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CATATAN: CDC telah mengidentifikasi Brasil sebagai daerah yang terkena wabah Zika. Wanita hamil disarankan untuk berhati-hati karena virus tersebut bisa menyebabkan cacat lahir. Orang dewasa terkena virus mengalami demam, ruam, nyeri sendi, dan konjungtivitis (mata merah) yang biasanya berlangsung seminggu. Anda bisa belajar lebih banyak dengan mengunjungi situs resmi CDC. Brasil asli (BRL) 8.564.877km air: 55.460km per wilayah: 8.459.417km resmi: Portugis dikenal di beberapa negara: Talian, Pomeranian, Hunsrik, dan Jerman juga berbicara: 180 bahasa pribumi, Inggris, dan Spanyol Katolik Roma 64,6, Protestan 22,2, none 8.0 (Sensus 2010) Brasil (Portugis: Brasil) adalah negara terbesar di Amerika Selatan dan terbesar kelima di dunia. Terkenal dengan tradisi sepak bola (soccer) dan Carnaval tahunannya di Rio de Janeiro. Salvador. Recife dan Olinda. Ini adalah negara dengan keragaman yang besar, dari mosaik perkotaan yang ramai di So Paulo sampai energi budaya Pernambuco dan Bahia yang tak terbatas. Padang gurun hutan hujan Amazon dan landmark kelas dunia seperti Terjun Iguau. Ada banyak hal yang bisa dilihat dan dilakukan di Brasil. Pahami Edit Brasil dihuni hanya oleh masyarakat adat, terutama dari kelompok etnis Tupi dan Guarani. Penyelesaian oleh Portugis dimulai pada akhir abad ke-16, dengan ekstraksi kayu berharga dari pohon pau brasil, dari mana negara ini menarik namanya. Brasil dihuni oleh Portugis dan bukan orang Spanyol, seperti juga wilayah Central, South dan bagian utara Amerika lainnya di Dunia Baru. Meskipun ada peraturan Portugis, di beberapa bagian di Brazil, Belanda mendirikan koloni antara tahun 1630 dan 1654. Mereka mendirikan beberapa kota, seperti Mauritsville (sekarang Recife, ibu kota negara bagian Pernambuco, di ujung timur laut negara ini), dan Banyak perkebunan tebu. Belanda melawan perang hutan yang suram dengan orang Portugis, dan tanpa dukungan dari Republik tanah air mereka karena perang dengan Inggris, Belanda menyerah kepada Portugis, meskipun mereka tidak secara resmi mengakui peraturan Portugis, yang menyebabkan sebuah kesepakatan semua- Perang dengan Portugal di lepas pantai Portugal pada tahun 1656. Pada tahun 1665, Perjanjian Damai Den Haag ditandatangani, Portugal kehilangan koloni-koloni Asia dan harus membayar 63 ton emas untuk memberi kompensasi kepada Republik Belanda atas hilangnya koloninya. Brasil menjadi pusat Kekaisaran Portugis pada tahun 1808, ketika Raja Dom Joo VI (John VI) melarikan diri dari invasi Napoleon ke Portugal dan mendirikan pemerintahannya di kota Rio de Janeiro. Berabad-abad berikut ini melihat eksploitasi lebih lanjut kekayaan alam negara seperti emas dan karet, di samping bangkitnya ekonomi yang sebagian besar didasarkan pada tenaga kerja gula, kopi dan budak Afrika. Sementara itu, pemusnahan dan kekristenan penduduk asli terus berlanjut, dan pada abad ke-19 dan 20, gelombang kedua imigrasi terjadi, terutama Italia, Jerman (di Brasil selatan), Spanyol, Jepang (di negara bagian So Paulo dan Paran), Amerika ( Di So Paulo), dan Portugis, membuat budaya dan masyarakat Brasil yang kompleks dan unik. Setelah tiga abad di bawah pemerintahan Portugal, Brasil menjadi negara merdeka pada tanggal 7 September 1822. Sampai tahun 1889, Brazil adalah sebuah kerajaan di bawah kekuasaan Dom Pedro I dan putranya Dom Pedro II. Pada saat ini, itu menjadi kekuatan internasional yang muncul. Tapi selama tiga setengah abad ini, Brasil adalah negara di Amerika dengan perbudakan paling luas, yang pertama membawa rakyat Afrika untuk bekerja dengan paksa, dan yang terakhir membebaskan mereka. Karena hukum Inggris melawan perbudakan (beberapa berpendapat lebih banyak untuk kontes ekonomi daripada alasan kemanusiaan) dan pertempuran antara orang kulit putih dan kulit hitam, budak dan bebas, untuk penghapusan, perbudakan berakhir pada tahun 1888. Namun kebebasan tidak berarti kesetaraan dengan orang kulit hitam yang bebas sekarang dan Keturunan mereka Sejauh ini merupakan negara terbesar dan terpadat di Amerika Latin, negara ini juga telah mengatasi lebih dari dua dekade (1964-1985) kediktatoran militer yang memenjarakan, mengasingkan, menyiksa, dan membunuh lawan potensial, kebanyakan dari mereka adalah warga sipil yang tidak berdosa. Masa-masa gelap ini dikenal dengan nama Os Anos de Chumbo (Tahun Pimpin). Baru-baru ini, dengan pembentukan Komisi Kebenaran Nasional (2011), bangsa ini mulai menghadapi pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang menyertai kudeta yang didukung AS yang menggulingkan Joo Goulart yang terpilih secara demokratis pada tahun 1964. Brasil telah kembali ke pemerintahan demokratis, sementara Menghadapi tantangan untuk mempertahankan pertumbuhan industri dan pertanian dan mengembangkan interiornya. Memanfaatkan sumber daya alam yang luas dan kolam kerja yang besar, Brasil adalah kekuatan ekonomi Amerika Latin dan pemimpin regional. Brasil memiliki tingkat kriminalitas tinggi, ketidaksetaraan pendapatan dan korupsi sistemik berabad-abad. Meski begitu orang berusaha tetap bahagia dan meriah. Budaya Karena beragamnya benua Brazil, beragam geografi, sejarah dan manusia, budaya country kaya dan beragam. Ini memiliki variasi regional yang besar (bahkan di antara negara tetangga kadang-kadang) dan meskipun sebagian besar disatukan oleh satu bahasa, beberapa wilayah dan negara sangat berbeda satu sama lain sehingga mereka terlihat seperti negara yang berbeda sama sekali. Musik memainkan peran penting dalam identitas Brasil. Gaya seperti choro. Samba dan bossa nova dianggap benar-benar orang Brasil. Musik caipira juga berada di akar sertanejo. Setara nasional dengan musik country. MPB adalah singkatan dari Brazilian Popular Music, yang menggabungkan beberapa gaya nasional di bawah satu konsep tunggal. Forr. Gaya musik menari ala timur laut yang indah, juga menjadi umum di seluruh negeri. Gaya urban baru termasuk funk - nama yang diberikan untuk genre musik dansa dari Rios favelas yang memadukan beat elektronik berat dan rap yang sering vulgar - dan techno-brega. Sebuah pleaser orang banyak di negara bagian utara, yang menggabungkan musik pop, dance, dan rhythm karib romantis. Funk Brasil adalah jenis musik paling populer yang mereka dengarkan. Ini memiliki beat konstan dan berulang yang selalu sama, tidak pernah berubah. Mereka terus mengalahkan, dan menyanyikan lagu untuk itu. Ada lebih dari 1000 lagu yang funk. Anda mungkin berpikir bahwa orang bosan dengan beat yang sama, tapi tidak. Sangat mengesankan bahwa ada begitu banyak lagu yang tidak pernah menjadi tua. Funk bisa dianggap tradisi karena kekuatannya dalam irama, dan mengajak orang bersama. Campuran seni bela diri, tarian, musik dan permainan, capoeira diciptakan oleh budak Afrika yang dibawa ke Brasil, terutama dari Angola Portugis. Dibedakan dengan gerakan rumit yang melimpah dan musik yang menyertainya, bisa dilihat dan dipraktekkan di banyak kota di Brasil. Dalam musik klasik, Neoclassic Period sangat terkenal, karena karya komposer seperti Heitor Villa-Lobos dan Camargo Guarnieri, yang menciptakan sekolah khas Brazil, mencampur unsur musik tradisional Eropa dengan irama Brasil, sementara komposer lain seperti Cludio Santoro mengikuti panduan Sekolah Menengah Wina. Di Periode Romantis, nama terhebatnya adalah Antonio Carlos Gomes, penulis beberapa opera bergaya Italia dengan tema khas Brasil, seperti Il Guarany dan Lo Schiavo. Pada Periode Klasik, nama yang paling menonjol adalah Jos Maurcio Nunes Garcia, seorang imam yang menulis musik sakral dan sekuler dan sangat dipengaruhi oleh gaya klasik Wina abad ke-18 dan awal abad 19. Candomble dan Umbanda adalah agama dengan akar Afrika yang bertahan dari prasangka dan penganiayaan dan masih memiliki pengikut penting di Brasil. Tempat kultus mereka disebut terreiros dan banyak yang terbuka untuk dikunjungi. Karakter asli dapat ditemukan terutama di Wilayah Utara, mulai dari masakan hingga kosakata. Masih banyak kelompok dan suku asli yang tinggal di Utara, walaupun banyak yang telah sangat dipengaruhi oleh budaya Barat, dan beberapa bahasa asli yang bertahan hidup hampir punah. Gaya hidup tradisional dan ekspresi grafis kelompok pribumi Wajpi dari negara bagian Amap diproklamirkan sebagai Karya Warisan Dunia Takbenda oleh UNESCO. Globo, jaringan televisi nasional terbesar, juga memegang peranan penting dalam membentuk identitas nasional dan opini publik. Sembilan dari sepuluh rumah tangga memiliki pesawat TV, yang merupakan sumber informasi dan hiburan terpenting bagi kebanyakan orang Brasil, diikuti oleh siaran radio. TV menyiarkan olahraga, film, berita lokal dan nasional dan telenovelas (sinetron) seri 6-10 bulan yang telah menjadi salah satu ekspor budaya utama negara ini. Orang-orang Edit Sepanjang sejarahnya, Brasil telah menyambut beberapa orang dan praktik yang berbeda. Brasil merupakan peleburan kelompok etnis yang paling beragam sehingga mengurangi prasangka etnik dan mencegah konflik rasial, meskipun perbudakan dan genosida yang berlangsung lama di antara penduduk asli telah mengurangi korban. Prasangka itu licik karena masalah ini tabu di Brasil, dan lebih mengarah pada kelas sosial yang berbeda daripada di antara ras. Namun demikian, ras, atau hanya warna kulit, masih merupakan faktor pemisah dalam masyarakat Brasil dan Anda akan melihat kulit biasanya menggelap saat kelas sosial semakin rendah: orang kelas atas kaya hampir putih beberapa kelas menengah adalah mulato (ras campuran ) Dan bahkan hitam dan mayoritas orang miskin berkulit hitam - kecuali di Wilayah Selatan karena orang kulit hitam dan mulatos membentuk kurang dari 10 populasinya. Saat ini, bagaimanapun, populasi Afro-Brasil dan Amerindian semakin sadar akan hak-hak sipil mereka dan warisan budaya mereka yang kaya, dan mobilitas sosial dapat dicapai melalui pendidikan. Secara umum, orang Brazil adalah orang yang suka bersenang-senang. Sementara orang-orang Selatan mungkin agak lebih dingin dan lebih pendiam, dari Rio ke atas orang biasanya memiliki sikap menawan terhadap kehidupan dan benar-benar menikmati saat-saat yang menyenangkan. Beberapa bahkan mungkin mengatakan bahwa bir, sepak bola, samba, barbekyu dan wanita adalah semua yang bisa mereka idamkan. Persahabatan dan keramahan merupakan ciri yang sangat dipuji, dan hubungan keluarga dan sosial sangat dihargai. Bagi orang yang mereka temui, atau paling tidak dikenal namanya, orang Brasil biasanya sangat terbuka, ramah dan terkadang cukup bermurah hati. Begitu diperkenalkan, sampai mendapat alasan bagus untuk tidak melakukannya, orang Brasil biasa bisa memperlakukan Anda semaksimal mungkin memperlakukan teman terbaik. Orang Brazil dianggap salah satu orang paling ramah di dunia dan orang asing biasanya diperlakukan dengan hormat dan seringkali dengan kekaguman sejati. Sikap terhadap orang asing mungkin juga dikenai beberapa perlakuan: Di sebagian besar kota, siapa pun yang berbicara, bertingkah laku atau terlihat seperti turis (bahkan orang Brasil lainnya) dapat dikenai harga lebih tinggi, seperti di tempat parkir, di restoran, mal terbuka, dll. Orang Brasil tampaknya benar-benar ramah, tapi banyak yang terbiasa melakukan tindakan korupsi kecil dalam kehidupan sehari-hari mereka, yang disebut jeitinho brasileiro (Brazilian Way). Orang-orang Rio de Janeiro membual tentang kemampuan mereka untuk mengakali orang (terutama dari negara lain dan negara-negara Brasil) dan bahkan menjuluki Negara mereka Terra de Malandro (Tanah Musang). Jika Anda terlihat seperti turis, Anda adalah target potensial misalnya, vendor mungkin mencoba menjual barang dengan harga lebih tinggi, atau supir taksi dapat memilih rute terpanjang ke tempat tujuan. Itu tidak berarti Anda tidak bisa mempercayai siapapun, hanya saja Anda harus sedikit lebih waspada dan berhati-hati, terutama jika seseorang tampak terlalu ramah. Perhatikan di beberapa negara orang memanggil teman semua orang tidak peduli tingkat keintiman yang mereka miliki satu sama lain, hanya sebagai perilaku yang baik. Sementara akar Barat dari budaya Brasil sebagian besar berasal dari Eropa, terutama Iberia, yang dibuktikan oleh kota-kota kolonial dan bahkan bangunan bersejarah sporadis di antara gedung pencakar langit, telah ada kecenderungan kuat dalam beberapa dekade terakhir untuk mengadopsi cara hidup yang lebih Amerika yang ditemukan di Budaya dan arsitektur perkotaan, media massa, konsumerisme dan perasaan positif terhadap kemajuan teknis. Kendati demikian, Brasil masih merupakan negara yang menghadapi Atlantik, bukan terhadap Hispanik Amerika. Orang Brazil tidak Hispanik Beberapa mungkin tersinggung jika pengunjung secara terbuka mengatakan itu, atau cenderung percaya bahwa orang Brasil memiliki bahasa Spanyol sebagai bahasa utama atau bahasa sekunder, pengunjung akan menerima sambutan yang lebih hangat jika mereka mencoba memulai percakapan dalam bahasa Portugis, namun kalaupun pengunjung tersebut berbicara bahasa Spanyol kepada orang Brasil , Mereka cenderung menjawab dalam bahasa Portugis. Perbedaan di negara besar ini sama-sama mempesona dan mengejutkan sebagian besar pengunjung, terutama orang Eropa, dan juga ketidakpedulian banyak penduduk setempat terhadap masalah sosial, ekonomi dan ekologi. Sementara kaum elit muda yang berpendidikan muda, profesional berpendidikan baik menikmati fasilitas masyarakat modern, pekerja anak, buta huruf dan kondisi perumahan di luar rumah masih ada bahkan di daerah yang diberkati oleh pertumbuhan ekonomi dan investasi asing yang besar seperti So Paulo atau Rio. Sebanyak orang Brazil mengakui keberlanjutan diri mereka pada bahan mentah, pertanian, dan sumber energi sebagai keuntungan besar untuk masa depan, kebanyakan dari mereka sepakat bahwa tanpa usaha besar dalam pendidikan, tidak akan ada jalan keluar dari kemiskinan dan keterbelakangan. Sejak awal abad ke-21, Brasil menghadapi gelombang imigrasi yang semakin meningkat dari China. Bolivia. Kolumbia. Peru. Nigeria. Haiti dan Angola. Brasil juga memiliki jumlah imigran yang terus meningkat di Timur Tengah. Khususnya dari Syria. Iklim Edit Brasil adalah negara besar dengan zona iklim yang berbeda. Di utara. Di dekat khatulistiwa ada musim basah dan kering dari sekitar So Paulo sampai ke selatan ada springsummerfallwinter. Cuaca terus berubah dan terkadang mengejutkan. Bisa terik panas, lalu mendingin turun, dan menjadi sangat dingin. Bisa cerah 1 menit, dan mulai hujan pada menit kedua. Iklim yang hangat sangat cocok untuk pantai dan bermain di luar. Liburan dan jam kerja Edit Brasil mengamati 13 hari libur nasional berikut. Tahun Baru - 1 Januari Karnaval - FebruaryMarch (Movable - 7 minggu sebelum Paskah Senin dan Selasa adalah hari libur yang sebenarnya, namun perayaan biasanya dimulai pada hari Sabtu dan berlangsung sampai jam 12 siang di Ash Wednesday, saat toko dan layanan dibuka kembali) Jumat Agung - MarchApril (bergerak) dua hari sebelum hari Minggu Paskah Tiradentes - 21 April Hari Buruh - 1 Mei Corpus Christi - MayJune (bergerak) enam puluh hari setelah Hari Kemerdekaan Paskah - 7 September Pelindung Brasil - 12 Oktober Semua Hari Jiwa (Finados) - November 2 Republik - 15 November Natal - 25 Desember Jam kerja biasanya pukul 08:00 atau 09:00 sampai 17:00 atau 18:00. Bank buka dari hari Senin sampai Jumat, 10: 00-16: 00. Toko jalanan cenderung tutup pada siang hari pada hari Sabtu dan baru dibuka kembali pada hari Senin. Pusat perbelanjaan biasanya buka 10: 00-22: 00, Senin sampai Sabtu, dan 15: 00-21: 00 pada hari Minggu. Beberapa mal, terutama di kota-kota besar, juga buka pada hari Minggu, meski tidak semua toko mungkin buka. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk menemukan toko 24-jam dan pasar kecil yang buka bahkan pada hari Minggu. Listrik Edit Brasil adalah satu dari sedikit negara yang menggunakan 110 dan 220 volt untuk peralatan sehari-hari. Harapkan voltase untuk berubah bolak-balik saat Anda melakukan perjalanan dari satu tempat ke tempat berikutnya - bahkan di negara bagian Brazil yang sama, kadang-kadang bahkan di dalam gedung yang sama. Tidak ada perbedaan fisik pada stopkontak listrik (power power) untuk dua voltase. Meski Brazil memiliki jenis stopkontak sendiri, hampir tidak ada yang menggunakannya. Gerai listrik biasanya menerima steker datar (Amerika Utara), dan bulat (Eropa). Jika tidak, adaptor dari pisau datar ke pin bulat mudah ditemukan di toko supermarket atau perangkat keras manapun. Beberapa gerai terlalu sempit untuk colokan Schuko Jerman. Solusi darurat terbaik adalah dengan membeli koneksi T yang murah dan hanya memaksa Schuko Anda masuk, - T akan pecah, tapi akan berhasil. Sedikit sekali gerai yang memiliki titik grounding, dan beberapa mungkin tidak menerima colokan terpolarisasi Amerika Utara yang lebih baru, di mana satu pin sedikit lebih besar. Sekali lagi, gunakan murah T. Dekat perbatasan dengan Argentina. Anda kadang-kadang bisa menemukan outlet untuk steker tipe AustraliaNew Zealand. Jika melintasi perbatasan, mungkin Anda juga memerlukan adaptor ini. Pada 20092010, IEC 60906-1 diperkenalkan ke Brasil dan beberapa bangunan baru sudah memilikinya. Ini kompatibel dengan Europlug, namun memiliki soket yang surut. Sekali lagi, T-colokan dapat digunakan sebagai adaptor untuk format umum lainnya. Frekuensi 60Hz, yang dapat mengganggu jam listrik 50Hz. Pemadaman listrik kurang dan kurang sering terjadi, namun Anda selalu berisiko di puncak musim yang tinggi di kota-kota wisata kecil. Kawasan Edit Brasil memiliki banyak kota yang menarik, mulai dari kota-kota kolonial yang cantik dan tempat persembunyian pantai hingga kota-kota besar yang ramai dan ramai, beberapa tujuan wisata yang lebih menonjol: Braslia - Ibu kota Brasil, dan tontonan arsitektural. Bangunan yang patut diperhatikan termasuk katedral berbentuk keranjang, Istana Arches yang indah (tempat kedudukan Kementerian Kehakiman) dan lain-lain. Florianpolis - Kota ini terletak di sebuah pulau di Samudera Atlantik di negara bagian selatan Santa Catarina, dengan danau, laguna, alam yang menakjubkan dan lebih dari 40 pantai alami yang bersih dan indah. Tujuan utama bagi orang Argentina selama bulan-bulan musim panas. Fortaleza - Kota kelima terbesar di Brasil, diberkati dengan pantainya yang indah. Rumah pasar jalanan Iracema Beach. Dasar yang baik untuk menjelajahi pantai di pantai timur laut, termasuk Jericoacoara. Terkenal untuk musik dan komedian. Manaus - Terletak di jantung Amazon, adalah ibu kota Negara Bagian Amazonas dan juga merupakan kota terbesar di Amazon. Di Manaus, sungai Negro dan Solimes bertemu untuk menjadi Sungai Amazonas. Tempat terbaik untuk pergi mengunjungi hutan hujan Amazon. Ini adalah pintu gerbang ke Anavilhanas dan ke Taman Nasional Ja. Porto Alegre - kota besar antara Argentina dan So Paulo dan menuju ke Brasil yang menakjubkan Green Canyons. Recife - Sebuah kota di wilayah Timur Laut, yang semula dihuni oleh penjajah Belanda. Dijuluki The Brazilian Venice, dibangun di beberapa pulau yang dihubungkan oleh banyak jembatan. Kaya akan sejarah, kesenian dan cerita rakyat. Jangan lewatkan tetangga Olinda dan Porto de Galinhas. Kota ini juga merupakan pintu gerbang ke kepulauan Fernando de Noronha yang menakjubkan. Rio de Janeiro - Kota yang terkenal dan indah di dunia yang menyambut pengunjung dengan patung besar Yesus bersenjata terbuka di atas Bukit Corcovado. Salvador - Ibu kota pertama Brasil adalah rumah bagi perpaduan unik antara budaya asli, Afrika dan Eropa. Kegembiraan karnavalnya terkenal, dan pengaruh budaya dan agama Afrika luar biasa. Jadi kota Paulo - Brasil terbesar, terkaya dan paling kosmopolitan, di mana Anda dapat menemukan pengaruh kuat dari beberapa etnis, termasuk Italia, Korea, Jepang, Jerman, Rusia, Karibia, Yunani dan Arab. Tujuan lain Edit Pemandangan udara dari Amazon Rainforest Amazonia - wisata hutan, margasatwa, kayu melayang, misteri Taman Nasional Chapada Diamantina Amazon Chapada dos Veadeiros 8212 cerebung (margasatwa savana) dan air terjun yang menakjubkan Fernando de Noronha 8212 pulau tropis surga di Tengah lautan Atlantik, dilindungi sebagai Taman Nasional Lautan sejak 1997 dan Situs Warisan Dunia Ilha Grande - sebuah pulau Brasil yang indah, sekitar 150 km dari Rio de Janeiro Iguau Falls 8212 air terjun terkenal Ilha do Maraj - sebuah pulau di Mulut sungai Amazon Ilha do Mel (Pulau Madu) - area ekologis terlindungi di pesisir Paran, menampilkan pantai terindah di negara ini. Dari sana, dua pulau lainnya dapat dicapai: Superagi dan Ilha das Peas, keduanya merupakan bagian dari Parque Nacional do Superagi (situs warisan alam UNESCO). Lenis Maranhenses Pantanal 8212 lahan basah terbesar di dunia menampung banyak ekowisata dan keanekaragaman hayati yang luas, termasuk caiman, jaguar, anaconda, antagonis raksasa, primata, berang-berang raksasa, dan piranha Itacare Sebuah kota nelayan dan selancar yang sangat indah di pantai Southern Bahia dimana Rio Contas dan hutan hujan memenuhi Samudera Atlantik. Terkenal karena memiliki beberapa pantai selancar terbaik di Brasil dan untuk perkebunan kakaonya, bahan baku pembuatan coklat. Masuki persyaratan Edit Visa Brasil memiliki kebijakan visa timbal balik dengan semua negara, yang berarti bahwa kapan pun harga dan batasan diterapkan pada Brasil yang mengunjungi sebuah negara, Brasil menerapkan langkah yang sama untuk para pengunjung negara tersebut. Warga dari Argentina, Bolivia, Cile, Kolombia, Ekuador, Paraguay, Peru dan Uruguay dapat memasukkan negara tersebut dengan kartu identitas yang masih berlaku dan bertahan sampai 90 hari. Warga negara Venezuela dapat masuk negara dengan kartu identitas yang masih berlaku dan bertahan sampai 60 hari. Visa tidak diperlukan untuk masa menginap hingga 90 hari dari pemegang paspor dari negara-negara ini, kecuali dinyatakan lain: Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahama, Barbados, Belgia, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cile, Kolombia, Kosta Rika, Kroasia, Rep Ceko Paspor paspor, Hungaria, Islandia, Irlandia, Israel, Italia, Korea Selatan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luksemburg, Finlandia, Perancis, Jerman, Macau, Malaysia, Malta, Meksiko, Monako, Maroko, Namibia, Belanda, Selandia Baru, Norwegia, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Filipina, Polandia, Portugal, Rumania, Rusia, San Marino, Singapura (30 hari), Slowakia, Afrika Selatan, Spanyol, Suriname, Swedia, Swiss, Thailand, Trinidad amp Tobago, Tunisia, Turki, Inggris (Termasuk pemegang paspor Nasional Inggris (Luar Negeri)), Uruguay, Venezuela (60 hari) dan Kota Vatikan. Perhatikan bahwa petugas imigrasi memiliki hak untuk membatasi visa Anda kurang dari 90 hari, jika menurutnya sesuai. (Ini telah dilakukan secara rutin untuk pelancong laki-laki tunggal yang tiba di Fortaleza, diduga untuk memerangi pariwisata prostitusi.) Dia kemudian akan menyebutkan jumlah hari (misalnya 60 atau 30) dalam penulisan pena di dalam cap yang diberikan di paspor Anda jika tidak, itu Tetap 90 hari. Selain itu, mulai 1 Juni hingga 18 September 2016, pada kesempatan Olimpiade dan Paralimpik di Rio de Janeiro, warga Australia, Kanada, Jepang, dan Amerika Serikat akan dibebaskan dari persyaratan visa untuk tinggal tidak melebihi 90 hari untuk pariwisata. Hanya. (Pembebasan ini tidak mengharuskan wisatawan untuk menghadiri Olimpiade.) 1 Warga negara dari semua negara lain (daftar lengkap 2) memerlukan visa. Biaya bervariasi tergantung pada timbal balik: misalnya, warga AS harus membayar US160 untuk visa turis atau bisnis. Pada bulan Februari 2015, warga negara Kanada harus membayar paling sedikit CDN97.50 untuk visa turis, tidak termasuk biaya penanganan atau pemrosesan apapun. Biaya visa Brasil untuk warga Taiwan atau pemegang paspor Taiwan membayar 20 (Referensi dari Kedutaan Brasil di Lima, Peru) dan 5 hari untuk diproses. Namun, timbal balik juga sering berlaku untuk validitas visa: Warga negara AS dapat diberikan visa yang berlaku hingga 10 tahun dan, demikian pula, warga Kanada berusia sampai 5. Proses visa sangat membosankan bagi warga negara AS dan perhatian khusus harus diberikan. Ada beberapa konsulat di negara ini tapi Anda HARUS mendaftar ke konsulat yang mencakup yurisdiksi Anda. Anda harus menyerahkan salinan ID Anda atau tagihan utilitas sebagai bukti tinggal meskipun itu tidak tercantum di manapun. Bagian visa tidak menerima telepon dan Anda mungkin harus mengirim email terlebih dahulu untuk mengklarifikasi situasi tertentu. Untuk visa turis, Anda HARUS mengirimkan salinan tiket pesawat atau reservasi, foto, dan tanda tangan Anda. Mulai Desember 2015, Anda perlu mengunggah foto dan tanda tangan secara online dan file harus memiliki ukuran tertentu. Foto tersebut perlu memiliki rasio 1,5 x 2 atau tidak akan diunggah. Setiap konsulat akan mencantumkan waktu pemrosesan, kecuali ada keadaan darurat seumur hidup atau mati, mereka tidak akan memproses permohonan Anda lebih cepat dari yang dinyatakan. Konsulat bahkan tidak akan memberitahukan pemohon jika dokumen hilang. Jika Anda tidak memiliki semua dokumen, permohonan Anda akan ditolak, biaya akan dikenakan biaya, dan waktu pemrosesan dimulai dari 0,3 Berlaku 2 sampai 3 bulan sebelumnya atau pergi sendiri jika memungkinkan. Visa turis (termasuk yang diberikan di tempat dalam pengawasan imigrasi, seperti untuk kebanyakan orang Eropa) dapat diperpanjang di kantor Federal Policia manapun. Semua ibu kota negara bagian, dan sebagian besar kota perbatasan dan pelabuhan internasional memilikinya. Visa turis hanya diperpanjang satu kali, maksimal 90 hari, dan dalam keadaan apapun Anda bisa diberikan lebih dari 180 hari dengan visa turis untuk periode 365 hari. Anda harus menghubungi polisi federal sekitar 1 minggu sebelum visa Anda berakhir. Biaya penanganannya saat ini adalah R 67 (Okt 2008). Anda mungkin diminta untuk mengeluarkan tiket keluar (memesan tiket yang dapat dikembalikan sepenuhnya di internet, kemudian batalkan saat visa Anda diperpanjang), dan bukti subsistance (untuk sebagian besar kartu kredit Anda diterima) Agar mengajukan permohonan perpanjangan , Anda harus mengisi Emisso da Guia de Recolhimento di situs web Polisi Federal, yang akan Anda bawa ke Banco do Brasil untuk membayar biaya tersebut. Jangan membayar biaya sampai Anda berbicara dengan petugas polisi federal tentang kasus Anda. Jika dia menolak perpanjangan visa Anda, Anda harus memiliki rekening bank di Brasil untuk mendapatkan pengembalian dana. Persyaratan untuk pertama kali memasuki Brasil dalam waktu 90 hari setelah penerbitan visa sekarang hanya berlaku untuk warga negara Angola, Bahrain, Burma, Kamboja, Tanjung Verde, China, Kuba, Guinea Khatulistiwa, Gabon, Ghana, Yunani, Honduras, Indonesia, Jepang , Yordania, Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Filipina, Portugal, Qatar, Suriah, Swiss, Taiwan, Thailand, dan Tunisia. Kegagalan memasuki Brasil dalam waktu 90 hari akan membuat visa tidak berlaku, tidak peduli berapa lama waktu yang seharusnya. Perangko Entry vs. exit Segera setelah paspor Anda dicap oleh Polisi Federal Brasil, pastikan nomor terakhir di ujung kanan stempel adalah angka ganjil. Nomor 1 (air) 3 (kapal) 5 (carbus) menunjukkan bahwa Anda memasuki negara dan nomor 246 menunjukkan bahwa Anda keluar. Beberapa petugas polisi federal telah secara keliru memberi orang asing cap nomor genap saat masuk. Jika Anda memiliki stempel angka genap dan mencoba memperpanjang visa di kota yang bukan port entri Anda, Anda akan diberitahu untuk kembali ke kota di mana Anda menerima stempel yang salah sehingga bisa diperbaiki sebelum Anda dapat menerima perpanjangan. Secara hukum Anda diminta untuk membuat tiket keluar Anda saat masuk, tapi ini hanya diberlakukan dalam kasus luar biasa. Bahkan jika Anda ditanya, Anda bisa sering lolos dengan menjelaskan bahwa Anda membawa bus ke Argentina, dan tidak bisa membeli tiket masuk, katakanlah, Eropa. Jika Anda melampaui visa turis Anda, Anda akan dikenai denda R8.28 per hari (per Oktober 2007), paling lama 100 hari. Ini berarti bahwa meskipun Anda tinggal secara tidak sah selama 5 tahun, denda tidak akan pernah melebihi R828. Anda akan dibayar untuk membayar ini di persimpangan perbatasan. Karena ini bisa memakan waktu, mungkin bijaksana melakukannya beberapa hari di depan kantor polisi federal, terutama jika Anda memiliki koneksi penerbangan domestik ke internasional. Polisi federal kemudian akan memberi Anda 8 hari untuk keluar dari negara tersebut. Jika Anda tidak membayar denda Anda saat keluar, Anda harus membayar saat Anda masuk lagi. Kenyataan bahwa Anda telah didenda karena overstay di masa lalu biasanya tidak menyiratkan kesulitan masa depan dengan imigrasi, namun sebaiknya Anda menyimpan semua tanda terima dan paspor lama untuk referensi. Jika Anda ingin memberi alasan kepada negara tersebut untuk beberapa alasan tanpa berhubungan dengan pihak imigrasi, ada banyak kota perbatasan kecil yang hampir tidak memiliki kendali. Anda mungkin akan diberi tahu oleh polisi setempat (siapa yang tidak memiliki perangko atau register komputer untuk imigrasi) untuk menghubungi polisi federal di kota tersebut dan di dekat kota tersebut. Bila Anda bepergian dari daerah tropis tertentu ke Brasil Anda memerlukan vaksinasi demam kuning dan sertifikat yang menunjukkan bahwa Anda memilikinya. Perhatikan bahwa adalah ilegal membawa hewan, daging, susu, biji-bijian, tanaman, telur, madu, buah, atau jenis makanan non-olahan tanpa izin. Hubungi vigiagroagricultura.gov.br untuk informasi lebih lanjut. Dengan pesawat Edit Hak dan kewajiban hukum Anda sebagai penumpang udara di bawah undang-undang Brasil Tunjangan bagasi gratis. Pada penerbangan internasional yang berangkat dari Brasil, semua penumpang berhak check-in minimal 2 tas (masing-masing beratnya mencapai 32 kg) secara gratis. Pada penerbangan domestik di Brasil (di pesawat dengan lebih dari 31 kursi), semua penumpang berhak untuk memasukkan tas yang beratnya mencapai 23kg secara gratis. Persyaratan ID Pada penerbangan domestik di Brasil, warga negara asing harus menunjukkan paspor yang masih berlaku di check-in dan gerbang asrama, identitas identitas kartu identitas nasional dapat diterima berdasarkan kesepakatan antara Brasil dan negara penerbit. Pada penerbangan internasional, warga negara asing harus menunjukkan paspor yang masih berlaku (dan visa untuk negara tujuan jika diperlukan) sebagai alternatif, kredensial kartu identitas identitas nasional dapat diterima berdasarkan kesepakatan antara Brasil dan negara penerbit. Bantuan dari perusahaan penerbangan Anda dalam hal terjadi penundaan penerbangan, pembatalan atau penolakan boarding. 1 jam waktu tunggu - komunikasi gratis (misalnya panggilan telepon, internet dll) 2 jam waktu tunggu - komunikasi gratis snack air 4 jam menunggu waktu - komunikasi gratis makanan ringan transportasi akomodasi air dari akomodasi (ditambah pilihan untuk melakukan reroute atau mendapatkan pengembalian uang jika diinginkan) Untuk informasi lebih lanjut: Panduan Penumpang oleh Badan Penerbangan Sipil Nasional Brasil (ANAC). Tiket termurah adalah dari bulan Februari (setelah Carnaval) sampai Mei dan dari bulan Agustus sampai November. Tiket dari New York. Misalnya, harganya bisa seperti US699 termasuk pajak. Banyak penerbangan yang tidak bertanggal di Brasil bisa didapat dengan harga murah. Bandara internasional terbesar di Brasil adalah Bandara Internasional So Paulo-Guarulhos (IATA, GRU ICAO, SBGR), pusat penerbangan TAM 3. yang memiliki penerbangan langsung ke banyak kota besar di Amerika Selatan. Penerbangan langsung lainnya termasuk: Bandara terbesar kedua di Brasil adalah Bandara Internasional Rio de Janeiro-Galeo. (IATA, GIG ICAO, SBGL) rumah Gol Transportes Areos 4. yang terbang ke berbagai daerah termasuk Santiago. Buenos Aires dan AsunciĆ³n. Penerbangan langsung lainnya termasuk: Dari Oseania ada layanan yang tersedia ke Brasil melalui koneksi di pemberhentian menengah: Sydney dan Auckland dilayani oleh LAN Airlines dengan koneksi di Santiago. Penerbangan langsung Qantass dari Sydney ke Santiago memiliki perjanjian codeshare dengan LAN dan TAM Airlnes sehingga memungkinkan untuk mendapatkan koneksi ke Brazil di sana. South African Airways menghubungkan Perth dan Sydney ke Brasil melalui Johannesburg. Sydney. Melbourne. Perth dan Auckland dilayani oleh Emirates via Dubai. Sydney juga dilayani oleh Ethiad Airways via Abu Dhabi. Ibu kota Northeastern memiliki waktu terbang yang sedikit lebih pendek ke Eropa dan Amerika Utara: Selain di atas, TAP terbang langsung ke Salvador. Brasilia. Belo Horizonte Campinas. Porto Alegre. TAP Portugal 5 adalah maskapai penerbangan asing dengan tujuan terbanyak di Brasil, dari Lisbon dan Porto. Dan memberikan koneksi yang luas dan seterusnya ke Eropa dan Afrika. American Airlines memiliki penerbangan dari Miami ke Manaus. Curitiba. Porto Alegre. Braslia. Belo Horizonte dan Salvador. Copa Airlines flies from its hub in Panama City to Belo Horizonte. Braslia. Porto Alegre and Manaus. provinding a wide range of destinations in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. Air travel in Brazil has increased exponentially in the past few years, partly as a result of the poor condition of many Brazilian roads(qv)and the absence of any viable railroad network (cf India). It is still relatively inexpensive with bargains sometimes available and easily the best option for long distance travel within the country. Some major aiports, particularly those in Sao Paulo and Rio, are, however, becoming very congested. By car Edit The main border crossings are at: In certain border towns, notably Foz do Iguau Ciudad del Este Puerto Iguazu. you do not need entryexit stamps or other formalities for a daytrip into the neighbouring country. These same towns are good venues if you for some reason want to cross without contact with immigration authorities. By bus Edit Long-distance bus services connect Brazil to its neighboring countries. The main capitals linked directly by bus are Buenos Aires. Asuncin. Montevideo. Santiago de Chile. and Lima. Direct connections from the first three can also be found easily, but from Lima it might be tricky, though easily accomplished by changing at one of the others. Those typically go to So Paulo. though Pelotas has good connections too. It should be kept in mind that distances between So Paulo and any foreign capitals are significant, and journeys on the road may take up to 3 days, depending on the distance and accessibility of the destination. The national land transport authority has listings6 in Portuguese on all operating international bus lines. Online tickets around the country can be found at several websites like Guiche Virtual7. brasilbybus8. Chegue.L9. Embarcou10 and NetViagem11. Green Toad Bus 12 offers bus passes between Brazil and neighbouring countries as well as around Brazil itself. By boat Edit Amazon river boats connect northern Brazil with Peru, Venezuela and Colombia. The ride is a gruelling 12 days upriver though. From French Guiana. you can cross the river Oyapoque . which takes about 15 minutes. By train Edit Train service within Brazil is almost nonexistent. However, there are exceptions to the rule, including the Trem da Morte . or Death Train, which goes from Santa Cruz. Bolivia. to a small town just over the border from Corumb in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. There is still a train line from there all the way to So Paulo which at the moment is not in use, but bus connections to So Paulo via the state capital, Campo Grande. are plentiful. The journey itself is reputedly replete with robbers who might steal your backpack or its contents but security has been increased recently and the journey can be made without much difficulty. It goes through the Bolivian agricultural belt and along the journey one may see a technologically-averse religious community which resembles the USAs Amish in many ways. Get around Edit By plane Edit Brazil Air Pass If you intend to visit various cities within Brazil, you should consider getting a Brazil Air Pass, offered by TAM or Gol8212 you purchase between 4 and 9 flight tickets which can be used at any time for any destination within Brazil served by the airline. A typical 4-ticket pass starts at around US580 while a full 9 tickets will run around US1150. In addition, Gol also offers a cheaper flight pass good for travel only within the Northeast of the country. These passes can only be obtained before arrival in the country, and you must prove that you have already purchased international return trip tickets or tickets for onward travel. Air service covers most of Brazil. Note that many flights make many stops en route, particularly in hubs as So Paulo or Brasilia. Most airports with regular passenger traffic are operated by the federal Infraero .13. They have a very convenient website, with an English version. It lists all the airlines operating at each airport, and also has updated flight schedules. There are now several Brazilian booking engines that are good (although not perfect) for comparing flights and prices between different companies. They will mostly include an extra fee, hence it is cheaper to book on the airlines own site. The Brazilian airline scene completely changed at least twice over the last 10 years or so. The largest carriers are now TAM14 and Gol 15. which share more than 80 of the domestic market between them. The traditional Varig is now just another brand of Gol. Others include WebJet 16. Avianca 17. and Azul 18. TRIP 19 has short-haul flights to smaller airports throughout the country, and Pantanal 20 and Puma 21 are growing in the same segment. Portuguese TAP 22 has a few domestic code shares with TAM. There are also a number of regional companies, such as NHT 23 (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina ). Price differences, at least if a ticket is purchased on the internet well in advance, are so small that its rather meaningless to call any of these low cost, although WebJet and Azul have lately been a notch cheaper for domestic flights. Booking on the domestic carriers sites can be frustrating for non-Brazilian citizens. Often, you will be asked for your CPF (national identity number) while paying by credit card. Even if you -as a foreigner- have a CPF, the sites will often not recognize it. Gol now accepts international cards, but the system is buggy (Oct.2010). One trick that might work is to visit one of the airlines foreign websites, although prices may vary. Many flights can also be found on foreign booking engines where no CPF is needed. If you book weeks in advance, most carriers will give you the option to pay by bank deposit ( boleto bancrio ), which is actually payable by cash not only in banks, but also in a number of supermarkets, pharmacies and other stores. Buying a ticket at a travel agent is generally R 30 more expensive, noting that certain special offers only can be found online. Be aware that many domestic flights have so many stops that some, including yours, may be missing from the listings in the airports. Double check your flight number and confirm with ground staff. Certain domestic flights in Brazil are international, meaning that the flight has arrived from abroad and is continuing without clearing all passengers through customs and immigration. This means ALL passengers must do this at the next stop, even those having boarded in Brazil. Do NOT fill out a new immigration form, but show what you were given upon actual arrival to Brazil. By car Edit The SP-160, or Rodovia dos Imigrantes Brazil has the largest road network in Latin America with over 1.6 million kilometres. A car is a good idea if you want to explore scenic areas, e.g. the historic cities of Minas Gerais, the Rio-Santos highway, or the beaches in North-East Brazil. There are the usual car rental companies at the airports. Many roads are in good condition, especially in the east and south of the country and along the coast. In other areas and outside the metropolitan regions there are also gravel and dirt roads for which an off-road vehicle can be strongly recommended. This especially applies to the Amazon area where many roads are difficult or not at all passable during the rainy season from November to March. This is why it is advisable to travel with a good map and to be well informed about distances, road conditions and the estimated travel time. Road maps of the brand Guia 4 Rodas (can be bought from most newsstands in Brazil) provide not only maps and distances but also information about current conditions of the roads. Cochera andina 24 publishes useful information on almost 300 routes in the country. In theory, the driving rules of Brazil resemble those of Western Europe or North American. In practice, driving in Brazil can be quite scary if you are used to European (even Mediterranean) or North American road culture, due to widespread violations of driving rules, and the toleration thereof. Distances kept to other vehicles are kept at a bare minimum, overtaking whenever close to possible, and changing lanes without much of a prior signal. Many large cities also suffer from hold-ups when you wait at a red light in the night. Even if there is no risk of robbery, many drivers (including of city buses) run red lights or stop signs at night when they do not see incoming traffic from the cross street. Drivers also indulge in creative methods of saving time, such as using the reverse direction lanes. In rural areas, many domestic animals are left at the roadside, and they sometimes wanders into the traffic. Pedestrians take enormous chances crossing the road, since many drivers do not bother to slow down if they see pedestrians crossing. The quality of the paving is very varied, and the presence of enormous potholes is something that strongly discourages night-driving. Also consider the risk of highway hold-ups after dark, not to mention truck drivers on amphetamines (to keep awake for days in a row). In Brazil cars are driven on the right hand side of the road. A flashing left signal means that the car ahead is warning you not to pass, for some reason. If the car ahead of you wants to show you that it is safe to pass it will flash the right signal. The right signal is the same signal to indicate that youre going to stop on the side of the road, so it means youre going to slow down. On the other hand the left signal is the same signal to indicate youre going to pass the car ahead, meaning youre going to speed up. Flashing, twinkling headlights from the cars coming on the opposite side of the road means caution on the road ahead. Most of the time, it indicates that there are animals, cops or speed radar ahead. Keep the doors locked when driving, especially in the larger cities, as robberies at stop signs and red lights are quite common in some areas. Youll make it much easier for the robber if he can simply open up the door and sit down. Be equally careful with keeping your windows wide open, as someone might put their hands inside your car and steal a wallet, for instance. Leave your handbags and valuables out of sight. By bicycle Edit In smaller cities and towns the bicycle is a common means of transport. This does not mean that cyclists are usually respected by cars, trucks, or bus drivers. But you may find good roads with little traffic outside the cities. It is also easy to get a lift by a pickup or to have the bike transported by a long-distance bus. Cycling path are virtually non-existent in cities, except along certain beachfronts, such as Rio de Janeiro and Recife. There are a bicyclers groups around the country, e.g Sampa Bikers 25 in Sao Paulo which meets weekly. By train Edit Regional rail system in So Paulo Brazils railway system was mostly wrecked during the military regimes. Today there are few passenger lines left: The Serra Verde Express 26 from Curitiba to Paranagu. This scenic 150 km long railroad links the capital of Paran to the coastal cities of Morretes and Paranagu. through the beautiful Serra do Mar mountains covered with mata atlntica forest. The trip takes about 3 hours and has bilingual guides. Trains leave daily at 08:15 and prices start from about R 50 (round-trip) - see CuritibaGetout for more information. From So Joo del Rei to Tiradentes - This 35-minute trip on a steam train is almost like time travel. The train operates Fri-Sun, with departures from So Joo at 10:00 and 15:00 and 13:00 and 17:00 from Tiradentes. The round trip costs R 16. From Belo Horizonte to Vitria - Daily trains operated by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce 27 leave Belo Horizonte at 07:30 and Vitria at 07:00. Travel time is about twelve and a half hours. Tickets are sold at the train stations and a single 2nd class fare costs about R 25. Seats are limited and it is not possible to reserve, so it is advisable to buy in advance. From So Luis to Parauapebas - interesting because part of it passes through the Amazon rainforest. From Macap to Serra do Navio From Campinas to Jaguariuna. Part of the old Ferrovia Mogiana, which was built to facilitate coffee exports in the late 19th and early 20th century. Entertaining guides. Only at weekends and holidays. Some steam trains. Inexpensive. About 1 hr each way. By inter-city bus Edit Long-distance buses are a convenient, economical, and sometimes (usually if you buy the most expensive ticket), rather comfortable way to travel between regions. The bus terminal ( rodoviria ) in cities play a role akin to train stations in many countries. You should check travel distance and time while traveling within Brazil, going from Rio de Janeiro to the south region could take more than 24 hours, so it may worth going by plane if you can afford it. Brazil has a very good long distance bus network. Basically, any city of more than 100,000 people will have direct lines to the nearest few state capitals, and also to other large cities within the same range. Pretty much any little settlement has public transport of some kind (a lorry, perhaps) to the nearest real bus station. Mostly you have to go to the bus station to buy a ticket, although most major bus companies make reservations and sell tickets by internet with the requirement that you pick up your ticket sometime in advance. In a few cities you can also buy a ticket on the phone and have it delivered to your hotel for an extra charge of some 3-5 reais. Some companies have also adopted the airlines genius policy of pricing: In a few cases buying early can save you more than 50. The facility of flagging a bus and hopping on (if there are no available seats you will have to stand, still paying full price) is widespread in the country. This is less likely to work along a few routes where armed robberies have happened frequently, such as those leading to the border with Paraguay and to Foz do Iguau. There is no one bus company that serves the whole country, so you need to identify the company that connect two cities in particular by calling the bus station of one city. ANTT, the national authority for land transportation, has a search engine 28 (in Portuguese) for all available domestic bus lines. Be aware that some big cities like So Paulo and Rio have more than one bus station, each one covering certain cities around. It is good to check in advance to which bus station you are going. Another website which you can check the time, prices and buy tickets online is BuscaOnibus 29. Many times you need a CPF number to buy tickets, but recently BrasilbyBus and ClickBus now cater to tourist without the CPF number. Bus services are often sold in three classes: Regular, Executive and First-Class ( Leito . in Portuguese). Regular may or may not have air conditioning. For long distances or overnight travels, Executive offers more space and a folding board to support your legs. First-Class has even more space and only three seats per row, making enough space to sleep comfortably. Cheaper seats sometimes sell out fast, so it is worth making the trip early to the Rodoviaria or buy online. All trips of more than 4 hours are covered by buses with bathrooms and the buses stop for foodbathrooms at least once every 4 hours of travel. Brazilian bus stations, known as rodoviria or terminal rodovirio . tend to be located away from city centers. They are often in pretty sketchy areas, so if you travel at night be prepared to take a taxi tofrom the station. There will also be local bus lines. Even if you have a valid ticket bought from elsewhere, some Brazilian bus stations may also require a boarding card. This can be obtained from the bus company, often for a supplement fee. If you buy a ticket in the departure bus station you will also be given this boarding card. Rodovirias include many services, including fast-food restaurants, cafs, Internet cafs, toilets and left luggage. As a general rule, the larger the city, the more expensive the services (e.g. leaving a suitcase as left luggage in a smaller city may cost 1 R, but in Recife in might cost you 5 R). When buying tickets, as well as when boarding the bus, you may be asked for proof of ID. Brazilian federal law requires this for interstate transportation. Not all conductors know how to read foreign passports, so be prepared to show them that the name of the passport truly is the same as the name on the ticket. By city bus Edit Most cities have extensive bus services. Multiple companies may serve a single city. There is almost never a map of the bus lines, and often bus stops are unmarked. Be prepared for confusion and wasted time. Buses have a board behind the windshield that advertises the main destinations they serve. You may have to ask the locals for information, but they may not know bus lines except the ones they usually take. In most cities you have to wave to stop the bus when you want to take it. This in itself would no pose a problem, however, in big cities there may be dozens of bus lines stopping at a given bus stop and bus stops are not designed to accommodate so many vehicles. Frequently one cannot observe the oncoming buses due to other buses blocking the view. Bus drivers are reluctant to slow down for a bus stop if they are not sure someone will take their bus, so it is common to miss your bus because you could not see it coming to wave on time or the driver did not see you waving in between buses already at the stop. Some people go into the middle of a busy street to wait for their bus to make sure they see it and the driver sees them. In some places, like Manaus, drivers even tend to ignore stop requests (both to get on and to get off) if it is not too easy to navigate to the bus stop. Most city buses have both a driver and a conductor. The conductor sits behind a till next to a turnstile. You have to pay the conductor, the price of the bus is usually advertised on the windshield. The turnstiles are narrow, and very inconvenient if one carries any kind of load (try balancing a heavy backpack over the turnstile while the bus is running). Larger buses often have a front section, before the turnstile, meant in priority for the elderly, handicapped and pregnant women - you can use it but you still have to pay Typical prices are around R 3,00. You can try asking the conductor to warn you when the bus is close to your destination. Depending on whether he or she understands you and feels like helping you, you may get help. In addition to large city buses, there are often minibuses or minivans ( alternativo ). You pay the driver when you go aboard. By boat Edit In the Amazon region as well as on the coast west of Sao Luis, boat travel is often the only way to get around. Brazilians use a lot of gestures in informal communication, and the meaning of certain words or expressions may be influenced by them. The thumbs up gesture is used to mean everythings OK . yes or even thanks . Avoid using the OK hand gesture for these meanings, as it can be considered obscene. Wagging your extended index finger back and forth andor clicking your tongue behind your teeth two or three times means no Using your index finger to pull down one of your lower eyelids can mean watch out . keeping an eye on or not a fool depending on context. Stroking your two biggest fingers with your thumb is a way of referring to money or saying something is expensive . Snapping a few times can mean fast . a long time ago or a lot depending on context. Stroking your lips and then snapping means delicious pinching your earlobe means the same in some regions. Making a fist with your thumb between the index and middle finger, known as the figa . is a sign of good or bad luck depending on the region. Touching the palm with the thumb and making a circular movement with the hand in some regions can mean robbery . rip off . bribery or corruption depending on context. The hush gesture is considered extremely impolite, about the same as shouting shut up to someone. An informal way to get someones attention, similar to a whistle, is a hissing sound: pssiu It is not perceived as unpolite, but gets really annoying if repeated more than twice. The official language of Brazil is Portuguese. spoken by the entire population (except for a few, very remotely located tribes). Indeed, Brazil has had immigrants from all parts of the world for centuries, whose descendants now speak Portuguese as their mother tongue. Brazilian Portuguese has a number of pronunciation differences with that spoken in Portugal (and within, between the regions there are some quite extreme accent and slang differences), but speakers of either can understand each other. However, European Portuguese (Luso) is more difficult for Brazilians to understand than the reverse, as many Brazilian television programs are shown in Portugal. Notice that a few words can have a totally different meaning in Brazil and Portugal, usually slang words. An example of this is Rapariga which in Portugal means young girl, and in Brazil means a prostitute. English is not widely spoken except in some touristy areas. Dont expect bus or taxi drivers to understand English, so it may be a good idea to write down the address you are heading to before getting the cab. In most big and luxurious hotels, it is very likely that the taxi fleet will speak some English. Spanish has some similarity with Portuguese. Brazilian tourists are able to make basic questions and give basic answers when visiting Spain or other Latin American countries and vice-versa. Of course such communication is quite awkward (mainly due to tilded vowels and semivowelization of e and o when being the last vowel of a Portuguese word), so take a phrase book and be prepared for slow communication with a lot of interpretive gestures. Natural wonders Edit Mata Atlantica, Bahia Amazon Rainforest - The Amazon River Basin holds more than half of the worlds remaining rainforest, and over 60 of that lies within the North of Brazil 8212 approximately one billion acres with incredible biodiversity. The region is home to about 2.5 million insect species, over 40,000 plants species, 2200 fish species, and more than 2,000 types of birds and mammals. One in five of all the bird species in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon, and one in five of the fish species live in Amazonian rivers and streams. Atlantic Forest ( Mata Atlntica ) - A region of tropical and subtropical forest which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the Northeast to Rio Grande do Sul state in the South. The Atlantic Forest has a wide variety of vegetation, including the many tree species such as the iconic araucaria tree in the south or the mangroves of the northeast, dozens of types of bromeliads and orchids, and unique critters such as capivara . The forest has also been designated a World Biosphere Reserve, with a large number of highly endangered species including the well-known marmosets, lion tamarins and woolly spider monkeys. Unfortunately, it has been extensively cleared since colonial times, mainly for the farming of sugar cane and for urban settlements 8212 The remnants are estimated to be less than 10 of the original, and that is often broken into hilltop islands. However, large swaths of it are protected by hundreds of parks, including 131 federal parks, 443 state parks, and 14 municipal parks, most of which are open to visitation. Campos Gerais - With a vast vegetation of grasses and areas of transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, this region offers beautiful scenery of cliffs and canyons, as Jaguaricat Valley, beyond the fifth and the eighth most extensive canyons in the world, which are respectively Guartel and Jaguariava. Jaguariava the canyon is made more beautiful rafting activity in Brazil. Pantanal - A vast tropical wetland expanse, one of the worlds largest. 80 of it lies within the state of Mato Grosso do Sul but it also extends into Mato Grosso (as well as into portions of Bolivia and Paraguay ), sprawling over an area estimated at between 140,000 and 195,000 square kilometers (54,000-75,000 sq mi). 80 of the Pantanal floodplains are submerged during the rainy seasons, nurturing an astonishing biologically diverse collection of aquatic plants and helping support a dense array of animal species. Waterfalls ( Cachoeiras ) - Brazil has an amazing range of impressive waterfalls of all sizes and shapes. Iguau Falls . in eastern Parana. is one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world, truly a sight to see. The 353-meter Cachoeira da Fumaa in Bahia s Chapada Diamantina National Park is the countrys second highest waterfall, after the Amazon s almost inaccessible Cachoeira do Araca . Other famous waterfalls include Caracol Falls . in a Rio Grande do Sul state park of the same name near Canela. Itaquira Falls . an easily accessible 168-meter fall near Formosa. Gois. and the gorge at Parque da Cascata near Sete Lagoas. Minas Gerais. Aside from the nationally famous falls, in many parts of the country, particularly the South. Southeast. and Central West regions, you are rarely far from at least one locally-famous, named waterfall worth a short hike. Architecture Edit Colonial architecture - Many cities have reminders of Brazils colonial past, with churches, monasteries, forts, barracks, and other structures still intact. Some of the most concentrated and best-preserved colonial buildings can be found in old gold-mining towns such as Ouro Preto and Tiradentes. but many other cities such as Rio de Janeiro. Petrpolis. Salvador. Recife. Paraty. and Goinia have quite significant colonial centers as well. Oscar Niemeyer works - Niemeyer, Brazils most famous architect, is a modern architectural pioneer who explores the aesthetic impact of reinforced concrete, using curves to create buildings with a unique sense of space. He is most famous for designing many of the buildings when the new capital of Brasilia was built in the 1950s, but his works literally dot the country, with major works in Natal. Joo Pessoa. Recife. Belo Horizonte. Rio de Janeiro. Niteri. So Paulo. Londrina and other locations. Gay Travel Edit Due to its high degree of acceptance and tolerance, gay travel is increasingly popular. Brazil hosted the first gay ball in America in 1754 Nowadays the main lesbian and gay destinations are Rio. which was elected the worlds sexiest destination twice, So Paulo and Braslia. which has the worlds largest Pride Parade, Florianpolis. which is the hippest gay hangout and Recife which is attracting more and more lesbian and gay tourists looking for fun and sun. Carnival Edit The biggest party in the world takes places across the country every year, lasting almost a week in February or early March. It is celebrated in a wide variety of ways, from the giants boneco masks of Olinda and the trios eltricos of Salvador to the massive samba parades of Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo. For a relatively more subdued atmosphere, check out the university-style street party of Ouro Preto or the sporty beach party at Ilha do Mel. Dont forget to make your reservations well in advance New Year Celebrations Edit Every New Years Eve, many Brazilians have a very strong celebration that is believed to give luck. The people in the largest cities usually travel to the coast to see and ever contribute to the fireworks, while dressed in white, which is understood to mean a lucky colour. They all gather flowers to give to the sea as originally the local african groups thought it would please the goddess of the sea, which means they set the flowers on the water and let it float away to where ever the current will take it. These are usually white flowers with a green stem and green leaves. It is a custom that the flowers should be white as the clothing. Some people nest the flowers in a small fishing boat and some simply drop the leaves on the water. It is said this tradition have been constant since it first started. Not everyone does it, but anyone in the area will most likely do it. Beaches Edit Almost the entire coast is lined with fabulous beaches, and the beach lifestyle is a big part of Brazilian culture. Nowhere is that more true than in Rio de Janeiro. with its laidback, flip-flop-footed lifestyle and famous beaches like Ipanema and Copacabana. Beaches in other areas of the country may not have the instant name recognition but are no less amazing. The Northeast has jewels like Jericoacoara. Praia do Futuro. Boa Vista. Porto de Galinhas. and Morro de So Paulo which bring in throngs of travellers, particularly Europeans. Landlocked mineiros go mingle with the rich and famous at Guarapari or dance forr in the sand at Itaunas. while paulistas head for Caragu or Ubatuba. In the South. weekend revelers flock to Ilha do Mel or Balnerio Cambori. while the 42 beaches of Santa Catarina Island draw in thousands of Argentianian tourists every year. Hundreds more beaches lie ready to be explored as well. Volunteer Edit ETIV do Brazil etivdobrasil.org A local NGO amp Non-Profit Organization that offers meaningful volunteer opportunities in a beautiful tropical surf town called Itacar, which is located on the coast of Southern Bahia. ETIV do Brasil offers projects in Youth Development, Environmental Conservation, Teaching English, Animal Welfare and Womens Empowerment. They can also offer housing, Portuguese, Samba and Capoeira classes to volunteers and well as Eco-Adventure tours to the exotic beaches, jungles and waterfalls in and around Itacare. Sports Edit Soccer - Soccer is the talk of the town wherever you are in Brazil, and the country is brimming with great teams and great players. Rio de Janeiro has the world-famous Maracan Stadium . Mineiro in Belo Horizonte. Morumbi Stadium in So Paulo. Arena Grmio and Beira-Rio in Porto Alegre . Volleyball - While soccer is the main sport in Brazil, is very normal to find spaces on the beaches where you can play beach volleyball, but this version of the sport possess a different code of rules than indoor volleyball (for example instead of six players, only two players are allowed to play on each team). International Charter Group: - 30 - Yacht charter and sailing, one of the worlds largest yacht charter companies, can take care of all charter requirements, from bareboat to crewed in the Brazil. Operating from nine offices worldwide (USA, Spain, UK, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Switzerland, Caribbean, Honk Kong and Dubai). Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: One of, if not the most, effective martial arts ever created by the Gracie family of Rio de Janeiro . Olympics - The leading international sporting events will take place August 5 - August 21 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. 6177 athletes will be competing in 306 events in 28 sports. spectator passes can be purchased through the Official Olympic site: rio2016 Brazils unit of currency is the Real (pronounced hay-OW), plural Reais (hay-ICE), abbreviated BRL, or just R. One real is divided into 100 centavos. As an example of how prices are written, R1,50 means one real and fifty centavos. Be careful using credit cards at taxis, gas stations, newsstands and small outlets. Their owners arent so careful about checking employees and technicians who perform maintenance on card machines, so many people have their cards compromised and then over several days have money siphoned off their cards. A safer option is to use cash for small expenses (so you dont need to carry too much - just make sure you only withdraw from bank ATMs) and to go to bigger stores with multiple machines since their managers use to enforce security and checking protocols to prevent scammers from compromising card machines (gas station franchises being a sad exception). If you choose to use your credit card, keep an eye on your statement. Travellers checks can be hard to cash anywhere that does not offer currency exchange. Foreign currency such as US Dollars or Euros can be exchanged at major airports and luxury hotels (although at bad rates), exchange bureaus and major branches of some banks, where you need your passport and your immigration form. Look for an ATM with your creditdebit card logo on it. Large branches of Banco do Brasil (no withdrawal fees for credit cards) usually have one, and most all Bradesco, Citibank, BankBoston, Santander and HSBC machines will work. Banco 24 Horas is a network of ATMs which accept foreign cards (charging R 10 per withdrawal). Withdrawal limits are usually R 700 (Bradesco) or R 1000 (BB, HSBC, B24H), per transaction, and in any case R 1000 per day. The latter can be circumvented by several consecutive withdrawals, choosing different accounts, i.e. credit card, checking, savings. Note that most ATMs do not work or will only give you R 100 after 10 PM. In some smaller towns there is no ATM able to accept foreign cards. Be sure you carry enough cash if you intend to stay far from larger cities. There are many federal regulations for dealings with foreign currency, trading in any currency other than Real in Brazil is illegal, although some places in big cities and bordering towns accept foreign money and many exchange offices operate in a shady area. In addition, exchange offices are almost impossible to find outside of big cities. Currencies other than USD and EUR are hard to exchange and the rates are ridiculous. If you would like to exchange cash at a bank, be prepared to pay a hefty commission. Misalnya. Banco do Brasil collects US15 for each transaction (regardless of amount). In May 2016 (just 3 months before Rio Olympic Games) Federal Government enacted new taxes over currency exchange: 1.1 for bill (species) transactions and 6.38 for travellers check and credit card ones. Wiring money to Brazil can be done through Western Union 31 transfers to be picked up at a Banco do Brasil branch in most cities, and also quite a few exchange offices. A majority of Brazilian shops now accepts major credit cards. However quite a few online stores only accept cards issued in Brazil, even though they sport the international logo of such cards. It is also very common for credit cards being used like debit card. When you pay using card commonly you will hear the question: Crdito ou dbito (Credit or debit). Using debit card is like paying in cash, the difference is, the cash was in your bank account - not in your wallet. Contactless cards are accepted in Brazil but not widely understood. Merchants are often confused by the concept of entering the transaction amount into their card terminal before presenting the card. If you see a contactless symbol on a merchants card terminal, then it will accept contactless payments, although the chances are that the employee wont know the procedure. By the time they have worked out the procedure, it will have been faster to use chip amp PIN instead. Apple Pay works on contactless card terminals in Brazil, at least for MasterCard, despite not yet being supported for cards issued in Brazil. Some places put signs stating a minimum card value payment. This is illegal. Every commercial establishment that accepts card is required to accept payment regardless of the amount. If the merchant that accepts cards refuses to receive the payment due to the low value, call the police or PROCON (consumer protection agency). It is also illegal to pay change for cents with candies (for example, R 0,05 or R 0,10) without asking the customer in advance. You have the right to refuse the candies and demand true money. Coins are R0.05, R0.10, R0.25, R0.50 and R1. Some denominations have several different designs. Images from the central bank of Brazil 32. And more 33. Bills come in the following denominations: R2. R5. R10 (still a few plastic red and blue around), R20. R 50 and 100. Images from the central bank of Brazil 34. Since 2010 Real bills were redesigned and are replacing old ones. Still, you are likely to find some older bills circulating. Souvenirs Edit Similar to the rest of Latin America, hand-crafted jewelry can be found anywhere. In regions that are largely populated by Afro-Brazilians youll find more African-influenced souvenirs . including black dolls. Havaianas jandals are also affordable in Brazil and supermarkets are often the best place to buy them 8212 small shops usually carry fake ones. If you have space in your bags, a Brazilian woven cotton hammock is a nice, functional purchase as well. Another interesting and fun item is a peteca . a sort of hand shuttlecock used in a traditional game of the same name, similar to volleyball. Shopping Edit Its not a bad idea to pack light and acquire Brazilian clothes within a couple of days of arrival. It will make you less obvious as a tourist. Brazilians have their own sense of style and that makes tourists - especially those in Hawaiian shirts or sandals with socks - stand out in the crowd. Have some fun shopping, and blend in. Store windows will often display a price followed by X 5 or X 10, etc. This is an installment-sale price. The price displayed is the per-installment price, so that, R50 X 10, for example, means 10 payments (typically monthly) of R50 each. Make sure any appliances you buy are either dual voltage or the same as in your home country. Frequency in Brazil is 60Hz, so dont buy electric clocks or non-battery operated motorized items if you live in Europe or countries like Argentina, Australia or New Zealand. Voltage however varies by state or even regions inside the same state. (see Electricity below). Brazilian-made appliances and electronics are usually expensive or of poor quality. All electronics are expensive compared to European or US prices. Brazil uses a hybrid video system called PAL-M. It is NOT at all compatible with the PAL system of Europe and Australia. Television began in black and white using the NTSC system of the USA and Canada, then years later, using PAL for its analogue colour - making PAL-M a totally unique system. Nowadays, most new TV sets are NTSC compatible. However the newly-introduced digital TV standard is not compatible with that of most other countries. Digital video appliances such as DVD players are also compatible with NTSC (all digital colour is the same worldwide), but make sure the DVD region code(s), if any, match your home country (Brazil is part of Region 4). Prices for imported electronic goods can be quite expensive due to high import tax, and the range of domestic electronic gadgets is not very wide. Also, be aware that the term DVD in Brazil is both an abbreviation for the disc itself and for its player, so be specific to avoid confusion. There are plenty of bargains to be had, especially leather goods, including shoes (remember sizes are different though). Clothes in general are a good buy, especially for women, for whom there are many classy items. Street markets, which are common, are also a cheap option, but avoid brand names like Nike - you will pay more and its fake. Dont be afraid to feel an item. If it doesnt feel right, most likely it isnt. Beware of the dreaded Made in China label, and be in mind some Brazilian-made products are less robust than their American or European counterparts. Cuisine Edit Brazils cuisine is as varied as its geography and culture. On the other hand, some may find it an unrefined melange, and everyday fare can be bland and monotonous. While there are some quite unique dishes of regional origin, many dishes were brought by overseas immigrants and have been adapted to local tastes through the generations. Italian and Chinese food in Brazil can often be as baffling as Amazonian fare. Brazils national dish is feijoada . a hearty stew made of black beans, pork (ears, knuckles, chops, sausage) and beef (usually dried). Its served with rice, garnished with collard greens and sliced oranges. Its not served in every restaurant the ones that serve it typically offer it on Wednesdays and Saturdays. A typical mistake made by tourists is to eat too much feijoada upon first encounter. This is a heavy dish 8212 even Brazilians usually eat it parsimoniously. The standard Brazilian set lunch is called prato feito . with its siblings comercial and executivo . Rice and brown beans (in Rio de Janeiro there is only black beans, other types are rare) in sauce, with a small steak. Sometimes farofa, spaghetti, vegetables and French fries will come along. Beef may be substituted for chicken, fish or others. Excellent seafood can be found in coastal towns, especially in the Northeast. Brazilian snacks, lanches (sandwiches) and salgadinhos (most anything else), include a wide variety of pastries. Look for coxinha (deep-fried, batter-coated chicken), empada (a tiny pie, not to be confused with the empanada - empadas and empanadas are entirely different items), and pastel (fried turnovers). Another common snack is a misto quente . a pressed,toasted ham-and-cheese sandwich. Po-de-queijo . a roll made of manioc flour and cheese, is very popular, especially in Minas Gerais state - po-de-queijo and a cup of fresh Brazilian coffee is a classic combination. Regional cuisines Edit Southern - Churrasco is Brazilian barbecue, and is usually served rodizio or espeto corrido (all-you-can-eat). Waiters carry huge cuts of meat on steel spits from table to table, and carve off slices onto your plate (use the tongs to grab the meat slice and dont touch the knife edge with your silverware to avoid dulling the edge). Traditionally, you are given a small wooden block colored green on one side and red on the other. When youre ready to eat, put the green side up. When youre too stuffed to even tell the waiter youve had enough, put the red side up. Rodizio places have a buffet for non-meaty items beware that in some places, the desserts are not considered part of the main buffet and are charged as a supplement. Most churrasco restaurants ( churrascarias ) also serve other types of food, so it is safe to go there with a friend that is not really fond of meat. While churrascarias are usually fairly expensive places (for Brazilian standards) in the North, Central and the countryside areas of the country they tend to be much cheaper then in the South and big cities, where they are frequented even by the less affluent. Black beans stew ( feijao ou feijoada ) is also very popular, particularly in Rio de Janeiro, where most restaurants traditionally serve the dish on Saturdays. It comprises black beans cooked with pork meat accompanied by rice and farofa (manioca flour with eggs) and greens fried with garlic. Mineiro is the miners cuisine of Minas Gerais. based on pork and beans, with some vegetables. Dishes from Gois are similar, but use some local ingredients such as pequi and guariroba . Minas Gerais cuisine if not seen as particularly tasty, has a homely feel that is much cherished. The food of Bahia . on the northeast coast has its roots across the Atlantic in East Africa and Indian cuisine. Coconut, dende palm oil, hot peppers, and seafood are the prime ingredients. Tip: hot (quente) means lots of pepper, cold (frio) means less or no pepper at all. If you dare to eat it hot you should try acaraj (deep fried edible black bean soup) and vatap (prawn-filled roasties). Esprito Santo and Bahia have two different versions of moqueca . a delightful tomato-based seafood stew prepared in a special type of clay pot. Amazonian cuisine draws from the food of the indigenous inhabitants, including various exotic fish and vegetables. There is also a stupendous variety of tropical fruits. Cear s food has a great sort of seafood, and is known to have the countrys best crab. Its so popular that literally every weekend thousands of people go to Praia do Futuro in Fortaleza to eat fried fish and crabs (usually followed by cold beer). In the coastal cities of Paran like Morretes and Antonina. the dish named barreado is served. Its a meat stew thickened with manioc flour and served with slices of banana, slowly cooked for at least 12 hours on hermetically-sealed clay pots. Brazilian cuisine also has a lot of imports: Pizza is very popular in Brazil. In So Paulo, travellers will find the highest rate of pizza parlours per inhabitant in the country. The variety of flavours is extremely vast, with some restaurants offering more than 100 types of pizza. It is worth noting the difference between the European mozzarella and the Brazilian mussarela. They differ in flavor, appearance and origin but buffalo mozzarella (mussarela de bfala) is also often available. The Brazilian mussarela, which tops most pizzas, is yellow in color and has a stronger taste. In some restaurants, particularly in the South, pizza has no tomato sauce. Other dishes of Italian origin, such as macarro (macaroni), lasanha and others are also very popular. Middle-eastern (actually Levantine i.e. mostly Syrian and Lebanese ) food is widely available. Most options offer high quality and a big variety. Some types of middle-eastern food, such as quibe and esfiha have been adapted and are available at snack stands and fast food joints nation-wide. You can also find shawarma (kebabs) stands, which Brazilians call churrasco grego (Greek Barbecue) So Paulos Japanese restaurants serve up lots of tempura, yakisoba, sushi and sashimi. The variety is good and mostly the prices are very attractive when compared to Europe, USA and Japan. Most Japanese restaurants also offer the rodizio or buffet option, with the same quality as if you ordered from the menu. Sometimes, however, it can be quite a departure from the real thing. The same can be said of Chinese food, again with some variations from the traditional. Cheese-filled spring rolls, anyone.Japanese restaurants (or those that offer Japanese food) are much commoner than Chinese and can be found in many Brazilian cities, especially in the state of So Paulo. Restaurants Edit All restaurants will add a 10 service charge on the bill, and this is all the tip a Brazilian will ever pay. It is also what most waiters survive on, but it is not mandatory and you may choose to ignore it, although is considered extremely rude to do it. In some tourist areas you might be tried for extra tip, but you dont need to tip more - Brazilian tourist almost never do it. There are two types of self-service restaurants,sometimes with both options available in one place: all-you-can-eat buffets with barbecue served at the tables, called rodzio . or a price per weight ( por quilo ), very common during lunchtime throughout Brazil. Load up at the buffet and get your plate on the scales before eating any. In the South theres also the traditional Italian galeto, where youre served different types of pasta, salads, soups and meat (mostly chicken) at your table. Customers are allowed by law to visit the kitchen and see how the food is being handled, although its uncommon. Some Brazilian restaurants serve only meals for two. The size of the portions might not say in the menu, so its recommended asking the waiter. Most restaurants of this category allow for a half-serving of such plates ( meia-poro ), at 60-70 of the price. Also, couples at restaurants often sit side-by-side rather than across from each other observe your waiters cues or express your preference when being seated. Fast food is also very popular, and the local takes on hamburgers and hot-dogs (cachorro-quente, translated literally) are well worth trying. Brazilian sandwiches come in many varieties, with ingredients like mayonnaise, bacon, ham, cheese, lettuce, tomato, corn, peas, raisins, french fries, ketchup, eggs, pickles, etc. Brave eaters may want to try the traditional complete hot dog (just ask for a completo ), which, aside from the bun and the sausage, will include everything on display. The ubiquitous X-Burger (and its varieties X-Salad, X-Tudo, etc.) is not as mysterious as it sounds: the pronunciation of the letter X in Portuguese sounds like cheese, hence the name. Large chains: The fast-food burger chain Bobs is found nationwide and has been around in the country for almost as long as McDonalds. There is also a national fast-food chain called Habibs which despite the name serves pizza in addition to Arabian food (and the founder is a Portuguese migrant, by the way). Recent additions, though not as widespread, are Burger King and Subway. Drink Edit Caipirinha and cachaa bottles Alcohol Edit Brazils national booze is cachaa ( cah-shah-sah . also known as aguardente (burning water) and pinga ), a sugar-cane liquor known to knock the unwary out quite quickly. Mass-produced, industrial cachaa is cheap and has 40 alcohol. Rural, tradicional cachaa made on small distilleries usually has about 20 alcohol, but is highly praised nationwide for its superior taste. This also means its far more costly, but its worth each Real. It can be tried in virtually every bar in the country. Famous producing regions include Minas Gerais. where there are tours of distilleries, and the city of Paraty. Pirassununga is home to Caninha 51, Brazils best-selling brand. Outside Fortaleza there is a cachaa museum ( Museu da Cachaa ) where you can learn about the history of the Ypioca brand. Drinking cachaa straight, or stirring in only a dollop of honey or a bit of lime juice, is a common habit on the Northeast region of the country, but the strength of cachaa can be hidden in cocktails like the famous caipirinha . where it is mixed with sugar, lime juice and ice. Using vodka instead of cachaa is nicknamed caipiroska or caipivodka with white rum, its a caipirssima and with sake its a caipisaque (not in every region). Another interesting concoction is called capeta (devil), made with cachaa, condensed milk, cinnamon, guarana powder (a mild stimulant), and other ingredients, varying by region. If you enjoy fine brandy or grappa, try an aged cachaa . Deep and complex, this golden-coloured spirit is nothing like the ubiquitous clear liquor more commonly seen. A fun trip is to an alambique - a local distillery, of which there are thousands throughout the country - not only will you be able to see how the spirit is made from the raw cane sugar, you will probably also get a better price. Well worth a try is Brazilian whisky Its actually 50 imported scotch - the malt component -and approximately 50 Brazilian grain spirit. Dont be misled by American sounding names like Wall Street. It is not bourbon. While imported alcohol is very expensive, many international brands are produced under license in Brazil, making them widely available, and fairly cheap. You can buy booze in the tax-free after landing at Brazilian airports, but it generally is more expensive than buying it outside the airports. Beer in Brazil has a respectable history because of the German immigrants. Most Brazilian beer brands tend to be way less thick and bitter than German, Danish or English beer. More than 90 of all beer consumed in Brazil is Light Lager type, like Standard American Lager, here called Pilsner, and it is usually drunk very cold (direct from refrigerator). The most popular domestic brands are Brahma . Antarctica . and Skol . Traditional brands include Bohemia . Caracu - a stout - . Original and Serramalte . They are easily found in bars and are worth trying but are usually a little bit more expensive than the popular beers. There are also some national premium and craft beers that are found only in some specific bars and supermarkets if you want to taste a good Brazilian beer, search for Baden Baden . Colorado . Eisenbahn . Petra . Theresopolis . Coruja and others. There are also some international beers produced by national breweries like Heineken and Stella Artois and have a slightly different taste if compared with the original beers. There are two ways of drinking beer in bars: draft or bottled beer. Draft lager beer is called chope or chopp (SHOH-pee), and is commonly served with one inch of foam, but you can make a complaint to the bartender if the foam is consistently thicker than that. In bars, the waiter will usually collect the empty glasses and bottles on a table and replace them with full ones, until you ask him to stop, in a tap charging system. In the case of bottled beer, bottles (350ml, 600ml or 1l) are shared among everyone at the table and poured in small glasses, rather than drunk straight from the bottle. Brazilians like their beer nearly ice-cold - hence, to keep the temperature down, bottles of beer are often kept in an insulated polystyrene container on the table. Rio Grande do Sul is the leading wine production region. There are a number of wine-producing farms that are open to visitors and wine tasting, and wine cellars selling wine and fermented grape juice. One of these farms open to visitors is Salton Winery 31. located in the city of Bento Gonalves. The So Francisco Valley . along the border of the states of Pernambuco and Bahia. is the countrys newest wine-producing region. Brazilian wines are usually fresher, fruitier and less alcoholic than, for instance, French wines. There are also the popular, rot-gut brands like Sangue de Boi . Cano and Santa Felicidade . In Minas Gerais. look for licor de jabuticaba (jabuticaba liquor) or vinho de jabuticaba (jabuticaba wine), an exquisite purple-black beverage with a sweet taste. Jabuticaba is the name of a small grape-like black fruit native to Brazil. Coffee and tea Edit Yellow Catua Coffee, a variety of coffea arabica, town of Manhuau, Minas Gerais StateTodays Stock Market News amp Analysis Real-Time After Hours Pre-Market News Flash Quote Summary Quote Interactive Charts Default Setting Please note that once you make your selection, it will apply to all future visits to NASDAQ. Jika, sewaktu-waktu, Anda tertarik untuk kembali ke setelan default kami, pilih Setelan Default di atas. 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Russia AC-130J Ghostrider Aircraft . United States of America AC-208 Combat Caravan Light Attack Aircraft . Iraq A-Darter Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) . South Africa Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft (ACCA) . United States of America Advanced Extremely High-Frequency (AEHF) Satellite System . United States of America Advanced High Performance Reconnaissance Light Aircraft (AHRLAC) . South Africa Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) . United Kingdom Aero L-29 Delfin Military Trainer Aircraft . Czech Republic Aerolight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Israel Aerostar Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Israel Aeryon SkyRanger sUAS . Canada AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) . United States of America AGM-158 JASSM (Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) . United States of America AGM-65 Maverick Tactical Air-Ground Missile . United States of America AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile . United States of America AH-1WAH-1Z Super Cobra Attack Helicopter . United States of America AH-64AD Apache Attack Helicopter . United States of America AIDC AT-3 Jet Trainer Ground Attack Aircraft . China AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) . United States of America AIM-9X Sidewinder Air-to-Air Missile . United States of America Air Tractor AT-802U Surveillance and Light Attack Aircraft . United States of America Airborne Laser System (ABL) YAL 1A . United States of America Airbus A310 MRTT Multi-Role Tanker Transport AirMule Transporter UAV . Israel Akash Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) System . India Al Asad Airbase, Al Anbar . Iraq Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma . United States of America AMX Fighter Bomber . Italy An-124 Ruslan (Condor) Large Cargo Aircraft . Russia AN-132 Light Multipurpose Transport Aircraft . Saudi Arabia Anka MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Turkey Antonov An-178 Transport Aircraft . Ukraine Antonov An-30 Aerial Cartography Aircraft . Ukraine Antonov An-32 Light Multipurpose Transport Aircraft . Ukraine Antonov An-70 Transport Cargo Aircraft . Ukraine APID-55 VTOL Minature UAV . Sweden Arcturus T-20 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America Armement Air-Sol Modulaire (AASM) HAMMER Air-to-Ground Missile . France AS 532 Cougar Horizon Battlefield Surveillance Helicopter AS 532 U2A2 Cougar Combat Search and Rescue Helicopter AS 555 Fennec Naval Helicopter AS 565 Panther Light Mulitrole Helicopter AS332 C1e Super Puma Twin-Engine Helicopter . France AS550 Fennec Light Combat Helicopter . France ASTOR Sentinel R1 Airborne Stand-off Radar Aircraft . United Kingdom Astra Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Air-to-Air Missile . India AT-6B Light Attack Aircraft Trainer . United States of America ATL3 Atlantique Maritime Patrol Aircraft . France Atlante Tactical Long Endurance UAV . Spain Atlas Oryx Multirole Helicopter . South Africa ATR 72 MP Maritime Patrol Aircraft . Italy Atrax VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Poland AV-8B Harrier II GR9 VSTOL Strike Aircraft . United Kingdom Avinc Puma AE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America Avinc Wasp Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America AW101 (EH101) Merlin Cormorant Utility Helicopter AW109 Power Light Twin-Engine Helicopter . Italy AW109LUH (Light Utility Helicopter) . Italy AW129 Multirole Combat Helicopter . Italy AW149 Multirole Helicopter . Italy B-1B Lancer Long-Range Strategic Bomber . United States of America B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber . United States of America B-52H Stratofortress Long-Range Multirole Bomber . United States of America BAe 146 C Mk3 Military Transport Aircraft . United Kingdom Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana . United States of America Bat Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United States of America Bateleur MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . South Africa Beale Air Force Base, California . United States of America Beechcraft T-34 Mentor Trainer Aircraft . United States of America Bell 407GT Light Attack Helicopter . United States of America Bell 412EP Twin-Engine Helicopter . Canada BirdEye 400 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Israel Bird-Eye 650D Small Tactical Unmanned Aerial System (STUAS) . Israel Boeing 737 AEWC Wedgetail Early Warning Aircraft . Australia Boeing 767 AWACS Airborne Warning and Control Aircraft . Japan Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle . United States of America Boeing LGM-30 Minuteman III ICBM . United States of America Boeing RC-135 Reconnaissance Aircraft . United States of America Boeing T-X Trainer Aircraft . United States of America Boeing X-37 Unmanned Demonstrator Spacecraft . United States of America BQM-167A Aerial Target System . United States of America Brimstone Air-to-Ground Missile . United Kingdom Buckley Air Force Base . United States of America C-101 Aviojet Jet Trainer and Ground Attack Aircraft . Spain C-12 Huron Military Passenger and Transport Aircraft . United States of America C-130J Hercules Tactical Transport Aircraft . United States of America C-145A Skytruck Light Twin-Engine Aircraft . United States of America C-146A Wolfhound Transport Aircraft . United States of America C-160 Transall Cargo and Tactical Transport Aircraft . France C-17 Globemaster III Tactical Transport Aircraft . United States of America C-212-400 Maritime Patrol Aircraft . Spain C-27J Spartan Tactical Transport Aircraft . Italy C295 Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) Aircraft . Spain C-295M Twin-Turboprop Transport Aircraft . Spain C295W Search and Rescue Aircraft . Canada C295W Transport and Surveillance Aircraft . France C-5 Galaxy Transport Aircraft . United States of America C-5M Super Galaxy Transport Aircraft . United States of America Cacador MALE Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) . Brazil CAEW Conformal Airborne Early Warning Aircraft . Israel Camcopter S-100 UAV . Austria Camp de la Paix (Peace Camp) . United Arab Emirates Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Suffield . Canada Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico . United States of America Cardinal II Unmanned Aircraft System . Taiwan CERES SIGINT Satellite System . France CF-18 Hornet Multi-Role Fighter Aircraft . Canada CH-47DF MH-47E Chinook Transport Helicopter . United States of America CH-53E Super Stallion Heavy-Lift Helicopter . United States of America Changhe Z-11WB Reconnaissance and Light Attack Helicopter . China Changhe Z-8 Transport Helicopter . China Cheetah Multirole Fighter Aircraft . South Africa Chengdu J-20 Multirole Stealth Fighter Aircraft . China Ching-Kuo (IDF) Multirole Fighter Jet . Taiwan CIRIT Laser Guided Missile . Turkey Cirrus Perception Special Mission Aircraft . United States of America Clear Air Force Station, Alaska . United States of America Cloud Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . China CN-235 Persuader Maritime Patrol Aircraft . Spain CN-235-300 Tactical Transport Aircraft . Spain Columbus Air Force Base . United States of America Comsat NG Military Satellite Communications System . France COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) Satellites . Italy CP-140 Aurora Maritime Surveillance Aircraft . Canada DA42 MPP GUARDIAN Surveillance Aircraft . Austria Derby BVR Air-to-Air Missile . Israel Desert Hawk III Minature Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV) . United States of America Diamond DA20-C1 Utility and Trainer Aircraft . Ecuador Diamond DA42 Centaur Optionally Piloted Aircraft (OPA) . Switzerland Diamond DA42 Twin Star Utility and Trainer Aircraft . Austria Diamond DART-450 Trainer . Austria Dominator MALE UAV . Israel Dornier Do-228 Light Transport Aircraft . Germany Dover Air Force Base . United States of America DRDO Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) System . India Dugway Proving Ground, Tooele County, Utah . United States of America DVF 2000 Short Range Mini UAV . France Dyess Air Force Base . United States of America E-2CD Hawkeye Early Warning Aircraft . United States of America E-3 AWACS (Sentry) Airborne Warning and Control System . United States of America E-310 Short-Range Unmanned Air System (UAS) . Poland EA-18G Growler Electronic Attack Aircraft . Australia EA-6B Prowler Tactical Jamming Aircraft . United States of America EC 635 Twin-Engine Light Combat Helicopter . France EC-130H Compass Call Airborne Tactical Weapon System . United States of America EC-665 Tiger Multirole Combat Helicopter Edwards Air Force Base . United States of America Eglin Air Force Base, Florida . United States of America Eielson Air Force Base . United States of America Ellsworth Air Force Base (IATA: RCA), South Dakota . United States of America EMB-121 Xingu Light Utility Aircraft . Brazil EMB-145 Erieye AEWC aircraft . Brazil EMB-312 Tucano Trainer Aircraft . Brazil EMB-314 Super Tucano ALX trainer and light attack aircraft . Brazil Embraer Phenom 100 Multi-Engine Pilot Trainer Aircraft . United Kingdom Enaer T-35 Pillan Trainer Aircraft . Chile Euro Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) . Germany Eurocopter X3 Hybrid Fixed Wing Helicopter . France Eurofighter Typhoon Multirole Combat Fighter FA-18EF Super Hornet Strike Aircraft . United States of America F-111 Tactical Strike Aircraft . United States of America F-117A Nighthawk Stealth Fighter . United States of America F-14 Tomcat . United States of America F-15E Strike Eagle . United States of America F-15K Slam Eagle . South Korea F-16 Fighting Falcon Multirole Fighter . United States of America F-16I Soufa Multirole Fighter . Israel F-16V (Viper) Fighting Falcon Multi-role Fighter . United States of America F-2 Attack Fighter . Japan F-21 Kfir Fighter Jet . Israel F-22A Raptor Advanced Tactical Fighter . United States of America F-330 Remotely Piloted Air System . Switzerland F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) . United States of America F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter CTOL Variant . United States of America F-4 Phantom Fighter Bomber . United States of America F-5 Tiger II Supersonic Fighter Aircraft . United States of America FA2 Sea Harrier Carrier-Based VSTOL Strike Fighter . United Kingdom FA-50 Light Combat Aircraft . South Korea Falco Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Pakistan Firebird MALE Manned Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America Fuji T-7 Trainer Aircraft . Japan Fury 1500 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America Gazelle Multi-Role Helicopter . France Geostationary Defense and Strategic Communications Satellite (SGDC) . Brazil Global Airtanker Service KDC-10 In-flight Refuelling Aircraft . United States of America Global Observer High Altitude Long Endurance UAV . United States of America Global Positioning System (GPS) IIF . United States of America Global Positioning System III (GPS III) Military Satellite . United States of America GlobalEye Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) Aircraft . Sweden Gktrk-1 Earth Observation Satellite . Turkey GKTRK-2 Earth Observation Satellite . Turkey Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas . United States of America Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota . United States of America Griffin Missile System . United States of America Griffiss Air Force Base . United States of America Gripen E Multirole Fighter Aircraft . Switzerland Gripen Multirole Fighter Aircraft . Sweden Grob G 120TP Trainer Aircraft . Germany Grob G115E Basic Trainer Aircraft . Germany Grob G120A Basic Trainer Aircraft . Germany GSSAP Surveillance Satellites . United States of America Guided Advanced Tactical Rocket (GATR) . United States of America H135 Military Training Helicopter . France H145M Battlefield Support Helicopter . France H225M Cougar Medium Multimission Helicopter . France H-92 Superhawk Multi-Mission Helicopter . United States of America HAL HTT-40 Trainer Aircraft . India HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) . India Harbin Y-12 Twin Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft . China Harbin Z-19 Light Attack Helicopter . China Harfang MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . France Harop Loitering Munitions UCAV System . Israel AV-8B Harrier II Plus VSTOL Fighter and Attack Aircraft . United States of America Hawk Mk127 Mk128 LIFT Lead-In Fighter Trainer . United Kingdom Hawk Trainer Aircraft, BAE Systems . United Kingdom HC-130J Combat King II Aircraft . United States of America Hermes 450 Multi-Role High Performance Tactical UAS . Israel Hermes 90 Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) . Israel Hermes 900 MALE Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) . Israel Heron Machatz 1 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Israel Heron TP (Eitan) MALE UAV . Israel Herti MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United Kingdom HH-101A Caesar Medium-Lift Helicopter . Italy HH-60G Pave Hawk Combat Search and Rescue Helicopter . United States of America HH-60W Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) . United States of America Hickam Air Force Base . United States of America High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS) Programme . United States of America Hill Air Force Base . United States of America HJT-36 Sitara Intermediate Jet Trainer . India Hongdu L-15 Supersonic Trainer Attack Aircraft . China Hummingbird Nano Air Vehicle (NAV) . United States of America IA-100 Basic Trainer Aircraft . Argentina IA-58 Pucara Counter-Insurgency Aircraft . Argentina IA-63 Pampa Advanced Jet Trainer Light Attack Aircraft . Argentina IAR 330L Puma Helicopter . Romania IAR-99C Soim Advanced Jet Trainer . Romania Il-112V Light Military Transport Aircraft . Russia IL-214 Multirole Transport Aircraft . Russia IL-76 Candid Military Transport Aircraft . Russia IL-76MD-M Military Transport Aircraft . Russia IL-78 Midas Air-to-Air Refuelling Transport Aircraft . Russia ILX-27 Unmanned Helicopter . Poland Ilyushin IL-76MD-90A (IL-476) Aircraft . Russia IOMAX Archangel Border Patrol Aircraft . United States of America IRIS-T Air-to-Air Guided Missile . Germany IRIS-T SL Surface-to-Air Guided Missile . Germany J-10 (Jian 10) Vigorous Dragon Multirole Tactical Fighter . China J-7 F-7 Fighter Aircraft . China Javelin Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) . United States of America JF-17 Thunder FC-1 Xiaolong Multirole Combat Aircraft . Pakistan JL-9 (JianLian-9 ) Trainer Light Attack Aircraft . China Joint Strike Missile (JSM) . Norway JSTARS - Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System . United States of America K-8 Karakorum Light Attack and Jet Trainer Aircraft . Pakistan Ka-226T Multi-Mission Helicopter . Russia Ka-2728 and Ka-29 Helix Multirole Naval Helicopter . Russia Ka-31 Radar Picket Airborne Early Warning (AEW) Helicopter . Russia Ka-50 Black Shark (Hokum) Attack Helicopter . Russia Ka-52 Alligator Attack Helicopter . Russia Ka-60 Kasatka (Killer Whale) Transport Helicopter . Russia KAI KA-1 Light Attack Aircraft . South Korea Kawasaki C-2 Military Transport Aircraft . Japan Kazan Ansat-U Trainer Helicopter . Russia KC-10 Extender Air-to-Air Refuelling Tanker Aircraft . United States of America KC-130J Multi-Role Tanker . United States of America KC-135 Stratotanker Aerial Refuelling Aircraft . United States of America KC-30A Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) Aircraft . Australia KC-390 Military Transport Plane . Brazil KC-45 Aerial Refuelling Tanker Aircraft . United States of America KC-46 Aerial Refuelling Aircraft . United States of America KC-767 Aerial Refuelling Tanker Transport Aircraft . United States of America Keesler Air Force Base . United States of America Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico . United States of America KJ-2000 (Mainring) Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) Aircraft . China KOBAC Trainer Attack Aircraft . Serbia KT-1 Basic Trainer Light Attack Aircraft . South Korea KT-100 Trainer Jet . South Korea KT-1P Trainer Aircraft . Peru L159 Advanced Light Combat Aircraft (ALCA) . Czech Republic L-39 Albatros Trainer Ground Attack Aircraft . Czech Republic L-39NG Multi-Role Jet Trainer . Czech Republic Lackland Air Force Base . United States of America Lakshya Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . India Langley Air Force Base . United States of America LASTA-95 Advanced Training Aircraft . Serbia Laughlin Air Force Base . United States of America LightningStrike VTOL X-Plane . United States of America M-311 Basic Jet Trainer Light Combat Aircraft . Italy M-345 Basic-Advanced Jet Trainer . Italy M-346 Master Advanced Fighter Trainer . Italy MacDill Air Force Base . United States of America Mako Advanced Trainer and Light Attack Aircraft . Germany Malmstrom Air Force Base (AFB), Cascade County, Montana . United States of America Manta VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Poland Mantis MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United Kingdom Maveric Mini Unmanned Aerial System (MUAS) . United States of America Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama . United States of America MB-339 Jet Trainer . Italy MC-12W Liberty Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Aircraft . United States of America MC-130J Commando II Aircraft . United States of America MC-27J Multimission Aircraft . Italy MD 530F Cayuse Warrior Helicopter . United States of America Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (MRSAM) . India Merlin Medium Lift Helicopter . United Kingdom Meteor - Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) . United Kingdom MFI-17 Mushshak Basic Trainer Aircraft . Pakistan MFI-395 Super Mushshak Trainer Aircraft . Pakistan MH-60R Seahawk Multimission Naval Helicopter . United States of America MH-60S Seahawk (Knighthawk) Multimission Naval Helicopter . United States of America Mi-17V-5 Military Transport Helicopter . Russia Mi-24P (Mi-25 and Mi-35) Hind Attack Transport Helicopter . Russia Mi-26 Halo Heavy Lift Helicopter . Russia Mi-26T2 Heavy-Lift Transport Helicopter . Russia Mi-28AN Havoc Combat Helicopter . Russia Mi-28NE Night Hunter Attack Helicopter . Russia Mi-28UB Combat Training Helicopter . Russia Mi-35M (Hind E) Attack Helicopters . Russia Mi-8 Mi-17 Hip Multimission Helicopter . Russia Mi-8AMTSh-VA Arctic Helicopter . Russia MICA Air-to-Air Missile System . France MiG-21 2000 Fishbed Fighter Aircraft . Russia MiG-25P Foxbat Interceptor . Russia MiG-27K (MiG 23) Flogger Fighter Bomber . Russia MiG-29 Fulcrum Fighter Bomber . Russia MiG-29 SMT Fulcrum Multirole Fighter Aircraft . Russia MiG-31 Foxhound Interceptor Aircraft . Russia MiG-35 Fulcrum-F Multirole Fighter . Russia MiG-AT Advanced Flight and Combat Trainer Aircraft . Russia Mineseeker Mine Detecting Airship . United Kingdom Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) Flight Vehicle . United States of America Minot Air Force Base . United States of America Mirage 2000 Multirole Combat Fighter . France Mitsubishi F-1 Fighter Aircraft . Japan Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin (ATD-X) Advanced Technology Demonstrator . Japan MLB V-Bat VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United States of America Modular Space Vehicle (MSV) Bus . United States of America Molynx Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Italy Mosquito Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . Israel Mwari Light Multirole Aircraft . South Africa Nanchang CJ-6 Trainer and Light Attack Aircraft . China Nanchang Q-5 Ground Attack Aircraft . China National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System (NASAMS) . Norway NAWSARH (Norwegian All-Weather Search and Rescue Helicopter) . Norway Nellis Air Force Base . United States of America nEUROn Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) Demonstrator . France NH90 NFH NATO Frigate Helicopter Nostromo Cabure Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Argentina Nostromo Yarara Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Argentina NSA 407MRH Multi-Role Helicopter . United Arab Emirates OH-58D Kiowa Warrior Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter . United States of America OPTSAT 3000 Earth Observation Satellite . Italy Orion Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) . United States of America Orlan-10 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Russia ORS-1 Reconnaissance Satellite . United States of America P.1HH HammerHead Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) . Italy P-3C Orion Maritime Patrol . United States of America PAC CT-4 Airtrainer Trainer Aircraft . New Zealand Patroller MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . France Paz Earth Observation Satellite . Spain PC-7 MkII Basic Trainer Aircraft . Switzerland Pegaz Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Serbia Penguin B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Latvia PeruSat-1 Earth Observation Satellite . Peru Peterson Air Force Base . United States of America Phantom Eye HALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United States of America Phoenix Battlefield Surveillance UAV System . United Kingdom Pilatus PC-21 Turboprop Trainer Aircraft . Switzerland Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer . Switzerland Pilatus PC-9M Advanced Trainer Aircraft . Switzerland Predator C Avenger Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) . United States of America Predator RQ-1 MQ-1 MQ-9 Reaper UAV . United States of America Predator XP Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) . United States of America Python-5 Air-to-Air Missile (AAM) . Israel PZL TS-11 Iskra Trainer Aircraft . Poland PZL-130 Orlik Trainer Aircraft . Poland Q01 MALE Optionally Piloted Aircraft . Germany QF-16 Full Scale Aerial Target . United States of America R-27 (AA-10 Alamo) Guided Medium Range Air-To-Air Missile . Russia RAAF Base Amberley . Australia RAAF Base Darwin . Australia RAAF Base Edinburgh - 44WG DET EDN . Australia RAAF Base Pearce, Australia . Australia RAAF Base Tindal . Australia RAAF Base Townsville 44WG DET TVL . Australia RAAF Base Williamtown, New South Wales . Australia RAAF Richmond Air Force Base . Australia RAF Brize Norton . United Kingdom RAF Fairford . United Kingdom RAF Mildenhall . United Kingdom Rafale Multirole Combat Fighter . France Ramstein Air Force Base . Germany Ranger Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Switzerland Robins Air Force Base . United States of America Rooivalk Attack Helicopter . South Africa RQ-11B Raven Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) . United States of America RQ-170 Sentinel Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . United States of America RQ-4AB Global Hawk HALE Reconnaissance UAV . United States of America RQ-5A MQ-5BC Hunter Tactical UAV . United States of America Rustom Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . India Rustom-II MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . India S100B Argus Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) Aircraft . Sweden S-125-2TM Pechora-2TM Medium Range Air Defence Missile System . Belarus S211A Miltary Jet Trainer . Italy S-3B Viking Anti-Submarine Aircraft . United States of America S-8OFP Unguided Missile . Russia SA316 SA319 Alouette III Light Utility Helicopter . France Saab 2000 Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) Aircraft . Sweden Saras Light Transport Aircraft . India SATCOMBw Military Communications Satellite System . Germany Schriever Air Force Base . United States of America Scorpion ISR Strike Aircraft . United States of America Scott Air Force Base . United States of America Sea King ASW Search and Rescue Helicopter . United Kingdom Seeker 400 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Surveillance System . South Africa SEPECAT Jaguar Ground Attack Aircraft . United Kingdom SF-260 Light Trainer Attack Aircraft . Italy SH-2G Super Seasprite Multimission Naval Helicopter . United States of America SH-60B Seahawk Multimission Naval Helicopter . United States of America Shaanxi Y-8 Military Transport Aircraft . China Shahpar Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Pakistan Shaw Air Force Base . United States of America Shenyang J-11 Multirole Fighter Aircraft . China Shenyang J-31 Stealth Fighter . China Shenyang J-6 F-6 Farmer Fighter Aircraft . China Sheppard Air Force Base . United States of America Silver Fox Unmanned Aircraft System . United States of America SK 60 Trainer Aircraft . Sweden Skynet 5 Military Communications Satellite System . United Kingdom Sky-X Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) . Italy Sky-Y MALE Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Italy Small Diameter Bomb II (SDB II) . United States of America Socata TB-30 Epsilon Military Trainer Aircraft . France Soko G-4 Super Galeb Military Trainer and Ground Attack Aircraft . Serbia Soko J-22 Orao Ground Attack and Reconnaissance Aircraft . Serbia SOM Air-to-Surface Cruise Missile . Turkey Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) . United States of America SPEAR Air-to-Surface Missile . United Kingdom SpyRanger Mini Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle . France SpyLite Mini UAV System . Israel SR-10 Jet Trainer Aircraft . Russia SR200 Rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United States of America SR-72 Hypersonic Demonstrator Aircraft . United States of America Stalker XE Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) . United States of America Storm Shadow SCALP Long-Range, Air-Launched, Stand-Off Attack Missile . France Su-24M Fencer Bomber . Russia Su-25 (Su-28) Frogfoot Close-Support Aircraft . Russia Su-27 Flanker Front-Line Fighter Aircraft . Russia Su-30M Flanker-H Air-Superiority Fighter . Russia Su-30MK2 Multi-Role Fighter Aircraft . Russia Su-30MKI Multirole Fighter Aircraft . India Su-30SM Multirole Fighter Aircraft . Russia Su-33 Flanker-D Carrier-Based Fighter . Russia Su-34 (Su-32) Fullback Fighter Bomber . Russia Su-35 Flanker-E Multirole Fighter . Russia Su-37 Flanker-F Fighter . Russia Su-47 (S-37 Berkut) Golden Eagle Fighter . Russia Sukhoi T-50 PAK FA Stealth Fighter . Russia Super Lynx Multirole Helicopter . United Kingdom SW-4 Puszczyk Multi-Role Helicopter . Poland SW-4 Solo Rotorcraft Unmanned Air System Optionally Piloted Helicopter . Poland T-1 Jayhawk Trainer Aircraft . United States of America T-100 Integrated Training System (ITS) . United States of America T129 Multi-Role Combat Helicopter . Turkey T38 STILET Short Range Air Defence Missile System . Belarus T-38 Talon Twin-Jet Trainer Aircraft . United States of America T-45AC Goshawk Advanced Jet Trainer . United States of America T-50 Golden Eagle . South Korea T-50A Trainer . United States of America T-67 Firefly Aerobatic Trainer Aircraft . United Kingdom T-6A Texan II Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) . United States of America T-6B Texan II Primary Training Aircraft . United States of America T-6C Texan II Turboprop Military Trainer . United States of America TAI Hurkus Basic Trainer Aircraft . Turkey Talarion MALE Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) . France Taranis Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) Demonstrator . United Kingdom Taurus KEPD 350 Long-Range Air-to-Surface Missile . Germany Tecnam P2002JF Trainer . Italy Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter . India ThunderB Small Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . Israel Tornado Multirole Aircraft Tracker Mini Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) . Australia Travis Air Force Base, IATA: SUU, California . United States of America Tu-160 Blackjack Strategic Bomber . Russia Tu-214ON (Open Skies) Reconnaissance Aircraft . Russia Tu-95 Bear Strategic Intercontinental Bomber . Russia Tu-95MS Strategic Bomber . Russia Tupolev Tu-22M Strategic Bomber . Russia U-2 High-Altitude Reconnaissance Aircraft . United States of America UH-1H Huey II Multi-Mission Helicopter . United States of America UH-1Y Huey Multipurpose Helicopter . United States of America UH-60 S-70A Blackhawk Multi-Mission Helicopter . United States of America US101 (VH-71 Kestrel) All Weather Medium Lift Helicopter V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft . United States of America VA001 Unmanned Aircraft System . United States of America Valmet L-70 Vinka Military Trainer Aircraft . Finland Vance Air Force Base, Enid, Oklahoma . United States of America Vandenberg Air Force Base . United States of America Vulcanair P68 Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA) . Austria W-3 Sokol Multi-Purpose Combat Helicopter . Poland Warmate Micro Combat Unmanned Air System (UCAS) . Poland Wasp AE Small Unmanned Aircraft System . United States of America Waterkloof Air Force Base . South Africa Wing Loong Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . China Wright Patterson Air Force Base . United States of America X-45 J-UCAV (Joint Unmanned Combat Air System) . United States of America X-47 Pegasus UCAV . United States of America X-51 WaveRider Unmanned Scramjet Aircraft . United States of America Xian JH-7 Fighter Bomber Aircraft . China Xian Y-20 Heavy Military Transport Aircraft . China Yabhon Smart Eye Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) . United Arab Emirates Yabhon United 40 (Smart Eye 2) UAV . United Arab Emirates Yak-130 Combat Trainer . Russia Yak-152 Primary Trainer Aircraft . Russia Yokota Air Force Base . Japan Zephyr Solar-Powered HALE UAV . United Kingdom ZLIN Z 242 L Guru Trainer . Czech Republic
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