua menjadi 6 dan 9 bulan setelah dimulainya periode tersebut. Perhitungan keuntungan yang dibebankan pada pajak perusahaan Laba bersih per laporan keuangan, asalkan mereka dipersiapkan sesuai dengan UK GAAP atau IAS merupakan dasar perhitungan pajak Inggris. Keuntungan ini disesuaikan untuk biaya dan tunjangan yang tidak diperbolehkan sebagai pengurang untuk tujuan perpajakan atau tidak dilaporkan dalam laporan keuangan. Biaya yang tidak dapat dikurangkan mencakup barang-barang tertentu seperti hiburan pelanggan dan biaya umum yang tidak langsung diterapkan untuk menghasilkan keuntungan perdagangan termasuk biaya pendirian perusahaan dan biaya hukum terkait. Tunjangan modal Penyusutan bukan merupakan pengurang pajak yang diijinkan. Sebagai pengganti uang saku tahunan diberikan untuk pembelian barang-barang kualifikasi, seperti pabrik dan mesin, dengan tarif yang ditentukan oleh HMRC setiap tahunnya. Tingkat tunjangan tahunan berkisar antara 6 sampai 100 dengan jenis aset yang diperoleh dan tanggal pembelian. Tunjangan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengeluaran untuk RampD yang memenuhi kriteria ketat diberi tunjangan tambahan, kali ini bergantung pada ukuran perusahaan yang menghasilkan pengeluaran. Klaim dibuat dengan mengacu pada periode akuntansi perusahaan dan harus untuk memenuhi syarat pengeluaran lebih dari 10.000. Tidak ada batas atas jumlah klaim. Perusahaan kecil dapat mengurangi tambahan 50 pengeluaran RampD dari keuntungan yang dapat dibebankan atau memilih untuk mendapatkan kredit tunai dari HMRC dimana mereka memiliki kerugian dalam periode akuntansi. Kredit tunai sama dengan 24 untuk setiap 100 pengeluaran. Perusahaan besar dapat mengurangi tambahan 25 pengeluaran RampD dari keuntungan yang dapat dibebankan namun tidak dapat memilih untuk mendapatkan kredit tunai. 6 Harga transfer Harga transfer mengacu pada harga barang, jasa, dana dan aset berwujud dan tidak berwujud yang ditransfer dalam suatu organisasi, antara divisi internal atau untuk menyeberangi perusahaan asosiasi perbatasan. Karena harga ditetapkan di dalam organisasi, mereka dianggap dikendalikan, mekanisme pasar khas yang menetapkan harga untuk transaksi serupa antara pihak ketiga mungkin tidak berlaku. Harga transfer yang dipilih akan mempengaruhi alokasi total keuntungan organisasi di antara berbagai bagian kelompok. Ini telah memberi ruang lingkup di masa lalu untuk entitas multi-nasional untuk memanipulasi mekanisme penetapan harga internal yang menetapkan harga transfer pada transaksi lintas batas dengan cara mengurangi keuntungan kena pajak mereka di yurisdiksi pajak tinggi dan untuk meningkatkan keuntungan kena pajak mereka di yurisdiksi pajak yang lebih rendah. Praktik-praktik ini menciptakan kekhawatiran utama otoritas pajak, yang menyebabkan kenaikan peraturan dan penegakan harga transfer, dan membuat penetapan harga transfer menjadi masalah kepatuhan pajak utama bagi perusahaan multi-nasional. Ada persetujuan umum umum antara pajak dan otoritas fiskal lainnya bahwa untuk mencapai pembagian yang adil atas keuntungan kena pajak di seluruh perbatasan internasional, transaksi antara pihak terkait harus diperlakukan untuk tujuan perpajakan dengan menerapkan jumlah keuntungan yang akan timbul, jika transaksi yang sama telah terjadi. Telah dilakukan oleh pihak yang tidak terkait. Strategi penetapan harga ini, yang diharapkan dapat diamati antara mitra dagang independen, disebut sebagai prinsip panjang arm8217s. Aturan dan pedoman penetapan harga transfer, di Inggris dan di tempat lain, oleh karena itu mengharuskan prinsip ini diakui saat menghitung laba kena pajak. Pembebasan untuk usaha kecil dan menengah Usaha kecil adalah mereka yang memiliki kurang dari 50 karyawan dan omset atau aset kotor yang tidak melebihi 10 juta. Perusahaan berukuran sedang adalah perusahaan yang tidak kecil namun memiliki kurang dari 250 karyawan dan omset baik yang tidak melebihi 50 juta atau aset kotor kurang dari 43m. Penting untuk dicatat bahwa untuk tujuan ini, karyawan, omset dan aset dari semua pihak terkait, Inggris dan sebaliknya, akan diperhitungkan. Definisi pihak terkait didefinisikan secara luas untuk tujuan menerapkan ambang ukuran kecil dan menengah. Aturan penetapan harga transfer biasanya tidak berlaku untuk usaha kecil, meskipun akan berlaku jika transaksi dilakukan dengan entitas di yurisdiksi yang tidak memiliki perjanjian pajak yang sesuai dengan Inggris. Aturan tersebut juga memberi HM Revenue amp Bea Cukai (HMRC) kekuatan untuk menanyakan dan melakukan penyesuaian harga transfer pada perusahaan menengah di 8220kontraktor keadaan8221. Harap dicatat bahwa pembebasan kecil dan menengah hanya berlaku di dalam peraturan Inggris, dan mitra luar negeri untuk suatu transaksi mungkin tidak mendapatkan keuntungan dari pembebasan serupa di negara mereka sendiri. Pembebasan untuk perusahaan yang tidak aktif Ini bukan pembebasan selimut, melainkan berlaku untuk transaksi di mana perusahaan yang tidak aktif itu secara potensial diuntungkan8221. Jadi misalnya saldo pinjaman dimana debitur adalah perusahaan yang aktif dan kreditur perusahaan yang tidak aktif tidak akan dibebaskan karena perusahaan yang aktif adalah pihak yang berpotensi diuntungkan. Juga pembebasan hanya berlaku untuk perusahaan yang tidak aktif yang tidak aktif sepanjang masa pra-kualifikasi, karena (pada umumnya) periode yang berakhir pada tanggal 31 Maret 2004. Perusahaan yang menjadi tidak aktif setelah tanggal ini tidak akan termasuk dalam pembebasan tersebut. Dokumentasi Kewajiban untuk memelihara dokumentasi yang sesuai muncul dari persyaratan di bawah asesmen sendiri untuk menyimpan dan melestarikan catatan-catatan tersebut yang mungkin diperlukan untuk tujuan memungkinkan pengucuran wajib pajak 1998 untuk membuat dan memberikan pengembalian yang benar dan lengkap8221. HMRC telah memperjelas bahwa dokumentasi yang mereka harapkan agar wajib pajak dipelihara untuk mendukung kebijakan penetapan harga transfer mereka adalah bahwa setiap pelaku bisnis 82221 akan mempertahankan transaksi dengan tingkat kepentingan dan kompleksitas yang serupa. Panduan tentang bagaimana HMRC menginterpretasikan persyaratan pencatatan dari ketentuan penilaian diri untuk tujuan undang-undang penetapan harga transfer tersedia. In the event of a transfer pricing adjustment, HMRC identifies the following classes of records as being relevant in considering whether a penalty should be applied: primary accounting records tax adjustment records records of transactions with associated businesses. A key feature of the rules is that evidence to demonstrate an arm8217s length result need only be produced upon HMRC request. Thus it is likely that taxpayers will not need to find suitable third party comparables when filing their tax return provided that they have good grounds for considering that the tax returns are being prepared on an arm8217s length basis. Once again, the rules differ in other jurisdictions, and it is worth commenting that many jurisdictions do have a requirement to prepare third party comparables when filing their tax returns or even at an earlier point in time, for instance contemporaneous with the intra-group transactions. A tax return will be incorrect unless transactions reflected within it reflect arm8217s length prices. It is necessary to determine the correct arm8217s length price for each inter-company transaction prior to the filing date, for each separate tax return. As noted above, evidence to demonstrate an arm8217s length result need only be produced upon HMRC request (although best practice is that it should be available at the time the return is submitted as it gives the taxpayer the evidence needed to know that its tax return is prepared on the arm8217s length basis). Such requests are however, frequently accompanied by deadlines such as within thirty days of the enquiry letter. In practice, therefore, it is advisable to maintain documentation that is contemporaneous with the transaction concerned. HMRC enquiry into a company8217s transfer pricing HMRC have given some pointers towards the factors that will be considered when deciding whether to make an enquiry into a company8217s transfer pricing arrangements. These include: where the amount of tax at stake is large where there is a significant difference in the marginal tax rates borne by the related parties that are transacting, e.g. where one of the companies is loss making or where one of the transacting parties is located in a low tax jurisdiction. In general, the more that a taxpayer8217s revenue or costs derive from related party transactions, the more likely it is to be selected for an enquiry The general self assessment rules relating to the imposition of penalties for incorrect returns applies to errors in a return that relate to transfer pricing. Where a return is incorrect due to 8220fraud or neglect8221, this can mean a penalty of up to 100 of any further tax payment (which may be nil if the taxpayers can relieve the additional tax with brought forward or group issues). HMRC issued guidance on the circumstances in which they will apply the penalty provisions in December 1998. The guidance specifies that penalties will not be imposed where the taxpayer has made an 8220honest and reasonable8221 attempt to comply with the arm8217s length standard. The examples that HMRC use in the guidance indicates that this would involve finding third party comparables and 8220seeking professional help where they know they need it8221. In addition to the tax-geared penalty, HMRC may impose a fixed penalty of 3,000 a year for each taxpayer, for failure to maintain adequate transfer pricing documentation. Although the exemption for small and medium sized enterprises avoids the imposition of a tax-geared penalty, the fixed penalty for inadequate documentation may still apply. As the UK structure of limitations is six years, taxpayers may suffer penalties and interest on a multiple year basis. Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) This arrangement will enable UK companies to agree in advance with HMRC (and potentially other tax authorities as well) that their transfer prices are acceptable for a pre-determined period of time. HMRC guidance, however, makes it clear that APAs are designed to assist taxpayers with 8220complex8221 issues generally only where there is significant doubt as to the manner in which the arm8217s length principle should be applied or where there is difficulty in establishing a market comparable. APAs are therefore unlikely to be of everyday practical use to the average inbound or outbound investor. Similar options for the taxpayer include an Advance Thin Capitalisation Agreement and a 8220Code of Practise 108221 post transaction ruling, typically needed for simple costs plus service arrangements and interest deduction claims. Pricing Methods Recognised by HMRC HMRC recognises the five transfer pricing methods outlined in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, namely: comparable uncontrolled price cost plus method resale price method transactional net margin method profit split It is also prepared to recognise other methods where these reflect the typical commercial arrangements within an industry. The Pricing of Typical Inter-Company Transactions A Inter-Company Transfers of Product In order to determine which of the five transfer pricing methods recognised by HMRC apply to the pricing of inter-company transactions of products it is necessary to undertake a functional analysis of the parties involved. A functional analysis involves identifying: the functions performed by each party to the transaction the assets owned and brought to bear by each of the parties 8211 these may not necessarily be tangible assets but can include intangible asserts such as brands, customer lists, patented and un-patented technical know how etc the risks borne by each party e.g. credit risk, market risk and stock obsolescence risk to name but a few. On the back of the functional analysis an appropriate transfer pricing policy can be designed by applying one of the five recognised OECD methods. It is important to note that whilst two businesses may nominally appear similar e.g. both businesses may be, say, manufacturers, the pricing method applied to them may be very different if they have different function, risk and assets profiles. For example, a manufacturing company operating on a contract, low risk basis, without any intellectual property (IP), may be remunerated on a cost plus basis whilst a high risk bearing, function rich, IP owning manufacturer may use the profit split approach. A similar range of pricing mechanisms may apply to distribution businesses. For example, a business that does not contract with customers, does not own any warehouse facilities and only provides information to potential customers may be remunerated on a cost plus basis, whereas a distributor with a warehouse, bearing all the associated risks of contracting with customers with responsibility to develop the local market may be remunerated on the basis of a gross margin. The key part of defending the selected policy is to set out the evidence of why the policy meets the arm8217s length standard. Depending on the methods applied this could be in the form of evidence of transactions undertaken by the group with third parties or could be evidence gathered as part of a benchmarking study. Facts and circumstances of each case will determine the exact information needed. B Management Services The typical way to remunerate the provision of inter-company management services is to use the cost plus methodology. In the absence of any comparable transaction with a third party, UK groups usually charge the actual cost of providing the service (including a fair apportionment of the relevant overheads), plus an arm8217s length profit mark-up, to the recipient of the service. Where there is no direct way of calculating how much of a particular service was provided to each related party then the group has to apportion the central costs across the recipients, e.g. central human resources costs are often apportioned on the basis of headcount etc. Certain centrally incurred costs should not be recharged to group companies and these are discussed in more detail below. Shareholder Activities 8211 If a group member performs an activity solely because of its ownership (direct or indirect) in one or more of its group members, then this type of activity does not necessarily justify a charge to the recipient company. Where the recipient would not need or require the service if it were not a member of a group, it would not pay for it at arm8217s length and therefore no fee should be charged Incidental Benefits 8211 In some cases an intra-group service performed by a group member relates only to some group members but incidentally provides benefits to other group members. Examples of this include analysing whether to reorganise the group, to acquire new members, or to terminate a division. These activities may constitute intra-group services to the particular group members involved, but they may also produce economic benefits for other group members not involved in the object of the decision by increasing efficiencies, economies of scale or other synergies. The incidental benefits ordinarily would not cause these other group members to be treated as receiving an intra-group service because the activities producing the benefits would not be ones for which an independent enterprise ordinarily would be willing to pay. Other Activities 8211 Where intra group services are provided and the activities provide a clear benefit to group members, then a fee should be charged for these services. In short, the test is whether an independent enterprise in comparable circumstances would have been willing to pay for the activity if performed for it by an independent enterprise, or whether the recipient would have undertaken the activity itself. Development of intangible assets 8211 where a taxpayer recovers the cost of developing intangible assets through a royalty or uplift in product price to related parties, then it should not make an additional charge to related parties for developing those intangible assets. C Inter-Company Loans There is potential for the UK transfer pricing rules to apply whenever one company has lent money to another group company even if the amounts are not in the form of a formal loan. For example, long term trading balances can be characterised as loans and interest imputed thereon. In pricing inter-company loan facilities and determining how much interest payable will be deductible in the UK, there are three elements to consider 8211 they are of course not separable, but it is helpful to look at each aspect distinctly: The quantum of the borrowing 8211 when assessing the arm8217s length amount of the inter-company borrowing, HMRC would look at the amount of lending that would have been agreed between third parties in the same circumstances. The interest rate 8211 HMRC will look at the rate charged and the deductibility of interest will be considered in the light of the arm8217s length range of interest rates applied between third parties for loans made under comparable circumstances (e.g. purpose of loan, credit rating of borrowing, amounts etc). The guarantee rate 8211 whether a guarantee fee is required to be charged and if so whether the fees paid fall within the arm8217s length range. 7 Value added tax Introduction VAT is a tax on consumer expenditure and is collected on business transactions. In the UK, the standard rate of VAT is 17.5. Depending on the goods, different rates may apply i.e. reduced rate (5), zero rate (0), or the item could be exempt from VAT. The basic principle is that VAT is charged at each and every stage of the supply of goods andor services. This charge of tax is known as output tax. If the client is registered for VAT, all VAT incurred on supplies (VAT incurred is known as input tax) used for business purposes can be recovered from HMRC. Thus the broad effect is that the business should not be affected and that the VAT charges are actually borne by the final consumer. In the UK, if you have a taxable presence for corporation tax you are also likely to be within the charge to VAT. You would be required to register for VAT if the turnover of the UK entity exceeds the VAT registration threshold, currently 64,000. If your turnover exceeds 64,000 (subject to change every year) in either the past 12 months or in the next 30 days, you will be compulsorily required to register for VAT. However, if this is not the case, you may still be able to voluntarily register for UK VAT. The advantage of registering for VAT is that input tax incurred on expenses can be recovered. If you are not currently trading but intend to do so in the future, we could apply for you to register for VAT as an intending trader. The advantage of this would be to recover input tax incurred on initial setting up costs. However, we would need to demonstrate to the UK tax authorities that client intends to trade in the future by way of contracts with potential clients, etc. Consequences of registration Once registered for VAT in the UK, there are a number duties required to be performed as follows: Issue valid VAT invoices Submit quarterlymonthly VAT returns to HMRC Make payments to HMRC on a timely basis if their output tax exceeds input tax Keep key accounting records for a minimum of 6 years such as invoices, documentation relation to importexport, etc Submit EC Sales Lists, Intrastat Declarations, Supplementary Declarations, if applicable. VAT Returns VAT registered companies in the UK are required to file UK VAT returns either quarterly or monthly using a VAT 100 sent by HMRC. VAT returns reflect all the sales and purchases and VAT incurredcharged in the VAT return period. Monthly returns canbe submitted if the business is likely to receive repayments of VAT. VAT returns are normally due on the last day of the month following the end of the VAT return period. If the company is in a payment situation i.e. its output tax exceeds its input tax, the client will also be required to make the payment to HMRC by the last day of the month following the end of the VAT return period. For example, if the VAT return covers the three months ending September, the VAT return and payment to HMRC must be submitted and paid by 31 October at the latest. Failure to submit VAT returns andor make payments to HMRC on time can give rise to penalties being imposed by HMRC. Online submission of VAT returns VAT returns can also be submitted online. If the client submits VAT returns online, they will also be required to make electronic payments to HMRC. The advantage of online filing is that it quick and easy to use and that HMRC also give you a seven day grace period for the submission of the return and payment of tax. Thus, if the client were to file their VAT return online, following from the above example, they will be required to submit their online return and make the payment by 7 November at the latest. Submission on online VAT returns in the UK will become compulsory from 2010. In the UK, for VAT purposes, income is split between taxable and exempt income. Since you are making both i.e. taxable and exempt supplies, you will not be able to reclaim VAT incurred on making the exempt supplies. As a result, you will be deemed to be partly exempt. A partly exempt business will normally have to apply a particular partial exemption method to determine the recoverable proportion of the VAT incurred. Determining and where appropriate agreeing a method, should be done prior to the first VAT return being submitted. Group reorganisation Connected companies can be eligible to be treated as members of a VAT group provided that: they are corporate bodies established in the UK and are under common control (Companies Act 1985 s 736). There are several consequences to being part of a VAT group, namely: Any business carried on by a member of the group is treated as though carried on by the representative member. A VAT group must have a representative member which must account for the group8217s output tax and input tax. However, all members of the group are jointly and severally liable for any tax due from the representative member A VAT group also eases administration since only one VAT return needs to be completed. Any supply of goods or services by a member of the group to another member of the group is disregarded for VAT purposes which makes it administratively easier and also provides cash flow savings. The broad effect of VAT grouping, therefore, is to merge the separate legal identities of companies into one entity for VAT purposes. As a result intra-group supplies are ignored altogether for VAT. This treatment eliminates VAT costs where taxable supplies are made by one client to another client which is either partly exempt or non-registered. Land and Property Capital Goods Scheme If the property8217s value is in excess of 250,000 or if you has carried out refurbishments on the property exceeding 250,000 over the last 10 years, the property could be subject to the Capital Goods Scheme (CGS) adjustment. The CGS is a mechanism for apportioning VAT recovery on certain capital expenditure over a period of 10 intervals (broadly, of periods of one year each), based on use to which the building is put. Under the scheme, businesses are required to make adjustments to VAT recovered in acquiring capital items where the use of the items changes between taxable and exempt use. Option to Tax 8211 if the property has been opted, please insert below. Property is generally exempt from VAT. However, commercial land or property can be elected to opt to tax or 8220waive the exemption8221. An effective option to tax enables VAT recovery on costs incurred, (including purchases) but means VAT must be charged on rental or sale of the property. Before deciding on whether the land or building should be opted, it is important to consider the whether the tenants would be able to recover the VAT that may be charged on rent if the building was opted. If the tenants are registered for VAT, this may not be an issue. However, if the tenants are not registered for VAT, the VAT charged on the rental will be an additional cost to the tenants since they will not be able to recover the VAT incurred. International trade EC VAT Registrations If you buy or sell goods tofrom other EU member states, there may be a requirement for you to register for VAT in those countries. However, there are various conditions and scenarios we will have to consider before we can fully advise you on this matter. EC Sales Lists (ESL) If you make supplies of goods to VAT registered traders in other EC countries transfers its own goods from the UK to other EC country or is the intermediary in a triangular transaction between VAT registered traders in other EC countries, you will be required by HMRC to submit EC Sales Lists (ESLs). ESLs are statements containing details of individual transactions. Supplementary Declarations (SDs) If the client8217s annual value of intra EC trade exceed a certain threshold, you will be required to prepare and submit Supplementary Declarations (SDs). It is important to note that the threshold applies separately to: Dispatches of goods to other EC countries and Arrivals of goods from other EC countries. The current threshold, beyond which SDs need to be made is 225,000 for both dispatches and acquisitions. Reverse charge If you supply goods to other EC VAT registered traders, there may be scope to reverse charge the supplies and avoid the need for you to register in those EC countries. However, we would need to consider individual transactions to advise fully on this matter. Customs Duty Another matter to consider is Customs Duty and ensuring all necessary records are kept. In the UK, the client will be required to pay duty upon importation of goods. In order to avoid paying duty every time a shipment comes in, we have an arrangement known as Duty Deferment. The client will need to apply for such an arrangement. Once approved, duty can be paid monthly to Customs and Excise, normally on the 15th of the month following. Distance selling If you supply and deliver goods to a non-taxable person in another EC Member State this is referred to as distance selling. Depending on the level of turnover, you may or may not be required to register for distance sales in various EC member states. It is important to note that distance selling can only occur between Member States, so that mail order sales to the UK from outside the VAT territory, for instance from the Channel Islands, are not distance sales. Since the client8217s distance selling turnover in insert member state exceeds insert registration threshold, they are required to register for distance sales. 8 Employment taxes Individuals that are working in the UK for a period that exceeds 30 days are strictly subject to UK withholding on all their earnings. However, HMRC has issued guidelines as to when they expect PAYE to be operated. It should be noted that without prior agreement from the UK Tax Authorities it is necessary to operate PAYE on 100 of earnings. It is generally the case that the UK withholding requirements are applicable regardless of whether the individual is actually paid by a UK or non-UK resident employer. If the non-UK resident employer has a presence in the UK, such as a branch, this withholding responsibility falls on the employer. If the employer does not have a presence the withholding responsibility falls on the UK company obtaining the benefit of the individuals services. There are also strict employer filing requirements for the year-end forms, P35, P14, P60 and P11D. If coming for less than 6 months, and the costs are borne by home country and remuneration paid by home country. Regardless of duration of assignment to the UK, if costs or remuneration borne by the UK and the relocated staff are not tax equalised. Regardless of duration of assignment to the UK, if costs or remuneration borne by the UK and the relocated staff are tax equalised. Short Term Business Visitors Agreement It may be possible to relax strict PAYE requirements for relocated employees on short term business visits to the UK. If you have staff who are considered resident in a country with which the UK has a Double Taxation Agreement, it is likely that they will qualify for Treaty Relief under the Dependent Personal ServicesIncome from Employment Article (usually Article 15). Provided that the relocated staff are: coming to work in the UK for a UK company or the UK branch of an overseas company expected to stay in the UK for 183 days or less in any twelve month period it can be shown that for specifically named employees the UK company or branch will not in fact ultimately bear the remuneration specified. It is possible to apply for a Short Term Business Visitors (STBV) Agreement with HMRC and therefore not have a UK PAYE withholding requirement. Therefore, there is no requirement to operate a UK payroll or file self-assessment tax returns with HMRC. An agreement must be applied for and authorised with HMRC before a company can operate under this Agreement, and the company must fulfil certain reporting requirements as specified in the agreement. These arrangements will not apply where the expense of the remuneration is passed on to another UK company or branch and not recharged overseas. It is possible to apply for a dispensation from HMRC in certain circumstances where remuneration is either delivered or borne by the UK company or branch. Regular PAYE Withholding and UK payroll A regular UK payroll is operated on a typically on either a weekly or monthly basis. UK tax withholding (PAYE) and National Insurance Contributions (NICs 8211 if relevant) are withheld against 100 of earnings. Modified PAYE Scheme Introduction An alternative to the strict withholding system in the UK is a plan known as a 8220Modified PAYE Scheme8221. The UK authorities have issued guidelines as to when it can be used, it is designed specifically for employers seconding tax equalised employees in to the UK that stay on their home country payroll. What is tax equalisation Tax equalisation is a process whereby an expatriate assigned from their home country to a foreign country (in this case the UK) and is placed in the same position as he, or she, would have been had they remained in their home country i.e. the employee is neither better off nor worse off as a result of the assignment. How does the scheme work A best estimate of salary, bonuses and benefits in kind is made at the beginning of the year in respect of your expatriate staff. Relief can be taken for any days worked outside the UK where the expatriate has the appropriate residence status. In addition, relief can also be taken throughout the year for employee contributions into a correspondingly approved foreign pension scheme. During the year, adjustments need to be made where there are new arrivals and departures. PAYE is calculated on the basis of these estimates and paid over in the usual manner each month, although quarterly payment schemes are available in repeat of smaller (5 or fewer) expatriate populations. Before the end of the tax year, usually between December and March, a review will be carried out to take account of any material changes and in particular, to ensure that any calendar year end bonuses are accounted for. After the end of the tax year, any additional tax found due is calculated on the Self Assessment tax return and paid by 31 January following the end of the tax year. The main advantages of the scheme are that: it offers PAYE failure protection and relaxation of the submission date for forms P11D (return of expenses and benefits). instead of providing accurate information to your payroll agent or payroll department on a monthly basis, it will only be necessary to provide estimated information twice a year. Additional information would of course be required to cover new arrivals and departures. the estimate for the year will include all remuneration (e.g. salary and bonuses paid in the UK and elsewhere) as well as benefits (e.g. company car benefit, company loan benefit, house rental paid by the company on employerlandlord leases etc.). Accordingly, there should be fewer large underpayments or overpayments on Self Assessment returns. This may help your company account for tax liabilities with more accuracy and certainty and avoid large accruals of income tax. provisional relief is available for resident but not ordinarily resident employees for non UK workdays without a formal claim on each individuals behalf, offering significant cash flow advantages for your business. In addition, relief can be taken for employee pension contributions into a correspondingly approved foreign pension scheme. Other Specialised Payroll Options By concession in agreement with HMRC it is possible to operate PAYE on a reduced portion of earnings. For example, it should be possible to obtain agreement from the UK authorities to only operate PAYE on 75 of the earnings for an individual who will only be subject to UK tax on 75 of their income. From an practical and operational point of view, it may be possible to operate a home country payroll alongside a regular UK payroll, in other words operate a 8216shadow8217 or 8216dummy8217 payroll in the UK. If an individual or hisher employer has overseas connections, the national insurance (NI) position can be quite complicated. Liability to UK national insurance contributions (NICs) generally depends on the individual being present, resident or ordinarily resident in the UK. The normal rule is that work carried out in the UK is liable to UK NICs. The contract of employment may be made under foreign law and the employer may be located abroad, but these factors on their own do not override the basic rule. The nationality of the worker is only relevant under certain EC regulations or reciprocal agreements. If an individual comes to the UK to start a new job, heshe is subject to UK NIC rules immediately. If, however, the job relates to a secondment, the individual may be allowed to contribute to the home country8217s social security system for 52 weeks, or longer if the appropriate agreement allows. These periods can be extended in certain circumstances. There are exceptions where a worker is replacing another secondee or has employments in two or more countries. It should also be noted that the worker8217s home country may not have the same rules as the UK. Whilst a worker may only start to pay UK NICs after 52 weeks, there may be a liability under their home country8217s social security system for a different length of time. Secondary (employer8217s) NICs generally follow the primary (worker8217s) NICs, ie if the worker is liable to pay UK contributions so is the employer, provided the employer is resident, present, or has a place of business (see below) in the UK. The secondary contributor is also responsible for collection and payment of the primary contributions. In the very rare case where there is no liability to secondary contributions, the worker may be required to make direct payment of the primary contributions. For the situations when cross-border issues arise, the rest of the world is divided into three groups: the European Economic Area (EEA) 8211 the EU member states plus Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. EC regulations prevail over both UK law and existing reciprocal agreements between EEA States, unless stipulated otherwise. The EC regulations provide that a person should not be liable to the contribution regulations of more than one State at a time. Broadly, workers coming to the UK for 12 months or less may remain subject to the other State8217s social security system if they are not replacing another worker. A form E101 is needed to certify the position. If the UK employment is unexpectedly extended, the form E101 can be extended for a further 12 months, or beyond in very limited cases. non-EEA countries with whom the UK has a reciprocal agreement or double contributions convention For this category of worker, liability for a temporary posting generally stays with the 8220home8221 country if the UK stay is expected to last less than a certain period, often two years but in some cases five years. Note that this test is based on the expectation at the outset, whereas the change of jurisdiction at 52 weeks mentioned earlier is not linked to how long the posting is likely to last. countries not in the first two groups. If such workers come from countries not in categories 1 and 2 above, it is the UK rules which determine their liability. Usually, they will not be liable to UK NICs for the first 52 weeks if: they are not normally employed in the UK and the employer8217s place of business is outside the UK (regardless of whether they also have a UK place of business) and they are not normally resident in the UK 8211 this term is slightly different for NI purposes from the usual direct tax meaning. Otherwise, there is a liability to UK NICs from the first day. There are detailed rules for returning home for holidays, paid or unpaid, sick leave and other temporary presence in the UK or absences abroad. UK Tax Registration and Compliance Individual Arrival and Departure Formalities Upon arrival in the United Kingdom, individuals are required to register with HMRC. This registration involves completing and submitting Form P86, an Arrival in the United Kingdom questionnaire. The responses on this questionnaire are important, as they determine the individuals tax status while in the UK and their liability to UK tax. Upon departure from the United Kingdom, individuals are required to deregister with HMRC. This registration involves completing and submitting Form P85 or P85(s), a Departure from the United Kingdom questionnaire. Individual Compliance The United Kingdom does not use the calendar year for tax purposes. The UK tax year, for income tax purposes, runs from April 6th to the following April 5th. The UK operates a system of self-assessment and personal tax returns for the current tax year must be submitted by January 31, the following year, for example for 200708 the tax return must be filed by January 31, 2009. Any remaining balance due should be paid by 31 January following the year of assessment. The self-assessment tax regime also includes automatic penalty provisions for late payment and filing of tax returns. Assignment Planning Opportunities Provision Of Housing Lease Premium Arrangements Where employers provide housing for employees a taxable benefit accrues to the employee calculated as the higher of: the rent paid by the employer and the deemed rateable value. However when the cost to the employer (at time of occupation by that employee generally) of the accommodation exceeds 75,000 there is an additional deemed taxable benefit to the employee consisting of the excess cost over 75,000 multiplied by the official interest rate. Where the property is owned outright by the employer, the cost can be significantly in excess of the 75,000 threshold and the resultant benefit can be very large. Ordinarily where rent is simply paid on behalf of the employee, by the employer, then the taxable benefit is the rent paid by the employer, assuming the property is being let commercially. This planning opportunity considers the possibility of reducing the employees taxable benefit by the employer purchasing a lease by paying an up front premium. The employer could, instead of paying a market rent for the accommodation, purchase a short-term lease by paying a premium (ideally less than 75,000) at the commencement of the lease and then paying a minimal ground rent under the lease. In these circumstances the employees taxable benefit would be limited to the higher of the minimal ground rent and the deemed rateable value. Provision of accommodation and per diems free of UK tax The UK has a rule for tax free reimbursement of away from home expenses for employees that are away from there normal place of work for a temporary period of time for business purposes. Such expenses can only be claimed if the assignment length is not expected to exceed 24 months. Hence, for assignments that are expected to last no more than 24 months, it may be possible to provide accommodation and per diems free of tax in the UK. Corresponding approval for Foreign Pension Plans While on assignment to the UK, individuals typically remain in their home country benefit programs. To ensure that individual8217s contributions made to their foreign pension plan are tax deductible and any employer contributions are not considered taxable income it is necessary to seek approval for the plan from the from HMRC. Establishing Favourable Residency Status There are three levels of tax residence in the UK, which will influence how an individual is taxed while working in the UK (although it is important to remember that, subject to the mitigating effects of a double taxation agreement, an individual who is not resident will be liable to UK tax on income relating to UK duties). These three levels are resident, ordinarily resident and domicile. We are detailing briefly each of these below. An individual will be considered resident in the UK for each tax year that he or she spends more than 182 days in the UK. If the individual expects to be here for 2 years or more on arrival, he or she will be resident from date of arrival until the date following the day of departure. Once resident in the UK then an individuals earnings fall within the scope of UK tax. The extent to which they are taxable in the UK will also depend on their ordinary residence status. Not Ordinary Residence An individual that comes to the UK and intends to be here less than 3 years will generally be considered not ordinarily resident. It is important to note that if a person buys a house in the UK heshe will be ordinarily resident in the UK. The benefit of being not ordinarily resident is that earnings relating to non-UK workdays will not be subject to UK tax provided they are paid outside the UK and are not remitted to this country. For example, an individual working in the UK with total earnings of 100,000 who is working outside the UK 25 of the time will only be subject to UK tax on 75,000 of their earnings provided at least 25,000 is paid outside the UK and is not remitted. If a person is ordinarily resident this simple income splitting plan it not available. An individuals domicile status in the UK currently depends upon their long-term intentions. Generally, individuals who are coming to the UK to work for a limited period of time and who have no previous ties with the UK will not be considered domiciled in the UK. The benefit of being not domiciled in the UK is that investment income is not subject to UK tax unless it is either remitted to the UK or is sourced in the UK. It is also essential that, among other things, a person is not domiciled in the UK if there is to be available in the UK a deduction in respect of a non-UK company pension plan. Employment of foreign nationals in the UK European Community law gives European Economic Area (EEA) nationals a right to live and work in the United Kingdom without work or residence permits subject to certain limitations for residents of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Non EEA nationals usually require a work permit issued by the Home Office and which must be applied for by the UK employer on behalf of the foreign national. Work permits are issued for a specific period up to a maximum of five years. 9 Financing Financing creates a number of tax issues. Setting up a business centre in the UK is likely to require external funding either from independent institutions or parent companies. Key areas are highlight below Transfer pricing As outlined earlier in this report, intra-group interest payments must be arms length in order to secure a tax deduction for those payments. Thin capitalisation in relation to branch and subsidiary company funding A company is said to be thinly capitalised when it has excessive debt in relation to its arm8217s length borrowing capacity leading to the possibility of excessive interest deductions. The arms length borrowing capacity of a company is the amount of debt which it could and would have taken on from an independent lender as a stand alone entity rather than part of a group of companies. In establishing the arms length borrowing capacity it is therefore necessary to view the borrower as a separate entity from the larger group of which it is part. Funding a company with excessive intra-group or parentally- guaranteed debt is likely to lead to excessive interest deductions by the borrower. UK legislation on thin capitalisation seeks to counteract any tax advantage achieved by these excessive deductions. In this scenario, tax relief is limited to the interest that would have been paid on an arm8217s length loan at market rates of interest. It is understood that start up businesses need additional funding and this is normally factored into a thin capitalisation assessment. It will however be necessary to review subsidiary funding after this initial start up period. A similar provision is also applied to branches where loans made to the branch are greater and those that would have been obtainable had the branch been a UK company managing only the UK permanent establishment. Withholding tax The UK requires that interest payments made to an overseas entity are made with deduction of basis rate tax. This requirement is overruled where the UK has ended into a double taxation agreement with the receipt country and that agreement contains an interest article which reduces or eliminates the UK8217s taxing right. The reduced rates may be given by way of relief at source or by repayment of tax deducted but, the recipient must apply for this relief. It is not automatic. Where the relief is given at source, authorisation will be issued to the payer, the UK entity, once the recipient8217s application has been agreed. Until clearance is given, it must be assumed that the treaty will not apply. If interest is paid gross without clearance, then an assessment may be made on payer that failed to withhold tax to recover lost tax, interest and penalties. There are also exemptions for withholding tax on interest on short term debts of less than one year. Loan relationships for unallowable purposes Regardless of whether a non-resident recipient of UK interest suffers UK withholding tax, it does not guarantee deductibility for the payer if the loan is for an unallowable purpose . An unallowable purpose is a purpose which is not amongst the business or other commercial purposes of the business and includes, for instance, where the UK branch of a company resident outside the UK was paying interest on a loan which was being used to fund activities of the company unconnected with the UK branch or where the loan has been put in place, the sole or main purpose of which is the avoidance of UK tax. Inter-company loan accounts Inter-company loan accounts are subject to the same restrictions as third party loans with regard to transfer pricing and the deductibility of interest. Additional issues arise where inter-company debts are written off by the lender. A debt provided to provide finding to a branch, subsidiary, or indeed a parent, is generally tax natural for tax purposes in that neither the lender nor recipient is subject to tax or entitled to a deduction where the fund debt is written off. Where an inter-company debt has arisen through trading transactions, the write off of the debt is not an allowance deduction in computing the profits of the lender but may be a taxable receipt in the hands of the recipient of the loan. This is likely to be relevant for foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom as it will be the UK entity that will be in receipt of goods and services from the parent and likely to have outstanding trading balances. It is important to the note that this provision should only apply if the debt is formally waived by the lender and the provision of a bad debt in the lender accounts should not trigger a charge. Interest and Royalties directive (IRD) Businesses trading within the EU are subject to the IRD which became effective in 2004. Under the IRD no withholding tax is generally not applied to interest and royalty payments between residents of the EU and will apply to most companies under common control. The regulations include Switzerland. 10 Audit and accounting Subsidiary A UK subsidiary must prepare annual financial statements prepared in accordance with UK GAAP or IFRS and file with Companies House. Filed accounts are available for public inspection. The deadline for filing the financial statements is ten months after the year-end for an unlisted and eight months for a listed company. A statutory audit may be required if the worldwide group has 2 of the following: revenues exceeding 5.6m per annum and gross assets exceeding 2.8m gt50 employees A basic small company audit would cost from 7,000 to 10,000. The branch is not required to prepare financial statements other than for the purposes of drafting a company tax return, however, the non resident parent company must file a copy of its audited accounts in the UK. If the parent company does not prepare published accounts, it must instead prepare and deliver financial statements to Companies House as if it were a company registered in the UK. These must relate to the parent company and not solely of the place to business or branch Filed accounts are available for public inspection in the UK. Compliance Both subsidiaries and branches are required to file with Companies House an annual return confirming changes to members, share capital and similar statutory information. Like financial statements, annual returns are available for public inspection. Theses returns are independent from the filing of financial statements and tax returns and are required every 12 months form the date of incorporation or registration. The UK activates is also likely to require ongoing bookkeeping services which may comprise the completion of VAT returns and management financial statements. 11 Pensions In 2001 the UK introduced legislation that employers must offer their employees access to a stakeholder pension scheme. The rules will generally apply to any business with 5 or more employees. As an employer you would be required to: designate (formally choose) a stakeholder scheme. provide employees with information about the scheme. make deductions from an employees salary for their pension contributions to the designated scheme if they want it. Employers are not required to comply from the first day of employment but the requirement becomes mandatory after an employee has been working for an employer for three months. Employers are not compelled to contribute into stakeholder schemes on behalf of their employees. Exemptions are available to employers with occupational pension schemes which meet certain conditions. The Pensions Regulator is not likely to enforce penalties on employers who have not given their employees access to a stakeholder pension scheme, as long as the employer can show that they are currently putting a scheme in place. The Pensions Regulator will consider fining employers who deliberately ignore their responsibility or avoid sorting out the problem. The Pensions Regulator can fine employers up to 50,000.
Pilihan perdagangan-iphone
James16-group-forex-price-action