Pilihan-trading-plan-template

Pilihan-trading-plan-template

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Rencana Perdagangan 8211 contoh download template Bagi pengguna non-TJS, silakan lihat video promosi berikut8230 Berikut kutipan berikut, Anda akan menemukan contoh template rencana perdagangan. Ini harus digunakan sebagai panduan untuk jenis informasi yang mungkin ingin Anda sertakan dalam rencana trading terperinci Anda sendiri. Namun, masing-masing bagian berikut harus ditangani dalam beberapa bentuk. Rencana trading bisa sesederhana atau serumit yang Anda inginkan (atau butuhkan). Tentu saja, jika terlalu sederhana, Anda mungkin tidak memiliki cukup informasi untuk berhasil menerapkan strategi poin, aturan (andor) utama pada setiap sesi perdagangan. Sebaliknya, jika terlalu rumit, Anda mungkin merasa sulit untuk mematuhi dan mengabaikannya sama sekali. Poin utama dari sebuah rencana perdagangan adalah membuat Anda tetap tenang dan santai selama perdagangan, karena semua pemikiran seharusnya sudah dilakukan sebelum masuk Anda bukan pada perdagangan Anda. Pedagang profesional santai dan tersusun saat melakukan trading. Amatir gugup sebelum perdagangan dan sembrono selama perdagangan. Pertahankan rencana trading Anda dinamis Ubah saja (hanya) saat pengalaman dan pengetahuan Anda tentang pasar (tumbuh), dan analisis aktivitas perdagangan Anda analisis data memberi tahu Anda untuk melakukannya.230 tetapi tidak pernah selama sesi perdagangan atau perdagangan Setelah rencana trading Anda selesai, Anda akan Temukan bahwa trading akan menjadi lebih obyektif, Anda akan kurang emosional, dan trading anda akan lebih selektif. Ini akan menambahkan struktur dan organisasi ke setiap sesi perdagangan. Ini akan menjadi sekutu Anda saat berhadapan dengan pergerakan tak terduga di pasar, daripada membuat keputusan yang tidak benar saat perdagangan tidak berjalan seperti yang diharapkan. Mematuhi pasar klasik dengan mengatakan, 8220Plan Perdagangan dan Perdagangan Rencana Anda.8221 Template Rencana Perdagangan Klik gambar untuk mendownload (ini adalah template Microsoft Word). Klik untuk mendownload template gtgt Close - contoh template Trading Plan Saya telah mengenali bahwa Trading adalah salah satu profesi yang paling menantang dan bermanfaat di bumi. Saya menyambut tantangan ini, dan melalui: pendidikan, ketekunan konsistensi, rencana perdagangan yang spesifik, pola pikir yang tepat dan alat yang tepat, saya akan mengatasi tantangan dan kesuksesan dan kemakmuran di arena perdagangan finansial. Ini akan memungkinkan saya untuk mengatur jalan dan takdir saya sendiri tanpa harus bergantung pada orang lain untuk kesejahteraan saya. Apa Pendekatan Saya: Pendekatan awal saya adalah memanfaatkan tren jangka pendek di pasar Ekuitas, saat menggunakan kerangka waktu harian (grafik) untuk memindai potensi perdagangan 8220Swing8221 yang akan diadakan selama satu sampai beberapa hari, mungkin berminggu-minggu atau Sampai trennya berakhir atau target sasaran saya tercapai. Begitu saya menemukan konsistensi dalam rentang waktu yang kurang sering ini, saya akan berusaha menduplikat kesuksesan saya pada rentang waktu intraday yang lebih sering. Bulanan 8211 Untuk tidak membiarkan kesempatan berlalu, Untuk mengikuti rencana trading saya tanpa reservasi. Berencana untuk memukul 8220singles amp doubles8221, mengetahui bahwa 8220home-run8221 akan datang dari waktu ke waktu. Tetap konsisten Tahunan 8211 Untuk terus meningkatkan jumlah risiko saya ketika data saya mengatakan bahwa saya disarankan untuk melakukannya. Terus belajar melalui aktivitas sehari-hari saya di pasar dan melalui pendidikan lanjutan. Untuk menjaga biaya perdagangan bisnis seminimal mungkin. Untuk melihat kurva ekuitas yang terus meningkat Jangka Panjang 8211 Untuk berdagang seumur hidup Untuk memiliki banyak akun 8211 One for Income via perdagangan Hari, satu untuk perdagangan Wealth via Swing. Ini akan memungkinkan saya untuk membangun akun pensiun di mana saya dapat berdagang dalam Rencana Roth 401K. Apa Sasaran Saya: Menjadi trader tren, saya akan berusaha mencapai persentase kemenangan kurang dari 50, dengan Profit Rasio keseluruhan tidak kurang dari 1,5. Pasar apa yang akan saya perdagangan: Saya hanya akan fokus pada pasar Ekuitas untuk saat ini, namun akan terlihat menduplikat kesuksesan di arena pasar lain bila waktu saya memungkinkan frekuensi perdagangan yang lebih besar. Apa kerangka waktu yang akan saya perdagangan: Penyiapan harian (saja) selama fase trading awal saya. Setup apa yang akan saya jual: Saya akan memindai dua 8220trend8221 setup berikut: 1) BasingBreakout mendekati 20ma, 2) Pullback to Minor Support atau at 20ma. Semua pesanan akan menjadi limit order pada harga Ask setelah konfirmasi perdagangan telah tercapai. Jika saham kuota penuh saya tidak dieksekusi, saya akan menambah likuiditas dengan membeli sisa saham pada harga penawaran yang saat ini ditampilkan. Di mana saya akan menghentikan saya: Harga stop-loss saya akan selalu ditentukan sebelum masuk, dan akan berada pada lokasi pivot utama yang logis pada grafik perdagangan I8217m. Keluar mengambil keuntungan (andor) aturan stop-stop: Setengah keuntungan akan diambil mendekati titik yang telah ditentukan dari supportresistance, yang harus mewakili rasio 2: 1 rewardrisk. Keuntungan akhir akan diambil setelah konfirmasi akhir tren saat ini (dari grafik masuk), kecuali target akhir yang telah dicapai terlebih dahulu. Aturan Manajemen Risiko: Risiko perdagangan saya (1R) akan menjadi 1 dari modal perdagangan saat ini (disesuaikan harian). Saya tidak akan memiliki lebih dari 4R risiko pada satu waktu. Aktivitas pra-pasar, atau rutinitas: Masuk ke platform trading. Tinjau grafik indeks untuk bias jangka pendek. Gunakan Yahoo Finance untuk meninjau laporan Laba dan masuk ke pemindai Trade Ideas untuk peluang perdagangan baru. Muatkan potensi perdagangan ke daftar tunda Long dan Short. Tetapkan lansiran di dekat titik masuk. Kegiatan pasca pasar, atau rutinitas: Update Jurnal TJS. Ambil tangkapan layar dari perdagangan tertutup dan hyperlink ke entri jurnal perdagangan yang sesuai. Tinjau semua perdagangan terbuka untuk kemungkinan tindakan hari berikutnya. Tinjau ulang perdagangan tertutup untuk menentukan apakah rencana diikuti (atau tidak). Tandai grafik SPY dan Q8217s untuk bias hari berikutnya. Platform perdagangan bersih. Alat apa yang akan saya gunakan untuk bisnis trading saya: Falcon Trading Computers 8211 komputer trading Super Trader Pro 8211 charting platform Yahoo Finance. Ide Perdagangan 8211 memindai perangkat lunak dan peluang Jurnal Perdagangan Spreadsheet (TJS) Elite. Jurnal perekaman perdagangan Meninjau catatan dan tangkapan layar setiap perdagangan 5-8 hari setelah penutupan dan setelah semua bias dan emosi mereda. Tuliskan catatan di bagian jurnal TJS tentang bagaimana eksekusi, manajemen, dan operasi di masa depan dapat ditingkatkan. Bi-mingguan, periksa lembar Pelacakan TJS untuk melihat subkategori yang menghasilkan harapan positif (dengan frekuensi). Modifikasi 8216plan8217 sesuai informasi terkini. Bacalah satu buku trading baru sebulan dari kelompok mentor penulis trading yang saya pilih. Menghadiri dua konferensi seminar setiap tahun jika mentor saya yang terpilih akan menjadi dosen atau penyiaran. Discipline amp Catatan Pola Pikir: Saya akan mematuhi Mindset Kebenaran dari 8220Trader8221 Mindset, dari penulis Mark Douglas dari 8220Trading in the Zone8221. Apa pun yang bisa terjadi? Saya tidak perlu tahu apa yang akan terjadi selanjutnya untuk menghasilkan uang. Ada distribusi acak antara kehilangan amp loss untuk variabel tertentu yang mendefinisikan keunggulan. Edge tidak lebih dari sebuah indikasi probabilitas yang lebih tinggi dari satu hal yang terjadi di atas yang lain. Setiap saat di pasar itu unik. Aturan Emas Saya (andor) Perintah Perdagangan: Saya akan didisiplinkan setiap hari, dan dalam setiap perdagangan. Saya akan menjadi trading sendiri 8220 sendiri8221, tidak pernah trading rencana lain. Saya suka mengambil kerugian kecil. Saya akan selalu mendapatkan hak untuk berdagang lebih besar. Saya tidak kecanduan trading hanya untuk melihat apa yang terjadi. Saya hanya akan menjual pembuatan hadiah tinggi yang memiliki probabilitas yang menguntungkan mereka. Saya akan menjadi tukang batu 8211 membuat jenis perdagangan yang sama berulang-ulang. Begitu saya menemukan setup, saya tidak ragu sekali dalam perdagangan, saya tidak terlalu menganalisa. Saya akan selalu menyimpan logjurnal perdagangan yang terperinci dan akan bertindak atas apa yang dikatakannya kepada saya. Semua yang saya lakukan akan untuk kesuksesan bisnis saya. Ini adalah dokumen hidup8230 Ini mungkin berubah saat pengalaman saya meningkat, (andor) pengetahuan saya tentang pasar meningkat. Klik untuk melihat contoh gtgt Close - contoh Trading PlanBagaimana Memulai Trading: Pengembangan Rencana Perdagangan Sebelum mempelajari pengembangan rencana trading, penting untuk dicatat perbedaan antara pedagang discretionary dan system. Pedagang biasanya masuk dalam salah satu dari dua kategori besar: pedagang bebas (atau pedagang berbasis keputusan) yang menonton pasar dan menempatkan perdagangan manual sebagai tanggapan atas informasi yang tersedia pada saat itu, dan pedagang sistem (atau pedagang berbasis peraturan) yang sering Gunakan beberapa tingkat otomasi perdagangan untuk menerapkan seperangkat aturan perdagangan yang obyektif. 13Karena sering dipandang lebih mudah terjun ke perdagangan sebagai pedagang bebas, itulah tempat kebanyakan trader memulai, bergantung pada kombinasi pengetahuan dan intuisi untuk menemukan peluang trading dengan probabilitas tinggi. Sekalipun pedagang discretionary menggunakan rencana perdagangan tertentu, dia masih memutuskan apakah akan benar-benar menempatkan setiap perdagangan atau tidak. Misalnya, bagan trader discretionary mungkin menunjukkan bahwa semua kriteria telah dipenuhi untuk perdagangan yang panjang, namun mereka mungkin akan melewatkan perdagangan jika pasar terlalu berombak karena sesi perdagangan. 13Sistem pedagang, di sisi lain, mengikuti logika sistem perdagangan dengan tepat. Karena sistem trading didasarkan pada seperangkat aturan mutlak, jenis perdagangan ini sesuai dengan otomasi sebagian atau penuh perdagangan. Sebagai contoh, sebuah sistem dapat dikodekan menggunakan bahasa platform trading proprietary Anda, dan sekali strategi dihidupkan, komputer menangani semua aktivitas perdagangan (termasuk mengidentifikasi perdagangan, entri pesanan, manajemen dan pintu keluar). 13 13Sementara pedagang discretionary tidak selalu beroperasi di bawah seperangkat aturan perdagangan tertentu, pedagang sistem memerlukan rencana perdagangan komprehensif yang mengambil dugaan dari perdagangan dan memberikan konsistensi dari waktu ke waktu. Pada bagian ini, kita akan membahas bagaimana mengembangkan rencana trading pada bagian selanjutnya, Backtesting dan Forward Performance Testing memperkenalkan berbagai metode yang digunakan untuk menguji kelayakan rencana perdagangan. 13 Mengembangkan Rencana Perdagangan 13A rencana perdagangan adalah seperangkat aturan tertulis yang menentukan bagaimana dan kapan Anda akan melakukan perdagangan dan mencakup komponen berikut: 13 Pasar yang Akan Diperdagangkan 13Today pedagang tidak terbatas pada saham Anda memiliki banyak pilihan. Dari instrumen yang dapat dipilih, termasuk obligasi, komoditas, mata uang, dana perdagangan valuta asing, futures, opsi dan e-minis (seperti kontrak berjangka pendek Sampp 500 e-mini). Agar perdagangan berhasil, bagaimanapun, instrumen pilihan apapun harus diperdagangkan dengan likuiditas dan volatilitas yang baik. 13Liquidity menggambarkan kemampuan untuk mengeksekusi pesanan dengan berbagai ukuran dengan cepat dan efisien tanpa menyebabkan perubahan harga yang signifikan. Secara sederhana, likuiditas mengacu pada kemudahan dimana saham (atau kontrak) dapat dibeli dan dijual. Likuiditas dapat diukur dalam hal: 13 Lebar Seberapa ketat bidask spread 13 Kedalaman Seberapa dalam pasar (berapa banyak pesanan yang berada di luar tawaran terbaik dan penawaran terbaik) 13 Immediacy Seberapa cepat sebuah order pasar yang besar dapat dieksekusi 13 Ketahanan Berapa lama waktu yang dibutuhkan pasar untuk bangkit kembali setelah pesanan besar terisi 13 Pasar dengan likuiditas yang baik cenderung diperdagangkan dengan spread bidask yang ketat dan dengan kedalaman pasar yang cukup untuk cepat memenuhi pesanan. Likuiditas penting bagi pedagang karena membantu memastikan bahwa pesanan akan menjadi: 13 Diisi 13 Diisi dengan selip minimal 13 Diisi tanpa mempengaruhi harga 13Volatilitas. Di sisi lain, mengukur jumlah dan kecepatan di mana harga bergerak naik turun di pasar tertentu. Bila instrumen perdagangan mengalami volatilitas, hal itu memberi peluang bagi para pedagang untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari perubahan harga. Setiap perubahan harga apakah kenaikan harga dalam tren naik, atau turunnya harga selama tren turun menciptakan peluang untuk mendapatkan keuntungan, sulit menghasilkan keuntungan jika harga tetap sama. 13 13 Penting untuk dicatat bahwa rencana perdagangan yang dikembangkan dan diuji untuk e-minis, misalnya, tidak akan selalu berkinerja baik bila diterapkan pada saham. Rencana perdagangan terpisah mungkin diperlukan untuk setiap instrumen atau jenis instrumen (satu rencana perdagangan, misalnya, dapat berjalan dengan baik pada beragam e-minis). Banyak pedagang merasa terbantu untuk fokus pada satu instrumen perdagangan dan kemudian menambahkan instrumen lain seiring peningkatan keterampilan perdagangan. 13 Interval Chart Primer yang Akan Digunakan untuk Membuat Keputusan Perdagangan 13Chart interval sering dikaitkan dengan gaya perdagangan tertentu. Chart interval dapat didasarkan pada waktu, volume atau aktivitas, dan yang Anda pilih akhirnya turun ke preferensi pribadi dan apa yang paling masuk akal bagi Anda. Konon, biasa bagi pedagang jangka panjang untuk melihat grafik periode yang lebih panjang, pedagang jangka pendek biasanya menggunakan interval dengan periode yang lebih kecil. Misalnya, trader swing bisa menggunakan grafik 60 menit sementara scalper lebih memilih grafik 144-tick. 13Perhatikan bahwa aktivitas harga adalah sama, tidak peduli grafik apa yang Anda pilih, dan berbagai interval charting memberikan pandangan yang berbeda mengenai pasar. Meskipun Anda dapat memilih untuk menggabungkan beberapa interval charting dalam trading Anda, interval charting utama Anda akan digunakan untuk menentukan peraturan masuk dan keluar perdagangan yang spesifik. 13 Indikator dan Pengaturan yang Akan Diterapkan pada Bagan 13 Rencana trading Anda juga harus menentukan indikator yang akan diterapkan pada bagan Anda. Indikator teknis adalah perhitungan matematis berdasarkan instrumen perdagangan harga lalu dan arus dan atau aktivitas volume. Perlu dicatat bahwa indikator saja tidak memberikan sinyal jual dan beli Anda harus menafsirkan sinyal untuk menemukan entry trade dan exit point yang sesuai dengan trading style anda. Berbagai jenis indikator bisa digunakan, termasuk yang menafsirkan tren, momentum, volatilitas dan volume. 13 13 Sebagai tambahan untuk menentukan indikator teknis, rencana trading Anda juga harus menentukan pengaturan yang akan digunakan. Jika Anda berencana menggunakan rata-rata bergerak, misalnya, rencana perdagangan Anda harus menentukan rata-rata pergerakan sederhana 20 hari atau rata-rata pergerakan eksponensial 50 hari. 13 Aturan untuk Ukuran Posisi Ukuran posisi mengacu pada nilai dolar dari trad Anda, dan juga dapat digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah saham atau kontrak yang akan Anda trade. Hal ini sangat umum, misalnya, bagi trader baru untuk memulai dengan satu kontrak e-mini. Setelah waktu dan jika sistem terbukti berhasil, trader dapat menukar lebih dari satu kontrak sekaligus, sehingga meningkatkan potensi keuntungan (tapi juga memaksimalkan kerugian). Rencana perdagangan tertentu mungkin meminta tambahan kontrak untuk ditambahkan jika keuntungan tertentu tercapai. Terlepas dari strategi ukuran posisi Anda, peraturan harus dinyatakan secara jelas dalam rencana trading Anda. 13 Aturan Masuk 13 Sering, pedagang bersifat konservatif atau agresif dan ini sering menjadi bukti dalam peraturan masuk dagang mereka. Pedagang konservatif mungkin menunggu terlalu banyak konfirmasi sebelum memasuki perdagangan, sehingga kehilangan peluang trading yang valid. Terlalu agresif pedagang, di sisi lain, mungkin terlalu cepat untuk mendapatkan di pasar tanpa banyak konfirmasi sama sekali. Aturan masuk perdagangan dapat digunakan oleh pedagang yang konservatif, agresif atau berada di antara keduanya untuk memberikan sarana yang konsisten dan menentukan untuk masuk ke pasar. 13 Filter dan pemicu perdagangan bekerja sama untuk menciptakan peraturan masuk perdagangan. Filter perdagangan mengidentifikasi kondisi penyiapan yang harus dipenuhi agar entri perdagangan terjadi. Mereka dapat dianggap sebagai keamanan untuk pemicu perdagangan begitu kondisi untuk filter perdagangan telah terpenuhi, keamanan tidak aktif dan pemicu menjadi aktif. Pemicu perdagangan adalah garis pasir yang menentukan kapan perdagangan akan masuk. Pemicu perdagangan dapat didasarkan pada sejumlah kondisi, dari nilai indikator sampai persimpangan ambang harga. Heres sebuah contoh: 13 Waktu adalah antara 09:30 dan 15:00 EST 13 Sebuah bar harga pada grafik 5 menit telah ditutup di atas rata-rata pergerakan sederhana 20 hari 13 Rata-rata pergerakan sederhana 20 hari di atas 50 -jari rata-rata pergerakan sederhana 13Setelah kondisi ini terpenuhi, kita dapat mencari pemicu perdagangan: 13 Masukkan posisi panjang dengan batas stop order yang ditetapkan untuk satu tanda centang di atas tinggi bar sebelumnya 13Catatan bagaimana pemicu menentukan jenis pesanan yang akan Digunakan untuk mengeksekusi perdagangan. Karena jenis pesanan menentukan bagaimana perdagangan dijalankan (dan karena itu terisi), penting untuk memahami penggunaan yang tepat dari setiap jenis pesanan jenis pesanan harus menjadi bagian dari rencana trading Anda. Harap tinjau bagian Jenis Pesanan dari tutorial ini untuk informasi lebih lanjut atau panduan Introduction to Order Types untuk cakupan yang lebih mendalam. 13 Aturan Keluar 13Ini sering dikatakan bahwa Anda bisa memasuki perdagangan pada tingkat harga apapun dan membuatnya menguntungkan dengan keluar pada waktu yang tepat. Meskipun ini tampaknya terlalu sederhana, ini sangat benar. Keluar perdagangan merupakan aspek penting dari rencana perdagangan karena pada akhirnya mereka menentukan keberhasilan suatu perdagangan. Dengan demikian, peraturan keluar Anda memerlukan jumlah penelitian dan pengujian yang sama dengan peraturan masuk Anda. 13 13Ketentuan aturan menentukan berbagai hasil perdagangan dan dapat mencakup: 13 Target keuntungan 13 Tingkat kehilangan tunggakan 13 Tingkat rintangan berhenti 13 Strategi berhenti dan mundur 13 Waktu keluar (seperti akhir hari EOD) 13 Seperti peraturan perdagangan, jenis Perintah keluar yang Anda gunakan harus dinyatakan dengan jelas dalam rencana trading Anda. Sebagai contoh: 13 Target keuntungan: Keluar dengan limit order set 20 ticks diatas harga isian entry 13 Stop loss: Keluar dengan stop order set 10 ticks dibawah harga isian entry 13 Note: Order yang tersisa harus dibatalkan untuk menghindari Memasuki posisi yang tidak diinginkan 13Gambar 2 menunjukkan kerangka yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan rencana perdagangan yang mencakup semua elemen penting: 13 Instrumen perdagangan 13 Kerangka waktu 13 Ukuran posisi 13 Kondisi masuk (termasuk filter dan pemicu) 13 Aturan keluar (termasuk target keuntungan, berhenti Manajemen kerugian dan uang) Businessballs telah bermitra dengan Accipio mdash Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) dan Chartered Management Institute (CMI) center mdash untuk menawarkan modul eLearning interaktif visual-visual yang sesuai dengan kualifikasi yang diakui secara internasional (ILM atau CMI). Dapatkan poin belajar untuk setiap kepemimpinan dan manajemen eModule, dan dapatkan Tingkat 3 Award, Certificate atau Diploma setelah Anda mendaftar ke lembaga pemberi penghargaan (melalui Accipio), mendapatkan cukup banyak poin pembelajaran dan lulus tugas. Biaya akreditasi berlaku. Klik disini untuk mengakses eLeadership Academy. Rencana bisnis dan strategi pemasaran Perencanaan bisnis bebas dan tip pemasaran, contoh, contoh dan alat - bagaimana menulis rencana bisnis, teknik untuk menulis strategi pemasaran, rencana bisnis strategis dan rencana penjualan Berikut adalah tip, contoh, teknik, alat dan proses Untuk menulis rencana bisnis untuk menghasilkan hasil yang efektif. Panduan online gratis ini menjelaskan bagaimana cara menulis strategi pemasaran atau bisnis, rencana bisnis dasar, dan rencana penjualan, dengan menggunakan template, alat dan contoh gratis, seperti Analisis SWOT. Analisis PEST. Matriks Ansoff dan Matriks Boston. Secara terpisah, panduan pemasaran menawarkan penjelasan dan teori dan alat yang lebih spesifik untuk strategi pemasaran dan perencanaan pemasaran, termasuk teknik dan tip untuk periklanan, hubungan masyarakat (PR), publisitas pers dan media, pembuatan prospek penjualan, penulisan naskah iklan, internet dan situs web. Pemasaran, dan lain-lain. Panduan pelatihan penjualan menawarkan teori dan metode terperinci tentang perencanaan dan penjualan penjualan, yang mencakup keterampilan dan teknik pemanggilan dan panggilan dingin. Terutama berkaitan dengan penjualan. Terkadang orang menggunakan istilah rencana bisnis saat mereka mengacu pada sebuah proyek. Ini mungkin atau mungkin tidak tepat untuk menggunakan istilah perencanaan bisnis untuk sebuah proyek. Beberapa proyek sangat besar dan setara dengan aktivitas bisnis mandiri (mandiri), dalam hal ini rencana bisnis sepenuhnya sesuai. Proyek lain lebih kecil, mungkin terbatas pada perubahan atau perkembangan internal, dan cenderung tidak memerlukan rencana bisnis konvensional, dan direncanakan dan dikelola secara memadai melalui metode manajemen proyek. Istilah perencanaan bisnis bisa membingungkan karena sebagian besar digunakan sangat longgar, dan bisa berarti hal yang berbeda. Inilah cara untuk memahaminya dengan lebih baik: terminologi perencanaan bisnis .. Terminologi dalam perencanaan bisnis sering digunakan sangat longgar. Ketika orang berbicara dan menulis tentang perencanaan bisnis, istilah yang berbeda mungkin berarti hal yang sama, dan istilah tunggal bisa berarti hal yang berbeda. Istilah perencanaan bisnis itu sendiri mencakup segala macam rencana yang berbeda dalam bisnis, atau berpotensi dalam organisasi nonkomersial. Kata strategi dan strategi sering muncul dalam perencanaan bisnis, walaupun tidak ada perbedaan aktual antara rencana bisnis dan rencana bisnis strategis. Setiap rencana bisnis bisa dibilang strategis. Semua orang yang terlibat dalam perencanaan bisa dibilang mengadopsi pendekatan strategis. Sebagian besar bisnis dan rencana terutama didorong atau ditentukan oleh kebutuhan dan sasaran pasar. Hal ini semakin banyak berlaku untuk banyak aktivitas nonkomersial (layanan pemerintah, pendidikan, kesehatan, amal, dll), yang proses perencanaannya mungkin juga digambarkan sebagai perencanaan bisnis, walaupun organisasi semacam itu mungkin bukan bisnis seperti yang biasa kita bayangkan. Dalam organisasi nonkomersial semacam itu, perencanaan bisnis mungkin disebut perencanaan organisasi, atau perencanaan operasional, atau perencanaan tahunan atau sekadar perencanaan. Intinya semua istilah ini sama, dan semakin cenderung bagi perencanaan bisnis untuk menjadi istilah generik (umum) untuk merujuk pada mereka. Saya harus mengklarifikasi bahwa keuangan tentu saja merupakan aspek aktivitas bisnis dan organisasi yang utama dan tidak dapat dihindari, namun dalam hal perencanaan, keuangan adalah pembatas atau faktor pendukung yang memungkinkan adalah suatu alat untuk mencapai tujuan, atau pembatasan keuangan itu sendiri bukanlah dasar Untuk pertumbuhan atau strategi. Konsumen pasar, pengembangan produk, dan penjualan, memberikan satu-satunya dasar yang benar bagi bisnis untuk menentukan arah, pengembangan, pertumbuhan, dll. Dan dengan demikian strategi dan perencanaan bisnis. Perencanaan bisnis selalu dimulai dengan atau meninjau kembali tujuan dasar atau kebutuhan untuk menyediakan produk atau layanan kepada pelanggan - juga disebut pasar atau pasar. Akibatnya, rencana bisnis cenderung pertama melihat ke luar, di pasar, sebelum mereka melihat ke dalam, di bidang keuangan dan produksi, dan lain-lain. Ini berarti bahwa sebagian besar rencana bisnis didorong oleh pemasaran, karena pemasaran adalah fungsi yang membahas peluang dan kebutuhan pasar, dan bagaimana Untuk memenuhinya Pemasaran dalam pengertian ini juga disebut strategi pemasaran - atau strategi bisnis yang lebih luas. Dalam banyak bisnis tradisional sederhana, kecil, dan tradisional, pemasaran sering kali dilihat sebagai penjualan atau penjualan (biasanya karena dalam bisnis semacam itu penjualan adalah satu-satunya kegiatan pemasaran), dalam hal ini rencana penjualan dapat menjadi pendorong utama strategi dan rencana bisnis. Banyak orang menggunakan kata-kata penjualan atau penjualan dan pemasaran yang berarti hal yang sama - pada dasarnya menjual produk atau layanan kepada pelanggan, dalam arti luas. Sebenarnya, pemasaran mengacu pada isu yang jauh lebih luas daripada penjualan dan penjualan. Pemasaran melibatkan perencanaan strategis bisnis (atau penyedia organisasi lainnya) sampai pada setiap aspek keterlibatan pelanggan, termasuk pangsa pasar, pengembangan produk, branding, periklanan dan promosi, metode penjualan, layanan pelanggan, dan perluasan ke akuisisi atau pengembangan Bisnis baru Penjualan atau penjualan merupakan kegiatan dalam pemasaran, mengacu pada metode dan proses berkomunikasi dan menyetujui dan menyelesaikan transaksi (penjualan) dengan pelanggan. Dengan semua ini, mudah-mudahan lebih mudah untuk memahami mengapa, tergantung pada peran atau sudut pandang orang atau departemen tempat mereka bekerja, perencanaan bisnis dapat dirujuk ke dalam banyak dan berbagai cara, misalnya sebagai perencanaan penjualan, perencanaan pemasaran, perencanaan strategis , Dll dan bahwa semua istilah ini mungkin berarti hal yang sedikit berbeda, sesuai situasinya. Jika ada definisi perencanaan bisnis yang benar secara teknis, mungkin sebaiknya kita mengatakan bahwa perencanaan bisnis mengacu pada rencana keseluruhan organisasi, atau unit atau divisi di dalam organisasi yang bertanggung jawab atas perdagangan atau keuntungan. Rencana bisnis secara teknis berisi dan mencerminkan rencana individu untuk berbagai fungsi dalam keseluruhan operasi, yang masing-masing memiliki rencana bisnis tersendiri, yang mungkin disebut rencana bisnis, atau rencana departemen atau fungsional yang lebih tepat sesuai dengan tujuan mereka, seperti Sebagai rencana pemasaran, rencana penjualan, rencana produksi, rencana keuangan, dll. Bantuan tambahan mengenai terminologi ditawarkan oleh definisi perencanaan bisnis di bawah ini. Definisi dan penjelasan lain ditawarkan dalam glosarium bisnis. Dan dalam glossary yang lebih pendek dari bagian penjualan dan pemasaran. Terminologi akan dijelaskan lebih lanjut untuk memperjelas makna dan menghindari kebingungan sepanjang artikel ini. Pengantar Mendekati dengan benar, menulis rencana bisnis dan strategi pemasaran biasanya lebih sederhana dari yang pertama. Perencanaan bisnis mungkin tampak rumit dan menakutkan, tapi kebanyakan akal sehat. Strategi pemasaran - yang sering mendorong tujuan dan bentuk rencana bisnis - juga sangat masuk akal. Rencana bisnis, dan strategi yang mendorong mereka, didasarkan pada logika, atau sebab dan akibat. Saya ingin mencapai hasil tertentu - jadi apa yang akan menyebabkan hal ini terjadi Bahkan rencana bisnis terbesar adalah dengan efektif dibangun di atas kumpulan banyak sebab dan akibat. Rencana bisnis tertulis menyediakan narasi (penjelasan) tentang jumlah yang terdapat dalam spreadsheet. Bila kita melihat banyak angka dalam spreadsheet komputer, kita bisa melupakan ini, tapi jumlahnya hanyalah cerminan skala dan detail, dan perhitungan dan pemodelan terkomputerisasi, dan lain-lain. Sebenarnya sering ketika kita berhadapan dengan spreadsheet perencanaan yang rumit yang berisi ribuan Angka, yang sebenarnya ditawarkan adalah alat perencanaan siap pakai. Dalam banyak kasus, di mana perencanaan bisnis merupakan kelanjutan dari situasi yang sedang berlangsung, spreadsheet yang paling menakutkan dapat memberikan kerangka kerja yang sangat mudah untuk rencana masa depan, terutama dengan sedikit bantuan dari seorang rekan di departemen acciount yang mengerti bagaimana semuanya berjalan. Ironisnya, selembar kertas kosong - dengan kata lain sebuah bisnis baru start-up - biasanya merupakan titik awal yang jauh lebih menantang. Biasanya lebih sulit untuk menulis rencana bisnis untuk memulai bisnis (bisnis baru) daripada bisnis yang sudah ada. Ini karena bisnis yang ada biasanya memiliki catatan terkomputerisasi dari hasil aktivitas dan trading masa lalu (biasanya disebut akun). Spreadsheet biasanya tersedia yang menunjukkan rencana tahun sebelumnya dan hasil aktual, yang dapat digunakan sebagai template di mana rencana baru dapat dilapis dengan mudah. Menulis rencana bisnis baru untuk kelanjutan atau pengembangan situasi yang ada jelas memungkinkan sebagian besar perencanaan didasarkan pada angka, rasio, statistik, dan sebagainya. Situasi start up bisnis baru oleh alam mereka cenderung tidak memiliki hasil sebelumnya, Jadi kita sering mengacu pada perencanaan semacam ini mulai dari selembar kertas kosong. Startup bisnis baru - terutama jika Anda adalah pemilik atau pengusaha - hadirkan tantangan perencanaan yang lebih besar dalam beberapa hal karena kami tidak memiliki catatan sebelumnya untuk bertindak sebagai panduan, namun dalam hal lain mereka menawarkan kesempatan bagus untuk menciptakan prinsip-prinsip pendirian yang benar-benar inovatif dan menarik. - filosofi bisnis baru Anda sendiri - di mana rencana Anda dapat dibangun dan dikembangkan. Di halaman ini ada panduan khusus untuk situasi start up bisnis. Lihat prinsip start up bisnis sederhana. Bergantung pada kendala yang diterapkan dalam perencanaan untuk kegiatan bisnis berkelanjutan yang ada, asasnya sangat mirip untuk perencanaan bisnis awal dan yang sudah ada. Pada dasarnya penyebab dan efeknya, dan menggunakan komputer untuk menghitung jumlahnya. Versi yang sedikit lebih rinci ada di halaman rencana bisnis yang cepat. Dan mulai dengan Untuk mengeksplorasi arah dan perubahan pribadi (misalnya untuk perencanaan awal wirausaha atau memulai bisnis baru) lihat latihan dan template gairah untuk keuntungan pada halaman latihan teambuilding. Lihat juga catatan sederhana tentang memulai bisnis Anda sendiri. Yang mana juga berlaku saat Anda memulai inisiatif bisnis baru atau pengembangan di dalam organisasi lain sebagai manajer pengembangan bisnis baru, atau peran serupa. Heres alat template spreadsheet pembagian keuntungan dan kerugian gratis (xls) untuk menggabungkan faktor dan keuangan ini ke dalam rencana bisnis trading bertahap yang lebih formal, yang juga berfungsi sebagai alat peramalan dan pelaporan bisnis juga. Sesuaikan dengan tujuan Anda. Contoh rencana ini juga tersedia sebagai PDF, lihat Contoh Rencana Usaha Usaha Kecil dan Menengah (Pampl) Small Business Business Plan (PDF). Jumlahnya bisa apa saja: sepuluh kali lebih sedikit, sepuluh kali lipat, seratus kali lebih banyak - asasnya sama. Menjelang akhir artikel ini juga ada templateframework sederhana untuk studi kelayakan atau laporan pembenaran. Seperti yang mungkin diperlukan untuk mendapatkan dana, otorisasi, atau persetujuan untuk memulai sebuah proyek, atau kelanjutan proyek atau kelompok, dalam situasi komersial atau sukarela. Jika Anda memulai bisnis baru, Anda mungkin juga menemukan tip dan informasi tentang membeli bisnis waralaba untuk membantu, karena semuanya mencakup banyak hal mendasar mengenai pilihan aktivitas bisnis dan perencanaan awal. (Catatan: Beberapa ejaan Inggris-Inggris dan AS-Inggris berbeda, misalnya organisasi organisation, colourcolor. Jika menggunakan bahan ini, mohon menyesuaikan ejaan yang sesuai dengan situasi Anda.) Bagaimana menulis rencana pemasaran strategis, rencana bisnis dan rencana penjualan Orang menggunakan berbagai istilah Mengacu pada proses perencanaan bisnis - rencana bisnis, strategi bisnis, strategi pemasaran, perencanaan bisnis strategis, perencanaan penjualan - semuanya mencakup prinsip dasar yang sama. Ketika dihadapkan pada tugas perencanaan bisnis atau pengembangan strategi penting untuk mengklarifikasi apa yang dibutuhkan: mengklarifikasi apa yang perlu dilakukan daripada menganggap tujuan dari uraian yang diberikan kepadanya - istilahnya membingungkan dan berarti berbeda bagi orang yang berbeda. Anda bisa melihat dari definisi di bawah ini seberapa fleksibel istilah perencanaan bisnis ini. Definisi perencanaan bisnis sebuah rencana - sebuah pernyataan niat - maksud yang diperhitungkan untuk mengatur usaha dan sumber daya untuk mencapai suatu hasil - dalam konteks ini sebuah rencana ditulis dalam bentuk tertulis, yang terdiri dari penjelasan, pembenaran dan data statistik numerik dan statistik yang relevan. Dalam konteks bisnis, sebuah rencana data numerik - biaya dan pendapatan - biasanya dijadwalkan setidaknya satu tahun perdagangan, dipecah setiap minggu, bulanan kuartalan dan kumulatif. Bisnis - aktivitas atau entitas, terlepas dari ukuran dan otonomi, yang terlibat dalam suatu kegiatan, biasanya penyediaan produk dan atau layanan, untuk menghasilkan keuntungan komersial, memperluas ke organisasi nonkomersial yang tujuannya mungkin atau mungkin tidak menguntungkan (oleh karena itu Mengapa sekolah dan rumah dinas pemerintah dalam konteks ini disebut bisnis). Rencana bisnis - sekarang ini adalah istilah yang sangat umum dan fleksibel, berlaku untuk kegiatan dan tujuan yang direncanakan dari entitas, kelompok atau organisasi mana pun dimana upaya diubah menjadi hasil. Misalnya: sebuah perusahaan kecil sebuah perusahaan besar sebuah sudut toko bisnis pembersih jendela lokal sebuah bisnis regional multi-juta pound perusahaan multinasional sebuah badan amal sebuah sekolah di sebuah rumah sakit sebuah dewan lokal sebuah badan atau departemen pemerintah sebuah usaha bersama sebuah proyek Dalam bisnis atau departemen, unit bisnis, divisi, atau departemen di dalam organisasi atau perusahaan lain, pusat keuntungan atau pusat biaya dalam sebuah organisasi atau bisnis merupakan tanggung jawab tim atau kelompok atau individu. Entitas bisnis juga bisa menjadi usulan pengembangan awal, pengembangan bisnis baru di dalam organisasi yang ada, usaha bersama baru, atau proyek organisasi atau bisnis baru yang bertujuan untuk mengubah tindakan menjadi hasil. Sejauh mana rencana bisnis mencakup aktivitas dan sumber daya biaya dan biaya overhead (misalnya produksi, penelitian dan pengembangan, gudang, penyimpanan, transportasi, distribusi, pemborosan, penyusutan, kantor pusat, pelatihan, kredit macet, dll) tergantung pada kebutuhan Bisnis dan tujuan rencananya. Oleh karena itu, rencana bisnis tingkat eksekutif yang besar terlihat seperti akun keuntungan dan kerugian prediktif, yang sepenuhnya terperinci sampai ke intinya. Rencana bisnis yang ditulis di unit bisnis atau departemen biasanya tidak mencakup data keuangan di luar departemen yang bersangkutan. Sebagian besar rencana bisnis adalah rencana penjualan atau rencana pemasaran atau rencana departemen, yang merupakan bias utama panduan ini. Strategi - yang pada awalnya merupakan istilah militer, dalam strategi strategi perencanaan bisnis, strategi penting, masuk akal mengapa dan bagaimana rencana tersebut akan berjalan. Dalam kaitannya dengan semua faktor pengaruhnya terhadap entitas bisnis dan aktivitas, terutama termasuk pesaing (dengan demikian penggunaan istilah tempur militer), pelanggan dan demografi, teknologi dan komunikasi. Pemasaran - diyakini oleh banyak orang sama artinya dengan promosi iklan atau penjualan, pemasaran sebenarnya berarti dan mencakup segala hal mulai dari budaya dan posisi perusahaan, melalui riset pasar, pengembangan produk baru, periklanan dan promosi, PR (hubungan publicpress), dan bisa dibilang semua Fungsi penjualan juga. Pemasaran adalah proses dimana bisnis memutuskan apa yang akan dijualnya, kepada siapa, kapan dan bagaimana, dan kemudian melakukannya. Rencana pemasaran - secara logis sebuah rencana yang merinci apa yang akan dijual bisnis, kepada siapa, kapan dan bagaimana, secara implisit termasuk strategi pemasaran bisnis. Sejauh mana data numerik finansial dan komersial disertakan tergantung pada kebutuhan bisnis. Sejauh mana rincian ini rencana penjualan juga bergantung pada kebutuhan bisnis. Penjualan - transaksi antara bisnis dan pelanggannya dimana layanan dan atau produk disediakan sebagai imbalan pembayaran. Penjualan (sales departmentales team) juga menggambarkan kegiatan dan sumber daya yang memungkinkan proses ini, dan penjualan juga menggambarkan pendapatan yang diperoleh bisnis dari kegiatan penjualan. Rencana penjualan - rencana yang menjelaskan, menghitung dan bertahap dari waktu ke waktu, bagaimana penjualan akan dilakukan dan kepada siapa. Beberapa organisasi menafsirkan ini sama dengan rencana bisnis atau rencana pemasaran. Strategi bisnis - lihat strategi - sama. Strategi pemasaran - lihat strategi - sama. Kontrak layanan - dokumen formal yang biasanya dibuat oleh pemasok dimana perjanjian perdagangan disetujui dengan pelanggan. Lihat bagian kontrak layanan dan perjanjian perdagangan. Rencana bisnis strategis - lihat strategi dan rencana bisnis - rencana bisnisnya dengan supir strategis (yang sebenarnya semua rencana bisnis seharusnya). Perencanaan bisnis strategis - mengembangkan dan menulis rencana bisnis strategis. Filsafat, nilai, etika, visi - inilah dasar-dasar perencanaan bisnis, dan menentukan semangat dan integritas bisnis atau organisasi - lihat panduan bagaimana faktor filosofis dan etis masuk ke dalam proses perencanaan. Dan juga prinsip dan materi yang berkaitan dengan tanggung jawab perusahaan dan kepemimpinan etis. Anda dapat melihat bahwa banyak dari istilah ini saling dipertukarkan, jadi penting untuk mengklarifikasi apa yang perlu direncanakan daripada mengasumsikan atau menyimpulkan sebuah makna dari nama yang diberikan pada tugas tersebut. Konon, prinsip yang dijelaskan di sini bisa diterapkan pada rencana bisnis segala macam. Rencana bisnis sering disebut nama yang berbeda - terutama oleh manajer senior dan direktur yang mendelegasikan latihan perencanaan yang mereka tidak mengerti dengan cukup baik untuk dijelaskan. Sebagai contoh: rencana penjualan, rencana operasional, rencana organisasi, rencana pemasaran, rencana strategi pemasaran, rencana bisnis strategis, rencana bisnis departemen, dll. Biasanya, nama-nama ini mencerminkan departemen yang melakukan perencanaan, terlepas dari itu, proses perencanaan dan isi yang dibutuhkan dalam Dokumen serupa. Definisi perencanaan bisnis lain yang berguna dan relevan ada dalam kamus bisnis glossary penjualan dan penjualan beberapa juga dalam istilah istilah istilah glossary. Dan lebih - terutama untuk pelatihan - ada dalam daftar akronim bisnis dan pelatihan. Yang juga memberikan kelegaan ringan yang lucu jika perencanaan bisnis ini sedikit kering (perlu diingat, daftar akronim berisi beberapa konten khusus dewasa). Saat menulis rencana bisnis atau operasi, ingatlah. Aturan pertama perencanaan bisnis yang pertama adalah memutuskan apa yang sebenarnya ingin Anda capai dan selalu mengingat hal ini. Tuliskan tujuan Anda besar sebagai pengingat konstan untuk diri Anda sendiri, dan kepada orang lain yang terlibat. Menjaga tujuan utama Anda terlihat akan membantu Anda meminimalkan gangguan dan distorsi yang sering timbul selama proses perencanaan. Aturan perencanaan bisnis yang semakin penting dan mungkin kedua adalah membangun filosofi etika yang kuat pada awal perencanaan Anda. Ini memberikan referensi penting untuk pengambilan keputusan dan strategi sejak awal. Kode etik yang jelas mengkomunikasikan nilai Anda kepada staf, pelanggan, pemasok, dan menciptakan dasar konsisten sederhana untuk operasi yang keuangan konvensional, proses, sistem dan bahkan orang-orang, tidak ditangani. Sangat sulit untuk memperkenalkan prinsip-prinsip etika ke dalam suatu perusahaan, terutama ketika merencanakan perubahan, dan terlebih lagi jika masalah timbul berkaitan dengan integritas, kejujuran, tanggung jawab perusahaan, kepercayaan, tata kelola, dan lain-lain, yang dapat berdampak besar terhadap hubungan Dan reputasi. Lihat tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan etika dan Kontrak Psikologis. Mudah untuk mengatasi masalah etika dan tanggung jawab perusahaan saat Anda menjadi pemilik perusahaan baru. Hal ini lebih sulit jika Anda adalah seorang manajer di perusahaan elses seseorang atau perusahaan besar. Meskipun demikian, etika dan tanggung jawab perusahaan sangat penting dalam perencanaan, dan pembenaran yang kuat untuk pertimbangan mereka sekarang dapat dilakukan. Sekarang ada banyak contoh perusahaan baru - memang seluruh ekonomi nasional dan pemerintah - yang telah gagal karena anggapan buruk terhadap pertimbangan etis. Dunia berubah dan belajar, perlahan, tapi memang, dan siapa pun yang mengabaikan etika dalam perencanaan hari ini melakukannya atas risiko mereka sendiri. Persyaratan penting ketiga untuk rencana bisnis adalah laba atas investasi. Atau untuk layanan publik dan organisasi nirlaba: penggunaan investasi dan sumber daya yang efektif, yang berada di luar kendali biaya sederhana. Bagi sebagian besar organisasi, baik perusahaan, layanan publik, bukan kepercayaan dan badan amal, semua organisasi harus efektif secara finansial atas apa yang mereka lakukan, jika tidak, mereka akan berhenti berfungsi. Akhirnya - apa pun organisasi dan tujuan - kelayakan finansial diperlukan untuk mempertahankan aktivitas yang terorganisir. Meskipun penting untuk mengelola aspek etika dan tanggung jawab sosial dari tujuan organisasi. Ini harus memungkinkan pengembalian investasi yang memadai (atau perusahaan yang kurang tradisional dan nirlaba, harus memungkinkan penggunaan investasi dan sumber daya yang efektif. Sesuai dengan persyaratan keuangan organisasi tertentu). Mengingat kebutuhan akan kelayakan finansial juga penting karena perencanaan bisnis sering dilakukan - dengan tepat - untuk mencapai sesuatu yang baru dan istimewa. Hal ini cenderung berfokus pada kreativitas, inovasi, ambisi, kualitas, keunggulan, bahkan mungkin kebaikan sosial, dan lain-lain yang dapat dengan mudah mengalihkan perencanaan dari kebutuhan dasar agar layak secara finansial - dan yang terpenting adalah membuat kerugian. Dengan memperlakukan laba atas investasi sebagai persyaratan vital dalam perencanaan, kita meningkatkan kemungkinan bahwa rencana akan berjalan dan berkelanjutan. Pengembalian investasi bagaimanapun adalah fitur variabel dari perencanaan bisnis. Ini fleksibel sesuai dengan jenis usaha, tujuan dan filosofinya. Dalam laba atas investasi yang digerakkan oleh keuntungan konvensional (pada tingkat yang optimal) biasanya merupakan penggerak strategis yang kuat untuk perencanaan dan keputusan lokal, dan implikasinya juga merupakan kebutuhan dasar perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Di sisi lain, dalam bisnis atau organisasi yang kurang fokus pada penghargaan pemegang saham, seperti kepercayaan atau amal layanan publik, atau perusahaan sosial atau koperasi, laba atas investasi (pada tingkat yang relatif lebih rendah), mungkin merupakan persyaratan hanya untuk mempertahankan Operasi yang layak, sesuai dengan tujuan perusahaan. Pada contoh pertama, laba atas investasi adalah tujuan pada contoh kedua, laba atas investasi memungkinkan beberapa tujuan lain yang lebih tinggi untuk dicapai. Secara lebih rinci: Di ​​sebuah perusahaan berbasis laba tradisional, laba atas investasi cenderung menjadi persyaratan utama dari setiap rencana bisnis dan juga tujuan utama atau tujuan atau pendorong rencana tersebut. Pada sebagian besar perusahaan tradisional, laba atas investasi cenderung menjadi inti dari semua aktivitas, karena biasanya korporasi ada untuk memaksimalkan hasil (keuntungan dan pertumbuhan secara efektif) dari dana pemegang saham yang diinvestasikan dalam bisnis. Perencanaan di perusahaan tradisional terkadang melupakan kewajiban dasar ini, terutama saat manajer junior diminta menulis rencana bisnis untuk pertama kalinya. Dalam perusahaan berbasis keuntungan tradisional, ketika seorang manajer baru mulai menulis rencana bisnis atau rencana operasional untuk pertama kalinya (dan untuk beberapa manajer berpengalaman juga, untuk kesekian kalinya), manajer bertanya-tanya: Apa tujuannya Apa yang saya coba Untuk mencapai Seringkali ketika mereka meminta manajer mereka sendiri, manajer memiliki keraguan yang sama. Tujuan utamanya adalah pengembalian investasi. Dalam bisnis atau organisasi nirlaba dimana pengayaan pemegang saham bukanlah tujuan utama, laba atas investasi kurang merupakan pendorong dalam perencanaan bisnis, namun tetap merupakan persyaratan penting. Perusahaan semacam itu menjadi lebih populer, dan akan terus menjadi begitu, sejak runtuhnya ekonomi barat di tahun 2008, dan meningkatkan kekecewaan dengan pemikiran bisnis gaya lama. Inilah laba atas investasi bukan pendorong utama atau tujuan bisnis. Sebagai gantinya, pendorong utama perusahaan mungkin merupakan tujuan lain. Contoh dari beberapa tujuan lain mungkin adalah kegiatan perusahaan sosial atau koperasi, atau mungkin perusahaan kepemilikan karyawan, atau mungkin kepercayaan atau amal, yang tujuan utamanya adalah (bukan perolehan keuntungan tradisional untuk pemegang saham di luar lembaga keuangan) mungkin menguntungkan Anggota staf, dan untuk mempertahankan pekerjaan lokal, dan untuk memberi manfaat kepada masyarakat setempat, atau mungkin untuk memajukan ilmu pengetahuan atau pembelajaran atau kesehatan, dan sebagainya. Di sini, sementara laba atas investasi mungkin tampak kurang penting atau sesuai dengan perencanaan dan operasi, perusahaan tetap harus tetap finansial. Layak. Atau berhenti beroperasi sama sekali. Dalam contoh seperti itu, pengembalian investasi dalam perencanaan bisnis biasanya tidak dimaksimalkan, namun tetap harus diperlakukan sebagai persyaratan mendasar untuk perencanaan, dan dilipat sesuai dengan tujuan mendasar dan persyaratan keuangan perusahaan. Sebelum merencanakan, oleh karena itu, sangat membantu untuk memahami dengan jelas: Apa yang sebenarnya ingin dicapai? Apa kebijakan kami terhadap tanggung jawab sosial dan etika perusahaan, dan sebagainya - filosofi kami Dan apa keuntungan atas investasi (atau kinerja keuangan alternatif) yang dibutuhkan aktivitas aktivitas kami - Apakah ini penggerak strategis itu sendiri, atau hanya sarana untuk mempertahankan kegiatan kita dalam mendukung perencanaan dan perencanaan tujuan (titik 1) kita. Metodologi dasar perencanaan bisnis adalah mengidentifikasi sebab dan akibat. Sesuai dengan kebutuhan bisnis Anda yang relevan (keuangan dan etika) dan driver strategis (apa yang sebenarnya ingin dicapai). Disini penyebabnya adalah masukan atau tindakan atau sumber daya suatu efek adalah hasil atau hasil atau konsekuensi dari suatu macam. Kami ingin mencapai efek xyz (misalnya pengembalian investasi yang diberikan, atau tingkat penjualan atau pangsa pasar tertentu, apa pun) - jadi apa yang harus kami rencanakan untuk menyebabkan hal ini terjadi. Biasanya, efek sebab akibat besar dipecah menjadi aktivitas yang lebih kecil, yang juga Terdiri dari sebab dan akibat. (Proses dan alat perencanaan tujuan membantu menjelaskan bagaimana pembagian ini bekerja - di mana tujuan besar dipecah menjadi bagian yang lebih kecil dan dapat diukur). Manajer junior bertanggung jawab atas rencana dan kegiatan yang memberi makan ke dalam rencana dan aktivitas manajer senior yang lebih besar. Rencana dan aktivitas para manajer senior masuk ke dalam rencana divisi eksekutif dan direktur. Ada hierarki atau struktur pohon sebab dan akibat, semua semoga berkontribusi pada keseluruhan tujuan organisasi. Di banyak bisnis yang baik, tanggung jawab perencanaan bisnis yang besar kini menjangkau staf front-line yang menghadap pelanggan, dan trennya semakin meningkat. Dalam konteks ini, rencana bisnis dapat disebut juga disebut rencana pemasaran, atau rencana penjualan - semua rencana departemen pada dasarnya adalah jenis perencanaan bisnis: Apa yang akan Anda jual kepada siapa, kapan dan bagaimana Anda akan menjualnya , Berapa besar kontribusi (gross profit) yang akan dihasilkan penjualan, berapa biaya penjualan andor marketing, dan apa yang akan menjadi laba atas investasi. Dimana departemen adalah pusat biaya bukan pusat keuntungan - menyediakan produk atau layanan secara internal ke departemen lain daripada ke pelanggan eksternal - maka bahasa dan elemen perencanaan dapat berubah, namun asasnya tetap sama. Selain itu, prinsip dan metode ini berlaku untuk organisasi multinasional kompleks yang sangat besar, yang cenderung memerlukan biaya yang lebih banyak dan berbeda, biaya tetap, pendapatan, dan akibatnya format perencanaan yang lebih besar lebih banyak dan spreadsheet yang lebih besar, lebih banyak baris dan kolom pada masing-masing, lebih banyak perhatian dan orang-orang yang bekerja. Pada jumlah, lebih banyak akuntan, dan biasanya - terutama pada tingkat manajemen menengah dan di atas - lebih menekankan pada arus kas dan neraca, di samping perencanaan laba dan rugi dasar. Lakukan penelitian pasar Anda, termasuk memahami aktivitas pesaing Anda Pasar bervariasi sesuai dengan bisnis atau organisasi yang bersangkutan, namun setiap aktivitas yang terorganisir memiliki pasar. Mengetahui pasar memungkinkan Anda menilai dan menilai dan merencanakan bagaimana cara mengikutinya. Kegagalan umum perencanaan bisnis atau perencanaan operasional di luar dunia bisnis, adalah merencanakan secara terpisah, melihat ke dalam, ketika gagasan tampak sangat positif dan dapat diandalkan karena tidak ada konteks dan tidak ada yang bisa dibandingkan. Oleh karena itu penelitian sangat penting. Dan ini berlaku untuk semua jenis organisasi - tidak hanya untuk bisnis. Lihat terutama panduan pemasaran yang berkaitan dengan perencanaan bisnis. Merencanakan sangat banyak masalah proses. Prinsip pemasaran akan menjelaskan pula bagaimana cara memasukkan makna dan nilai ke dalam apa yang Anda rencanakan. Riset pasar Anda harus berfokus pada informasi yang Anda butuhkan, untuk membantu Anda merumuskan strategi dan membuat keputusan bisnis. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so its important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called secondary, because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However theres no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own primary research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because theyll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability. etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically short, medium and long equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you cant measure it, you cant manage it. define your mission statement All businesses need a 145mission statement. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general 145service charter relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the businesss mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the businesss priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your product offering(s) or service offering(s) - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business . and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as revenue streams, or business streams - andor for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt 145which means that. . For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: Were open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: Making money Saving money Saving time If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they dont do at all) something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think 145Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor). This is the first brick in the wall in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have What customer losses are you projecting How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple salesbusiness planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the Father of Strategic Management. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoffs paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business wont necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of productsservices that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or productservice capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone elses wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the productservice fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good productservice range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USPs or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - productservice development The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. low market share These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out what if analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Heres a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PampL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors wont normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they wont happen. write your marketing plan or business plan Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross marginprofitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc. if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then its probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example formattemplate Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, companyorganization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page . Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or its not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc. clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliographyreference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc. for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template This sample template is typical for a salesmarketingnew business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, peopleusers, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg. growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, productsservices, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and productsservices including major accounts (the Pareto Principle or the 80:20 rule often applies here, eg. 80 of your business comes from 20 of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USPs and UPBs (see sales training section and acronyms ) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and st rategic partners - the other organizationsindividuals you will work with to develop your market, including whats in it for them, commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg. SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Salesmarketingbusiness plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by productservice stream, mix, values, segment, distributor, etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet . with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous years salesbusiness analysis as the basis for the next years salesbusiness plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues staffing and training implications Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions Do they know what their responsibilities are How will you measure their performance Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. customer service charter You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLAs (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLAs to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: Its not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing whats going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. Its therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLAs - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance These standards and the SLAs established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out theres a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and thats even more important if youre failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLAs and take the opportunity to agree new SLAs with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers What internet presence and processes do you need How should your voice and data systems work together What systems need to be available to mobile staff What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you cant measure it you cant manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPIs ). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results Who needs to know Who needs to capture the data communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. Theres a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how youre performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they dont use it - its human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if its made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, youll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and youll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical business-types the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess peoples strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Its usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. Whats your product or service (Whats goodspecialdifferent about your products or service that enough people will buy it And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to makebuy inprovide the product or service (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the productservice sell for (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50 is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your productsservices according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the persons time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc. are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for consumer businesses - ie. selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the productservice (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead) 5. How muchmany do you need to sell in a year And how many customers do you need (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in productslabour and sales revenues) covers yourtheir financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the serviceproduct (You need t o understand what advertisingmarketingenquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, word-of-mouth referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling .) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year - if so then its probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical table napkin business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Heres a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PampL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or company type as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partnersowners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including. trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the ownerpartners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. Youll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majestys) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (pound68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: hmrc.gov.uk VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem thats easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc. which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and hisher accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountants pen is mightier than the worlds most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and its primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if youve no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words net of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account these amounts are called gross, because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. Its your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you cant confuse them with your main business account, i.e. your working capital typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because youve under-estimated tax due is a problem sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Heres an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if youve no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e. revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5. This equates (roughly) to 15 when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15 of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30 of earnings up to about pound30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49 - call it 50 - of earnings above pound30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking prudent. Its a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to pound30k you need to set aside 30 to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over pound30k you need to set aside 50 to cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below pound30k remain taxable at 30). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If its kept very simple and quick youll be more likely to do it - andor to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say pound50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): 17.5 VAT liabilities equates to 15 of gross sales revenues (again we are assuming no significant costs to offset these figures) (pound22.75k total tax divide pound50k gross revenues 45.5) From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5 of earnings (yes its a lot isnt it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact its effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because its a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant andor the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report First, and importantly, you need to clarifyconfirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation . Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future (customer) need (for the outputsresults produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what costinvestment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment . etc. required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e. acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative costreturn (return on investment) comparisons (ie. what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesnt happen or ceases) outline strategy and financial plan . including people, aims, philosophy . etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising powers fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations. and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, its important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation youll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then youll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. Youll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it neednt be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where heshe thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors whove only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who ve worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger ) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie. if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - heshe must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesnt smoke or drink too much isnt desperate for the work As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if its a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone whos trusted, by someone you trust, then probably theyll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. Youll find someone eventually but youll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (Im thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and youd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people wont ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they dont want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how youll be Im sure. Finally, when youve found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - its chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someones passion. new business start-ups by older people If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if youve got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. Its difficult for young people to know all the answers. Youll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you dont enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you cant do or dont want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they dont determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc. which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others. authorshipreferencing
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