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Untuk mendapatkan hasil maksimal dari situs kami, Anda memerlukan fitur browser yang disebut JavaScript. Semua browser modern mendukung JavaScript. Anda mungkin hanya perlu mengubah pengaturan untuk menyalakannya. Jika Anda menggunakan perangkat lunak pemblokiran iklan, mungkin Anda mengizinkan JavaScript dari hollandandbarrett. Setelah Anda mengaktifkan JavaScript, Anda dapat mencoba memuat halaman ini lagi Kategori Suplemen Vitamin Minuman Makanan Olahraga Nutrisi Keindahan Alam Manajemen Berat Dikurangi Menjadi Jelas Suplemen Vitamin Minuman Makanan Olahraga Nutrisi Keahlian Kecantikan Alami Kepercayaan dikurangi Menjadi Jelas Merek Unggulan Hub Kesehatan Vitamin kecil yang berguna yang bersumber Dari sinar matahari, vitamin D sangat penting untuk pertumbuhan tulang dan otot yang sehat. Manajemen Berat Badan Ketahui lebih lanjut tentang cara menyeimbangkan diet Anda. Temukan manfaat tidur dan bagaimana cara tidur nyenyak. Jaga agar makanan Anda tetap sehat namun lezat dengan pilihan resep bergizi kami. Berikan Masukan Kami menghargai masukan dari pelanggan kami dan tinjau semua komentar yang diberikan baik, buruk atau tidak peduli Aktifkan kartu Anda Jika Anda memiliki kartu hadiah untuk kehidupan aktif aktifkan saja dan berikan 150 poin senilai 1.50 Berkualitas untuk Disarankan Rekan kerja kami memenuhi syarat untuk memberi saran, Kunjungi kami secara online atau di toko untuk saran yang tak tertandingi. Perangkat lunak perdagangan yang berkelanjutan: analisis teknis dan jaringan syaraf Analisis Teknis majalah Komoditas Saham Dengan paket analisis lengkap dengan sejumlah fitur menarik dan antarmuka pengguna yang sangat mudah digunakan. Ini adalah paket yang ditawarkan dengan harga yang sangat kompetitif dengan dua fitur utama: kemampuan jaringan syaraf tiruan dan data akhir hari (EOD) gratis. Dennis D. Peterson Tradecision memang tampil seperti yang diiklankan. Entah itu bisa membantu Anda menghasilkan uang benar-benar terserah pada Anda dan gaya trading Anda, karena perangkat lunak ini menyediakan semua alat analisis yang bisa dibayangkan. Jika Anda seorang pedagang teknis dengan alat yang sangat canggih, ini adalah perangkat lunak untuk Anda. Jika begitu, Anda bisa membangun model, tes balik, mengembangkan strategi, menyetel indikator teknis, menyiapkan peringatan, menentukan saling ketergantungan, memantau perdagangan secara real time, dan melakukan transaksi online. Oleh Brandon Jones Active Traderreg Magazine Tradecisionreg memiliki lebih dari 100 indikator teknis yang mengukur tren, momentum, dan volatilitas. Anda dapat menambahkannya ke grafik atau menyertakannya dalam strategi yang telah teruji kembali, peraturan pengelolaan uang, model jaringan syaraf tiruan, dan lansiran. Anda bisa membuat yang baru dari nol atau mengganti parameternya. Tradecision mencakup studi yang mengidentifikasi formasi candlestick (doji, palu, bintang malam) dan pola satu hari (di dalam dan di luar bar, gap, run days). Selain itu, platform ini memiliki kecenderungan plot, pivot, pembalikan, dan Elliott Waves secara otomatis. Master Trader Spottrade Tradecision jelas merupakan alat yang kuat untuk analisis saham dan memungkinkan investor mengendalikan data dan penerapan strategi mereka dengan cara yang seharusnya mengurangi Risiko mereka dan meningkatkan keuntungan mereka. Penggunaan jaringan syaraf tiruan dan analisisnya sangat bagus karena lebih responsif terhadap perubahan signifikan di pasar. Mereka memiliki gagasan yang sangat jelas tentang bagaimana membangun strategi yang sukses dan kemudian menyediakan alat untuk melaksanakannya. Tradecision adalah perangkat lunak saham yang sangat teliti terutama yang dipimpin oleh fitur paling kuat seperti berbagai sistem jaringan syaraf tiruan, modul pengelolaan uang dan analisis dan indikator teknis yang mudah digunakan. Tradecisionreg menawarkan sejumlah pilihan charting dan strategi testing. Fungsi kustomisasi dan pembuatan chart adalah yang paling mudah saya gunakan. Poin penjualan utama Tradecision8217 adalah penggabungan model jaringan syaraf tiruan dan algoritma genetika. Kedua teknologi ini masih dalam tahap awal dan Tradecision menawarkan para pedagang kesempatan untuk menjadi ujung tombak pengembangan teknis. Trader Journal Tradecisionreg v3.0 adalah pisau Swiss Army untuk perangkat lunak pengembangan sistem perdagangan point-and-click untuk perdagangan saham, futures dan pasar valas. Ini olahraga area charting bersih, luas dan jumlah besar sekali alat, pra-kode fungsi, indikator dan strategi. Tradecisionreg bersinar dengan antarmuka pengguna yang dirancang dengan cerdas, pengoperasian yang mudah, dan studi dan metode analisis yang sangat menarik. Secara keseluruhan, Tradecision adalah produk yang meyakinkan dengan rasio harga dan kinerja yang sangat bagus. Baca ulasan lengkap dalam bahasa Inggris atau Jerman dalam format PDF quotFor starter, paketnya yang apik. Ini mencakup kecerdasan buatan dan fungsi gelombang Elliott sebagai bagian dari paket dasar. Jeff Jeff Induk, Direktur Tradecisionreg ditampilkan dalam Survei Perangkat Lunak dan Data Vendor ATAA, edisi 2006. Perbandingan komprehensif perangkat lunak dan vendor data perdagangan ini gratis bagi anggota dan tersedia untuk dibeli oleh bukan anggota. Kami akan menjalankan iklan yang menampilkan kompatibilitas Tradecision segera. Saya menghargai perhatian dan ketepatan waktu respons Anda. Norman Smith, Perangkat Lunak Riset Jurik Batu ujian harian untuk para pedagang aktif mencari keunggulan dibanding pelaku pasar lainnya. Secara keseluruhan, mekanisme programnya jelas dan grafik yang user-friendly sangat rapi warnanya, yang mungkin paling saya sukai dari software ini. Pengalaman saya dengan produk ini sangat bagus: mesin backtesting yang bagus, bahasa yang disesuaikan, kinerjanya relatif cepat. Trade2Win membanggakan diri sebagai situs web komunitas terkemuka untuk pedagang aktif. Tradecision adalah software trading profesional untuk charting, analisa teknikal dan desain sistem perdagangan. Paket ini menggabungkan alat analisis teknis standar dengan jaringan syaraf tiruan dan metode kecerdasan buatan lainnya. Ini juga dilengkapi bahasa formula, simulasi strategi dan WizardsEverywhere untuk membantu mengembangkan strategi trading. Tradecision adalah sistem operasi yang sangat komprehensif, pengujian, simulasi, dan paket perangkat lunak eksekusi. Jumlah sumber data sangat mengesankan dengan semua vendor utama didukung (termasuk beberapa yang gratis untuk data historis sehari-hari seperti Yahoo dan MSN). Salah satu fitur hebatnya adalah kemampuan menerapkan strategi ke daftar simbol, menjalankan tes sejarah, dan menyusun semua hasil untuk melihat keseluruhan kinerja strategi pada daftar simbol. Ada sejumlah atribut yang tersedia untuk dipindai dan tidak ada masalah dalam membuat pindaian untuk menemukan ekuitas yang diminati. QuotTradecision menawarkan rangkaian analisis pasar, pengembangan dan pengujian sistem, dan alat perdagangan yang benar-benar mengesankan. Ada barang di sini yang belum pernah saya lihat di tempat lain. John Forman, Pengarang - The Essentials of Trading, Managing Analyst and Chief Trader untuk Anduril Analytics quotThe engine Neural Networks yang kuat dan kemudahan penggunaannya benar-benar unik untuk Tradecision. Mereka telah mengambil pendekatan yang sangat sederhana terhadap dunia AI yang kompleks, dan telah melakukannya dengan sangat baik. Setelah menjadi trader discretionary yang aktif selama bertahun-tahun dan juga sebagai Commodities Trading Advisor yang mengkhususkan diri pada eMini Futures and Forex Market yang populer, saya menemukan program ini sebagai tambahan yang sangat baik untuk arsenal perdagangan saya. Jim Harrison, CTA quotTradecison sangat beragam dalam penggunaannya. Memetakan kemampuan. Yang paling penting bagi kita meskipun sebagai manajer uang dalam perdagangan mata uang, adalah kemampuan menguji kembalinya. Kami terus merancang dan menguji sistem baru untuk memastikan kami selalu berada di tepi yang optimal dan terus melakukan diversifikasi. Juga, jelas bahwa fitur pengujian kembali dan strategi yang dibangun akan sangat bermanfaat bagi pedagang yang baru-baru ini memutuskan untuk menciptakan takdir mereka sendiri dalam perdagangan. Bonus 8211 free end-of-day (EOD) data Dan akhirnya, keseluruhan interface sangat mudah dan menyenangkan untuk digunakan. Terima kasih telah membuat penelitian kami lebih mudah.quot Brian R Lee, LongView Investment Trust Saya adalah trader harian dan saya memiliki kebutuhan yang sangat spesifik untuk bagaimana saya menggunakan data intraday. Saya ingin mengucapkan selamat kepada perusahaan Anda untuk menciptakan produk yang benar-benar berkembang, kaya fitur, namun mudah digunakan. Saya sangat terkesan dengan studi analitis Anda, Cerdik MA yang sepertinya menyaring harga sangat erat dan memberikan sedikit lag. Panduan pengguna ditulis dengan baik dan saya berharap dapat bereksperimen lebih lanjut dengan jaringan saraf (sekarang, sepertinya saya sedang membangun generator perdagangan acak). Tradecision menyediakan platform trading yang kuat dan user-friendly bagi trader yang serius. Tradecisions alat analisis teknis dan kecerdasan artifisial memberikan elemen kunci dalam kesuksesan perdagangan: perdagangan berbasis aturan. Tradecision menawarkan keunggulan bagi pedagang dengan menyediakan alat charting canggih, aturan pengelolaan uang otomatis, dan perdagangan berbasis strategi. Saya sangat merekomendasikannya untuk pedagang intraday seperti saya yang hanya mengandalkan setup perdagangan dengan peraturan ketat. Tradecision menyediakan serangkaian alat untuk membantu investor membuat keputusan trading atau membuat sistem sendiri. Tingkat: ahli tingkat lanjut. Tipe: Pengambilan keputusan, Pengembangan Strategi Dasar, Pengembangan Sistem Kendali. Market Technicians Association, Inc. organisasi nasional para profesional analisis pasar di Amerika Serikat Dalam terbitan bulanan MTA bulan September 2006, kami menerbitkan artikel Quuttermeal Neural Networksquot, yang diadaptasi dari 8220Developing Neural Models with Tradecision, 8221 tersedia di Panduan Neural Networks Tradecision8217s. Selain itu, anggota MTA dan afiliasinya menerima diskon 16 atas Tradecision. Michael Carr, CMT, Pembicara Newsletter Berbicara secara Teknis Tradecision adalah analisis perdagangan dan paket keputusan dengan banyak fitur unik. Pedagang dapat menulis strategi mereka sendiri dengan bahasa Improvian yang mudah dan mudah digunakan dan kembali mengujinya terhadap data historis. Antarmuka pengguna Tradecision dirancang secara cerdas, intuitif. Mudah digunakan dan dikombinasikan dengan Direct Trade Execution (DTE) dan umpan data real time, ini bisa menjadi alat yang hebat bagi pedagang intra hari. Pelanggan kami menggunakan Tradecision untuk analisis dan kemudian melaksanakannya melalui DTE. Tradecision menyediakan paket yang progresif dan menyeluruh bagi para pedagang. Perangkat lunak yang mudah digunakan mencakup charting, alat analisis teknis dan kemampuan pengembangan sistem perdagangan. Seiring dengan indikator teknis klasik, Tradecision menawarkan fitur kecerdasan buatan yang mutakhir, terutama jaringan syaraf tiruan. Tradecision memiliki harga yang menarik dan merupakan penawaran yang seimbang untuk analisis teknis, pembuatan sistem dan indikator perdagangan proprietary, backtesting, optimasi dan pengelolaan uang. Sistem perdagangan dapat dibuat berdasarkan indikator proprietary atau yang tersedia sebagai perangkat lunak built-in untuk sistem yang dibuat. Fitur unik dari program ini adalah kemampuan untuk menciptakan sistem perdagangan dengan menggunakan model jaringan syaraf tiruan. Alat tradisionis dipikirkan dengan sangat baik - contohnya adalah kemampuan pengelolaan uang sistem - area ukuran posisi lebih seperti bagian dari program lanjutan ada juga pengaturan built-in terperinci untuk aturan stop-loss yang memungkinkan segera Menggunakan mereka untuk menguji sistem. Semuanya relatif intuitif dan user-friendly. Tradecision mencakup pengumpulan fitur praktis yang dapat membantu Anda membuat keputusan yang lebih baik, menganalisis pasar, memaksimalkan keuntungan, dan mengembangkan sistem perdagangan pribadi Anda. Studi Kasus Tradecision Secara keseluruhan, saya sangat menikmati penggunaan perangkat lunak Anda. Bagi siapa saja yang mencari paket perangkat lunak yang lengkap, menggabungkan pengelolaan data, membuat catatan dan kemampuan jaringan syaraf yang kuat, perangkat lunak Anda menawarkan nilai terbaik untuk uang. Review Tradecision, oleh pakar jaringan syaraf tiruan (300 Kb, PDF). Meskipun sudah sekitar 12 hari sejak saya menggunakan model dan saya telah beralih ke model lain, tiba-tiba saya menemukan dua hari yang lalu bahwa program saya dari tanggal 5 Mei 2006 bekerja sangat baik pada data minggu ini. Lihat saja statistiknya. Strategi Berbasis Model yang Menguntungkan, sebuah studi kasus oleh L. Williams, GA, AS (41 Kb, PDF). Dengan banyaknya pasar yang berinteraksi pada saat bersamaan, sulit untuk menganalisis indikator teknis dan faktor fundamental secara terpisah. Solusinya adalah Neural Models yang bisa digunakan untuk meramalkan pergerakan harga. Analisis Stok Menggunakan Model Neural, studi kasus oleh Jay Kun (215 Kb, PDF). QuotI8217m trader hari yang cukup aktif dengan kebutuhan konstan untuk menyesuaikan kembali dengan perubahan kondisi pasar. Fitur, fleksibilitas dan keramahan pengguna Tradecision sangat tidak ada bandingannya. Karena saya harus mengubah strategi trading saya secara reguler, saya menemukan fitur Simulation Manager and Strategy Optimization yang tak ternilai harganya. Tim Pendukung juga penuh perhatian, berdedikasi dan sangat baik. I8217d menilai produk ini sebagai Importir Darurat kedua Abdulaziz Al-Muhanna, Riyadh, Arab Saudi Kustomisasi adalah kunci jika ada perangkat lunak perdagangan yang benar-benar berguna. Meskipun saya pengguna Tradecision yang cukup baru dan telah mencoba perangkat lunak perdagangan lainnya, saya menganggap Tradecision sebagai perangkat lunak terbaik yang pernah saya gunakan saat ini. Ini memiliki banyak indikator default dan studi analisis yang dapat disesuaikan, yang jauh lebih besar daripada yang biasanya disediakan oleh program lain (Elliot Wave, Pattern Recognition, dll.) Strategi dan pembangun modelnya memungkinkan penerapan gagasan dan unduhan data menjadi mudah. Pengalaman yang paling mengesankan yang pernah saya alami dengan Tradecision adalah dukungan dari personil Sales and Technical, yang selalu menanggapi permintaan dan bahkan memberikan sedikit peningkatan pada perangkat lunak untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan. Tim teknis yang mendengarkan pelanggannya dan menanggapi kebutuhan mereka, sekarang sangat jarang. Saya menggunakan ramalan ramalan ramalan pada LifeCell (LIFC), saham biotek yang baru-baru ini mencapai titik tertinggi sepanjang masa. Saya telah mempelajari saham ini secara intensif karena saya mengembangkan sistem tren akhir hari dan menggunakan Tradecision Pro RT untuk mencoba memprediksi tindakan harga di masa depan. LIFC adalah sumber kekuatan relatif tinggi yang naik dengan akumulasi institusional yang tinggi, jadi saya membangun model saraf untuk mencerminkan masukan ini. Stok uptrending yang kuat dapat tetap overbought untuk jangka waktu yang lama, sehingga osilator konvensional seperti RSI terkadang bukan prediktor yang baik untuk aksi harga di masa depan. Oleh karena itu saya memutuskan untuk membangun model saraf untuk membantu saya memprediksi harga masa depan LIFC. Di masa lalu saya kehilangan sekitar 4k dan 3 k lainnya (mencoba memperbaikinya) dalam beberapa minggu pertama, lalu berhenti dan mulai belajar dari bawah ke atas. Saya menghabiskan banyak uang untuk sistem dan penyedia sinyal yang tidak berguna di masa lalu dengan hasil belajar semua sendiri dan baru-baru ini mulai menghasilkan keuntungan hampir setiap hari. Sekarang menggunakan Tradecision Im tidak mencari ballquot kristal quotmagic, namun memanfaatkan daya NN sebagai sumber informasi tambahan. Saya menggunakan fibroid untuk target dan timing, terutama EMA, Bollinger, Elliot berhasil, tapi tidak menghubungkan informasi masa lalu di luar kerangka waktu mereka. Pasar bergejolak dan dinamis, namun ingatan manusia tidak secepat itu. Saat ini saya sedang mengerjakan strategi pengoptimalan perdagangan untuk hedge fund. Saya menjalankan beberapa jendela di RT dengan SP Futures dan beberapa saham lainnya menggunakan antarmuka IB. Banyak pekerjaan yang saya lakukan di statistik arb, perdagangan pasangan dan perdagangan volatilitas. Saya harus mengatakan hasilnya sangat bagus menggunakan Tradecision.Polish americans Poland, negara terbesar ketujuh di Eropa, menempati area seluas 120.727 mil persegi - yang lebih besar dari negara bagian Nevada. Terletak di Eropa timur-tengah, berbatasan dengan timur oleh Rusia dan Ukraina, Republik Ceko dan Slowakia di selatan, Jerman di barat, dan Laut Baltik di utara. Dikuras oleh Sungai Vistula dan Oder, Polandia adalah tanah dari tanah-tanah yang bervariasi dari dataran rendah tengah, ke bukit pasir dan rawa-rawa di pesisir Baltik, ke pegunungan orang-orang Carpathians di selatan. Populasi 1990-annya lebih dari 38 juta sebagian besar homogen secara etnik, religius, dan linguistik. Kelompok minoritas di negara ini termasuk orang Jerman, Ukraina dan Belarusia. Sembilan puluh lima persen populasi adalah Katolik Roma, dan bahasa Polandia adalah bahasa nasional. Warsawa, yang terletak di dataran rendah tengah, adalah ibu kota negara. Bendera bendera nasional bicolor: terbagi dua secara horizontal, memiliki garis putih di bagian atas dan yang berwarna merah di bagian bawah. Orang Amerika Polandia sering menampilkan bendera yang mirip dengan ini dengan elang yang dinobatkan di pusatnya. Nama Polandia kembali ke asal-usulnya di suku Slavia yang mendiami lembah Vistula sejak milenium kedua SM. Migrasi dari suku-suku ini menghasilkan tiga subkelompok yang berbeda: Slavia Barat, Timur, dan Selatan. Itu adalah Slavia Barat yang menjadi nenek moyang orang Polandia modern, menetap di dalam dan sekitar lembah Oder dan Vistula. Sangat clannish, suku-suku ini diorganisir dalam kelompok kekerabatan erat dengan properti yang umumnya dipegang dan pemerintahan perwakilan yang kasar dan siap menangani hal-hal selain militer. Slavia Barat ini perlahan bergabung dalam unit yang selalu lebih besar di bawah tekanan serangan oleh Avar dan orang-orang Jerman awal, yang pada akhirnya dipimpin oleh sebuah suku yang dikenal sebagai Polanie. Sejak saat itu, Slavia Barat ini, dan semakin banyak wilayah, disebut sebagai Polania atau kemudian, Polandia. Di bawah duke Polandia Mieszko dan dinasti Piast-nya, konsolidasi lebih lanjut seputar apa yang Poznan modern menciptakan negara yang benar dan pada tahun 966, Mieszko diubah menjadi Kristen. Acara inilah yang biasa diterima sebagai tanggal pendirian Polandia. Ini sangat penting karena konversi Mieszkos ke agama Kristen Katolik Roma akan menghubungkan keberuntungan Polands di masa depan dengan orang-orang Eropa Barat. Slavia Timur, yang berpusat di Kiev, diubah oleh misionaris dari gereja Yunani, yang kemudian menghubungkannya dengan timur Orthodox. Sementara itu, Slavia Selatan telah bergabung menjadi unit yang lebih besar, membentuk apa yang dikenal sebagai Little Poland, yang bertentangan dengan Great Poland dari Piasts. Slavia Selatan ini bergabung dengan Great Poland di bawah Casimir I dan beberapa generasi negara baru berkembang, memeriksa arus ekspansionisme Jerman. Tapi dari abad kedua belas sampai abad ketigabelas, kerajaan baru itu terfragmentasi oleh sistem duchy yang menciptakan kekacauan politik dan perang sipil di antara para pangeran saingan garis keturunan Piast. Setelah kehancuran yang disebabkan oleh invasi Tatar pada awal abad ke-13, Polandia tidak berdaya menghadapi gelombang selanjutnya dari pemukiman Jerman. Salah satu Piasts terakhir, Casimir III, berhasil menyatukan kembali kerajaan tersebut pada tahun 1338, dan pada tahun 1386 berada di bawah pemerintahan dinasti Jagiellonian ketika Duke of Lithuania menikah dengan putri mahkota Piels, Jadwiga. Dikenal sebagai Polands Golden Age, dua abad berikutnya pemerintahan Jagiellonian memungkinkan Polandia-Lithuania untuk menjadi kekuatan dominan di Eropa tengah, meliputi Hungaria dan Bohemia dalam lingkup pengaruhnya dan menghasilkan warisan budaya yang kaya bagi negara, termasuk pencapaian seperti itu. Individu sebagai Copernicus (Mikoaj Kopernik, 1473-1543). Pada saat yang sama, Polandia menikmati salah satu pemerintahan paling representatif di zamannya dan juga iklim keagamaan yang paling toleran di Eropa. Namun dengan berakhirnya dinasti Jagiellonian pada tahun 1572, kerajaan tersebut sekali lagi hancur berantakan saat kaum landry semakin menguasai kontrol lokal, mengurangi kekuatan pemerintah pusat di Krakow. Keadaan ini berlanjut selama dua abad sampai Polandia sangat lemah sehingga menderita tiga partisi: Austria membawa Galicia pada tahun 1772 Prusia mengambil bagian barat laut pada tahun 1793 dan Tsar Rusia memiliki bagian timur laut pada tahun 1795). Pada akhir dari tiga partisi tersebut, Polandia telah benar-benar dihapus dari peta Eropa. Tidak akan ada Polandia yang merdeka lagi selama satu setengah abad, meskipun Kerajaan Kerajaan Polandia ditetapkan di dalam Kekaisaran Rusia oleh Kongres Wina pada tahun 1815. Di kedua Rusia dan Jerman sebuah kebijakan ketat penindasan bahasa Polandia dan Pendidikan otonom ditegakkan. Setelah Perang Dunia I, sebuah Polandia independen sekali lagi didirikan kembali. Dengan Josef Pilsudski (1867-1935) sebagai presiden dan diktatornya dari tahun 1926 sampai 1935, Polandia mempertahankan perdamaian yang tidak nyaman dengan Uni Soviet dan Nazi Jerman. Tapi dengan permulaan Perang Dunia II, Polandia adalah korban pertama, dan sekali lagi negara itu dimasukkan ke negara lain: Jerman dan Uni Soviet pada awalnya, dan kemudian hanya berada di bawah kekuasaan Jerman. Nazi menggunakan Polandia sebagai tempat pembunuhan untuk menaklukkan dan membasmi budaya Polandia dengan mengeksekusi para intelektual dan bangsawan mereka, dan untuk menyelesaikan pertanyaan Yahudi sekali dan untuk selamanya dengan membasmi orang-orang Yahudi di Eropa. Di kamp-kamp seperti Auschwitz-Birkenau, strategi mengerikan ini mulai berlaku, dan pada akhir perang di tahun 1945, Polandia telah kehilangan seperlima dari populasinya, setengah dari tiga juta orang Yahudi. Pembebasan, bagaimanapun, tidak berarti kebebasan, karena setelah perang, Polandia jatuh di bawah lingkungan Soviet, sebuah negara komunis didirikan dan Polandia sekali lagi telah menjadi wilayah kekuasaan asing. Pada tahun 1956, para pekerja Polar melakukan pemogokan umum untuk memprotes Moscined dengan dominasi tangan berat. Meskipun ditindas secara brutal, pemogokan tersebut membuat Polands menjadi pemimpin baru Wladysaw Gomuka untuk merilekskan beberapa kontrol totaliter yang diberlakukan oleh Warsawa dan Moskow, dan peternakan didekresiektivasikan. Dengan kepemimpinan berturut-turut Edward Gierek dan Jenderal Wojciech Jaruzelski, bagaimanapun, kondisi ekonomi memburuk dan orang-orang Polandia berjuang untuk otonomi yang lebih besar dari Moskow. Pada tahun 1980 tiga peristiwa bertepatan yang akan menentukan masa depan Polandia: Uni Soviet akan bangkrut Karol Kardinal Wojtya menjadi Paus Yohanes Paulus II dan sebuah kesatuan baru dan ilegal, Solidaritas, telah terbentuk di bawah Lech Waesa. Dua terakhir ini membawa Polandia ke fokus internasional. Pada tahun 1989, Solidaritas mendapat konsesi dari pemerintah termasuk partisipasi dalam pemilihan umum yang bebas. Setelah kemenangan mereka yang luar biasa, yang membawa pemimpin mereka Lech Waesa sebagai Presiden, Solidaritas membentuk pemerintahan koalisi dengan komunis dan dengan jatuhnya Uni Soviet, Polandia bersama dengan seluruh Eropa Tengah, mendapatkan kembali ruang pernapasan baru di jantungnya. Tugas sulit yang dihadapi negara ini adalah transformasi dari ekonomi terpusat ke ekonomi pasar, yang menyebabkan dislokasi besar termasuk tingkat pengangguran dan inflasi yang melambat. POLES PERTAMA DI AMERIKA Orang-orang Polandia berjumlah di antara koloni paling awal di Dunia Baru dan saat ini, karena jumlah mereka melebihi sepuluh juta, mereka mewakili kelompok Slavia terbesar di Amerika. Meskipun klaim telah dibuat untuk orang-orang Polandia berlayar dengan kapal Viking menjelajahi Dunia Baru sebelum tahun 1600, tidak ada bukti kuat untuk mendukung mereka. Pada 1609, bagaimanapun, imigran Polandia tampil dalam sejarah Jamestown, yang telah direkrut oleh koloni tersebut sebagai pengrajin yang terampil untuk menciptakan produk untuk ekspor. Imigran ini merupakan bagian integral dalam pembentukan industri pembuatan gelas dan pertukangan di koloni baru. Penjelajah Polandia awal, Anthony Sadowski, mendirikan sebuah pos perdagangan di sepanjang Sungai Mississippi yang kemudian menjadi kota Sandusky, Ohio. Dua nama lain catatan terjadi pada awal sejarah tentang apa yang akan menjadi republik Amerika: bangsawan Tadeusz Kociuszko (1746-1817) dan Casimir Puaski (1747-1779) keduanya berperang melawan pemberontak dalam Perang Revolusi. Pulaski, yang tewas dalam pertempuran di Savannah, masih dihormati oleh Polish AmericansPolonia karena komunitas etnis dirujuk ke pawai tahunan pada tanggal 11 Oktober, Hari Pulaski. GELOMBANG IMIGRASI YANG SIGNIFIKAN Sejak zaman pemukim Polandia awal, para petualang dan pria yang hanya mencari lifetere ekonomi yang lebih baik telah menjadi empat gelombang imigrasi yang berbeda ke Amerika Serikat dari Polandia. Yang pertama dan terkecil, yang disebabkan oleh pembagian Polandia, berlangsung dari sekitar 1800 sampai 1860 dan sebagian besar terdiri dari pembangkang politik dan mereka yang melarikan diri setelah pembubaran tanah air nasional mereka. Gelombang kedua jauh lebih signifikan dan terjadi antara tahun 1860 dan Perang Dunia I. Imigran selama masa ini mencari kehidupan ekonomi yang lebih baik dan cenderung berasal dari kelas pedesaan, yang disebut za chleben (untuk roti) emigran. Gelombang ketiga berlangsung dari akhir Perang Dunia I sampai akhir Perang Dingin dan sekali lagi terdiri dari pembangkang dan pengungsi politik. Sejak jatuhnya reformasi demokrasi Uni Soviet dan Polandia, telah terjadi gelombang keempat dari kelompok imigran yang tampaknya lebih sementara sementara, wakacjusze, atau mereka yang datang dengan visa turis namun mencari pekerjaan dan tinggal secara ilegal atau legal. Para imigran ekonomi ini umumnya berencana untuk mendapatkan uang dan kembali ke Polandia. Gelombang pertama imigran, dari sekitar 1800 sampai 1860, sebagian besar terdiri dari intelektual dan bangsawan yang lebih rendah. Bukan hanya pembagian Polandia, namun pemberontakan pada tahun 1830 dan 1863 juga memaksa pembangkang politik dari tanah air Polandia mereka. Banyak yang melarikan diri ke London, Paris dan Jenewa, namun pada saat yang sama New York dan Chicago juga menerima bagiannya dari pengungsi tersebut dari penindasan politik. Tokoh imigrasi selalu menjadi masalah, dan bagi imigran Polandia ke Amerika Serikat tidak berbeda. Bagi sebagian besar era modern, tidak ada entitas politik seperti Polandia, jadi imigran yang datang ke Amerika memiliki kesulitan dalam menggambarkan negara asal mereka. Selain itu, ada juga dengan orang Polandia, lebih banyak daripada kelompok imigran etnik lainnya, perjalanan pulang-pergi lebih banyak antara negara tuan rumah dan negara asal. Orang Polandia cenderung menghemat uang dan kembali ke negara asalnya dalam jumlah yang lebih banyak daripada banyak kelompok etnis lainnya. Selain itu, minoritas di Polandia yang berimigrasi ke Amerika Serikat membingungkan fotonya. Meskipun demikian, angka apa yang ada dari catatan Imigrasi dan Naturalisasi AS menunjukkan bahwa kurang dari 2.000 orang Polandia berimigrasi ke Amerika Serikat antara tahun 1800 dan 1860. Gelombang kedua imigrasi diresmikan pada tahun 1854 ketika sekitar 800 orang Katolik Polandia dari Silesia mendirikan Panna Maria, sebuah Koloni pertanian di Texas. Pembukaan simbolik Amerika ke Polandia ini juga membuka pintu banjir imigrasi. Pendatang baru cenderung berkerumun di kota-kota industri dan kota-kota di Midwest dan Negara-negara Atlantik Tengah. New York, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Chicago, dan St. Louiswhere mereka menjadi pekerja pabrik baja, meatpackers, penambang, dan pekerja rumahan. Kota-kota ini masih mempertahankan kontingen besar mereka dari orang Amerika Polandia. Warisan abadi orang-orang Polandia di Amerika ini adalah peran vital yang mereka mainkan dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangan gerakan buruh A.S., Joseph Yablonski dari Pekerja Tambang Serikat hanya satu kasus. Kebingungan terhadap jumlah pasti imigran Polandia kembali menjadi masalah selama periode ini, dengan pelaporan yang sangat besar, terutama selama tahun 1890-an ketika imigrasi tertinggi. Paling setuju, bagaimanapun, bahwa antara pertengahan abad kesembilan belas dan Perang Dunia I, sekitar 2,5 juta orang Polandia berimigrasi ke Amerika Serikat. Gelombang imigrasi ini dapat dipecah lagi menjadi dua gerakan berturut-turut orang Polandia dari berbagai daerah yang dipartisi. Foto 1948 ini diambil sesaat setelah wanita Polandia ini dan ketiga anaknya tiba di New York City, mereka menetap di Rensselaer, Indiana. negara. Yang pertama datang adalah Polandia Jerman, yang cenderung lebih berpendidikan dan pengrajin yang lebih terampil daripada Polandia Rusia dan Austria. Metode kelahiran tinggi, kelebihan populasi, dan metode pertanian berskala besar di Prusia, yang memaksa petani kecil keluar dari tanah, semuanya bergabung untuk mengirim orang Polandia ke emigrasi pada paruh kedua abad kesembilan belas. Kebijakan Jerman vis-a-vis membatasi kekuatan gereja Katolik juga berperan dalam eksodus ini. Mereka yang tiba di Amerika Serikat berjumlah kira-kira setengah juta selama periode ini, dengan jumlah yang semakin berkurang menjelang akhir abad ini. Namun, sama seperti imigrasi Polandia Jerman ke Amerika Serikat semakin berkurang, bahasa Rusia dan Polandia Polandia baru saja dimulai. Sekali lagi, kelebihan populasi dan kelaparan di darat mendorong emigrasi ini, dan juga surat-surat antusias di mana kedatangan baru di Amerika Serikat dikirim ke keluarga dan orang-orang terkasih mereka. Banyak pemuda juga melarikan diri dari wajib militer, terutama di tahun-tahun pembangunan militer sesaat sebelum dan termasuk permulaan Perang Dunia I. Selain itu, perjalanan ke Amerika sendiri menjadi tidak begitu sulit, dengan jalur pelayaran seperti Jerman Utara. Line dan Hamburg American Line sekarang memesan bagian dari titik ke titik, menggabungkan jalur darat dan transatlantik dan dengan demikian mempermudah penyeberangan perbatasan. Jumlah Galicia atau Polandia Austria berjumlah sekitar 800.000, dan Rusia Polesthe kontingen immigrasi besar terakhir lainnya 800.000. Diperkirakan 30 persen orang Galicia dan Polandia Rusia yang tiba antara tahun 1906 dan 1914 kembali ke tanah air mereka. Masuknya sejumlah besar satu kelompok etnis ini pasti menyebabkan gesekan dengan orang-orang Amerika yang mapan, dan selama paruh terakhir abad kesembilan belas menyaksikan intoleransi terhadap banyak imigran dari daerah-daerah Eropa yang berbeda. Bahwa orang-orang Polandia sangat Katolik berkontribusi pada gesekan semacam itu, dan dengan demikian Polonia atau orang-orang Polandia membentuk hubungan yang lebih erat satu sama lain, bergantung pada kekompakan etnik tidak hanya untuk dukungan moral, tapi juga keuangan. Organisasi persaudaraan, nasional, dan keagamaan Polandia seperti Aliansi Nasional Polandia, Uni Polandia, Kongres Amerika Polandia, dan Uni Katolik Polandia Polandia telah berperan penting dalam tidak hanya mempertahankan identitas Polandia untuk imigran, namun juga untuk mendapatkan asuransi dan rumah. Pinjaman untuk mengatur kedatangan baru di kaki mereka sendiri di negara baru mereka. Gesekan semacam itu mereda saat orang-orang Polandia berasimilasi di negara tuan rumah mereka, digantikan oleh gelombang imigran baru dari negara lain. Namun, orang Amerika Polandia terus mempertahankan identitas etnis yang kuat sampai akhir abad kedua puluh. Dengan berakhirnya Perang Dunia I dan pendirian kembali sebuah negara Polandia yang independen, diyakini bahwa akan ada eksodus besar imigran Polandia yang kembali ke tanah air mereka. Eksodus semacam itu tidak terwujud, meski imigrasi pada generasi berikutnya sangat turun. Kuota imigrasi A.S. yang diberlakukan pada tahun 1920an berkaitan dengan hal ini, seperti halnya Depresi Hebat. Tapi penindasan politik di Eropa antara perang, orang-orang terlantar yang dibawa oleh Perang Dunia II, dan pelarian pembangkang dari rezim komunis memperhitungkan lebih dari separuh juta imigran yang banyak pengungsi pengungsi dari Polandia antara tahun 1918 dan akhir 1980-an dan jatuhnya komunisme. Gelombang keempat imigrasi Polandia sekarang sedang berlangsung. Ini sebagian besar terdiri dari orang-orang muda yang tumbuh di bawah komunisme. Though not significant in numbers because of immigration quotas, this newest wave of post-Cold War immigrants, whether they be the short-term workers, wakacjusze, or long-term residents, continue to add new blood to Polish Americans, ensuring that the ethnic community continues to have foreign-born Poles among its contingent. Estimates from the 1970 census placed the number of either foreign born Poles or native born with at least one Polish parent at near three million. Over eight million claimed Polish ancestry in their background in the 1980 census and 9.5 million did so in the 1990 census, 90 percent of whom were concentrated in urban areas. A large part of such identity and cohesiveness was the result of outside conditions. It has been noted that initial friction between Polish immigrants and established Americans played some part in this inward looking stance. Additionally, such commonly held beliefs as folk culture and Catholicism provided further incentives for communalism. Newly arrived Poles generally had their closest contacts outside Polish Americans with their former European neighbors: Czechs, Germans, and Lithuanians. Over the years there has been a degree of friction specifically between the Polish American community and Jews and African Americans. However, during the years of partition, Polish Americans kept alive the belief in a free Poland. Such cohesiveness was further heightened in the Polish American community during the Cold War, when Poland was a satellite of the Soviet Union. But since the fall of the Soviet empire and with free elections in Poland, this outer threat to the homeland is no longer a factor in keeping Polish Americans together. The subsequent increase in immigration of the fourth wave of younger Poles escaping difficult transition times at home has added new numbers to immigrants in the United States, but it is yet to be seen what their effect will be on Polish Americans. As yet, these recent immigrants have played no part in the power structurenot being members of the fraternal organizations. What their effect in the future will be is unclear. Acculturation and Assimilation In a society so homogenized by the effects of mass media, such ethnic enclaves as the amorphous reaches of Polish Americans is clearly affected. Despite the recent emphasis on multiculturalism and a resurgent interest in ethnic roots, Polish Americans like other ethnic groups become assimilated more and more rapidly. Using language as a W e wanted to be Americans so quickly that we were embarrassed if our parents couldnt speak English. My father was reading a Polish paper. And somebody was supposed to come to the house. I remember sticking it under something. We were that ashamed of being foreign. Louise Nagy in 1913, cited in Ellis Island: An Illustrated History of the Immigrant Experience, edited by Ivan Chermayeff et al. (New York: Macmillan, 1991). measure, it can be seen how quickly such absorption occurs. In a 1960 survey of children of Polish ethnic leaders, 20 percent reported that they spoke Polish regularly. By 1990, however, the U.S. census reported that only 750,000 Polish Americans spoke Polish in the home. As part of the European emigration, Polish immigrants have had an easier time racially than many other non-European groups in assimilating or blending into the American scene. But this is only a surface assimilation. Culturally, the Polish contingent has held tightly to its folk and national roots, making Polonia more than simply a name. It has been at times a country within a country, Poland in the New World. By and large, Poles have competed In this photograph, taken in 1964, six-year-olds Leonard Sikorasky and Julia Wesoly are watching the Pulaski Day Parade in New York City, which commemorates the death of the Revolutionary War General Casimir Pulaski. well and succeeded in their new homeland they have thrived and built homes and raised families, and in that respect have participated in and added to the American dream. Yet this process of assimilation has been far from smooth as witnessed by one fact: the Polish joke. Such jokes have at their core a negative representation of the Poles as backward and uneducated simpletons. It is perhaps this stereotype that is hardest for Polish Americans to combat, and is a legacy of the second wave of immigrants, the largest contingent between 1860 and 1914 made up of mostly people from Galicia and Russia. Though recent studies have shown Polish Americans to have high income levels as compared to British, German, Italian, and Irish immigrant groups, the same studies demonstrate that they come in last in terms of occupation and education. For many generations, Polish Americans in general did not value higher education, though such a stance has changed radically in the late twentieth century. The professions are now heavily represented with Polish Americans as well as the blue collar world. Yet the Polish joke persists and Polish Americans have been actively fighting it in the past two decades with not only educational programs but also law suits when necessary. The days of Polish Americans anglicizing their names seem to be over along with other ethnic groups Polish Americans now talk of ethnic pride. TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS, AND BELIEFS It had been noted that clans and kinship communities were extremely important in the early formation of Slavic tribes. This early form of communalism has been translated into todays world by the plethora of Polish American fraternal organizations. By the same token, other traditions out of the Polish rural and agrarian past still hold today. Gospodarz may well be one of the prettiest sounding words in the Polish languageto a Pole. It means a landowner, and it is the land that has always been important in Poland. Ownership of land was one of the things that brought the huge influx of Poles to the United States, but less than ten percent achieved that dream, and these were mainly the German Poles who came first when there was still a frontier to carve out. The remaining Poles were stuck in the urban areas as wage-earners, though many of these managed to save the money to buy a small plot of land in the suburbs. Contrasted to this is the Grale, or mountaineer. To the lowlanders of Greater Poland, the stateless peoples of the southern Carpathians represented free human spirit, unbridled by convention and laws. Both of these impulses runs through the Polish peoples and informs their customs. An agrarian people, many Poles have traditions and beliefs that revolve around the calendar year, the time for sowing and for reaping. And inextricably linked to this rhythm is that of the Catholic church whose saints days mark the cycle of the year. A strong belief in good versus evil resulted in a corresponding belief in the devil: witches who could make milk cows go dry the power of the evil eye, which both humans and animals could wield the belief that if bees build a hive in ones house, the house will catch on fire and the tradition that while goats are lucky animals, wolves, crows and pigeons all bring bad luck. Polish proverbs display the undercurrents of the Polish nature, its belief in simple pragmatism and honesty, and a cynical distrust of human nature: When misfortune knocks at the door, friends are asleep the mistakes of the doctor are covered by the earth the rich man has only two holes in his nose, the same as the poor man listen much and speak little he whose coach is drawn by hope has poverty for a coachman if God wills, even a cock will lay an egg he who lends to a friend makes an enemy no fish without bones no woman without a temper where there is fire, a wind will soon be blowing. The diet of Polish Americans has also changed over the years. One marked change from Poland is the increased consumption of meat. Polish sausages, especially the kielbasa garlic-flavored pork sausagehave become all but synonymous with Polish cuisine. Other staples include cabbage in the form of sauerkraut or cabbage rolls, dark bread, potatoes, beets, barley, and oatmeal. Of course this traditional diet has been added to by usual American fare, but especially at festivities and celebrations such as Christmas and Easter, Polish Americans still serve their traditional food. Polish Americans have, in addition to the sausage, also contributed staples to American cuisine, including the breakfast roll, bialys, the babka coffeecake, and potato pancakes. TRADITIONAL COSTUMES Traditional clothing is worn less and less by Polish Americans, but such celebrations as Pulaski Day on October 11 of each year witness upwards of 100,000 Polish Americans parading between 26th Street and 52nd Street in New York, many of them wearing traditional dress. For women this means a combination blouse and petticoat covered by a full, brightly colored or embroidered skirt, an apron, and a jacket or bodice, also gaily decorated. Headdress ranges from a simple kerchief to more elaborate affairs made of feathers, flowers, beads, and ribbons decorating stiffened linen. Men also wear headdresses, though usually not as ornate as the womensfelt or straw hats or caps. Trousers are often white with red stripes, tucked into the boots or worn with mountaineering moccasins typical to the Carpathians. Vests or jackets cover white embroidered shirts, and the favorite colors replicate the flag: red and white. In addition to Pulaski Day, which President Harry Truman decreed an official remembrance day in 1946, Polish American celebrations consist mainly of the prominent liturgical holidays such as Christmas and Easter. The traditional Christmas Eve dinner, called wigilia, begins when the first star of the evening appears. The dinner, which is served upon a white tablecloth under which some straw has been placed, consists of 12 meatless coursesone for each of the apostles. There is also one empty chair kept at the table for a stranger who might chance by. This vigil supper begins with the breaking of a wafer, the oplatek, and the exchange of good wishes it moves on to such traditional fare as apple pancakes, fish, pierogi or a type of filled dumpling, potato salad, sauerkraut and nut or poppy seed torte for dessert. To insure good luck in the coming year one must taste all courses, and there must also be an even number of people at the table to ensure good health. The singing of carols follows the supper. In Poland, between Christmas Eve and the Epiphany (January 6, or Three Kings) caroling with the manger takes place in which carolers bearing a manger visit neighbors and are rewarded with money or treats. In Poland, the Christmas season comes to a close with Candelmas day on February 2, when the candles are taken to church to be blessed. It is believed that these blessed candles will protect the home from sickness or bad fortune. The Tuesday before Ash Wednesday is celebrated by much feasting. Poles traditionally fried p1451czki (fruit-filled doughnuts) in order to use the sugar and fat in the house before the long fast of Lent. In the United States, especially in Polish communities, the day before Ash Wednesday has become popularized as Pczki Day Poles and non-Poles alike wait in line at Polish bakeries for this pastry. Easter is an especially important holiday for Polish Americans. Originally an agrarian people, the Poles focussed on Easter as the time of rebirth and regeneration not only religiously, but for their fields as well. It marked the beginning of a farmers year. Consequently, it is still celebrated with feasts which include meats and traditional cakes, butter molded into the shape of a lamb, and elaborately decorated eggs ( pisanki ), and a good deal of drinking and dancing. HEALTH ISSUES There are no documented health problems specific to Polish Americans. Initially skeptical of modern medicine and more likely to try traditional home cures, Polish Americans soon were converted to the more modern practices. The creation of fraternal and insurance societies such as the Polish National Alliance in 1880, the Polish Roman Catholic Union in 1873, and the Polish Womens Alliance in 1898, helped to bring life insurance to a larger segment of Polonia. As with the majority of Americans, Polish Americans acquire health insurance at their own expense, or as part of a benefits package at their place of employment. Polish is a West Slavic language, part of the Lekhite subgroup, and is similar to Czech and Slovak. Modern Polish, written in the Roman alphabet, stems from the sixteenth century. It is still taught in Sunday schools and parochial schools for children. It is also taught in dozens of American universities and colleges. The first written examples of Polish are a list of names in a 1136 Papal Bull. Manuscripts in Polish exist from the fourteenth century. Its vocabulary is in part borrowed from Latin, German, Czech, Ukrainian, Belarusan, and English. Dialects include Great Polish, Pomeranian, Silesian and Mazovian. Spelling is phonetic with every letter pronounced. Consonants in particular have different pronunciation than in English. Ch, for example is pronounced like h in horse j is pronounced like y at the beginning of a word cz is pronounced ch as in chair sz is pronounced like sh as in shoe rz and z are pronounced alike as the English j in jar and w is pronounced like the English v in victory. Various diacriticals are also used in Polish: , , , , , , , and . GREETINGS AND OTHER POPULAR EXPRESSIONS Typical Polish greetings and other expressions include: Dzien dobry (gyen dobry)Good morning Dobry wieczor (dobry viechoor)Good evening Dowidzenia (dovidzenyah)Good-bye Dozobaczenia (dozobahchainya)Till we meet again Dziekuje (gyen-kuyeh)Thank you Przepraszam (psheprasham)I beg your pardon Nie (nyeh)No Tak (tahk)Yes. Family and Community Dynamics Typically, the Polish family structure is strongly nuclear and patriarchal. However, as with other ethnic groups coming to America, Poles too have adapted to the American way of life, which means a stronger role for the woman in the family and in the working world, with a subsequent loosening of the strong family tie. Initially, single or married men were likely to immigrate alone, living in crowded quarters or rooming houses, saving their money and sending large amounts back to Poland. That immigration trend changed over the years, to be replaced by family units immigrating together. In the 1990s, however, the immigration pattern has come full circle, with many single men and women coming to the United States in search of work. Until recently, Polish Americans have tended to marry within the community of Poles, but this too has changed over the years. A strong ethnic identity is maintained now not so much through shared traditions or folk culture, but through national pride. As with many European immigrant groups, male children were looked upon as the breadwinners and females as future wives and mothers. This held true through the second wave of immigrants, but with the third wave and with second and third generation families, women in general took a more important role in extra-familial life. As with many other immigrant groups, the Poles maintain traditions most closely in those ceremonies for which the community holds great value: weddings, christenings and funerals. Weddings are no longer the hugely staged events of Polish heritage, but they are often long and heavy-drinking affairs, involving several of the customary seven steps: inquiry and proposal betrothal maiden evening and the symbolic unbraiding of the virgins hair baking the wedding cake marriage ceremony putting to bed and removal to the grooms house. Traditional dances such as the krakowiak, oberek, mazur, and the zbojnicki will be enjoyed at such occasions, as well as the polka, a popular dance The Kanosky family of Illinois encountered many problems when the children went to school and learned English before the parents. among Polish Americans. (The polka, however, is not a Polish creation.) Also to be enjoyed at such gatherings are the national drink, vodka, and such traditional fare as roast pork, sausages, barszcs or beet soup, cabbage rolls and poppy seed cakes. Christenings generally take place within two weeks of the birth on a Sunday or holiday and for the devoutly Catholic Poles, it is a vital ceremony. Godparents are chosen who present the baby with gifts, more commonly money now than the traditional linens or caps of rural Poland. The christening feast, once a multi-day affair, has been toned down in modern times, but still involves the panoply of holiday foods. The ceremony itself may include a purification rite for the mother as well as baby, a tradition that goes back to the pre-Christian past. Funerals also retain some of the old traditions. The word death in Polish (mier) is a feminine noun, and is thought of as a tall woman draped in white. Once again, Catholic rites take over for the dead. Often the dead are accompanied in their coffins by strong shoes for the arduous journey ahead or by money as an entrance fee to heaven. The funeral itself is followed by a feast or stypa which may also include music and dancing. Education has also taken on more importance. Where a primary education was deemed sufficient for males in the early years of the twentieth century much of it done in Catholic schoolsthe value of a university education for children of both sexes now mirrors the trend for American society as a whole. A 1972 study from U.S. Census statistics showed that almost 90 percent of Polish Americans between the ages of 25 and 34 had graduated from high school, as compared to only 45 percent of those over age 35. Additionally, a full quarter of the younger generation, those between the ages 25 and 34, had completed at least a four-year university education. In general, it appears that the higher socio-economic class of the Polish American, the more rapid is the transition from Polish identity to that of the dominant culture. Such rapid change has resulted in generational conflict, as it has throughout American society as a whole in the twentieth century. Poland is a largely Catholic nation, a religion that survived even under the anti-clerical reign of the communists. It is a deeply ingrained part of the Polish life, and thus immigrants to the United States brought the religion with them, Initially, Polish American parishes were established from simple meetings of the local religious in stores or hotels. These meetings soon became societies, taking on the name of a saint, and later developed into the parish itself, with priests arriving from various areas of Poland. The members of the parish were responsible for everything: financial support of their clergy as well as construction of a church and any other buildings needed by the priest. Polish American Catholics were responsible for the creation of seven religious orders, including the Resurrectionists and the Felicians who in turn created schools and seminaries and brought nuns from Poland to help with orphanages and other social services. Quickly the new arrivals turned their religious institution into both a parish and an okolica, a local area or neighborhood. There was rapid growth in the number of such ethnic parishes: from 17 in 1870 to 512 only 40 years later. The number peaked in 1935 at 800 and has tapered off since, with 760 in 1960. In the 1970s the level of church attendance was beginning to drop off sharply in the Polish American community, and the use of English in the mass was becoming commonplace. However, the newest contingent of Polish refugees has slowed this trend, raising attendance once again, and helping to restore masses in the Polish language at many churches. All was not smooth for the Polish American Catholics. A largely Protestant nation in the nineteenth century, America proved somewhat intolerant of Catholics, a fact that only served to separate immigrant Poles from the mainstream even more. Also, within the church, there was dissension. Footing all the bills for the parish, still Polish American Catholics had little representation in the hierarchy. Such disputes ultimately led to the establishment of the Polish National Church in 1904. The founding bishop, Reverend Francis Hodur, built the institution to 34 churches and over 28,000 communicants in a dozen years time. Employment and Economic Traditions As has been noted, the Polish immigrants were largely agrarian except for those intellectuals who fled political persecution, By and large they came the United States hoping to find a plot of land, but instead found the frontier closed and were forced instead into urban areas of the Midwest and Middle Atlantic states where they worked in steel mills, coal mines, meatpacking plants, oil refineries and the garment industry. The pay was low for such work: the average annual income for Polish immigrants in 1910 was only 325. The working day was long, as it was all across America at the time, averaging a ten-hour day. But still Polish Americans managed to save their money and by 1910 it is estimated that these immigrants had been able to send 40 million back to their relatives and loved ones in Russian and Austrian Poland. The amount was so large in fact, that a federal commission was set up to investigate the damages to the U.S. economy that such an outflow of funds might create. Families pulled together in Polonia, with education coming second to the need for young boys to contribute to the annual income. The need for such economies began to decline after World War I, however, and by 1920 only ten percent of Polish Americans families derived income from the labor of children, and two-thirds were supported by the head of family. Over the years of the twentieth century except for the years of the Great Depressionthe economic situation of Polish Americans has steadily improved, with education taking on increasing importance, creating a parallel rise in Polish Americans in the white collar labor market. By 1970 only four percent were laborers 23 percent were craftsmen. Polish Americans have also been important in the formation of labor unions, not only swelling the membership, but also providing leaders such as David Dubinsky of the CIO and, as has been noted, Joseph Yablonski of the United Mine Workers. Politics and Government Though heavily concentrated in nine industrial states, Polish Americans did not, until the 1930s, begin to flex their political muscle. Language barriers played a part in this, but more important was the fact that earlier immigrants were too concerned with family and community issues to pay attention to the national political scene. Even in Chicago, where Polish Americans made up 12 percent of the population, they did not elect one of their own to the U.S. Congress until 1920. The first Polish American congressional representative was elected from Milwaukee in 1918. Increasingly, however, Polish Americans have begun playing a more active role in domestic politics and have tended to vote in large numbers for the Democrats. Al Smith, a Democrat and Roman Catholic who was opposed to Prohibition, was one of the first beneficiaries of the Polish American block vote. Though he lost the election, Smith received an overwhelming majority of the Polish American vote. The Great Depression mobilized Polish Americans even more politically, organizing the Polish American Democratic Organization and supporting the New Deal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt. By 1944 this organization could throw large numbers of Polish American votes Roosevelts way and were correspondingly compensated by federal patronage. Prominent Polish American members of congress have been Representatives Dan Rostenkowski and Roman Pucinski, both Democrats from Illinois, and Senator Barbara Mikulski, a Democrat from Maryland. Maines Senator Edmund Muskie was also of Polish American heritage. RELATIONS WITH POLAND Internationally Polish Americans have been more active politically than domestically. The Polish National Alliance, founded in 1880, wasin addition to being a mutual aid societya fervent proponent of a free Poland. Such a goal manifested itself in very pragmatic terms: during World War I, Polish Americans not only sent their young to fight, but also the 250 million they subscribed in liberty bonds. Polish Americans also lobbied Washington with the objective of a free Poland in mind. The Polish American Congress (PAC) was created in 1944 to help secure independence for Poland, opposing the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, which established Soviet hegemony in Eastern Europe. During this same time, Polish American socialists formed the Pro-Soviet Polish American Council, but its power waned in the early years of the Cold War. PAC, however, fought on into the 1980s, supporting Solidarity, the union movement in Poland largely responsible for the downfall of the communist government. Gifts of food, clothing and lobbying in Washington were all part of the PAC campaign for an independent Poland and the organization has been very active in the establishment of a free market system in Poland since the fall of the communist government. Individual and Group Contributions Polish Americans comprised only 2.5 percent of the U.S. population according to the 1990 census, but they have influenced the nations sciences and popular culture in greater proportion. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942), a pioneer of cultural anthropology, emphasized the concept of culture in meeting humankinds basic needs he taught at Yale late in his life, after writing such important books as Argonauts of the Western Pacific and The Sexual Life of Savages in Northwestern Melanesia. Linguist Alfred Korzybski (1879-1950), born in Warsaw, came to the United States in 1918 his work in linguistics focussed on the power of the different value and meaning of words in different languages in an effort to reduce misunderstanding he founded the Institute of General Semantics in 1938 in Chicago, and his research and books including Manhood and Humanity and Science and Sanity have been incorporated in modern psychology and philosophy curricula as well as linguistics. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY Oleg Cassini, Polish Italian, also made a name in fashion. Ruth Handler (1917 ), co-founder of Mattel toy company and creator of the Barbie doll, was born to Polish immigrant parents in Colorado. William Filene (1830-1901) was born in Posen and founded Bostons Filene department store. Iowas largest department store, Younkers, was founded by three Polish immigrant brothersSamuel, Marcus, and Lipma Younkerin 1850. The food industry in America has also had prominent Polish Americans among its ranks. Mrs. Pauls Fish is the creation of Polish American Edward J. Piszek (1917 ). Leo Gerstenzang (1923 ) was a Polish immigrant from Warsaw who invented the Q-Tip cotton swab. ENTERTAINMENT Hollywood has had its fair share of Polish-born men and women who have helped to shape that industry, including Harry and Jack Warner of Warner Bros. Entertainers and actors such as Sophie Tucker and Pola Negri also managed to hide their ethnic roots by changing their names. The pianist and performer Liberace (1919-1987), half-Polish and half-Italian, was born Wadzie Valentino Liberace. More recently, the Polish-born Hollywood and international cinematographer Hubert Taczanowski has made outstanding contributions. LITERATURE AND JOURNALISM Jerzy Kosinski (1933-1991), the Polish-born novelist, came to the United States after World War II his Painted Bird relates the experiences of a small boy in Nazi-occupied Poland and is one of the most stirring and troubling novels to come out of that time. The poet Czesaw Miosz (1911 ), naturalized in 1970, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1980. Born in Lithuania of Polish parents, Miosz studied law and served in the diplomatic corps as well as establishing a name for himself as a poet before immigrating in 1960 some of his best known works are The Captive Mind, The Issa Valley, and The Usurpers. The cartoonist Jules Feiffer (1929 ), known for his offbeat and biting wit, was born to Polish immigrant parents in the United States. Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977), is just one of the musical luminaries to carry on the Ignacy Paderewski tradition born in London of Polish and Irish parents Stokowski, a renowned conductor, became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1915 he was best known as conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra for many years, and for popularizing classical music in America his appearance in the 1940 Disney film, Fantasia, is an example of such popularizing efforts. The jazz drummer Gene Krupa (1909-1973), the measure for drummers long after, was also of Polish heritage Krupa was born in Chicago and played with Benny Goodmans orchestra before forming his own band in 1943 he revolutionized the role of the drummer in a jazz band. POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT In addition to above-mentioned members of congress, two other recent Polish Americans have made their names in Washington. Leon Jaworski (1905-1982) was the prosecutor in the 1973 Watergate investigation of then President Richard Nixon and Zbigniew Brzezinski, born in Warsaw in 1928 and naturalized in 1958, was an important advisor to President Carter from 1977 to 1980 on the National Security Council. The biochemist Casimir Funk (1884-1967) was, in 1912, the first to discover and use the term vitamin his so-called vitamin hypothesis postulated that certain diseases such as scurvy and pellagra resulted from lack of crucial substance in the body Funk also went on to do research in sex hormones and cancer he lived in the United States from 1939 until his death. Dr. Stanley Dudrick developed the important new method of vein feeding termed IHV intravenous hyperalimentation. Many notable Polish Americans have made their names household words in baseball. Included among these are the pitcher Stan Coveleski (1888-1984) whose 17-year career from 1912-1928 earned him a place in the Hall of Fame in 1969 Stan Musial (1920 ), right field, another member of the Baseball Hall of Fame, who played for St. Louis from 1941 to 1963 Carl Yastrzemski (1939 ), left fielder for the Boston Red Sox, was voted to the Hall of Fame in 1989 and Al Simmons (1902-1956), born Aloysius Harry Szymanski, who played center field for the Philadelphia Athletics from 1924-1944. In football there have been numerous outstanding Polish American players and coaches, Chicagos Mike Ditka (1939 ) a stand-out among these, playing as a tight end for the Bears from 1961 to 1972 and later coaching the team to a Super Bowl championship in 1985 a Hall of Fame player, Ditka has most recently worked as a television sports commentator. VISUAL ARTS Korczak Ziolkowski (1909-1982), an assistant to Gutzon Borglum in the monumental Mount Rushmore project in South Dakota, continued that monumental style with a 500-foot by 640-foot statue of Chief Crazy Horse still being blasted out of solid rock in the Black Hills by his family. Dziennik ZwiazkowyPolish Daily News. Published in Polish, it covers national and international news with a special emphasis on matters effecting the Polish American community. Contact: Wojciech Bialasiewicz, Editor. Address: 5711 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646-6215. Telephone: (773) 763-3343. Fax: (773) 763-3825. Address: 5242 West Diversey Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60639. Telephone: (312) 685-1281. Fax: (312) 283-1675. Contact: Andrzej Dobrowolski, Editor. Address: 140 Greenpoint Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11222. Glos PolekPolish Womens Voice. Biweekly publication of the Polish Womens Alliance of America. Contact: Mary Mirecki-Piergies, Editor. Address: 205 South Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068. Fax: (708) 692-2675. Published weekly in Polish, it provides national and international news for the Polish American community as well as information about Polish activities and organizations domestically. Contact: Malgorzata Terentiew-Cwiklinski, Editor. Address: 2619 Post Road, Stevens Point, Wisconsin 54481. Telephone: (715) 345-0744. Fax: (715) 345-1913. Publication of the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America. Contact: Kathryn G. Rosypal, Editor. Address: 984 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60622-4101. Telephone: (773) 278-3210 or (800) 772-8632. Fax: (778) 278-4595. New Horizon: Polish American Review. Contains items of interest to the Polish community. Contact: B. Wierzbianski, Editor. Address: 333 West 38th Street, New York, New York 10018-2914. Telephone: (212) 354-0490. Nowy DziennikPolish Daily News. Contact: Boleslaw Wierzbianski, Editor. Address: 333 West 38th Street, New York, New York 10018-2914. Telephone: (212) 594-2266. Fax: (212) 594-2383 E-mail: listydziennik or deptuladziennik. A Polish American educational and cultural bimonthly. Contact: Krystyna Kusielewicz, Editor. Address: co Marta Korwin Rhodes, 7300 Connecticut Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20815-4930. Telephone: (202) 554-4267. Polish American Journal. Official organ of the Polish Union of the United States. Published monthly, it covers national, international, and regional news of interest to Polish Americans. Contact: Mark Kohan, Editor. Address: 1275 Harlem Road, Buffalo, New York 14206-1960. Telephone: (716) 893-5771. Fax: (716) 893-5783. Polish American Studies. A journal of the Polish American Historical Association devoted to Polish American history and culture. Contact: James S. Pula, Editor. Address: 984 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60622. Polish American World. Published weekly, it reports on activities and events in the Polish American community and on life in Poland. Contact: Thomas Poskropski, Editor. Address: 3100 Grand Boulevard, Baldwin, New York 11510. Telephone: (516) 223-6514. Covers history of Poland, news from Poland, and Polish culture. Contact: Leszek Zielinski, Editor. Address: co Horyzonty, 1924 North Seventh Street, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 53081-2724. Telephone: (715) 341-6959. Fax: (715) 346-7516. Contact: Ray Trzesniewski, Jr. Editor. Address: Polish Festivals, Inc. 7128 West Rawson Avenue, Franklin, Wisconsin 53132. Telephone: (414) 529-2140. A quarterly review of the American Council for Polish Culture. Contact: Wallace M. West, Editor. Address: 6507 107th Terrace, Pinellas Park, Florida 34666-2432. Telephone: (813) 541-7875. Polish Heritage Society Biuletyn. Monthly newsletter of the Polish Heritage Society encourages the preservation and understanding of Polish and Polish American culture and history. Contact: Pat McBride, Editor. Address: P.O. Box 1844, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49501-1844. Telephone: (616) 456-5353. Fax: (616) 456-8929. Scholarly journal of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America devoted to the study of Polish history and culture. Contact: Joseph W. Wieczerzak, Editor. Address: 208 East 30th Street, New York, New York 10016. Telephone: (212) 686-4164. Fax: (212) 545-1130. Swiat PolskiPolish World. Published weekly in Polish. Contact: Ewa Matuszewski, Editor. Address: 11903 Joseph Campau Street, Hamtramck, Michigan 48212. Telephone: (313) 365-1990. Fax: (313) 365-0850. Published by the Polish National Alliance of North America, contains fraternal, cultural, sports, and general news in Polish and English. Contact: Wojciech A. Wierzewski, Editor. Address: 6100 North Cicero Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646-4385. Telephone: (773) 286-0500. Fax: (773) 286-0842. Polish American Programming. Contact: Tom Wotjkowski. Address: 100 North Street, Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201. Telephone: (413) 442-1553. Contact: Dan Kielbasa. Address: 6 Genessee Lane, Amsterdam, New York 12010. Telephone: (518) 843-2500. Polish Sunshine Hour. Contact: Halina Gramza. Address: 5475 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60630. Telephone: (312) 631-0700. TELEVISION Polevision, a daily two-hour show airs between 7:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m. with programs in both Polish and English. Contact: Robert Lewandowski. Address: Board of Trade Building, 141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Telephone: (312) 663-0260. Organizations and Associations American Council for Polish Culture (ACPC). National federation of groups devoted to fostering and preserving Polish ethnic heritage in the United States. Contact: Dr. Kaya Mirecka-Ploss, Executive Director. Address: 2025 O Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036. Telephone: (202) 785-2320. American Institute of Polish Culture (AIPC). Furthers knowledge of and appreciation for the history, science, art, and culture of Poland. Contact: Blanka A. Rosenstiel, President. Address: 1440 79th Street Causeway, Suite 117, Miami, Florida 33141. Telephone: (305) 864-2349. Fax: (305) 865-5150. Polish American Congress (PAC). Umbrella organization for local and national Polish organizations in the United States with more than three million combined members. Promotes improved quality of life for Polish Americans and people in Poland. Contact: Eugene Rosypal, Executive Director. Address: 5711 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60646-6215. Telephone: (773) 763-9944. Fax: (773) 763-7114. Polish American Historical Association (PAHA). Concerned with Polish Americana and the history of Poles in the United States. Address: 984 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60622. Telephone: (773) 384-3352. Fax: (773) 384-3799. Polish Falcons of America. Founded in 1887, the Polish Falcons have a membership of 31,000 in 143 groups or nests. Established as a fraternal benefit insurance society for people of Polish or Slavic descent, the Falcons also took on a strong nationalist sentiment, demanding a free Poland. The society promotes athletic and educational events and provides a scholarship fund for those majoring in physical education. The Falcons also publish a bi-monthly publication in Polish, Sokol Polski. Contact: Wallace Zielinski, President. Address: 615 Iron City Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15205. Telephone: (412) 922-2244. Fax: (412) 922-5029. Polish Genealogical Society of America (PGSA). Promotes Polish genealogical study and establishes communication among researchers. Contact: Stanley R. Schmidt, President. Address: 984 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60622. Polish National Alliance of the United States (PNA). Founded in 1880, the PNA has a membership of 286,000 made up of nearly 1,000 regional groups. Originally founded as a fraternal life insurance society, PNA continues this original role while also sponsoring education and cultural affairs. It maintains a library of 14,000 volumes. Contact: Edward Moskal, President. Address: 6100 North Cicero, Chicago, Illinois 60646-4385. Telephone: (773) 286-0500 or (800) 621-3723. Fax: (773) 286-0842. Polish Roman Catholic Union of America. Founded in 1873, the Roman Catholic Union has a membership of 90,000 in 529 groups. Founded as a fraternal benefit life insurance society, the union sponsors sports and youth activities, and conducts language school as well as dance and childrens programs. It also has a library of 25,000 volumes. Contact: Josephine Szarowicz, Secretary General. Address: 984 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago Illinois 60622. Telephone: (773) 278-3210. Fax: (773) 278-4595. Polish Surname Network (PSN). Collects and disseminates genealogical information on surnames of Polish heritage. Provides fee-based research, research analysis, and translation services. Contact: Mary S. Hartig, Executive Officer. Address: 158 South Walter Avenue, Newbury Park, California 91320. Polish Union of the United States. Founded in 1890, the Polish Union has a membership of 12,000 in 100 groups. This fraternal benefit life insurance society bestows the Copernicus Award to a student excelling in astronomy. Publishes the monthly Polish American Journal. Contact: Wallace S. Piotrowski, President. Address: 4191 North Buffalo Street, Orchard Park, New York 14127-0684. Telephone: (716) 667-9782. Polish Womens Alliance of America. Founded in 1898, the Polish Womens Alliance has a membership of 65,000 in 775 groups or chapters. It is a fraternal benefit life insurance society administered by women and maintains a library of 7,500 volumes on Polish and American culture and history. Contact: Delphine Lytell, Pres. Address: 205 South Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068. Telephone: (708) 384-1200. Fax: (847) 384-1222. Museums and Research Centers Many public libraries, including the Los Angeles Public Library, New York Public LibraryDonnell Library Center, Boston Public Library, Denver Public Library, MiamiDade Public Library, and the Detroit Public Library, have extensive Polish language collections to serve the Polish American communities. American Institute for Polish Culture. Founded in 1972 to promote the appreciation for history, culture, science and art of Poland, the American Institute for Polish Culture sponsors exhibits, lectures, and research and maintains a 1,200-volume library and publishes books on history and biography. Contact: Blank A. Rosenstiel, President. Address: 1440 79th Street, Causeway, Suite 403, Miami, Florida 33141. Telephone: (305) 864-2349. Center for Polish Studies and Culture. Founded in 1970 at St. Marys College, the Center for Polish Studies promotes research in the teaching of Polish and arranges educational exchanges. It also maintains a library, art gallery, and a museum of artifacts from Polish Americans. Contact: Janusz Wrobel. Address: St. Marys College, Orchard Lake, Michigan 48034. Telephone: (810) 682-1885. Founded in 1925, the Kosciuszko Foundation is named after the Polish nobleman who fought in the American revolution. The foundation is a clearing-house for information on Polish and American cultural affairs. Also known as the American Center for Polish Culture, the foundation has a reference library and arranges educational exchanges as well as administers scholarships and stipends. Contact: Joseph E. Gore, President. Address: 15 East 65th Street, New York, New York 10021. Telephone: (212) 734-2130. Polish Museum of America. Founded in 1937, the Polish Museum preserves artifacts of the Polish American experience and mounts displays of costumes, religious artifacts and Polish art. It also maintains a 25,000-volume library for researchers and the Polish American Historical Association which is concerned with the history of Poles in America. Contact: Dr. Christoph Kamyszew, Director and Curator. Address: 984 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60622. Sources for Additional Study Bukowczyk, John. And My Children Did Not Know Me: A History of the Polish-Americans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Fox, Paul. The Poles in America. New York: Arno Press, 1970. Lopata, Helena Znaniecka. Polish Americans: Status Competition in an Ethnic Community, second edition. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transactions Publishers, 1974 reprinted, 1994. Morawska, Ewa. The Maintenance of Ethnicity: A Case Study of the Polish American Community in Greater Boston. San Francisco: RampE Associates 1977. Renkiewicz, Frank. The Poles in America, 1608-1972: A Chronology and Fact Book. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, Inc. 1973. Wytrwal, Joseph. Americas Polish Heritage: A Social History of the Poles in America. Detroit, Michigan: Endurance Press, 1961. Zieleniewicz, Andrzej. Poland, translated, revised, and edited by Robert Strybel, Leonard Chrobot, Robert Geryk, Joseph Swastek, and Walter Ziemba. Orchard Lake, Michigan: Center for Polish Studies and Culture, 1971. User Contributions: Jun 18, 2011 11:23 pm I just came across this article today and noticed my father (Dan Kielbasa) is mentioned in it. Hes is mentioned for his Polka program on WCSS. Im just wondering who stumbled upon my father He was very well know, as was our family for his Polka program. Which he hasnt done it for years. Still to this day when my father is mentioned in conversation I get asked quotIs your father the one who did the polka music in the morningquot Aug 9, 2011 8:20 pm I,a Roman Catholic Pole, have lived in the USA since Im seven and have been educated here since first grade. Throughout my life I have felt a deep respect and fondness for the Jewish people in general, and I have spent much of my life with them. Therefore, I think Im objective when I say that the one thing that is 99 characteristic of the Jews is their Jewish self-identify. No matter from which countries their families had migrated, the present-day American descendants ALWAYS identify themselves as quotJewish.quot Their sense of self identity is not Polish, German, Spanish, French American its always quotJewishquot American. To them, being Jewish is a racial nationality as well as a religion. Thats why feelgood historys comment herein about Ruth Handlers being quotJewishquot (overlooking that her family came from Poland) is in everyday life the way she would be expected to identify herself, i.e. quotJewishquot completely overlooking that she or her family had anything to do with being quotPolish.quot This dynamic seems to be ignored in your articles identifying many of these individuals as Polish Americans. Who ever heard Barbara Walters identify herself as being Polish She always refers to herself as being quotJewish.quot Oct 18, 2011 1:13 pm
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