Pindah-rata-sistem-digital-signal-processing

Pindah-rata-sistem-digital-signal-processing

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Mana-yang-lebih-rata-rata bergerak rata-rata atau rata-rata
Pilihan-trading-education-for-pemula


Oasis-trading-system Online-day-trading-course + india Option-trading-how-does-it-work Msft-options-strategies Online-trading-no-deposit-bonus Contoh perkiraan rata-rata bergerak yang sederhana

Ada sejumlah indikator dan model matematis yang diterima secara luas dan digunakan oleh beberapa perangkat lunak perdagangan (bahkan MetaStock), seperti MAMA, Hilbert Transform, Fisher Transform (sebagai pengganti FFT), Homodyne Discriminator, Hilbert Sine Wave, Trendline Instan dll. Oleh John Ehler Tapi hanya itu. Saya belum pernah mendengar tentang orang lain selain John Ehler yang belajar di bidang ini. Menurut Anda, apakah layak mempelajari pemrosesan sinyal digital Bagaimanapun, setiap transaksi adalah grafik sinyal dan batang yang agak disaring berupa sinyal ini. Apakah masuk akal diminta 15 Februari 11 jam 20:46 Wavelets hanyalah satu bentuk dekomposisi dasar. Wavelet secara khusus terurai dalam frekuensi dan waktu dan dengan demikian lebih berguna daripada dekomposisi berbasis empatier atau lainnya. Ada dekomposisi waktu-freq lainnya (misalnya HHT) yang harus dieksplorasi juga. Dekomposisi rangkaian harga berguna dalam memahami pergerakan primer dalam rangkaian. Secara umum dengan dekomposisi, sinyal asli adalah jumlah komponen dasarnya (berpotensi dengan multiplier multiplier). Komponennya berkisar dari frekuensi terendah (garis lurus melalui sampel) hingga frekuensi tertinggi, kurva yang berosilasi dengan frekuensi mendekati mendekati N 2. Bagaimana ini berguna denoising seri yang menentukan komponen utama pergerakan dalam rangkaian penentuan. Pivot Denoising dilakukan dengan menyusun ulang rangkaian dengan menjumlahkan komponen dari dekomposisi, kurang beberapa komponen frekuensi tertinggi terakhir. Seri denoised (atau filtered) ini, jika dipilih dengan baik, sering memberi pandangan pada proses harga inti. Dengan mengasumsikan kelanjutan ke arah yang sama, dapat digunakan untuk melakukan ekstropolasi dalam waktu singkat. Sebagai timeseries kutu secara real-time, seseorang dapat melihat bagaimana proses harga denoised (atau penyaringan) berubah untuk menentukan apakah pergerakan harga dalam arah yang berbeda signifikan atau hanya noise. Salah satu kunci, bagaimanapun, adalah menentukan berapa tingkat dekomposisi yang akan dikomposisikan dalam situasi tertentu. Tingkat yang terlalu sedikit (freq rendah) akan berarti bahwa rangkaian harga yang direkomposisi merespons dengan sangat lambat terhadap kejadian. Terlalu banyak level (high freq) berarti untuk respon cepat tapi. Mungkin terlalu banyak kebisingan di beberapa rezim harga. Mengingat bahwa pasar bergeser antara gerakan menyamping dan gerakan momentum, proses penyaringan perlu disesuaikan dengan rezim, menjadi kurang lebih sensitif terhadap pergerakan dalam memproyeksikan kurva. Ada banyak cara untuk mengevaluasi hal ini, seperti melihat kekuatan seri yang disaring versus kekuatan dari seri harga mentah, yang menargetkan tertentu bergantung pada rezim. Dengan asumsi satu telah berhasil menggunakan wavelet atau dekomposisi lainnya untuk menghasilkan sinyal reaktif yang halus dan tepat, dapat mengambil turunan dan gunakan untuk mendeteksi minima dan maxima saat rangkaian harga berlangsung. Seseorang membutuhkan dasar yang memiliki perilaku baik pada titik akhir sehingga kemiringan kurva pada proyek titik akhir sesuai arah. Dasar perlu memberikan hasil yang konsisten pada titik akhir karena timeseries kutu dan tidak bias posisi Sayangnya, saya tidak mengetahui adanya dasar wavelet yang menghindari masalah di atas. Ada beberapa basis lain yang bisa dipilih agar lebih baik. Kesimpulan Jika Anda ingin mengejar Wavelets dan membangun peraturan perdagangan di sekitar mereka, berharap bisa melakukan banyak penelitian. Anda mungkin juga menemukan bahwa meskipun konsepnya bagus, Anda perlu menggali basis penguraian lainnya untuk mendapatkan perilaku yang diinginkan. Saya tidak menggunakan dekomposisi untuk keputusan perdagangan, namun saya merasa berguna dalam menentukan rezim pasar dan langkah-langkah lain untuk melihat ke belakang. Anda perlu menyelidiki bagaimana membedakan metode interpolasi dengan metode ekstrapolasi. Mudah untuk membangun model yang mengulangi masa lalu (hampir semua skema interpolasi akan melakukan triknya). Masalahnya, model itu biasanya tidak berharga ketika harus melakukan ekstrapolasi ke masa depan. Saat Anda mendengar kata siklus, bendera merah harus naik. Gali aplikasi Fourier Integral, Fourier Series, Fourier Transform, dll, dan Anda akan menemukan bahwa dengan frekuensi yang cukup, Anda dapat mewakili rangkaian waktu dengan cukup baik sehingga sebagian besar pedagang eceran dapat yakin bahwa itu berhasil. Masalahnya adalah, ia tidak memiliki kekuatan prediktif apapun. Alasan metode Fourier berguna di engineeringDSP adalah karena sinyal (voltase, arus, suhu, apapun) biasanya berulang dengan sendirinya di sirkuit di mana ia dihasilkan. Akibatnya, interpolasi kemudian menjadi terkait dengan ekstrapolasi. Jika Anda menggunakan R, Heres beberapa kode hacky untuk dicoba: Analisis siklus dan pemrosesan sinyal mungkin berguna untuk pola musiman namun tanpa mengetahui lebih banyak tentang kinerja pendekatan perdagangan semacam itu, saya tidak akan mempertimbangkan tingkat pemrosesan sinyal hanya untuk perdagangan. Apakah Anda akan senang menerapkan apa yang Anda pelajari mengenai masalah tipe teknik standar karena mungkin saja Anda terjebak jika tidak bekerja dengan cukup baik dengan perdagangan. Jawab 15 Feb 11 11 di 22:10 analisis DSP dan Time Series adalah hal yang sama. DSP menggunakan enginering lingo dan time series analysis menggunakan mathematical lingo namun modelnya cukup simular. Indikator siklus cyber Ehlers adalah ARMA (3,2). Ehlers memiliki beberapa ide unik: Apa arti fase variabel acak yang dijawab 26 Feb 11 at 5:04 Lupakan semua indikator teknis yang disebut ini. Mereka omong kosong, terutama jika Anda tidak tahu bagaimana menggunakannya. Saran saya: beli buku wavelet yang bagus, dan buat strategi Anda sendiri. Jawab Feb 16 11 at 2:52 Hi fRed, buku wavelet apa yang Anda gunakan Dapatkah Anda merekomendasikan judul ndash MisterH Mar 28 11 at 11:26 Pengantar Metode Wavelet dan Metode Penyaringan Lainnya di Keuangan dan Ekonomi oleh Ramazan Gencay, Faruk Selcuk Brandon Whitcher ndash RockScience 29 Maret jam 2:15 Saya telah menemukan John Ehlers Fisher Transform cukup berguna sebagai indikator dalam perdagangan berjangka khususnya pada grafik tick Heikin-Ashi. Saya mengandalkannya untuk strategi saya tapi saya rasa ini cukup dapat diandalkan untuk mendasarkan keseluruhan sistem otomatis dengan sendirinya karena belum terbukti dapat diandalkan selama hari berombak tapi sangat bermanfaat pada hari-hari tren seperti hari ini. (Id senang posting grafik untuk menggambarkan tapi aku tidak memiliki reputasi yang dibutuhkan) menjawab 22 Mar 13 di 20: 47Signal Processing Fundamentals Dennis Bohn, Rane RaneNote 134 ditulis 1997 revisi terakhir 504 Screaming To Be Heard Di luar angkasa, tidak ada yang bisa mendengar kamu berteriak . Karena tidak ada udara atau media lain untuk suara bepergian. Suara membutuhkan media sebagai zat intervensi yang melaluinya dapat melakukan perjalanan dari satu titik ke titik lainnya, hal itu harus dilakukan pada sesuatu. Sesuatu itu bisa padat, cair atau gas. Mereka bisa mendengar Anda menjerit di bawah air. secara singkat. Air adalah media. Udara adalah media. Dinding kelab malam adalah media. Suara bergerak di udara dengan cepat mengubah tekanan udara relatif terhadap nilai normalnya (tekanan atmosfir). Suara adalah gangguan di media sekitarnya. Sebuah getaran yang menyebar dari sumbernya, menciptakan serangkaian kerang yang meluas dengan tekanan tinggi dan tekanan rendah. tekanan tinggi. tekanan rendah. tekanan tinggi. tekanan rendah . Pindah ke luar siklus ini dari zona tekanan bolak-balik sampai akhirnya menghilang, atau memantulkan permukaan (dinding kelab malam), atau melewati batas-batas, atau terserap - biasanya kombinasi ketiganya. Kiri terhalang, suara bergerak keluar, tapi tidak selamanya. Udara (atau medium lainnya) merampas beberapa kekuatan suara saat melewati. Harga peralihan: medium menyerap energinya. Kehilangan daya ini dialami sebagai pengurangan seberapa kerasnya (istilah kenyaringan digunakan untuk menggambarkan seberapa kerasnya dari saat ke saat) karena sinyal bergerak menjauh dari sumbernya. Suara keras sinyal dikurangi satu perempat untuk setiap penggandaan jarak dari sumbernya. Ini berarti bahwa itu adalah 6 dB kurang keras saat Anda melipatgandakan jarak Anda darinya. Ini dikenal sebagai hukum kuadrat terbalik karena penurunannya berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak yang ditempuh misalnya, 2 kali jarak sama dengan 14 penurunan kenyaringan, dan seterusnya. Bagaimana kita menciptakan suara, dan bagaimana kita menangkap suara Kami melakukan ini dengan menggunakan sisi berlawanan dari koin elektromagnetik yang sama. Listrik dan magnet adalah kinfolk: Jika Anda melewati gulungan kawat melalui medan magnet, listrik dihasilkan di dalam koil. Balikkan koin dan balikkan lagi: Jika Anda melewati listrik melalui gulungan kawat, medan magnet dihasilkan. Pindahkan magnet, dapatkan voltase yang menggunakan voltase, buat magnet. Inilah inti dari semua benda elektromekanik. Mikrofon dan loudspeaker adalah benda elektromekanik. Di hati mereka ada gulungan kabel (voice coil) dan magnet (magnet). Berbicara menyebabkan getaran suara keluar dari mulut Anda. Berbicara ke mikrofon bergerak-koil (alias dinamis) menyebabkan koil suara bergerak dalam medan magnet. Hal ini menyebabkan tegangan untuk dikembangkan dan arus yang mengalir sebanding dengan suara - suara telah ditangkap. Di ujung lain rantai, tegangan diterapkan pada koil suara loudspeaker yang menyebabkan aliran arus yang menghasilkan medan magnet yang membuat kerucut bergerak sebanding dengan sinyal audio yang digunakan - suara telah diciptakan. Mikrofon menerjemahkan suara menjadi sinyal listrik, dan loudspeaker menerjemahkan sinyal listrik menjadi suara. Satu menangkap, menciptakan lainnya. Segala sesuatu di antaranya hanya detail. Dan seandainya Anda bertanya-tanya: iya berbalik, mikrofon bisa menjadi loudspeaker (yang membuat suara kecil mungil), dan loudspeaker bisa berupa mikrofon (jika Anda benar-benar LOUD). Crossover: Crossover Divisi Loudspeaker Sederhana adalah kejahatan yang diperlukan. Alam semesta yang berbeda, rangkaian fisika yang berbeda dan mungkin kita bisa memiliki apa yang kita inginkan: satu pengeras suara yang melakukan semuanya. Salah satu pembicara yang mereproduksi semua frekuensi audio dengan baik, tanpa distorsi, pada tingkat kenyaman yang memadai untuk tempat apa pun yang kita mainkan. Nah, kita tinggal di sini, dan sistem fisika kita tidak membiarkan pemborosan semacam itu. Kebenaran yang sulit adalah, tidak ada satu loudspeaker yang bisa melakukan semuanya. Kita membutuhkan setidaknya dua - lebih jika kita mampu membelinya. Woofers dan tweeter. Woofer besar untuk posisi terendah dan tweeter kecil untuk harga tertinggi. Ini dikenal sebagai sistem 2 arah. (Simak diagram yang menyertainya untuk diskusi berikut.) Tetapi dengan dua speaker, frekuensi yang benar harus diarahkan (atau disilang) ke masing-masing loudspeaker. Pada tingkat paling sederhana crossover adalah jaringan pasif. Jaringan pasif adalah salah satu yang tidak memerlukan catu daya untuk beroperasi - jika memiliki kabel saluran, atau menjalankan baterai, maka ini bukan sirkuit pasif. Jaringan crossover pasif yang paling sederhana hanya terdiri dari dua komponen: kapasitor yang terhubung ke penggerak frekuensi tinggi dan induktor (alias koil) yang terhubung ke pengemudi frekuensi rendah. Sebuah kapasitor adalah komponen elektronik yang melewati frekuensi tinggi (passband) dan blok frekuensi rendah (stopband) yang dilakukan induktor justru sebaliknya: ia melewati frekuensi rendah dan memblokir frekuensi tinggi. Tapi seiring dengan perubahan frekuensi, komponen tidak bereaksi secara tiba-tiba. Mereka melakukannya secara bertahap mereka perlahan mulai melewati (atau berhenti melintas) frekuensi masing-masing. Tingkat di mana ini terjadi disebut kemiringan crossover. Hal ini diukur dalam dB per oktaf. Atau disingkat menjadi dBoctave. Kemiringan meningkat atau berkurang begitu banyak dBoctave. Pada tingkat yang paling sederhana, setiap komponen memberi Anda kemiringan 6 dBoctave (fakta fisik alam semesta kita). Sekali lagi, pada tingkat yang paling sederhana, menambahkan lebih banyak komponen meningkatkan kemiringan dalam kenaikan 6 dB, menciptakan lereng 12 dBoct, 18 dBoct, 24 dBoct, dan seterusnya. Jumlah komponen, atau kenaikan kemiringan 6 dB, disebut perintah crossover. Oleh karena itu, crossover orde ke-4 memiliki (setidaknya) empat komponen, dan menghasilkan lereng curam 24 dBoctave. Semakin curam lebih baik bagi sebagian besar pengemudi, karena speaker hanya berkinerja baik untuk beberapa frekuensi tertentu di luar yang mereka anggap salah, terkadang buruk. Lereng curam mencegah frekuensi ini sampai ke pengemudi. Anda dapat menggabungkan kapasitor dan induktor untuk membuat jalur ketiga yang menghilangkan tinggi tertinggi dan terendah terendah, dan membentuk bagian crossover frekuensi menengah. Ini secara alami disebut sistem 3 arah. (Lihat diagram) Bagian quotmidquot membentuk filter bandpass, karena hanya melewati pita frekuensi tertentu. Perhatikan dari diagram bahwa frekuensi tinggi passband dan istilah passband frekuensi rendah sering disingkat menjadi high-pass dan low-pass. Sistem 3 arah memungkinkan pengoptimalan setiap pengemudi untuk pita frekuensi yang lebih sempit, menghasilkan suara keseluruhan yang lebih baik. Jadi mengapa tidak hanya menggunakan kotak pasif Masalah terbesar adalah satu kabinet pasif (atau sepasang) tidak akan cukup keras dan cukup bersih untuk ruang besar. Jika sistem suara untuk kamar tidur atau garasi Anda, sistem pasif akan bekerja dengan baik - bahkan mungkin lebih baik lagi. Tapi itu bukan. Begitu Anda mencoba mengisi ruang yang relatif besar dengan suara yang sama nyaring Anda mulai mengerti masalahnya. Dan itu tidak perlu stadion, hanya klub ukuran normal. Sangat sulit untuk menghasilkan kekerasan yang dibutuhkan dengan kotak pasif. Hidup akan jauh lebih mudah jika Anda bisa menyatukan semua orang ke dalam kaleng mereka sendiri - seperti sekelompok HC 4 atau HC 6 Headphone Amps yang tersebar di seluruh penonton. Biarkan mereka melakukan pekerjaan itu sehingga semua orang bisa mendengarnya dengan baik, dan memilih tingkat pendengaran mereka sendiri. Tapi hidup itu sulit, dan ampli headphone harus dibatasi untuk berlatih dan merekam. Monitor speaker di sisi lain kemungkinan besar memiliki crossover pasif. Sekali lagi, masalahnya adalah jarak dan kenyaringan. Monitor biasanya dekat dan tidak terlalu keras - terlalu keras dan mereka akan memberi makan kembali ke mikrofon Anda atau didengarkan bersamaan dengan campuran utama: tidak baik. Speaker monitor mirip dengan speaker hi-fi, di mana desain pasif mendominasi. Karena area pendengaran yang relatif kecil. Cukup mudah untuk mengisi ruang mendengarkan kecil dengan suara asli bahkan pada tingkat yang membelah telinga. Tapi pindahkan speaker yang sama ke klub lokal Anda dan mereka akan terdengar kurus, kusam dan tak bernyawa. Tidak hanya akan mereka tidak bermain cukup keras, tetapi mereka mungkin perlu sonic manfaat suara memantul dari dinding dekat untuk memperkuat dan mengisi suara langsung. Di tempat-tempat besar, dinding ini terlalu jauh untuk menguntungkan siapa saja. Gambar 1. Pasif Crossover 2-Way Gambar 2. Pasif Crossover 3-Way Jadi mengapa tidak menggunakan sekelompok kotak pasif Anda bisa, dan beberapa orang lakukan. Namun, untuk alasan mengikuti, hanya bekerja untuk beberapa kabinet. Meski begitu, Anda tidak akan bisa mendapatkan tingkat kenyaringan yang tinggi jika ruangannya besar. Sistem pasif hanya bisa dioptimalkan begitu banyak. Setelah Anda mulai membutuhkan beberapa lemari, crossover aktif menjadi perlu. Untuk mendapatkan cakupan yang baik seperti frekuensi, Anda ingin menumpuk seperti driver. Ini mencegah penggunaan kotak pasif karena masing-masing berisi (paling tidak) driver frekuensi tinggi dan driver frekuensi rendah. Yang paling mudah untuk menyatukan sistem suara saat kabinet hanya mencakup satu rentang frekuensi. Misalnya, untuk sistem 3 arah yang bagus, Anda akan memiliki kotak dengan frekuensi rendah (yang besar), lalu kotak menengah menengah dan akhirnya kotak frekuensi rendah yang lebih kecil. Ini akan ditumpuk atau digantung, atau keduanya - dalam semacam array. Array loudspeaker adalah bentuk susun optimum untuk setiap rangkaian kabinet untuk memberikan jangkauan gabungan dan keseluruhan suara terbaik. Anda pasti sudah melihat banyak bentuk array yang berbeda. Ada menara tinggi, tembok tinggi, dan segala macam polyhedrons dan busur. Satu-satunya cara yang efisien untuk melakukan ini adalah dengan crossovers aktif. Beberapa sistem yang lebih kecil menggabungkan kotak aktif dan pasif. Bahkan di dalam kabinet tunggal, biasanya ditemukan crossover aktif yang digunakan untuk memisahkan penggerak frekuensi rendah dan menengah, sementara jaringan pasif built-in digunakan untuk pengemudi frekuensi tinggi. Hal ini sangat umum terjadi pada tweeter super yang beroperasi selama oktaf audio terakhir. Di sisi lain, crossover aktif sering digunakan untuk menambahkan subwoofer ke sistem 2 arah pasif. Semua kombinasi digunakan, namun setiap kali terjadi crossover pasif, itu akan bermasalah. Salah satunya adalah power loss. Jaringan pasif membuang tenaga berharga. Kekuatan ekstra yang diperlukan untuk membuat pengemudi lebih keras, bukan mengisap komponen dan keluar dari kotak sebagai panas - tidak terdengar. Karena itu, unit pasif membuat Anda membeli amp lebih besar. Beberapa masalah jaringan pasif tambahan ada hubungannya dengan impedansi mereka. Impedansi membatasi transfer daya seperti resistansi, hanya sensitif terhadap frekuensi. Agar jaringan pasif bekerja dengan benar, impedansi sumber (amplifier output ditambah impedansi pengkabelan) harus sedekat mungkin dengan nol dan tidak bergantung pada frekuensi, dan impedansi beban (karakteristik pengeras suara) harus diperbaiki dan Tidak bergantung pada frekuensi (maaf, tidak di alam semesta ini hanya di Star Trek). Karena hal-hal ini tidak memungkinkan, jaringan pasif harus (paling banter), solusi yang disederhanakan dan dikompromikan dengan masalah yang sangat kompleks. Akibatnya, perilaku crossovers berubah dengan frekuensi - bukan sesuatu yang Anda inginkan untuk sistem yang bagus. Satu hal lagi memperburuk keadaan. Ada sesuatu yang disebut back-emf (gaya back-electromotive secara harfiah, tegangan balik) yang selanjutnya berkontribusi pada sistem speaker yang terdengar buruk. Inilah fenomena dimana, setelah sinyal berhenti, kerucut speaker terus bergerak, menyebabkan koil suara bergerak melalui medan magnet (sekarang bekerja seperti mikrofon), menciptakan voltase baru yang mencoba menggerakkan kabel kembali ke amplifier. Jika pembicara diizinkan melakukan ini, kerucut kerucut di sekitar seperti ikan sekarat. Tidak terdengar bagus Satu-satunya cara untuk menghentikan serangan balik adalah dengan membuat loudspeaker quotseequot menjadi jatuhnya yang pendek, yaitu nol ohm yang melihat ke belakang, atau sedekat mungkin - sesuatu yang tidak akan terjadi dengan jaringan pasif yang terjepit di antaranya. Dan power amp. Semua ini, dan belum lagi induktor jenuh pada tingkat sinyal tinggi yang menyebabkan distorsi - alasan lain mengapa Anda tidak mendapatkan cukup kenyaringan. Atau berat dan curah tambahan yang disebabkan oleh induktor besar yang dibutuhkan untuk respon frekuensi rendah yang baik. Atau hampir tidak mungkin untuk mendapatkan lereng curam berkualitas tinggi secara pasif, jadi responsnya terganggu. Atau induktor itu terlalu bagus dalam memilih radio lokal, TV, darurat, dan siaran seluler, dan dengan senang hati mencampurnya dengan audio Anda. Begitulah hidup dengan sistem speaker pasif. Gambar 3. Crossover 2-Way Aktif Gambar 4. Crossover 3-Way Aktif Jaringan crossover aktif memerlukan catu daya untuk beroperasi dan biasanya dikemas dalam unit single-space, rack-mount. (Meskipun akhir, pengeras suara bertenaga dengan crossover aktif dan penguat daya menjadi semakin populer.) Melihat diagram yang menyertainya menunjukkan bagaimana perpindahan aktif berbeda dari sepupu pasif mereka. Untuk sistem 2 arah, bukan satu power amp, sekarang Anda memiliki dua, tapi bisa lebih kecil untuk tingkat kenyaringan yang sama. Berapa jauh yang lebih kecil tergantung pada peringkat sensitivitas pengemudi (lebih lanjut tentang ini nanti). Demikian juga sistem 3 arah membutuhkan tiga power amp. Anda juga melihat dan mendengar istilah bi-amped. Dan tri-amped diterapkan pada sistem 2 dan 3 arah. Crossovers aktif menyembuhkan banyak penyakit pada sistem pasif. Karena filter crossover sendiri tersimpan dengan aman di dalam kotak mereka sendiri, jauh dari masalah impedansi mengemudi dan pemuatan yang mengganggu unit pasif, mereka dapat dibuat beroperasi dengan cara yang hampir secara matematis. Lereng crossover yang sangat curam, mulus dan berperilaku mudah mudah dicapai dengan sirkuit aktif. Tidak ada masalah kehilangan daya penguat, karena sirkuit aktif beroperasi dari suplai daya voltase rendah mereka sendiri. Dan dengan inefisiensi jaringan pasif yang dilepas, ampli daya lebih mudah mencapai tingkat kenyaringan yang dibutuhkan. Ketakutan Loudspeaker dan tremor disebabkan oleh rok balik yang tidak cukup banyak namun hilang begitu jaringan pasif dilepaskan. Yang tersisa adalah amplifier impedansi keluaran yang melekat dan kabel penghubungnya. Heres dimana istilah redaman factor muncul. Perhatikan bahwa kata itu lembab. Tidak lembab seperti yang sering terdengar mengesankan teman Anda. Damping adalah ukuran kemampuan sistem untuk mengendalikan gerakan kerucut loudspeaker setelah sinyal hilang. Tidak ada lagi ikan sekarat. Siegfried amp Russ Crossover aktif pergi dengan banyak nama. Pertama, keduanya 2 arah atau 3 arah (atau bahkan 4 arah dan 5 arah). Lalu ada tingkat kemiringan dan ketertiban: 24 dBoct (urutan ke-4), atau 18 dBoct (urutan ke-3), dan seterusnya. Dan akhirnya ada nama untuk jenis desainnya. Dua yang paling umum adalah Linkwitz-Riley dan Butterworth. Dinamai bernama Siegfried Linkwitz dan Russ Riley yang pertama kali mengajukan aplikasi ini, dan Stephen Butterworth yang pertama kali menggambarkan tanggapannya pada tahun 1930. Sampai pertengahan tahun 80an, desain Butterworth ke-3 (18 dBoct) mendominasi, namun masih memiliki beberapa masalah. Sejak saat itu, pengembangan (yang dipelopori oleh Rane dan Sundholm) dari desain urutan ke-4 (24 dBoct) Linkwitz-Riley memecahkan masalah ini, dan hari ini adalah norma. Apa yang ditambahkan hingga crossover aktif adalah aturannya. Untungnya, hal tersulit tentang crossover aktif adalah mendapatkan uang untuk membelinya. Setelah itu, sebagian besar pekerjaan sudah dilakukan untuk Anda. Pada tingkat paling dasar yang benar-benar Anda butuhkan dari crossover aktif adalah dua hal: untuk membiarkan Anda menyetel titik crossover yang benar, dan membiarkan Anda menyeimbangkan tingkat pengemudi. Itu saja. Yang pertama dilakukan dengan berkonsultasi dengan lembar data produsen loudspeaker, dan memanggilnya di panel depan. (Dengan asumsi sebuah pengeras suara loudspeaker 2 pintu buatan pabrik, misalnya, jika kotak itu buatan sendiri, maka kedua pembalap harus dipilih dengan cermat sehingga memiliki frekuensi crossover yang sama, jika tidak, masalah respons yang parah dapat terjadi.) Tingkat keseimbangan adalah Diperlukan karena pengemudi frekuensi tinggi lebih efisien daripada pengemudi frekuensi rendah. Ini berarti bahwa jika Anda memasukkan jumlah daya yang sama ke masing-masing pengemudi, suara akan terdengar lebih nyaring dari yang lain. Salah satu yang paling efisien memainkan lebih keras. Beberapa metode untuk menyeimbangkan driver selalu diuraikan dalam manual pemilik yang baik. Equalizer Anda mungkin pernah mendengarnya bahwa equalizer tidak lebih dari kontrol nada yang dimuliakan. Itu cukup akurat dan membantu menjelaskan kegunaan dan kepentingan mereka. Sederhananya, equalizer memungkinkan Anda mengubah keseimbangan nada dari apapun yang Anda kendalikan. Anda dapat meningkatkan (meningkatkan) atau menurunkan (memotong) secara band-by-band hanya frekuensi yang dikehendaki. Equalizer datang dalam berbagai ukuran dan bentuk, sangat bervariasi dalam desain dan kompleksitas. Pilih dari unit saluran tunggal sederhana dengan 10 kontrol pada jarak frekuensi 1 oktaf (equalizer oktaf mono 10-band), sepanjang jalan sampai dengan kotak dua layar berfitur lengkap dengan 31 kontrol pada jarak frekuensi 13 oktaf (Equalizer stereo 13-okt). Ada model grafis dengan kontrol slide (slider) yang secara kasar mengekspresikan parameter respons equalizer dengan bentuk yang mereka bentuk, dan ada model parametrik di mana Anda memilih frekuensi, amplitudo, dan bandwidth yang diinginkan (parameter filter - lihat diagram di bawah ini) untuk masing-masing Band yang disediakan Jauh dan jauh, yang paling sederhana dan paling populer adalah grafik 13 dan 23 oktaf. Mereka menawarkan kombinasi kontrol, kompleksitas dan biaya terbaik. Dalam memilih equalizer grafis, fitur utama yang perlu dipertimbangkan adalah jumlah saluran inputoutput, jumlah band boostcut, jarak frekuensi pusat masing-masing, dan keakuratan output vs pengaturan panel depan. Sampai perkembangan grafis respons baru-baru ini, pengaturan panel depan hanya memperkirakan respons sebenarnya dari equalizer. Sebelum grafis respon yang benar, interaksi band yang berdekatan menyebabkan respons output aktual menyimpang dari pengaturan panel depan. Dijelaskan sebagai variabel konstan Q atau variabel-Q (lihat diagram), perilaku bandwidth filter individu menentukan interaksi. Pada awal tahun 80an, Rane mengembangkan desain Q-konstan pertama untuk mempertahankan bentuk (bandwidth) yang sama selama rentang boostcut keseluruhan. Sebaliknya, desain variabel-Q memiliki bandwidth yang bervariasi (bentuknya berubah) sebagai fungsi jumlah boostcut. Ranes constant-Q design menawarkan peningkatan yang besar dalam respon output vs pengaturan panel depan dan menjadi desain yang paling populer sampai Rane dan yang lainnya mengembangkan equalizer grafis respon sejati yang pertama. Sekarang respon grafis benar menawarkan respon terbaik. Menggunakan Equaliser Equalizer dapat melakukan keajaiban untuk sound system. Mari kita mulai dengan kinerja loudspeaker. Kebenaran yang tidak menguntungkan mengenai pengeras suara anggaran adalah mereka tidak terdengar sangat baik. Biasanya hal ini disebabkan respons frekuensi yang tidak merata, atau lebih tepatnya respons daya non-datar. Kabinet ideal memiliki respon daya yang datar. Ini berarti bahwa jika Anda memilih, katakanlah, 1 kHz sebagai sinyal referensi, gunakan untuk mengarahkan speaker dengan tepat satu watt, mengukur kenyaringan, dan menyapu generator di seluruh rentang frekuensi speaker, semua frekuensi akan berukuran sama kerasnya. Sayangnya, dengan semua tapi sistem speaker paling mahal, mereka tidak akan melakukannya. Equalizer dapat membantu kekurangan frekuensi ini. Dengan menambahkan sedikit ke sini dan mengambil sedikit ke sana, segera Anda menciptakan respons daya yang dapat diterima - dan sistem terdengar jauh lebih baik. Yang mengherankan betapa hanya sedikit pemerataan yang bisa mengubah sistem yang terdengar buruk menjadi sesuatu yang lumayan. Cara terbaik untuk menangani speaker anggaran - walaupun harganya lebih mahal - adalah melakukan satu saluran penyeimbang untuk setiap kabinet. Ini menjadi pernikahan. Equalizer diatur, penutup keamanan dilipat-on, dan selamanya lebih mereka tidak dapat dipisahkan. (Gunakan equalizer tambahan untuk membantu masalah kamar.) Dan sekarang untuk bagian yang sulit, tapi bagian yang paling penting: Jika Anda melakukan pengukuran di luar (tidak ada refleksi dari dinding atau langit-langit) dan naik di udara (tidak ada refleksi dari tanah ) Anda bisa mendapatkan gambaran yang sangat akurat hanya dari respon pengeras suara, bebas dari efek kamar. Ini memberi Anda respons bebas-kamar. Ini sangat penting, karena tidak peduli di mana kotak ini digunakan, ada masalah ini. Tentu saja, Anda harus memastikan biaya speaker anggaran ditambah equalizer menambahkan hingga jauh lebih sedikit daripada membeli sistem speaker yang benar-benar rata untuk memulai. Beruntung (atau bolehkah ini menyedihkan) ini biasanya terjadi. Sekali lagi, yang sebenarnya adalah kebanyakan lemari tidak rata. Hanya pengeras suara yang sangat mahal yang memiliki respon kelas dunia. (Hmmm, mungkin itu sebabnya harganya sangat mahal) Hal berikutnya yang dapat Anda lakukan dengan equalizer adalah memperbaiki cara setiap tempat terdengar. Setiap ruangan terdengar berbeda - fakta kehidupan - fakta fisika. Menggunakan peralatan yang sama persis, memainkan musik yang persis sama dengan cara yang persis sama, ruangan berbeda terdengar berbeda - dijamin. Setiap ruang tertutup memperlakukan suara Anda secara berbeda. Suara yang tercermin menyebabkan masalah. Apa yang didengar audiens terdiri dari suara langsung (yang langsung keluar dari loudspeaker langsung ke pendengar) dan memantulkan suara (memantul dari segala hal sebelum sampai ke pendengar). Dan jika ruangannya cukup besar, maka gema masuk ke dalam permainan, yang merupakan semua suara pantulan yang telah menempuh perjalanan sejauh ini, dan untuk waktu yang begitu lama sehingga tiba dan tiba kembali pada pendengar cukup tertunda untuk terdengar seperti Sumber kedua dan ketiga, atau bahkan gema jika ruangannya sangat besar. Its dasarnya masalah geometri. Setiap ruangan berbeda dalam dimensi tidak hanya dalam ukuran dasar dengan ukuran lebar, tapi di langit-langitnya tinggi, jarak dari Anda dan peralatan Anda ke penonton, apa yang digantung (atau tidak digantung), di dinding, berapa banyak jendela Dan pintu ada, dan dimana. Setiap detail tentang ruang mempengaruhi suara Anda. Dan dengan menyesal, hanya sedikit yang bisa Anda lakukan mengenai hal itu. Sebagian besar faktor yang mempengaruhi suara Anda tidak dapat Anda ubah. Anda pasti tidak bisa mengubah dimensi, atau mengubah lokasi jendela dan pintu. Tapi ada beberapa hal yang bisa Anda lakukan, dan pemerataan adalah salah satunya. Tapi sebelum Anda menyamakan Anda ingin mengoptimalkan bagaimana dan di mana Anda menempatkan speaker Anda. Ini mungkin item nomor satu yang harus diperhatikan. Jauhkan pengeras suara Anda dari sudut bila memungkinkan. Hapus semua batasan antara speaker dan audiens Anda, termasuk spanduk, peralatan panggung, dan pemain. Yang Anda inginkan adalah sebagian besar suara yang didengar audiens Anda datang langsung dari speaker. Anda ingin meminimalkan semua suara yang dipantulkan. Jika Anda telah melakukan pekerjaan dengan baik dalam memilih dan menyamakan pengeras suara, maka Anda sudah tahu bahwa suara langsung Anda bagus. Jadi yang tersisa adalah meminimalkan pantulan suara. Selanjutnya gunakan pemerataan untuk membantu beberapa fitur ruangan yang lebih merepotkan. Jika ruangan sangat terang, Anda bisa menurunkan ujung yang rendah untuk membantu mengimbanginya, atau mengurangi beberapa tetesan. Atau jika ruangan cenderung booming, Anda bisa memberi nada rendah pada ujung bawah untuk mengurangi resonansi. Cara lain EQ cukup efektif adalah dalam mengendalikan nada umpan balik yang merepotkan. Umpan balik adalah sistem suara menjerit atau menjerit mengerikan saat audio dari loudspeaker diangkat oleh salah satu mikrofon panggung, diperkuat ulang dan dipompa keluar speaker, hanya untuk dipungut lagi oleh mikrofon, dan re- Diperkuat, dan seterusnya. Paling sering, ini terjadi saat sistem sedang dimainkan nyaring. Yang masuk akal, karena untuk suara yang lebih lembut, isyaratnya tidak cukup besar untuk sampai ke mikrofon, atau jika memang begitu, itu terlalu kecil untuk dibangun. Masalahnya adalah salah satu sistem umpan balik positif yang tertutup, tertutup, umpan balik positif sampai ada yang rusak, atau penonton pergi. Gunakan equalizer Anda untuk memotong frekuensi yang ingin Anda tidak hanya menghentikan jeritan, namun Anda membiarkan sistem bekerja lebih keras. Frasa teknis untuk ini memaksimalkan keuntungan sistem sebelum umpan balik. Yang penting untuk dipahami di awal bahwa Anda tidak dapat memperbaiki masalah suara terkait ruangan dengan pemerataan, namun Anda dapat memindahkan titik-titik masalah di sekitar. Anda dapat mengatur ulang hal-hal secara sonik, yang membantu ekses jinak. Anda menang dengan membuatnya terdengar lebih baik. Persamaan membantu. Gambar 5. Parameter Parameter Bandpass Gambar 6. Grafik Grafik Variabel-Q 7. Grafik Q konstan Grafik Equalizer berguna dalam menambah instrumen atau suara Anda. Dengan latihan Anda akan belajar menggunakan equalizer Anda untuk meningkatkan suara Anda untuk ekspresi pribadi terbaik Anda: memperdalam posisi rendah, mengisi tengah, atau membesar-besarkan nilai tertinggi. Apapun yang kamu mau. Sama seperti equalizer dapat memperbaiki suara loudspeaker yang buruk, ini bisa memperbaiki suara mikrofon marjinal, atau meningkatkan alat musik apapun. Equalizer memberi Anda sesuatu yang ekstra, tepi itu. (Kita semua tahu darimana suara suara suara suara benar-benar berasal.) Melihat Suara Agar pengukuran loudspeaker dan sound system mudah, Anda memerlukan penganalisis real-time (RTA). RTA memungkinkan Anda melihat respons daya, tidak hanya untuk loudspeaker, namun lebih penting lagi, untuk keseluruhan sistem. RTA yang berdiri sendiri menggunakan matriks LED atau LCD untuk menampilkan respons. A built-in pink noise generator (a special kind of shaped noise containing all audible frequencies, optimized for measuring sound systems) is used as the test signal. A measuring microphone is included for sampling the response. The display is arranged to show amplitude verses frequency. Depending upon cost, the number of frequency columns varies from 10 on 1-octave centers, up to 31 on 13-octave centers (agreeing with graphic equalizers). Amplitude range and precision varies with price. With the cost of laptop computers tumbling, the latest form of RTA involves an accessory box and software that works with your computer. These are particularly nice, and loaded with special memory, calculations and multipurpose functions like also being an elaborate SPL meter. Highly recommended if the budget allows. Dynamic Controllers Dynamic controllers or processors represent a class of signal processing devices used to alter an audio signal based solely upon its frequency content and amplitude level . thus the term quotdynamicquot since the processing is completely program dependent. The two most common dynamic effects are compressors and expanders . with limiters and noise gates (or just quotgatesquot) being special cases of these. The dynamic range of an audio passage is the ratio of the loudest (undistorted) signal to the quietest (just audible) signal, expressed in dB. Usually the maximum output signal is restricted by the size of the power supplies (you cannot swing more voltage than is available), while the minimum output signal is fixed by the noise floor (you cannot put out an audible signal less than the noise). Professional-grade analog signal processing equipment can output maximum levels of 26 dBu, with the best noise floors being down around -94 dBu. This gives a maximum dynamic range of 120 dB (equivalent to 20-bit digital audio) -- pretty impressive number -- but very difficult to work with. Thus were born dynamic processors. Compressors Compressors are signal processing units used to reduce ( compress ) the dynamic range of the signal passing through them. The modern use for compressors is to turn down just the loudest signals dynamically . For instance, an input dynamic range of 110 dB might pass through a compressor and exit with a new dynamic range of 70 dB. This clever bit of processing is normally done using a VCA (voltage controlled amplifier) whose gain is determined by a control voltage derived from the input signal. Therefore, whenever the input signal exceeds the threshold point, the control voltage becomes proportional to the signals dynamic content. This lets the music peaks turn down the gain. Before compressors, a human did this at the mixing board and we called it gain-riding . This person literally turned down the gain anytime it got too loud for the system to handle. You need to reduce the dynamic range because extreme ranges of dynamic material are very difficult for sound systems to handle. If you turn it up as loud as you want for the average signals, then along comes these huge musical peaks, which are vital to the punch and drama of the music, yet are way too large for the power amps and loudspeakers to handle. Either the power amps clip, or the loudspeakers bottom out (reach their travel limits), or both -- and the system sounds terrible . Or going the other way, if you set the system gain to prevent these overload occurrences, then when things get nice and quiet, and the vocals drop real low, nobody can hear a thing. Its always something. So you buy a compressor. Using it is quite simple: Set a threshold point, above which everything will be turned down a certain amount, and then select a ratio defining just how much a quotcertain amountquot is. All audio below the threshold point is unaffected and all audio above this point is compressed by the ratio amount. The earlier example of reducing 110 dB to 70 dB requires a ratio setting of 1.6:1 (11070 1.6). The key to understanding compressors is to always think in terms of increasing level changes in dB above the threshold point . A compressor makes these increases smaller . From our example, for every 1.6 dB increase above the threshold point the output only increases 1 dB . In this regard compressors make loud sounds quieter . If the sound gets louder by 1.6 dB and the output only increases by 1 dB, then the loud sound has been made quieter. Some compressors include attack and release controls. The attack time is the amount of time that passes between the moment the input signal exceeds the threshold and the moment that the gain is actually reduced. The release time is just the opposite -- the amount of time that passes between the moment the input signal drops below the threshold and the moment that the gain is restored. These controls are very difficult to set, and yet once set, rarely need changing. Because of this difficulty, and the terrible sounding consequences of wrong settings, Rane correctly presets these controls to cover a wide variety of music and speech -- one less thing for you to worry about. System overload is not the only place we find compressors. Another popular use is in the making of sound. For example when used in conjunction with microphones and musical instrument pick-ups, compressors help determine the final timbre (tone) by selectively compressing specific frequencies and waveforms. Common examples are quotfatteningquot drum sounds, increasing guitar sustain, vocal quotsmoothing,quot and quotbringing upquot specific sounds out of the mix, etc. It is quite amazing what a little compression can do. Check your owners manual for more tips. Figure 8. GateExpanderCompressorLimiter Action Expanders are signal processing units used to increase ( expand ) the dynamic range of the signal passing through it. However, modern expanders operate only below the set threshold point . that is, they operate only on low-level audio. Operating in this manner they make the quiet parts quieter . The term downward expander or downward expansion evolved to describe this type of application. The most common use is noise reduction. For example, say, an expanders threshold level is set to be just below the quietest vocal level being recorded, and the ratio control is set for 2:1. What happens is this: when the vocals stop, the signal level drops below the set point down to the noise floor. There has been a step decrease from the smallest signal level down to the noise floor. If that step change is, say, -10 dB, then the expanders output attenuates 20 dB (i.e. due to the 2:1 ratio, a 10 dB decrease becomes a 20 dB decrease), thus resulting in a noise reduction improvement of 10 dB. Its now 10 dB quieter than it would have been without the expander. Limiters are compressors with fixed ratios of 10:1 or greater. Here, the dynamic action prevents the audio signal from becoming any bigger than the threshold setting . For example, say the threshold is set for 16 dBu and a musical peak suddenly comes along and causes the input to jump by 10 dB to 26 dB, the output will only increase by 1 dB to 17 dBu -- basically remaining level. Limiters find use in preventing equipment and recording media overloads. A limiter is the extreme case of compression. You will hear the term pumping used in conjunction with poorly designed or improperly set limiters. Pumping describes an audible problem caused by actually hearing the gain change -- it makes a kind of quotpumpingquot sound. This is particularly a problem with limiters that operate too abruptly. Rest assured that Rane limiters are designed not to have any audible side-effects. Noise Gates Noise gates (or gates ) are expanders with fixed quotinfinitequot downward expansion ratios. They are used extensively for controlling unwanted noise, such as preventing quotopenquot microphones and quothotquot instrument pick-ups from introducing extraneous sounds into your system. When the incoming audio signal drops below the threshold point, the gate prevents further output by reducing the gain to quotzero.quot Typically, this means attenuating all signals by about 80 dB. Therefore once audio drops below the threshold, the output level basically becomes the residual noise of the gate. Common terminology refers to the gate quotopeningquot and quotclosing.quot A gate is the extreme case of downward expansion. Just as poorly designed limiters can cause pumping, poorly designed gates can cause breathing . The term breathing is used to describe an audible problem caused by being able to hear the noise floor of a product rise and lower, sounding a lot like the unit was quotbreathing.quot It takes careful design to get all the dynamic timing exactly right so breathing does not occur. Rane works very hard to make sure all of its dynamic processors have no audible funny business. Another popular application for noise gates is to enhance musical instrument sounds, especially percussion instruments. Correctly setting a noise gates attack (turn-on) and release (turn-off) adds quotpunch,quot or quottightensquot the percussive sound, making it more pronounced -- this is how Phil Collins gets his cool snare sound, for instance.Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail Develop, introduce or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, State, or Federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions. 2014 employment: 58,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 20,500 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -400 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Bachelors degree Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 11-1031.00 - Legislators Transportation, storage, and distribution managers Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers. Education administrators, all other All education administrators not listed separately. 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Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes Financial Examiners (13-2061), Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents (13-2081), Occupational Health and Safety Specialists (29-9011), Occupational Health and Safety Technicians (29-9012), Transportation Security Screeners (33-9093), Agricultural Inspectors (45-2011), Construction and Building Inspectors (47-4011), and Transportation Inspectors (53-6051). Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers. 2014 employment: 100 May 2015 median annual wage: 30,910 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: -9 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 13-1074.00 - Farm Labor Contractors Business operations specialists, all other All business operations specialists not listed separately. Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making. Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explaining loan requirements or restrictions. 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Excludes Computer and Information Systems Managers (11-3021), Computer Hardware Engineers (17-2061), Electrical and Electronics Engineers (17-2070), Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary (25-1021), Multimedia Artists and Animators (27-1014), Graphic Designers (27-1024), Computer Operators (43-9011), and Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairs (49-2011). Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products. Mathematical science occupations, all other All mathematical scientists not listed separately. All engineers not listed separately. Engineering technicians, except drafters, all other All engineering technicians, except drafters, not listed separately. Biological scientists, all other All biological scientists not listed separately. All life scientists not listed separately. Physical scientists, all other All physical scientists not listed separately. Social scientists and related workers, all other All social scientists and related workers not listed separately. Social science research assistants Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes Graduate Teaching Assistants (25-1191). Forest and conservation technicians Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes Conservation Scientists (19-1031) and Foresters (19-1032). Life, physical, and social science technicians, all other All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately. All counselors not listed separately. Community and social service specialists, all other All community and social service specialists not listed separately. Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members. 2014 employment: 244,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,250 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 13,800 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Bachelors degree Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 21-2011.00 - Clergy Directors, religious activities and education Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems. Religious workers, all other All religious workers not listed separately. Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes Lawyers (23-1011) and Paralegals and Legal Assistants (23-2011). Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies. 2014 employment: 71,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,370 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -200 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 23-2093.00 - Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers Legal support workers, all other All legal support workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 52,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 53,920 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -200 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 23-2099.00 - Legal Support Workers, All Other Graduate teaching assistants Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate teaching assistants must be enrolled in a graduate school program. Graduate assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed. Excludes Teacher Assistants (25-9041). Home economics teachers, postsecondary Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Postsecondary teachers, all other All postsecondary teachers not listed separately. Special education teachers, all other All special education teachers not listed separately. Self-enrichment education teachers Teach or instruct courses other than those that normally lead to an occupational objective or degree. Courses may include self-improvement, nonvocational, and nonacademic subjects. Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution. Excludes Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers (53-2010). 2014 employment: 348,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,680 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 53,500 Growth rate: 15 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 25-3021.00 - Self-Enrichment Education Teachers Teachers and instructors, all other All teachers and instructors not listed separately. Audio-visual and multimedia collections specialists Prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education. May record, catalogue, and file materials. Farm and home management advisors Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home economics activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems and instruct and train in product development, sales, and the use of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare. Includes county agricultural agents, feed and farm management advisers, home economists, and extension service advisors. Education, training, and library workers, all other All education, training, and library workers not listed separately. Merchandise displayers and window trimmers Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions. 2014 employment: 120,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 26,870 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,300 Growth rate: 3 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 27-1026.00 - Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers Design special exhibits and movie, television, and theater sets. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles. All designers not listed separately. Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other All entertainers and performers, sports and related workers not listed separately. Media and communication workers, all other All media and communication workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 33,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 45,220 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,500 Growth rate: 10 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 27-3099.00 - Media and Communication Workers, All Other Receive and transmit communications using radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations. May repair equipment. Excludes Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairs (49-2021). 2014 employment: 1,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 50,040 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 27-4013.00 - Radio Operators Media and communication equipment workers, all other All media and communication equipment workers not listed separately. All therapists not listed separately. Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other All health diagnosing and treating practitioners not listed separately. Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals. Respiratory therapy technicians Provide respiratory care under the direction of respiratory therapists and physicians. Ophthalmic medical technicians Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses. 2014 employment: 37,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,350 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 9,100 Growth rate: 25 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 29-2057.00 - Ophthalmic Medical Technicians Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes Audiologists (29-1181). 2014 employment: 5,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 49,600 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,600 Growth rate: 27 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 29-2092.00 - Hearing Aid Specialists Health technologists and technicians, all other All health technologists and technicians not listed separately. Healthcare practitioners and technical workers, all other All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately. Medical equipment preparers Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment. 2014 employment: 52,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 33,330 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 7,300 Growth rate: 14 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 31-9093.00 - Medical Equipment Preparers Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling. 2014 employment: 41,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,450 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 100 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 31-9095.00 - Pharmacy Aides Healthcare support workers, all other All healthcare support workers not listed separately First-line supervisors of correctional officers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers. 2014 employment: 47,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 59,720 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,500 Growth rate: 3 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-1011.00 - First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers First-line supervisors of police and detectives Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force. 2014 employment: 108,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 82,090 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,500 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-1012.00 - First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in fire fighting and fire prevention and control. First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other All protective service supervisors not listed separately above. Parking enforcement workers Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles. 2014 employment: 9,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,530 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,000 Growth rate: -21 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-3041.00 - Parking Enforcement Workers Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals. 2014 employment: 15,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 33,450 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 900 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-9011.00 - Animal Control Workers Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites. 2014 employment: 69,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 25,100 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,500 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-9091.00 - Crossing Guards Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes to provide assistance and protection to participants. Transportation security screeners Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints. 2014 employment: 46,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 39,310 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -4,200 Growth rate: -9 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 33-9093.00 - Transportation Security Screeners Protective service workers, all other All protective service workers not listed separately. First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food. Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils. 2014 employment: 507,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 19,340 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -19,500 Growth rate: -4 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 35-9021.00 - Dishwashers First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments. First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs. Maids and housekeeping cleaners Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming. 2014 employment: 1,457,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 20,740 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 111,700 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 37-2012.00 - Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Building cleaning workers, all other All building cleaning workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 16,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 29,250 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 800 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 37-2019.00 - Building Cleaning Workers, All Other First-line supervisors of personal service workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers, such as flight attendants, hairdressers, or caddies. Motion picture projectionists Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment. 2014 employment: 6,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 21,490 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,200 Growth rate: -18 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3021.00 - Motion Picture Projectionists Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and locating such facilities as rest rooms and telephones. 2014 employment: 113,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 19,180 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 6,100 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3031.00 - Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Amusement and recreation attendants Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides. 2014 employment: 288,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 19,280 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 22,300 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3091.00 - Amusement and Recreation Attendants Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances. 2014 employment: 6,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,500 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 500 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3092.00 - Costume Attendants Locker room, coatroom, and dressing room attendants Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms. 2014 employment: 18,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 21,020 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 900 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3093.00 - Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants Entertainment attendants and related workers, all other All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 16,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 22,720 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,900 Growth rate: 17 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-3099.00 - Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements. 2014 employment: 3,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 40,410 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -200 Growth rate: -6 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-4011.00 - Embalmers Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service arranging floral offerings or lights around casket directing or escorting mourners closing casket and issuing and storing funeral equipment. 2014 employment: 36,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,770 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -400 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-4021.00 - Funeral Attendants Makeup artists, theatrical and performance Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role. Shampoo and rinse customers hair. 2014 employment: 23,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 19,290 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,500 Growth rate: 10 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-5093.00 - Shampooers Baggage porters and bellhops Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments. 2014 employment: 43,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 21,160 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,500 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-6011.00 - Baggage Porters and Bellhops Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services. May take messages, arrange or give advice on transportation, business services or entertainment, or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance. 2014 employment: 31,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 29,030 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,300 Growth rate: 10 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-6012.00 - Concierges Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries. 2014 employment: 43,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,100 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,200 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-7011.00 - Tour Guides and Escorts Plan, organize, and conduct long distance travel. tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups. 2014 employment: 3,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 34,180 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-7012.00 - Travel Guides Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources. 2014 employment: 103,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,990 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 14,100 Growth rate: 14 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-9041.00 - Residential Advisors Personal care and service workers, all other All personal care and service workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 93,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 22,310 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 5,900 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 39-9099.00 - Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other First-line supervisors of retail sales workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties. 2014 employment: 1,537,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 38,310 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 67,600 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 41-1011.00 - First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties, such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties. Gaming change persons and booth cashiers Exchange coins, tokens and chips for patrons money. May issue payoffs and obtain customers signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers. Excludes Cashiers (41-2011). Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop (35-3022), Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks (43-4081), Order Clerks (43-4151), and Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks (43-4181). 2014 employment: 442,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,440 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 16,300 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 41-2021.00 - Counter and Rental Clerks Sales representatives, services, all other All services sales representatives not listed separately. Demonstrators and product promoters Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell demonstrated merchandise. 2014 employment: 93,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,940 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 8,200 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 41-9011.00 - Demonstrators and Product Promoters Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone. 2014 employment: 237,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,530 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -7,200 Growth rate: -3 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 41-9041.00 - Telemarketers Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street. Sales and related workers, all other All sales and related workers not listed separately. First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers. Switchboard operators, including answering service Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages. Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls. 2014 employment: 13,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,880 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -5,500 Growth rate: -42 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-2021.00 - Telephone Operators Communications equipment operators, all other All communications equipment operators not listed separately. 2014 employment: 3,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 40,330 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 200 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-2099.00 - Communications Equipment Operators, All Other All financial clerks not listed separately. 2014 employment: 38,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 40,080 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,400 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-3099.00 - Financial Clerks, All Other Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals, and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs. Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers (53-3033). 2014 employment: 92,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 27,280 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,800 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-5021.00 - Couriers and Messengers Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress. 2014 employment: 199,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 37,150 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 8,800 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-5032.00 - Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam. 2014 employment: 37,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 38,510 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -6,700 Growth rate: -18 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-5041.00 - Meter Readers, Utilities Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages. May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on computer and peripheral devices. Excludes Computer Occupations (15-1100) and Data Entry Keyers (43-9021). 2014 employment: 61,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 40,420 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -11,600 Growth rate: -19 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-9011.00 - Computer Operators Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes Word Processors and Typists (43-9022). 2014 employment: 216,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 29,460 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -7,900 Growth rate: -4 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-9021.00 - Data Entry Keyers Word processors and typists Use word processor, computer or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes Data Entry Keyers (43-9021), Secretaries and Administrative Assistants (43-6011 through 43-6014), Court Reporters (23-2091), and Medical Transcriptionists (31-9094). 2014 employment: 90,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 37,610 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -14,200 Growth rate: -16 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-9022.00 - Word Processors and Typists Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Use hand or mail handling machines to time stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms. Office machine operators, except computer Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines. Excludes Computer Operators (43-9011), Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service (43-9051) and Billing and Posting Clerks (43-3021). Proofreaders and copy markers Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of Braille. Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks. Office and administrative support workers, all other All office and administrative support workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 264,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 32,590 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 18,400 Growth rate: 7 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 43-9199.00 - Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers (37-1012). Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety. 2014 employment: 14,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 43,380 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -100 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Bachelors degree Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 45-2011.00 - Agricultural Inspectors Graders and sorters, agricultural products Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes Agricultural Inspectors (45-2011). First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers. Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered. 2014 employment: 6,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 33,590 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 200 Growth rate: 2 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-2142.00 - Paperhangers Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints. Excludes Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers (51-4121). 2014 employment: 45,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 37,780 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 5,200 Growth rate: 11 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-2151.00 - Pipelayers Plasterers and stucco masons Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster. 2014 employment: 27,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 37,320 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,900 Growth rate: 7 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-2161.00 - Plasterers and Stucco Masons Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools. 2014 employment: 24,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 32,450 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,000 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-4031.00 - Fence Erectors Highway maintenance workers Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement, repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. May also mow or clear brush from along road or plow snow from roadway. Excludes Tree Trimmers and Pruners (37-3013). 2014 employment: 151,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,930 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 7,300 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-4051.00 - Highway Maintenance Workers Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators. 2014 employment: 15,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 52,830 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,500 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-4061.00 - Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping. 2014 employment: 24,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,370 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,000 Growth rate: 16 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-4071.00 - Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners Construction and related workers, all other All construction and related workers not listed separately. Derrick operators, oil and gas Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud through drill hole. 2014 employment: 21,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 47,910 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,900 Growth rate: 13 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5011.00 - Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas Rotary drill operators, oil and gas Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas (47-5021). 2014 employment: 27,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 54,310 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,500 Growth rate: 13 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5012.00 - Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas Service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. May also perform similar services in mining exploration operations. Includes fishing-tool technicians. 2014 employment: 64,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 45,000 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,700 Growth rate: 7 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5013.00 - Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining Earth drillers, except oil and gas Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap sub-surface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. May use explosives. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators. 2014 employment: 20,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,240 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,700 Growth rate: 14 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5021.00 - Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures. Includes seismograph shooters. Excludes Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas (47-5021) who may also work with explosives. 2014 employment: 8,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 50,210 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 300 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5031.00 - Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters Continuous mining machine operators Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation. 2014 employment: 12,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 48,620 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -600 Growth rate: -5 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5041.00 - Continuous Mining Machine Operators Mine cutting and channeling machine operators Operate machinery such as longwall shears, plows, and cutting machines to cut or channel along the face or seams of coal mines, stone quarries, or other mining surfaces to facilitate blasting, separating, or removing minerals or materials from mines or from the Earths surface. Includes shale planers. Mining machine operators, all other All mining machine operators not listed separately. 2014 employment: 2,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 48,550 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5049.00 - Mining Machine Operators, All Other Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammer and wedges. 2014 employment: 3,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 33,820 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 300 Growth rate: 7 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5051.00 - Rock Splitters, Quarry Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine. 2014 employment: 6,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 54,950 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -600 Growth rate: -11 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5061.00 - Roof Bolters, Mining Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed. 2014 employment: 76,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,510 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 6,300 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5071.00 - Roustabouts, Oil and Gas Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231). 2014 employment: 25,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,760 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,200 Growth rate: 13 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5081.00 - Helpers--Extraction Workers Extraction workers, all other All extraction workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 5,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,370 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 700 Growth rate: 12 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 47-5099.00 - Extraction Workers, All Other First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. Excludes team or work leaders. Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines. Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairs Repair, install or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage. Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers Repair, adjust, or install audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic home entertainment equipment. Security and fire alarm systems installers Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes Electricians (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring. 2014 employment: 64,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 43,420 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 8,200 Growth rate: 13 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-2098.00 - Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers Repair and service bicycles. 2014 employment: 10,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 27,470 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 2,300 Growth rate: 22 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-3091.00 - Bicycle Repairers Recreational vehicle service technicians Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassistowing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics (49-3023) and Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles. 2014 employment: 11,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,670 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 400 Growth rate: 3 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-3092.00 - Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians Tire repairers and changers Repair and replace tires. 2014 employment: 105,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,220 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 4,300 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-3093.00 - Tire Repairers and Changers Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics. 2014 employment: 17,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 38,160 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,900 Growth rate: 11 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9011.00 - Mechanical Door Repairers Control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors. Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens. 2014 employment: 46,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,200 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,600 Growth rate: -3 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9031.00 - Home Appliance Repairers Refractory materials repairers, except brickmasons Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits and ovens, using refractory materials. 2014 employment: 1,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 47,060 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9045.00 - Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons Camera and photographic equipment repairers Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment. Musical instrument repairers and tuners Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments. 2014 employment: 8,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,660 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 400 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Apprenticeship ONET: 49-9063.00 - Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers. 2014 employment: 2,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 34,750 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -700 Growth rate: -26 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9064.00 - Watch Repairers Precision instrument and equipment repairers, all other All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately. Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines. Work below surface of water, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes Fishers and Related Fishing Workers (45-3011), Athletes and Sports Competitors (27-2021), and Police and Sheriffs Patrol Officers (33-3051). 2014 employment: 4,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 50,470 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,600 Growth rate: 37 percent (Much faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Postsecondary nondegree award Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9092.00 - Commercial Divers Fabric menders, except garment Repair tears, holes, and other defects in fabrics, such as draperies, linens, parachutes, and tents. 2014 employment: 800 May 2015 median annual wage: 24,490 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -100 Growth rate: -13 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9093.00 - Fabric Menders, Except Garment Locksmiths and safe repairers Repair and open locks make keys change locks and safe combinations and install and repair safes. 2014 employment: 20,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 39,160 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -3,100 Growth rate: -15 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9094.00 - Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Manufactured building and mobile home installers Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings. Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry. 2014 employment: 20,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 43,220 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,800 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9096.00 - Riggers Signal and track switch repairers Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system. 2014 employment: 9,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 63,840 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9097.00 - Signal and Track Switch Repairers Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers cleaning work area, machines, and tools and holding materials or tools for other workers. 2014 employment: 129,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 26,400 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 12,200 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 49-9098.00 - Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Installation, maintenance, and repair workers, all other All, installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately. First-line supervisors of production and operating workers Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders. Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers Use hand or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood. 2014 employment: 152,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,870 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -200 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-3022.00 - Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers Slaughterers and meat packers Work in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments performing precision functions involving the preparation of meat. Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats. Excludes Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting. 2014 employment: 86,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 25,650 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -500 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-3023.00 - Slaughterers and Meat Packers Layout workers, metal and plastic Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters. 2014 employment: 13,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 44,530 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,700 Growth rate: -20 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-4192.00 - Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects. 2014 employment: 11,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,550 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,000 Growth rate: -18 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-4194.00 - Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners Metal workers and plastic workers, all other All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately. Prepress technicians and workers Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates. Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses. 2014 employment: 173,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,240 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -21,600 Growth rate: -12 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-5112.00 - Printing Press Operators Print binding and finishing workers Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines. 2014 employment: 51,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 30,260 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -7,000 Growth rate: -14 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-5113.00 - Print Binding and Finishing Workers Laundry and dry-cleaning workers Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles. 2014 employment: 208,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 20,820 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,700 Growth rate: 2 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6011.00 - Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials Press or shape articles by hand or machine. Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products. 2014 employment: 153,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 22,550 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -41,700 Growth rate: -27 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6031.00 - Sewing Machine Operators Shoe and leather workers and repairers Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles. 2014 employment: 9,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,630 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,500 Growth rate: -15 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6041.00 - Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers Shoe machine operators and tenders Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts. 2014 employment: 3,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 25,190 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,100 Growth rate: -31 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6042.00 - Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers. Excludes Fabric Menders, Except Garment (49-9093). 2014 employment: 12,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,640 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,200 Growth rate: -10 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6051.00 - Sewers, Hand Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments. 2014 employment: 40,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 25,830 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -3,400 Growth rate: -9 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6052.00 - Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers. Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles. Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles. Excludes Sewing Machine Operators (51-6031). Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators. Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass. Fabric and apparel patternmakers Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel. 2014 employment: 5,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 43,900 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,400 Growth rate: -26 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6092.00 - Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles. 2014 employment: 42,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 32,020 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -1,800 Growth rate: -4 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-6093.00 - Upholsterers Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately. Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers. 2014 employment: 2,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 33,590 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-7031.00 - Model Makers, Wood Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings. 2014 employment: 1,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 38,410 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-7032.00 - Patternmakers, Wood All woodworkers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 12,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 28,990 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-7099.00 - Woodworkers, All Other Chemical plant and system operators Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines. 2014 employment: 38,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 59,320 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -3,500 Growth rate: -9 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-8091.00 - Chemical Plant and System Operators Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines. 2014 employment: 16,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 66,010 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -600 Growth rate: -3 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-8092.00 - Gas Plant Operators Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines. Plant and system operators, all other All plant and system operators not listed separately. Chemical equipment operators and tenders Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes Chemical Plant and System Operators (51-8091). 2014 employment: 66,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 47,220 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -5,500 Growth rate: -8 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9011.00 - Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment filter presses shaker screens centrifuges condenser tubes precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks scrubbing towers or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders (51-9011). Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber. Grinding and polishing workers, hand Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers. 2014 employment: 29,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 28,610 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,600 Growth rate: -9 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9022.00 - Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes Food Batchmakers (51-3092). Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber. 2014 employment: 15,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 26,820 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,800 Growth rate: -17 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9031.00 - Cutters and Trimmers, Hand Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (51-7040), Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic (51-4031), and Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (51-6062). Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products, such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (51-9196) and Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders (51-6042). Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. Includes activities, such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap. Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products. 2014 employment: 378,400 May 2015 median annual wage: 27,080 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 3,800 Growth rate: 1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9111.00 - Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace saw formed ingots into segments load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties. 2014 employment: 25,300 May 2015 median annual wage: 35,390 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,100 Growth rate: -8 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: Associates degree Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9141.00 - Semiconductor Processors Photographic process workers and processing machine operators Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints. Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood gluing paper or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders (51-6042). Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities. Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders Operate or tend equipment, such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals. 2014 employment: 8,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 28,630 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -100 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9193.00 - Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in Prepress Technicians and Workers (51-5111). 2014 employment: 9,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 29,810 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -300 Growth rate: -3 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9194.00 - Etchers and Engravers Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials. Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products. Operate machines to build tires. 2014 employment: 18,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 39,120 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -2,500 Growth rate: -14 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9197.00 - Tire Builders Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000). 2014 employment: 419,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 23,960 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -16,100 Growth rate: -4 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 51-9198.00 - Helpers--Production Workers Production workers, all other All production workers not listed separately. Aircraft cargo handling supervisors Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters. 2014 employment: 5,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 45,470 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 0 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: None ONET: 53-1011.00 - Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors First-line supervisors of helpers, laborers, and material movers, hand Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of helpers, laborers, or material movers. First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators Directly supervise and coordinate activities of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators and helpers. Airfield operations specialists Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel dispatching using airfield landing and navigational aids implementing airfield safety procedures monitoring and maintaining flight records and applying knowledge of weather information. 2014 employment: 7,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 51,880 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 300 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Long-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-2022.00 - Airfield Operations Specialists Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons. Assist in lifting patients. Motor vehicle operators, all other All motor vehicle operators not listed separately. 2014 employment: 62,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 29,230 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 5,300 Growth rate: 9 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-3099.00 - Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other Subway and streetcar operators Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers. May handle fares. 2014 employment: 12,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 62,360 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 600 Growth rate: 5 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-4041.00 - Subway and Streetcar Operators Rail transportation workers, all other All rail transportation workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 3,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 59,840 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: 1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-4099.00 - Rail Transportation Workers, All Other Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators. 2014 employment: 3,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 48,520 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 0 Growth rate: -1 percent (Little or no change) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6011.00 - Bridge and Lock Tenders Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May collect fee. 2014 employment: 135,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 20,630 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 5,800 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6021.00 - Parking Lot Attendants Automotive and watercraft service attendants Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, install antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires. 2014 employment: 105,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 21,560 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 11,700 Growth rate: 11 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6031.00 - Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer. 2014 employment: 6,800 May 2015 median annual wage: 43,930 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 400 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6041.00 - Traffic Technicians Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors rail inspectors and other inspectors of transportation vehicles, not elsewhere classified. Excludes Transportation Security Screeners (33-9093). Transportation attendants, except flight attendants Provide services to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as greeting passengers, explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel. Excludes Baggage Porters and Bellhops (39-6011). 2014 employment: 16,500 May 2015 median annual wage: 25,930 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,000 Growth rate: 6 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6061.00 - Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants Transportation workers, all other All transportation workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 40,200 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,890 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,300 Growth rate: 3 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-6099.00 - Transportation Workers, All Other Gas compressor and gas pumping station operators Operate steam, gas, electric motor, or internal combustion engine driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas. 2014 employment: 5,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 58,350 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 200 Growth rate: 3 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7071.00 - Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators Pump operators, except wellhead pumpers Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes. 2014 employment: 13,100 May 2015 median annual wage: 42,420 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,100 Growth rate: 8 percent (As fast as average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7072.00 - Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field. 2014 employment: 13,900 May 2015 median annual wage: 46,990 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,800 Growth rate: 13 percent (Faster than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent Work experience in a related occupation: Less than 5 years Typical on-the-job training: Moderate-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7073.00 - Wellhead Pumpers Mine shuttle car operators Operate diesel or electric-powered shuttle car in underground mine to transport materials from working face to mine cars or conveyor. 2014 employment: 2,700 May 2015 median annual wage: 55,320 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: -100 Growth rate: -2 percent (Decline) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7111.00 - Mine Shuttle Car Operators Tank car, truck, and ship loaders Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks. 2014 employment: 13,000 May 2015 median annual wage: 36,660 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 500 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7121.00 - Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders Material moving workers, all other All material moving workers not listed separately. 2014 employment: 23,600 May 2015 median annual wage: 30,360 Projected employment change, 201424: Number of new jobs: 1,000 Growth rate: 4 percent (Slower than average) Education and training: Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential Work experience in a related occupation: None Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training ONET: 53-7199.00 - Material Moving Workers, All Other Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition. Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail, on the Internet at bls.govoohaboutdata-for-occupations-not-covered-in-detail.htm (visited February 25, 2017 ). Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015 Recommend this page using: Facebook Twitter
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