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Menerbitkan Opsi Saham: Sepuluh Tip untuk Pengusaha oleh Scott Edward Walker pada 11 November 2009 Fred Wilson. VC yang berbasis di New York City, menulis sebuah posting menarik beberapa hari yang lalu berjudul Valuation and Option Pool, di mana dia membahas isu kontroversial tentang dimasukkannya kolam pilihan dalam penilaian pra-uang untuk sebuah startup. Berdasarkan komentar untuk posting tersebut dan pencarian google dari posting terkait, terpikir oleh saya bahwa ada banyak kesalahan informasi di Web sehubungan dengan opsi saham terutama yang berhubungan dengan perusahaan pemula. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari jabatan ini adalah (i) mengklarifikasi isu-isu tertentu sehubungan dengan penerbitan opsi saham dan (ii) memberikan sepuluh tip untuk pengusaha yang merenungkan opsi saham yang diterbitkan sehubungan dengan usaha mereka. 1. Issue Options ASAP. Opsi saham memberi karyawan kunci kesempatan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari kenaikan nilai perusahaan dengan memberi mereka hak untuk membeli saham biasa pada waktu mendatang dengan harga (yaitu harga pelaksanaan atau pemogokan) umumnya sama dengan pasar wajar. Nilai saham tersebut pada saat hibah. Usaha tersebut harus digabungkan dan, sejauh memungkinkan, opsi saham harus dikeluarkan untuk karyawan kunci sesegera mungkin. Jelas, sebagai tonggak yang ditemui oleh perusahaan setelah penggabungannya (misalnya pembuatan prototip, akuisisi pelanggan, pendapatan, dll.), Nilai perusahaan akan meningkat dan dengan demikian nilai saham yang mendasari Stok pilihan Memang, seperti penerbitan saham biasa kepada para pendiri (yang jarang mendapat opsi), penerbitan opsi saham kepada karyawan kunci harus dilakukan sesegera mungkin, bila nilai perusahaan serendah mungkin. 2. Mematuhi Hukum Federal dan State Securities yang Berlaku. Seperti yang telah dibahas di posting saya tentang peluncuran usaha (lihat 6 di sini), perusahaan mungkin tidak menawarkan atau menjual sekuritasnya kecuali jika (i) sekuritas tersebut telah terdaftar di Securities and Exchange Commission dan terdaftar sesuai dengan komisi Negara Bagian yang berlaku atau (ii) di sana Adalah pengecualian yang berlaku dari pendaftaran. Aturan 701, yang diadopsi sesuai dengan Bagian 3 (b) dari Securities Act of 1933, memberikan pengecualian untuk pendaftaran penawaran dan penjualan sekuritas yang dibuat sesuai dengan persyaratan rencana imbalan kompensasi atau kontrak tertulis yang berkaitan dengan kompensasi, asalkan memenuhi Kondisi tertentu. Sebagian besar negara memiliki pengecualian yang sama, termasuk di California, yang mengubah peraturan berdasarkan Bagian 25102 (o) dari Undang-Undang Sekuritas Corporate California tahun 1968 (berlaku mulai 9 Juli 2007) agar sesuai dengan Peraturan 701. Ini mungkin terdengar sedikit sendiri. - Menjaga, tetapi memang penting bahwa pengusaha mencari nasihat dari penasihat berpengalaman sebelum penerbitan sekuritas apa pun, termasuk opsi saham: ketidakpatuhan terhadap undang-undang sekuritas yang berlaku dapat mengakibatkan konsekuensi merugikan yang serius, termasuk hak untuk mencabut kembali Pemegang keamanan (yaitu hak untuk mendapatkan uang mereka kembali), bantuan ganti rugi, denda dan denda, dan kemungkinan penuntutan pidana. 3. Tetapkan Jadwal Waran yang Wajar. Pengusaha harus menetapkan jadwal vesting yang wajar sehubungan dengan opsi saham yang dikeluarkan kepada karyawan untuk memberi insentif kepada karyawan untuk tetap tinggal di perusahaan dan membantu mengembangkan bisnis. Jadwal yang paling umum rompi memiliki persentase pilihan yang sama (25) setiap tahun selama empat tahun, dengan tebing satu tahun (yaitu 25 dari pilihan yang ada setelah 12 bulan) dan kemudian bulanan, triwulanan atau tahunan setelah itu meskipun bulanan mungkin lebih baik Untuk mencegah karyawan yang telah memutuskan untuk meninggalkan perusahaan agar tetap berada di kapal untuk tahap berikutnya. Bagi para eksekutif senior, umumnya ada percepatan sebagian dari vesting atas (i) peristiwa pemicu (yaitu percepatan pemicu tunggal) seperti perubahan kontrol perusahaan atau penghentian tanpa sebab atau (ii) lebih umum, dua peristiwa pemicu (Yaitu percepatan pemicu ganda) seperti perubahan kontrol yang diikuti dengan penghentian tanpa sebab dalam 12 bulan sesudahnya. 4. Pastikan Semua Dokumen Sudah Terurut. Tiga dokumen umumnya harus dirancang sehubungan dengan penerbitan opsi saham: (i) Rencana Opsi Saham, yang merupakan dokumen pemerintah yang berisi persyaratan dan ketentuan opsi yang harus diberikan (ii) Perjanjian Opsi Saham yang akan dilaksanakan oleh Perusahaan dan setiap opsi, yang menentukan pilihan individual yang diberikan, jadwal vesting dan informasi khusus karyawan lainnya (dan umumnya mencakup bentuk Perjanjian Latihan yang dianeksasi sebagai pameran) dan (iii) Pemberitahuan Hibah Opsi Saham yang akan dilaksanakan oleh Perusahaan dan masing-masing pemegang opsi, yang merupakan ringkasan singkat dari persyaratan materi hibah (meskipun Pemberitahuan tersebut bukan merupakan persyaratan). Selain itu, Dewan Direksi Perseroan dan para pemegang saham Perusahaan harus menyetujui penerapan Rencana Opsi Saham dan Dewan atau panitia juga harus menyetujui setiap pemberian opsi, termasuk penentuan Pasar yang wajar dari saham pokok (seperti yang dibahas pada paragraf 6 di bawah). 5. Alokasikan Persentase Wajar kepada Karyawan Kunci. Jumlah opsi saham (yaitu persentase) yang harus dialokasikan kepada karyawan kunci perusahaan umumnya bergantung pada tahap perusahaan. Perusahaan pasca-Series-A-round umumnya akan mengalokasikan opsi saham di kisaran berikut (catatan: jumlah dalam tanda kurung adalah ekuitas rata-rata yang diberikan pada saat disewa berdasarkan hasil survei tahun 2008 yang diterbitkan oleh CompStudy): (i ) CEO 5 sampai 10 (rata-rata dari 5,40) (ii) COO 2 sampai 4 (rata-rata 2,58) (iii) CTO 2 sampai 4 (rata-rata 1,19) (iv) CFO 1 sampai 2 (rata-rata 1,01) (V) Kepala Teknik.5 sampai 1.5 (rata-rata 1.32) dan (vi) Direktur 8211,4 sampai 1 (tidak ada rata-rata tersedia). Seperti yang tercantum dalam paragraf 7 di bawah, pengusaha harus berusaha untuk menjaga agar kolam opsi sekecil mungkin (sambil tetap menarik dan mempertahankan talenta terbaik) untuk menghindari pengenceran yang substansial. 6. Pastikan Harga Latihan Adalah FMV Stok Tertanggung. Berdasarkan Bagian 409A dari Kode Pendapatan Internal, perusahaan harus memastikan bahwa opsi saham yang diberikan sebagai kompensasi memiliki harga pelaksanaan yang setara dengan (atau lebih besar dari) nilai pasar wajar (FMV) dari saham yang mendasari pada tanggal pemberian, Hibah akan dianggap sebagai kompensasi yang ditangguhkan, penerima akan menghadapi konsekuensi pajak yang merugikan dan perusahaan akan memiliki tanggung jawab untuk menahan pajak. Perusahaan dapat menetapkan FMV yang dapat dipertahankan dengan (i) memperoleh penilaian independen atau (ii) jika perusahaan tersebut adalah perusahaan start up yang tidak likuid, bergantung pada penilaian seseorang dengan pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang signifikan atau pelatihan dalam melakukan penilaian serupa (termasuk Karyawan perusahaan), dengan syarat kondisi tertentu terpenuhi. 7. Buat Opsi Pool As Small As Mungkin Hindari Pengenceran Substansial. Seperti banyak pengusaha yang telah belajar (sangat mengejutkan), pemodal ventura menerapkan metodologi yang tidak biasa untuk menghitung harga per saham perusahaan setelah menentukan valuasi pra-uangnya 8212, yaitu nilai total perusahaan dibagi oleh diencerkan sepenuhnya. Jumlah saham yang beredar, yang dianggap tidak hanya mencakup jumlah saham yang saat ini dicadangkan di kolam pilihan karyawan (dengan asumsi ada), namun juga adanya peningkatan ukuran (atau pendirian) kolam yang dibutuhkan oleh investor Untuk penerbitan di masa depan. Para investor biasanya membutuhkan sekitar 15-20 dari kapitalisasi pasca-uang, yang sepenuhnya dilutif perusahaan. Pendiri dengan demikian diencerkan secara substansial oleh metodologi ini, dan satu-satunya cara di sekitarnya, seperti yang dibahas dalam posting yang sangat bagus oleh Venture Hacks, adalah mencoba untuk menyimpan kolam pilihan sekecil mungkin (sambil tetap menarik dan mempertahankan bakat terbaik). Ketika bernegosiasi dengan para investor, pengusaha karenanya harus mempersiapkan dan menyajikan rencana perekrutan yang ukuran kolam sekecil mungkin misalnya, jika perusahaan sudah memiliki CEO di tempat, pilihan kolam bisa cukup dikurangi hingga mendekati 10 pos. -money kapitalisasi 8. Opsi Saham Insentif Mungkin Hanya Dibagikan ke Karyawan. Ada dua jenis opsi saham: (i) opsi saham tidak memenuhi syarat (NSO) dan (ii) opsi saham insentif (ISO). Perbedaan utama antara NSO dan ISO berkaitan dengan cara mereka dikenai pajak: (i) pemegang NSO mengakui pendapatan biasa pada saat pelaksanaan pilihan mereka (terlepas dari apakah persediaan yang mendasarinya segera dijual) dan (ii) pemegang ISO tidak Kenali penghasilan kena pajak sampai saham yang mendasarinya dijual (walaupun kewajiban Pajak Minimum Alternatif dapat dipicu pada pelaksanaan opsi) dan diberi imbalan modal jika saham yang diperoleh pada saat pelaksanaan opsi diadakan lebih dari satu tahun setelah Tanggal pelaksanaan dan tidak dijual sebelum ulang tahun dua tahun dari tanggal pemberian opsi (jika memenuhi persyaratan tertentu lainnya yang terpenuhi). ISO kurang umum dibandingkan NSO (karena perlakuan akuntansi dan faktor lainnya) dan hanya dapat dikeluarkan untuk karyawan NSO dapat dikeluarkan untuk karyawan, direksi, konsultan dan penasihat. 9. Berhati-hatilah saat Menghentikan Karyawan di Tempat yang Memegang Pilihan. Ada sejumlah klaim potensial yang akan diberikan karyawan untuk relatif terhadap opsi saham mereka jika tidak diberhentikan tanpa alasan, termasuk klaim melanggar perjanjian tersirat itikad baik dan transaksi yang adil. Oleh karena itu, atasan harus berhati-hati saat memberhentikan karyawan yang memegang opsi saham, terutama jika penghentian tersebut terjadi mendekati tanggal vesting. Memang, akan lebih bijaksana jika memasukkan dalam perjanjian opsi saham pemegang saham tertentu bahwa: (i) karyawan tersebut tidak berhak atas pembalasan pro rata saat penghentian karena alasan apapun, dengan atau tanpa alasan dan (ii) karyawan tersebut dapat dihentikan Kapanpun sebelum tanggal vesting tertentu, dimana dia akan kehilangan semua hak atas opsi yang tidak terverifikasi. Jelas, setiap penghentian harus dianalisis berdasarkan kasus per kasus, bagaimanapun, sangat penting bahwa penghentian dibuat dengan alasan yang sah dan tidak diskriminatif. 10. Pertimbangkan Menerbitkan Saham Terbatas sebagai pengganti Opsi. Untuk perusahaan tahap awal, penerbitan saham terbatas kepada karyawan kunci mungkin merupakan alternatif yang baik untuk opsi saham karena tiga alasan utama: (i) saham terbatas tidak tunduk pada Bagian 409A (lihat paragraf 6 di atas) (ii) saham terbatas adalah Bisa dibilang lebih baik dalam memotivasi karyawan untuk berpikir dan bertindak seperti pemilik (karena karyawan benar-benar menerima saham biasa perusahaan, walaupun tunduk pada vesting) dan dengan demikian lebih sesuai dengan kepentingan tim dan (iii) karyawan akan dapat Mendapatkan perawatan keuntungan modal dan masa jabatan dimulai pada tanggal pemberian hibah, asalkan karyawan tersebut mengajukan sebuah pemilihan berdasarkan Bagian 83 (b) dari Internal Revenue Code. (Sebagaimana tercantum dalam paragraf 8 di atas, pemegang opsi hanya akan dapat memperoleh perawatan capital gain jika dikeluarkan dalam ISO dan kemudian memenuhi persyaratan tertentu). Kelemahan dari saham terbatas adalah bahwa pada saat pengajuan pemilihan 83 (b) Vesting, jika tidak ada pemilihan seperti itu telah diajukan), karyawan tersebut dianggap memiliki penghasilan yang sama dengan nilai pasar wajar maka saham tersebut. Dengan demikian, jika saham memiliki nilai tinggi, karyawan tersebut mungkin memiliki pendapatan signifikan dan mungkin tidak memiliki uang tunai untuk membayar pajak yang berlaku. Oleh karena itu, penerbitan saham terbatas tidak menarik kecuali jika nilai saham saat ini sangat rendah sehingga dampak pajak langsungnya bersifat nominal (misalnya segera mengikuti penggabungan perusahaan). Daftar Istilah Pilihan Diperbarui 1 Jan 2017 Indeks berdasarkan urutan alfabet Akumulasi - Ketika saham mulai Bergerak menyamping setelah penurunan yang signifikan saat investor mulai terakumulasi. Adjusted Options - Opsi saham non-standar dengan persyaratan yang disesuaikan untuk harga pada perubahan besar dalam struktur modal saham yang mendasarinya. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Adjusted Options. All-or-None (AON) Order - Perintah yang harus benar-benar terisi atau tidak akan dieksekusi. Ini adalah urutan yang berguna untuk pedagang opsi yang mengeksekusi strategi opsi kompleks yang perlu diisi dengan tepat. Jenis Perintah Pilihan Dijelaskan. Opsi Gaya Amerika - Kontrak opsi yang dapat dilakukan setiap saat antara tanggal pembelian dan tanggal kadaluwarsa. Sebagian besar pilihan yang diperdagangkan di bursa adalah gaya Amerika. Baca Tutorial Pada Pilihan Gaya Amerika. Arbitrase - Pembelian dan penjualan instrumen keuangan secara simultan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari perbedaan harga. Pedagang opsi sering mencari perbedaan harga dari kontrak opsi yang sama antara opsi pertukaran yang berbeda, sehingga menguntungkan dari perdagangan bebas risiko. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Opsi Arbitrase. Mintalah Harga - Seperti yang digunakan dalam penawaran frase dan menanyakannya adalah harga di mana penjual potensial bersedia menjual. Cara lain untuk mengatakan ini adalah harga yang diminta untuk apa yang seseorang jual. Anda membeli kontrak opsi dan saham pada harga Ask mereka. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Pilihan Harga. Tetapkan - untuk menunjuk seorang penulis pilihan untuk memenuhi kewajibannya menjual saham (call option writer) atau membeli saham (put option writer). Penulis menerima pemberitahuan tugas dari Options Clearing Corporation. Read More About Options Assignment. Pada Uang - Bila harga opsi pemogokan sama dengan harga saham yang berlaku. Read More About At The Money Options. Latihan Otomatis - Prosedur perlindungan dimana Opsi Kliring Corporation mencoba melindungi pemegang opsi uang yang habis masa berlakunya dengan secara otomatis menggunakan opsi atas nama pemegangnya. Perdagangan otomatis - Kesepakatan tiga arah agar broker pilihan Anda secara otomatis melakukan perdagangan yang direkomendasikan oleh layanan penasihat pilihan Anda. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Auto-Trading. Backspread - lihat Reverse Strategy. Baca Selengkapnya Tentang Backspreads. Barrier Options - Pilihan eksotik yang ada atau tidak ada saat harga tertentu tercapai. Read More About Barrier Options Berikut Bearish - Pendapat yang memperkirakan penurunan harga, baik oleh pasar umum atau oleh saham biasa, atau keduanya. Strategi Opsi Bearish - Berbagai cara untuk menggunakan opsi agar keuntungan dari pergerakan ke bawah di saham yang mendasarinya. Baca tutorial tentang Strategi Opsi Bearish. Bear Spread - strategi pilihan yang membuat keuntungan maksimalnya saat stok dasar menurun dan memiliki risiko maksimal jika harga saham naik. Strategi tersebut dapat diimplementasikan dengan baik menempatkan atau memanggil. Dalam kedua kasus, opsi dengan harga mencolok yang lebih tinggi dibeli dan satu dengan harga mencolok lebih rendah dijual, kedua opsi umumnya memiliki tanggal kedaluwarsa yang sama. Lihat juga Bull Spread. Strategi Opsi Perpustakaan. Bear Trap - Ada pergerakan turun yang secara teknis belum dikonfirmasi yang mendorong investor untuk bearish. Biasanya mendahului demonstrasi yang kuat dan sering menangkap orang yang tidak waspada. Beta - Angka yang menunjukkan kecenderungan historis dari harga saham bergerak dengan pasar saham secara keseluruhan. Harga Penawaran - Harga pembelian calon pembeli dari Anda. Ini berarti Anda menjual dengan Harga Penawaran. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Pilihan Harga. BidAsk Spread - Perbedaan antara harga penawaran dan permintaan yang berlaku. Umumnya, kontrak pilihan yang lebih likuid cenderung memiliki BidAsk Spread yang lebih ketat sementara kontrak opsi yang kurang likuid dan diperdagangkan tipis cenderung memiliki BidAsk Spread yang lebih luas. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Pilihan Harga. Pilihan Biner - Pilihan yang memberi Anda pengembalian tetap pada saat berakhirnya uang dengan kadaluarsa atau tidak sama sekali. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Binary Options. Model Black-Scholes - Rumus matematika yang dirancang untuk memberi harga opsi sebagai fungsi dari variabel tertentu - umumnya harga saham, harga yang mencolok, volatilitas, waktu sampai kadaluarsa, dividen harus dibayar, dan tingkat bunga bebas risiko saat ini. Baca lebih lanjut tentang model Black-Scholes. Box Spread - Strategi perdagangan berkaki 4 yang kompleks dimaksudkan untuk memanfaatkan perbedaan harga opsi dengan arbitrase bebas risiko. Pelajari lebih lanjut tentang Spread Kotak. Break-Even Point-harga saham (atau harga) di mana strategi tertentu tidak membuat atau kehilangan uang. Ini umumnya berkaitan dengan hasilnya pada tanggal kedaluwarsa pilihan yang terlibat dalam strategi. Titik impas quotdynamicquot adalah titik yang berubah seiring berjalannya waktu. Luas - Jumlah bersih saham naik dibandingkan yang menurun. Bila uang muka melebihi penurunan luasnya pasar. Bila penurunannya melebihi kemajuan pasar sedang menurun. Breakout - Apa yang terjadi bila harga saham atau rata-rata bergerak di atas level resistance tinggi sebelumnya atau di bawah level support rendah sebelumnya. Kemungkinan besar tren akan terus berlanjut. Bullish - Pendapat di mana seseorang mengharapkan kenaikan harga, baik oleh pasar umum atau oleh keamanan individual. Strategi Opsi Bullish - Berbagai cara untuk menggunakan opsi agar keuntungan dari pergerakan ke atas di saham yang mendasarinya. Baca tutorial tentang Bullish Options Strategies. Bull Call Spread - Strategi opsi bullish yang bertujuan untuk mengurangi biaya dimuka untuk membeli opsi beli agar keuntungan dari saham yang diperkirakan akan naik moderat. Baca Tutorial di Bull Call Spread. Bull Spread - strategi pilihan yang mencapai potensi maksimal jika keamanan yang mendasarinya meningkat cukup jauh, dan memiliki risiko maksimum jika keamanan jatuh cukup jauh. Pilihan dengan harga mencolok lebih rendah dibeli dan satu dengan harga mencolok yang lebih tinggi terjual, keduanya umumnya memiliki tanggal kedaluwarsa yang sama. Entah penempatan atau panggilan bisa digunakan untuk strategi itu. Strategi Opsi Perpustakaan. Bull Trap - Secara teknis belum dikonfirmasi pergerakan ke sisi atas yang mendorong investor untuk bullish. Biasanya mendahului penurunan penting dan sering membodohi orang yang tidak menunggu konfirmasi bentuk oleh indikator lainnya. Butterfly Spread - Strategi pilihan netral yang memiliki risiko terbatas dan potensi keuntungan terbatas, dibangun dengan menggabungkan spread banteng dan spread beruang. Tiga strike price terlibat, dengan dua yang lebih rendah digunakan dalam spread bull dan dua yang lebih tinggi dalam spread beruang. Strategi yang dapat dibangun dengan menempatkan atau memanggil ada empat cara yang berbeda untuk menggabungkan opsi untuk membangun posisi dasar yang sama. Pelajari Segalanya Tentang Spread Butterfly. Buy To Open - Untuk membuat posisi pilihan dengan berjalan lama. Baca tutorial Buy To Open. Hubungi - lihat Opsi Panggilan. Call Broken Wing Butterfly Spread - Kupu-kupu Spread dengan profil riskreward miring yang membuat tidak ada kerugian atau bahkan sedikit kredit ketika stok yang mendasarinya turun ke sisi negatif. Hal ini dicapai dengan membeli pemogokan lebih jauh dari opsi panggilan uang daripada spread kupu-kupu biasa. Baca tutorial Call Broken Wing Butterfly Spread. Hubungi Broken Wing Condor Spread - Spread Condor dengan profil berisiko tinggi yang tidak menimbulkan kerugian atau bahkan sedikit pun kecemasan saat stok yang mendasarinya turun ke sisi negatif. Hal ini dicapai dengan membeli pemogokan lebih jauh dari opsi panggilan uang daripada spread Condor biasa. Baca tutorial Call Broken Wing Condor Spread. Call Ratio Backspread - Strategi trading opsi kredit dengan keuntungan tak terbatas ke atas dan keuntungan yang terbatas terhadap downside melalui pembelian lebih banyak dari panggilan uang daripada dalam panggilan uang adalah korsleting. Baca tutorial tentang Call Ratio Backspread. Call Ratio Spread - Strategi trading opsi kredit dengan kemampuan untuk mendapatkan keuntungan saat saham naik, turun atau miring melalui korslet lebih banyak dari panggilan uang daripada di money call yang dibeli. Baca tutorial tentang Call Ratio Spread. Call Time Spread - nama lain untuk Call Calendar Spread. Strategi Pilihan Trading dimana pilihan call jangka panjang dibeli dan opsi call jangka pendek ditulis untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari kerusakan waktu. Baca tutorial tentang Call Time Spread. Called Away - Proses dimana penulis opsi panggilan diwajibkan menyerahkan saham yang mendasarinya kepada pembeli opsi dengan harga yang sama dengan harga strike dari opsi call. Baca tutorial tentang Called Away. Penyebaran Kalender - Jenis strategi perdagangan opsi yang menggunakan kombinasi opsi dengan tanggal kedaluwarsa yang berbeda untuk mendapatkan keuntungan terutama dari kerusakan waktu. Baca semua tentang Spread Kalender. Kalender Straddle or Combination - Strategi pilihan netral yang kompleks yang melibatkan pembelian straddle jangka panjang dan penjualan straddle jangka pendek. Baca semua tentang Kalender Straddle. Kalender Strangle - Strategi pilihan netral yang kompleks yang melibatkan pembelian tali silindris jangka panjang dan penjualan kopling jangka pendek. Baca semua tentang Kalender Strangle. Call Options - Pilihan yang memberi pemegang hak untuk membeli keamanan yang mendasarinya pada harga tertentu untuk jangka waktu tertentu dan tetap. Baca Semua Tentang Opsi Panggilan. Kapitalisasi - Jumlah total surat berharga yang dikeluarkan oleh perusahaan. Ini mungkin termasuk: obligasi, surat hutang, saham preferen, saham biasa dan surplus. Cash Secured Put - Pilihan opsi singkat yang sepenuhnya tertutup oleh uang tunai yang diperlukan dalam hal penugasan. Baca Semua Tentang Cash Secured Put. Cash Settlement Cash Disampaikan - Pilihan yang, bila dilakukan, memberikan keuntungan secara tunai dan bukan aset yang mendasarinya. Baca Semua Tentang Opsi Tunai Tunai. CBOE - The Chicago Board Options Pertukaran pertukaran nasional pertama untuk perdagangan opsi saham yang terdaftar. CBOE VIX - Lihat VIX. Rantai - Daftar opsi mengutip harga mogok ganda. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Options Chains. Class of Options - Kontrak pilihan dengan jenis dan gaya yang sama yang mencakup aset dasar yang sama. Tutup - Periode pada akhir hari perdagangan dimana harga akhir untuk hari dihitung. Closing Order - Pembelian kembali atau jual dari opsi dimana option trader memiliki posisi berlawanan. Seorang pedagang opsi yang menulis opsi panggilan akan melakukan perintah penutupan dengan membeli untuk menutup opsi panggilan tersebut. Seorang pedagang opsi yang membeli opsi call akan melakukan perintah penutupan dengan menjual untuk menutup opsi itu. Jenis Perintah Pilihan Dijelaskan. Condor Spread - Strategi pilihan netral yang kompleks yang mendapatkan keuntungan dari perdagangan saham dalam kisaran yang telah ditentukan. Baca Semua Tentang Condor Spreads Berikut Contango - Istilah yang berasal dari pasar minyak. Ini terjadi ketika volatilitas di bulan yang akan datang lebih tinggi daripada volatilitas sekuritas yang lebih dekat. Hal ini menunjukkan kondisi pasar yang normal. Contingent Order - Perintah pilihan yang dapat disesuaikan yang memicu kontingen terhadap pemenuhan kriteria yang telah ditentukan. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Pesanan Kontingen. Koreksi - Bila harga saham turun sementara sebelum rebound nanti. Contract Size - Jumlah underlying asset yang tercakup dalam kontrak opsi. Ini umumnya 100. Jika sebuah opsi dikutip untuk 2.50, maka satu kontrak akan menelan biaya 2,50 x 100 250 dan akan mencakup 100 saham. Kontrak Neutral Hedging - Teknik lindung nilai statis yang melibatkan pembelian 1 put option atau selling 1 call option untuk setiap 1 saham yang dipegang. Read More About Kontrak Neutral Hedging Disini Bertentangan Pendapat - Keyakinan yang berlawanan dengan masyarakat umum dan atau Wall Street. Hal ini paling signifikan pada titik balik pasar utama. Konsensus keseluruhan pendapat, apakah bullish atau bearish, biasanya menandai ekstrem. Investor yang mengambil pandangan sebaliknya biasanya akan mendapatkan keuntungan pada waktunya. Konversi - Transformasi posisi saham lama menjadi posisi yang pendek dengan opsi saham, tanpa menutup posisi stok lama yang asli, melalui penggunaan posisi sintetis. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Konversi. Konsolidasi - Ketika saham mulai bergerak ke samping setelah kenaikan yang signifikan karena investor mulai menjual sebagian kepemilikan mereka untuk mengambil keuntungan. Rentang Kontrak - Harga tertinggi dan terendah yang ditawarkan kontrak opsi. Cari tahu lebih lanjut tentang Rentang Kontrak. Cover - untuk membeli kembali sebagai transaksi penutupan pilihan yang awalnya ditulis. Covered Call Write - strategi di mana seseorang menulis opsi panggilan sambil secara bersamaan memiliki jumlah saham yang sama. Baca Semua Tentang Panggilan Tercakup di Sini Covered Put Write - strategi di mana seseorang menjual opsi put dan bersamaan juga memiliki jumlah saham yang sama dengan keamanan yang mendasarinya. Pelajari Segalanya Tentang Tempat Tercakup. Cover Straddle Cover - istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan strategi di mana investor memiliki keamanan yang mendasarinya dan juga menulis sebuah pengangkangan mengenai keamanan tersebut. Ini bukan posisi yang tertutup. Covered Waran - istilah yang digunakan untuk waran terstruktur yang bekerja hampir sama persis dengan opsi panggilan dan opsi put. Baca tentang Perbedaan Antara Opsi Waran. Kredit - Uang diterima di rekening. Transaksi kredit adalah transaksi dimana hasil penjualan bersih lebih besar daripada hasil pembelian bersih (biaya), sehingga menghasilkan uang ke dalam rekening. Ada banyak pilihan strategi kredit. Baca Semua Tentang Debit Dan Spreads Kredit Disini Credit Spread-A Credit Spread position adalah pilihan spread dimana hasil penjualan bersih lebih besar daripada hasil beli bersih (cost), sehingga membawa uang masuk ke akun. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Spread Kredit. Day Order - Perintah yang akan berakhir pada akhir hari perdagangan jika tidak dijalankan. Baca Semua Tentang Pilihan Pesanan Disini Day trader Daytrader - Pedagang yang membuka dan menutup posisi opsi atau beberapa opsi posisi semua dalam perdagangan yang sama. Day trading Daytrading - Trading methodolody yang melibatkan pembuatan beberapa trading yang dibuka dan ditutup semua dalam trading yang sama. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Options Trading Styles. Debit - Biaya, atau uang yang dibayarkan dari rekening. Transaksi debet adalah satu di mana biaya bersihnya lebih besar dari hasil penjualan bersih. Debit Spread - Option menyebar dimana Anda harus membayar uang untuk dipakai. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Debit Spreads. Peluruhan - Lihat Delay Hasil Peluruhan Waktu - Aset keuangan yang diserahkan ke pemegang opsi saat opsi dieksekusi. Delta - jumlah dimana harga option146 akan berubah untuk perubahan harga yang sesuai oleh entitas yang mendasarinya. Pilihan panggilan memiliki delta positif, sementara opsi put memiliki delta negatif. Secara teknis, delta adalah ukuran sesaat dari perubahan harga option146, sehingga delta akan diubah bahkan untuk perubahan pecahan oleh entitas yang mendasarinya. Akibatnya, persyaratan deltaquot dan deltaquot deltaquot mungkin berlaku. Mereka menggambarkan perubahan opsi146 setelah perubahan harga 1 poin penuh oleh keamanan yang mendasarinya-baik naik atau turun. Deltaquot kuota mungkin lebih besar daripada deltaquot quotdown untuk opsi panggilan, sementara kebalikannya benar untuk opsi meletakkan. Untuk penjelasan lebih rinci tentang Delta dan opsi lainnya, silakan masuk ke Options Delta. Delta Netral - Bila pilihan delta positif dan opsi delta negatif saling mengimbangi untuk menghasilkan posisi yang tidak menghasilkan atau menurunkan nilainya karena saham yang mendasarinya bergerak sedikit ke atas atau ke bawah. Posisi seperti itu akan mengembalikan keuntungan tidak peduli ke arah mana saham mendasar akhirnya bergerak selama pergerakan tersebut signifikan. Pelajari Cara Melakukan Netral Delta Netral. Delta Spread - Rasio spread yang ditetapkan sebagai posisi netral dengan memanfaatkan delta pilihan yang ada. Rasio netral ditentukan dengan membagi delta dari opsi yang dibeli oleh delta dari opsi tertulis. Derivatif - Instrumen keuangan yang nilainya berasal dari nilai dan karakteristik instrumen keuangan lainnya. Contoh derivatif adalah opsi, futures dan waran. Diagonal Call Time Spread - Strategi perdagangan opsi netral yang memanfaatkan terutama melalui peluruhan waktu dengan membeli opsi call money jangka panjang dan shorting jangka pendek dari opsi panggilan uang terhadap mereka. Baca Tutorial Diagonal Call Time Spread. Spread Diagonal - Pilihan tersebar pada jenis yang sama, sama namun bulan kedaluwarsa dan pemogokan yang berbeda. Baca Tutorial Spread Diagonal. Diskon - Opsi diperdagangkan dengan harga diskon jika diperdagangkan kurang dari nilai intrinsiknya. Masa depan diperdagangkan dengan harga diskon jika diperdagangkan dengan harga di bawah harga tunai dari indeks atau komoditas yang mendasarinya. Lihat juga Nilai Intrinsik dan Paritas. Broker Diskon - Perusahaan pialang yang menawarkan tarif komisi rendah. Dapatkan Daftar Broker Opsi Di Sini Dividen - Ketika perusahaan membayar bagian keuntungan kepada pemegang saham yang ada. Bagian keuntungan ini mungkin berupa uang atau opsi. Baca tentang Efek Dividen pada Stock Options. Perlindungan Downside - Umumnya digunakan sehubungan dengan penulisan panggilan tertutup, ini adalah bantalan terhadap kerugian, jika terjadi penurunan harga akibat keamanan mendasar, yang diberikan oleh opsi panggilan tertulis. Sebagai alternatif, dapat dinyatakan dalam jarak pandang saham bisa jatuh sebelum posisi total menjadi kerugian (jumlah sama dengan premi opsi), atau dapat dinyatakan sebagai persentase dari harga saham saat ini. Dynamic Hedging - Teknik lindung nilai yang mengharuskan terus menyeimbangkan kembali untuk mempertahankan rasio lindung nilai. Latihan Dini (tugas) - Latihan atau penugasan kontrak opsi sebelum tanggal kadaluwarsa. Opsi Saham Karyawan - Opsi saham yang diberikan kepada karyawan oleh perusahaan mereka sebagai alat kompensasi dan insentif. Selengkapnya Tentang Opsi Saham Karyawan. Opsi Ekuitas - Opsi yang memiliki saham biasa sebagai keamanan mendasarnya. ETF - Exchange Traded Funds. Dana terbuka yang bisa diperdagangkan berdasarkan bursa seperti saham. ETF memungkinkan investor berinvestasi dalam berbagai instrumen lain seperti emas dan perak seperti berinvestasi di saham. Latihan Eropa - Fitur pilihan yang menetapkan bahwa opsi tersebut hanya dapat dilakukan pada saat kadaluarsa. Oleh karena itu, tidak ada tugas awal dengan jenis pilihan ini. Baca Tutorial Pada Pilihan Gaya Eropa. Latihan - Memanggil hak yang diberikan berdasarkan persyaratan kontrak opsi yang tercantum. Pemegangnya adalah orang yang latihan. Pemegang panggilan berolahraga untuk membeli keamanan yang mendasarinya, sementara menempatkan pemegang latihan untuk menjual keamanan yang mendasarinya. Baca tutorial tentang cara Mempraktikkan Opsi. Batasan Latihan - Batas jumlah kontrak dimana pemegang dapat berolahraga dalam jangka waktu tertentu. Ditetapkan oleh pertukaran opsi yang tepat, ini dirancang untuk mencegah investor atau kelompok investor dari penawaran saham di pasar. Harga Latihan - Harga di mana pemegang opsi dapat membeli atau menjual keamanan yang mendasarinya, sebagaimana didefinisikan dalam persyaratan kontrak pilihannya. Ini adalah harga di mana pemegang panggilan dapat berolahraga untuk membeli keamanan yang mendasarinya atau pemegang put mungkin berolahraga untuk menjual keamanan yang mendasarinya. Untuk opsi yang tercantum, harga pelaksanaannya sama dengan Harga Strike. Return yang Diharapkan - Analisis matematis yang agak rumit yang melibatkan distribusi harga saham secara statistik, kembalinya investor yang diharapkan melakukan investasi jika ingin melakukan investasi yang sama persis sepanjang sejarah. Tanggal Kadaluarsa - Hari dimana kontrak opsi menjadi tidak berlaku lagi. Tanggal kedaluwarsa untuk opsi saham yang terdaftar adalah hari Sabtu setelah Jumat ketiga bulan kedaluwarsa. Semua pemegang opsi harus menunjukkan keinginan mereka untuk berolahraga, jika mereka ingin melakukannya, pada tanggal ini. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Options Expiration. Waktu Kadaluarsa - Waktu dimana semua pemberitahuan latihan harus diterima pada tanggal kadaluarsa. Secara teknis, waktu kadaluwarsa saat ini adalah 5:00 PM pada tanggal kadaluarsa, namun pemegang opsi kontrak publik harus menunjukkan keinginan mereka untuk melakukan latihan paling lambat pukul 17.30 pada hari kerja sebelum tanggal kadaluarsa. Waktunya adalah Waktu Timur. Kedaluwarsa Tidak Berharga - Bila opsi uang kehilangan seluruh nilainya dan akan berakhir pada hari kedaluwarsa. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Expire Worthless. Nilai Ekstrinsik - Juga dikenal sebagai Nilai Premium atau Nilai Sisa. Ini adalah perbedaan antara harga opsi dan nilai intrinsik. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Nilai Ekstrinsik. Nilai Wajar - Istilah yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan nilai opsi atau kontrak futures seperti yang ditentukan oleh model matematis. Fiduciary Call - Pilihan strategi perdagangan yang membeli opsi panggilan sebagai pengganti pelindung atau menikah dimasukkan ke dalam proporsi yang sama. Read More About Fiduciary Calls Here Financial Instrument - Dokumen fisik atau elektronik yang memiliki nilai uang intrinsik atau nilai transfer. Misalnya, uang tunai, saham, futures, opsi dan logam mulia adalah instrumen keuangan. Frontspreads - Pilihan strategi yang dirancang untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari kondisi pasar yang netral dimana harga berubah sangat sedikit. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Frontspreads. Analisis Fundamental - Suatu metode untuk menganalisis prospek keamanan dengan mengamati ukuran akuntansi yang diterima seperti pendapatan, penjualan, aset, dan sebagainya. Gamma - Tingkat perubahan opsi saham delta untuk satu unit perubahan harga saham yang mendasarinya. Baca Semua Tentang Pilihan Gamma. Gamma Netral - Posisi yang memiliki nol atau mendekati nilai gamma nol sehingga nilai delta posisi tetap stagnan tidak peduli bagaimana pergerakan stok dasarnya. Baca Semua Tentang Gamma Netral. Ekonomi Goldilock - Ekonomi yang memiliki pertumbuhan stabil dan inflasi moderat yang tidak terlalu panas atau dingin dan memungkinkan kebijakan pasar saham ramah moneter. Bagus sampai Dibatalkan (GTC) - Penunjukan diterapkan pada beberapa jenis pesanan, yang berarti pesanan tetap berlaku sampai diisi atau dibatalkan. Baca Semua Tentang Pilihan Pesanan Disini Pergi Maju - Analis Jargon. Berarti Di Masa Depan. 12 bulan kedepan berarti 12 bulan kedepan. Orang Yunani - Satu set kriteria matematis yang terlibat dalam perhitungan harga opsi saham. Silahkan baca lebih lanjut tentang Option Greek. Grocession - Berkepanjangan periode 0 sampai 2 pertumbuhan PDB yang akan terasa seperti resesi. Hedge - Transaksi yang akan melindungi terhadap kerugian melalui pergerakan harga kompensasi. Baca Semua Tentang Hedging Here Hedge Ratio - Jumlah matematis yang sama dengan delta pilihan. Hal ini berguna dalam fasilitasi bahwa lindung nilai secara teoritis tanpa risiko dapat dibentuk dengan mengambil posisi offset di saham yang mendasarinya dan panggilannya atau opsi put. Baca Semua Tentang Hedge Ratio Disini Volatilitas Historis - Volatilitas pergerakan harga terakhir dari underlying asset. Juga dikenal sebagai Realiz Volatility. Call Time Horisontal - Strategi pilihan di mana jangka panjang pada opsi panggilan uang dibeli dan jangka pendek pada opsi panggilan uang ditulis untuk keuntungan bila stok dasarnya tetap stagnan. Baca tutorial tentang Horizontal Call Time Spread. Horizontal Put Time Spread - Strategi pilihan di mana jangka waktu lebih lama pada opsi put uang dibeli dan jangka pendek pada opsi put uang ditulis untuk keuntungan bila stok dasarnya tetap stagnan. Baca tutorial Horizontal Put Time Spread. Spread Horisontal - Strategi opsi dimana opsi memiliki harga strike yang sama, namun tanggal kedaluwarsa yang berbeda. Volatilitas Tersirat - Ukuran volatilitas saham yang mendasarinya, ditentukan dengan menggunakan harga yang saat ini ada di pasar pada saat itu, daripada menggunakan data historis mengenai perubahan harga saham yang mendasarinya. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Volatilitas Tersirat. Incremental Return Concept - Strategi penulisan call yang tertutup dimana investor berusaha mendapatkan imbal hasil tambahan dari opsi menulis terhadap posisi saham yang ditargetkan untuk dijual-mungkin pada harga yang jauh lebih tinggi. Index - Kompilasi harga beberapa entitas umum menjadi satu nomor. Opsi Indeks - Opsi yang underlying asset adalah indeks, bukan aset keras seperti saham. Sebagian besar opsi indeks berbasis kas. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Index Options. Dalam Uang - Sebuah istilah yang menjelaskan kontrak pilihan yang memiliki nilai intrinsik. Pilihan panggilan adalah in-the-money jika keamanan yang mendasarinya lebih tinggi daripada harga pemogokan panggilan. Opsi put adalah in-the-money jika keamanan di bawah harga strike. Baca SEMUA Tentang Opsi Uang di sini. Nilai Intrinsik - Nilai opsi jika segera berakhir dengan harga pokok pada harga saat ini, jumlah opsi yang ada di dalam uang. Untuk opsi panggilan, ini adalah perbedaan antara harga saham dan harga yang mencolok, jika perbedaan itu adalah angka positif, atau nol sebaliknya. Untuk menempatkan pilihan itu adalah perbedaan antara harga mencolok dan harga saham, jika perbedaan itu positif, dan nol sebaliknya. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Nilai Intrinsik Hari Perdagangan Terakhir - Jumat ketiga bulan kedaluwarsa. Opsi berhenti perdagangan pukul 15:00 waktu Timur pada hari perdagangan terakhir. Leg - (Verb) Metode berorientasi risiko untuk membangun posisi dua sisi. Daripada melakukan transaksi simultan untuk menetapkan posisi (spread, misalnya), trader pertama kali mengeksekusi satu sisi posisi, berharap bisa mengeksekusi sisi lain di lain waktu dan harga yang lebih baik. Resiko terwujud dari kenyataan bahwa harga yang lebih baik mungkin tidak akan pernah tersedia, dan harga yang lebih buruk akhirnya harus diterima. (Noun) Dalam strategi pilihan yang melibatkan banyak pilihan, setiap tipe opsi dikenal sebagai kaki. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Opsi Leg Legging - Memasuki setiap kaki pilihan posisi perdagangan yang kompleks secara terpisah dan terpisah. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Legging LEAPS - Efek Bersifat Ekuitas Jangka Panjang. Cukup katakan, itu adalah pilihan kontrak yang berakhir 1 tahun atau lebih di masa depan. Terkadang kontrak opsi yang kedaluwarsa 6 bulan sampai satu tahun kemudian juga dikenal sebagai LEAPS. Baca lebih lanjut tentangLEAPs. Level II Quotes - Kutipan waktu nyata yang diberikan oleh NASDAQ yang menguraikan tawaran tertentu meminta spread yang diberikan oleh masing-masing pembuat pasar. Baca Semua Tentang Level II Quotes Here. Leverage - Dalam investasi, pencapaian persentase keuntungan dan potensi risiko lebih besar. Pemegang panggilan memiliki pengaruh terhadap pemegang saham - yang pertama akan memiliki persentase keuntungan dan kerugian yang lebih besar daripada yang terakhir, untuk pergerakan yang sama dengan saham yang mendasarinya. Baca Tentang Cara Menghitung Pilihan Leverage. Batasi - Lihat Batas Perdagangan. Limit Order - Perintah untuk membeli atau menjual sekuritas dengan harga tertentu (limit). Baca lebih lanjut tentang Limit Order. Likuiditas Cair - Kemudahan dimana pembelian atau penjualan bisa dilakukan tanpa mengganggu harga pasar yang ada. Baca Tentang Apa yang Mempengaruhi Opsi Saham Likuiditas Berikut Opsi yang Terdaftar - Opsi put atau call yang diperdagangkan di bursa opsi nasional. Opsi yang terdaftar memiliki harga dan tanggal kadaluarsa yang tetap. Panjang - Menjadi panjang adalah memiliki sesuatu. Baca lebih lanjut tentang Posisi Pilihan Panjang. LookBack Options - Pilihan eksotis yang memungkinkan pemegangnya melihat Kembali pada tindakan harga aset yang mendasari saat habis masa berlakunya untuk menentukan harga optimal untuk menggunakan Pilihan Pengucilan. Read More About LookBack Options Disini Margin (saham) - Untuk membeli security dengan meminjam dana dari brokerage house. Persyaratan margin - persentase maksimum investasi yang dapat dipinjamkan oleh perusahaan pialang - ditetapkan oleh Federal Reserve Board. Margin (opsi) - Setoran tunai perlu dilakukan dalam rekening saat menulis pilihan. Baca tutorial lengkap tentang Options Margin. Marked-To-Model - Metode penilaian menggunakan model keuangan untuk aset tingkat 2, yang asetnya kurang likuid yang sulit dihargai karena tidak adanya pasar yang tersedia. Market Maker - Anggota pertukaran yang fungsinya membantu pembuatan pasar, dengan mengajukan penawaran dan penawaran untuk akunnya karena tidak ada perintah beli atau jual umum. Beberapa pembuat pasar biasanya ditugaskan untuk keamanan tertentu. Sistem pembuat pasar mencakup para pembuat pasar dan pialang papan. Baca Semua Tentang Market Makers Here Market Order - Perintah untuk membeli atau menjual sekuritas dengan harga pasar saat ini. Perintah akan diisi asalkan ada pasar untuk keamanan. Baca Semua Tentang Pilihan Market Order Market On Close (MOC) - Perintah perdagangan opsi yang mengisi posisi di atau dekat penutupan pasar. Baca Semua Tentang Pilihan Pesanan Di Sini Menikah dengan Stok dan Stok - sebuah barang dan stok dianggap sudah menikah jika dibeli pada hari yang sama, dan posisi tersebut ditetapkan pada saat itu sebagai lindung nilai. Read More About Menikah Puts Disini Pilihan Indeks Mini - Opsi indeks yang hanya sepersepuluh ukuran pilihan indeks biasa. Read More About Mini Index Options Berikut Pilihan Kecil - Opsi saham yang hanya mencakup 10 saham, bukan 100 saham. Read More About Mini Options Here Model - Rumus matematika yang dirancang untuk memberi harga opsi sebagai fungsi dari variabel tertentu - umumnya harga saham, harga yang mencolok, volatilitas, waktu sampai kadaluarsa, dividen harus dibayar, dan tingkat bunga bebas risiko saat ini. Model Black-Scholes adalah salah satu model yang lebih banyak digunakan. Moneyness - Harga strike dari suatu opsi sehubungan dengan harga underlying asset yang berlaku. Read More About Moneyness Here Multiple Compression - Dimana pasar secara keseluruhan menjual selama periode waktu tertentu untuk mengurangi rasio PE secara umum di seluruh papan karena pesimisme tentang ekonomi makro. Multiple Expansion - Dimana rally pasar secara keseluruhan selama periode waktu tertentu untuk menaikkan rasio PE secara umum di seluruh dewan karena optimisme tentang ekonomi makro. NASDAQ - Asosiasi Nasional Sistem Jaminan Otomatis Dealer Efek. Ini adalah pasar elektronik di Amerika Serikat dimana sekuritas terdaftar dan diperdagangkan secara elektronik. Opsi Naked - lihat Opsi Tak Terungkap. Sempit - Umumnya mengacu pada indeks, ini mengindikasikan bahwa indeks hanya terdiri dari beberapa saham, umumnya dalam kelompok industri tertentu. Indeks berbasis sempit TIDAK dikenakan perlakuan yang menguntungkan bagi penulis pilihan telanjang. Dekat Opsi Uang - Pilihan dengan harga strike mendekati harga spot dari saham yang mendasarinya. Baca tutorial di Near The Money Options. Netral - Menggambarkan pendapat yang tidak bearish atau bullish. Strategi pilihan netral umumnya dirancang untuk melakukan yang terbaik jika hanya ada sedikit atau tidak ada perubahan bersih pada harga saham yang mendasarinya. Strategi Pilihan Netral - Berbagai cara untuk menggunakan opsi agar keuntungan saham tetap stagnan atau dalam kisaran perdagangan yang ketat. Baca tutorial tentang Strategi Pilihan Netral. Non-Equity Option - An option whose underlying entity is not common stock typically refers to options on physical commodities, but may also be extended to include index options. One Sided Market - A market condition where there are significantly more sellers than buyers or more buyers than sellers. In this case, there are not enough buyers putting up offers to buy from sellers or that there are not enough sellers putting up offers to sell to buyers. Open Interest - The net total of outstanding open contracts in a particular option series. An opening transaction increases the open interest, while any closing transaction reduces the open interest. Read More About Volume and Open Interest . Option - The right to buy or sell specific securities at a specified price within a specified time. A put gives the holder the right to sell the stock, a call the right to buy the stock. Options Chains - Tables presenting the various options that a stock offers over various strike price and expiration dates. Read the full tutorial on Options Chains . Options Contracts - Contingent claims contracts that allows its holder to buy or sell a specific asset when exercised. Read the full tutorial on Options Contracts . Options on Futures - Options that have futures contracts as their underlying asset. Read the full tutorial on Options on Futures . Optionable Stocks - Stocks with tradable options. Option Pain - Also known as Max Pain or Max Option Pain. It is the stock price which will result in the most number of options contracts expiring out of the money. Read More About Option Pain . Option Pricing Curve - A graphical representation of the projected price of an option at a fixed point in time. It reflects the amount of time value premium in the option for various stock prices, as well. The curve is generated by using a mathematical model. The delta (or hedge ratio) is the slope of a tangent line to the curve at a fixed stock price. Option Trader - Also known as Options Trader. It is anyone who buys and sells options in the capital market. Read more about Option Traders . Option Trading - Also known as Options Trading. It is the buying and selling of stock and index options in the capital market so as to speculate for leveraged profits in every market condition or perform hedging to reduce portfolio risk. Read more about Option Trading . Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) - The issuer of all listed option contracts that are trading on the national option exchanges. Options Margin - See Margin (Options). Options Trading - The buying and selling of stock and index options in the capital market so as to speculate for leveraged profits in every market condition or perform hedging to reduce portfolio risk. Read more about Options Trading . Options Trader - Anyone who buys and sells options in the capital market. Read more about Option Trading . Options Strategist - An investment professional who specializes in research, analysis and execution of options strategies. Options Symbol - A string of alphabets that define specific options contracts. Can be referred to as the name of an options contract. Read more about Reading Options Symbols. Out of the Money - Describing an option that has no intrinsic value. A call option is out-of-the-money if the stock is below the strike price of the call, while a put option is out-of-the-money if the stock is higher than the strike price of the put. Read More About Out Of The Money Options . Over-the-Counter Option (OTC) - An option traded over-the-counter, as opposed to a listed stock option. The OTC option has a direct link between buyer and seller, has no secondary market, and has no standardization of striking prices and expiration dates. Overvalued - Describing a security trading at a higher price than it logically should. Normally associated with the results of option price predictions by mathematical models. If an option is trading in the market for a higher price than the model indicates, the option is said to be overvalued. Parity - Describing an in-the-money option trading for its intrinsic value: that is, an option trading at parity with the underlying stock. Also used as a point of reference-an option is sometimes said to be trading at a half-point over parity or at a quarter-point under parity, for example. An option trading under parity is a discount option. Physical Option - An option whose underlying security is a physical commodity that is not stock or futures. The physical commodity itself typically a currency or Treasury debt issue-underlies that option contract. Physically Settled Option - An option which the actual underlying asset exchange hands when exercised. Read more about Physically Settled Options. Portfolio - Holdings of securities by an individual or institution. A portfolio may contain options of different stocks or a combination of shares, options and other financial instruments. Position - Specific securities in an account or strategy. A covered call writing position might be long 1,000 XYZ and short 10 XYZ January 30 calls. It also refers to facilitate buy or sell a block of securities, thereby establishing a position. Position Trading - The use of options trading strategies in order to profit from the unique opportunities presented by stock options, such as time decay, volatility and even arbitrage to make safe, fixed, albeit lower profit. Read more about Options Trading Styles . Premium - The total price of an option contract is made up of the sum of the intrinsic value and the time value premium. Even though most people refer to the price of an option contract as the Premium, it is actually an inaccurate expression. The Premium of an option contract is the part of the price that is not intrinsic. Please read more about Options Premium. Premium Over Parity - See Extrinsic Value. Profit Range - The range within which a particular position makes a profit. Generally used in reference to strategies that have two break-even points-an upside break-even and a downside breakeven. The price range between the two break-even points would be the profit range. Profit Table - A table of results of a particular strategy at some point in time. This is usually a tabular compilation of the data drawn on a profit graph. Protected Strategy - A position that has limited risk. A protected short sale (short stock, long call) has limited risk, as does a protected straddle write (short straddle, long out-of-the-money combination). The Ride The Flow System is an example of a protected strategy. Protective Call - An option trading hedging strategy that protects profits made in a short stock position using call options. Read More About Protective call Here Protective Put - An option trading hedging strategy that hedges against a drop in stock price using put options. Read More About Protective Put Here Public Book (of orders) - The orders to buy or sell, entered by the public, that are away from the current market. The board broker or specialist keeps the public book. Market-makers on the CBOE can see the highest bid and lowest offer at any time. The specialist146s book is closed (only he knows at what price and in what quantity the nearest public orders are). Pull back - A temporary fall in price after a rally. The rally usually continues after a Pull Back. This is also known as a Correction. Put Broken Wing Butterfly Spread - A Butterfly Spread with a skewed riskreward profile which makes no losses or even a slight credit when the underlying stock breaks to upside. This is achieved by buying further strike out of the money put options than a regular butterfly spread. Read the tutorial on Put Broken Wing Butterfly Spread . Put Broken Wing Condor Spread - A Put Condor Spread with a skewed riskreward profile which makes no losses or even a slight credit when the underlying stock breaks to upside. This is achieved by buying further strike out of the money put options than a regular put condor spread. Read the tutorial on Put Broken Wing Condor Spread . Put - An option granting the holder the right to sell the underlying security at a certain price for a specified period of time. See also Call. Read About Put Options Here . Put Call Parity - Put Call Parity is an option pricing concept that requires the extrinsic values of call and put options to be in equilibrium so as to prevent arbitrage. Put Call Parity is also known as the Law Of One Price. Read About Put Call Parity Here . Put Call Ratio - The ratio of the number of open put options against the number of open call options. The higher the resulting number, the more put options are bought or shorted on the underlying asset. For daily total equity put call ratio, please visit Option Traders HQ. Read more about Put Call Ratio . Put Ratio Backspread - A credit options trading strategy with unlimited profit to downside and limited profit to upside through buying more out of the money puts than in the money puts are shorted. Read the tutorial on Call Ratio Backspread . Put Ratio Spread - A credit options trading strategy with the ability to profit when a stock goes up, down or sideways through shorting more out of the money puts than in the money puts are bought. Read the tutorial on Put Ratio Spread . Quadruple Witching - The third Friday of March, June, September and December when Index Futures, Index Options, Stock Futures and Stock Options expire. This is one of the most volatile trading days of the year, with exceptionally high trading volume. Read all about Quadruple Witching . Quarterlies Quarterly Options - Options with quarterly expiration cycle. Read more about Quarterly Options . Ratio Backspread - Credit volatile options trading strategy that opens up one leg for unlimited profit through selling a smaller amount of in the money options against the purchase of at the money or out of the money options of the same type. Read the Tutorial on Ratio Backspreads . Ratio Calendar Combination - A strategy consisting of a simultaneous position of a ratio calendar spread using calls and a similar position using puts, where the striking price of the calls is greater than the striking price of the puts. Ratio Calendar Spread - Selling more near-term options than longer-term ones purchased, all with the same strike either puts or calls. Ratio Spread - Constructed with either puts or calls, the strategy consists of buying a certain amount of options and then selling a larger quantity of out-of-the-money options. Ratio Strategy - A strategy in which one has an unequal number of long securities and short securities. Normally, it implies a preponderance of short options over either long options or long stock. Ratio Write - Buying stock and selling a preponderance of calls against the stock that is owned. Realize (a profit or loss) - The act of closing a position, incurring a profit or a loss. As long as a position is not closed, the profit or loss remains unrealized. Resistance - A term in technical analysis indicating a price area higher than the current stock price where an abundance of supply exists for the stock, and therefore the stock may have trouble rising through the price. Reward Risk Ratio - A gauge of how risky a position can be by dividing its maximum profit potential against the maximum loss potential. A ratio of above 1 means that the potential reward is higher than the potential loss. Read the full tutorial on Calculating Reward Risk Ratio . Return On Investment (ROI) - The percentage profit that one makes, or might make, on his investment. Return If Exercised - The return that a covered call writer would make if the underlying stock were called away. Return If Unchanged - The return that an investor would make on a particular position if the underlying stock were unchanged in price at the expiration of the options in the position. Reversal - The transformation of a short stock position into a position which is long the stock using options, without closing the original short stock position, through the use of synthetic positions. Read more about reversals and synthetic positions. Reverse Hedge - A strategy in which one sells the underlying stock short and buys calls on more shares than he has sold short. This is also called a synthetic straddle and is an outmoded strategy for stocks that have listed puts trading. Reverse Strategy - A general name that is given to strategies which are the opposite of better known strategies. For example, a ratio spread consists of buying calls at a lower strike and selling more calls at a higher strike. A reverse ratio spread also known as a backspread consists of selling the calls at the lower strike and buying more calls at the higher strike. The results are obviously directly opposite to each other. Risk Graph - A graphical representation of the riskreward profile of an option position. Learn All About Risk Graphs Now Risk Free Return - Profit on a risk free investment instrument such as the Treasury bills. It is a common standard of measuring the opportunity cost of having your money in anything other than Treasury bills. Roll Down - Close out options at one strike and simultaneously open other options at a lower strike. Read the tutorial about Roll Down . Roll Forward - Close out options at a near-term expiration date and open options at a longer-term expiration date. Read the tutorial about Roll Forward . Rolling - A follow up action in which the strategist closes options currently in the position and opens other options with different terms, on the same underlying stock. Roll Up - Close out options at a lower strike and open options at a higher strike. Read the tutorial about Roll Up . Rotation - A trading procedure on the option exchanges whereby bids and offers, but not necessarily trades, are made sequentially for each series of options on an underlying stock. Russell Sage - Renowned American Politician and Financier who introduced OTC call and put options in 1872. Read about the History of Options Trading Security Securities - (finance) A tradable financial instrument signifying ownership in financial assets issued by companies or governments. Such financial assets includes but are not restricted to stocks, bonds, futures and debts. Sell To Close - Closing a position by selling an option contract you own. Learn About Sell To Close Now Sell To Open - Opening a position by selling an option contract to a buyer. Learn About Sell To Open Now Selling Climax - Exceptionally heavy volume created when panic-stricken investors dump stocks.Often this marks the end of a bear market and is a spot to buy. Series - An option contracts on the same underlying stock having the same striking price, expiration date, and unit of trading. Settlement - The resolution of the terms of an options contract between the holder and the writer when the options contract is exercised. Read the full tutorial on Options Settlement. Short (to be short) - To Short means to Sell To Open. That means to write or sell an options contract to a buyer. This gives you the obligation to fulfill the exercise of the option should the buyer decides to do so. Read all about Short Options Positions Short Backspread - Volatile options strategies which are set up with a net credit and unlimited profit potential in one direction. Short Calendar Spread - Volatile options strategies that profit primarily through the difference in time decay of long term and short term options, achieved through writing longer term options and buying short term options. Read the full tutorial on Short Calendar Spreads . Short Horizontal Calendar Call Spread - Short Calendar Spread that uses only call options. Read the full tutorial on Short Horizontal Calendar Call Spreads . Short Covering - The process of buying back stock that has already been sold short. Spread - An options position consisting of more than one type of options on a single underlying asset. Read the full tutorial on Options Spreads. Spread Order - An order to simultaneously transact two or more option trades. Typically, one option would be bought while another would simultaneously be sold. Spread orders may be limit orders, not held orders, or orders with discretion. They cannot be stop orders, however. The spread order may be either a debit or credit. Spread Strategy - Any option position having both long options and short options of the same type on the same underlying security. Static Hedging - A hedging technique where a hedging trade is established and held without needing to rebalance. Stock Options - Options contracts with shares as the underlying asset. Read All About Stock Options. Stock Replacement Strategy - A trading strategy that seeks to reduce risk and volatility through owning deep in the money call options instead of the stock itself and using the remaining cash for hedging. Read All About Stock Replacement Strategy. Stock Repair Strategy - An options strategy that aims to recover lost value in a stock quickly through writing call options against it. Read All About Stock Repair Strategy. Stop Limit Order - Similar to a stop order, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order, rather than a market order, when the security trades at the price specified on the stop. Read All About Options Stop Loss Here Stop Order - A traditional stop loss method which closes a position when a predetermined price is hit. Read All About Options Orders Here Straddle - The purchase or sale of an equal number of puts and calls having the same terms. Strip Straddle - A Straddle with more put options than call options. Read the full tutorial on Strip Straddle. Strap Straddle - A Straddle with more call options than put options. Read the full tutorial on Strap Straddle. Strategy - With respect to option investments, a preconceived, logical plan of position selection and follow-up action. Strike Arbitrage - An options arbitrage strategy that locks in discrepancies in options pricing between strike prices for a risk-free arbitrage. Read More About Strike Arbitrage. Strike Price - The price at which the buyer of a call can purchase the stock during the life of the option or the price at which the buyer of a put can sell the stock during the life of the option. Read More About Strike Prices. Structured Warrants- An alternative to stock options which works almost exactly like stock options and traded in markets such as the Singapore market. See how Structured Warrants Are Traded In The Singapore Market. Support - A term in technical analysis indicating a price area lower than the current price of the stock, where demand is thought to exist. Thus a stock would stop declining when it reached a support area. See also Resistance. Swing Trading - A trading methodology that trades short term price swings for short term profits. Read more about Options Trading Styles. Synthetic Position - A combination of stocks andor options that return the same payoff characteristics of another stock or option position. Synthetic Put - A security which some brokerage firms offer to their customers. The broker sells stock short and buys a call, while the customer receives the synthetic put. This is not a listed security, but a secondary market is available as long as there is a secondary market in the calls. Synthetic Stock - An option strategy that is equivalent to the underlying stock. A long call and a short put is synthetic long stock. A long put and a short call is synthetic short stock. Synthetic Short Straddle - A combination of stocks and call options which produces the same payoff characteristics as a Short Straddle. Read More About Synthetic Short Straddle. Synthetic Straddle - A combination of stocks and call options which produces the same payoff characteristics as a Long Straddle. Read More About Synthetic Straddle. Systematic Risk Systemic Risk - Overall market risk that cannot be diversified away using a diversified portfolio based in the same market. Take Delivery - To fulfill the obligation of buying stocks when put options that you sold becomes exercised. Technical Analysis - The method of predicting future stock price movements based on observation of historical stock price movements. Thales of Miletus - The creator of options back in 332BC. Read about the History of Options Trading Theoretical Value - The price of an option, or a spread, as computed by a mathematical model. Theta - One of the 5 option greeks. Theta determines the rate of time decay of an option contracts premium. For more details on how Theta works and how it is calculated, please visit Option Greeks. Ticker Symbol - Symbol representing the shares and options of a companys shares traded in the stock market. MSFT is the ticker symbol for Micrsoft shares while MSQFB is the ticker symbol for Microsofts June29Call options. Time Decay - The reduction of a stock options extrinsic value as expiration date draws nearer. See Theta above. Read the full tutorial on Time Decay . Time Spread - see Calendar Spread. Read the full tutorial on Time Spreads. Time Value - Also known as Premium Value or Extrinsic Value. It is the difference between an options price and the intrinsic value. Read more about how Stock Options Are Priced. Topping Out - A peak point where the sellers begin to outnumber the buyers. Total Return Concept - A covered call writing strategy in which one views the potential profit of the strategy as the sum of capital gains, dividends, and option premium income, rather than viewing each one of the three separately. Trading Limit - The exchange imposed maximum daily price change that a futures contract or futures option contract can undergo. Trend - The direction of a price movement. A trend in motion is assumed to remain intact until there is a clear change. Triple Witching - Prior to 2001. The third Friday of March, June, September, and December, when stock options, index futures and options on index futures expire. After 2001, the introduction of Single Stock Futures transformed Triple Witching into Quadruple Witching as single stock futures expire on the third Friday of every quarterly month as well. Type - The designation to distinguish between a put or call option. Uncovered Option - A written option is considered to be uncovered if the investor does not have a corresponding position in the underlying security. Underlying Asset - The security which one has the right to buy or sell via the terms of a listed option contract. An underlying asset can be any financial instrument on which option contracts can be written based on. Some examples are. Stocks, ETFs, Commodities, Forex, Index. Undervalued - Describing a security that is trading at a lower price than it logically should. Usually determined by the use of a mathematical model. Variable Ratio Write - An option strategy in which the investor owns 100 shares of the underlying security and writes two call options against it, each option having a different striking price. Vertical Spread - Any option spread strategy in which the options have different striking prices, but the same expiration date. Read the full tutorial on Vertical Spreads . Vertical Ratio Spread - Vertical spreads that buy and short an unequal number of options on each leg. Read the full tutorial on Vertical Ratio Spreads . VIX - An index measuring the level of implied volatility in US index options and is used as a measurement of volatility in the US stock market. Read More About VIX . VIX Options - Non-equity options based on the CBOE VIX. Read More About VIX Options . Volatile - A stock or market that is expected to move up or down unexpectedly or drastically is known as a volatile market or stock. Volatile Strategy- An option strategy that is constructed to profit no matter if the underlying stock moves up or down quickly. Read All About Volatile Option Strategies . Volatility - A measure of the amount by which an underlying security is expected to fluctuate in a given period of time. Generally measured by the annual standard deviation of the daily price changes in the security, volatility is not equal to the Beta of the stock. Read More About Volatility . Volatility Crunch - A sudden, dramatic, drop in implied volatility resulting in a sharp reduction in extrinsic value and hence the price of options. Read More About Volatility Crunch . Volatility Index - Also known as VXN, is an index by the CBOE that measures volatility in the market using implied volatility of SP500 stock index options. Volatility Skew - A graphical characteristic of the implied volatility of options of the same underlying asset across different strikes forming a right skewed curve. Read More About Volatiliy Skew . Volatility Smile - A graphical characteristic of the implied volatility of options of the same underlying asset across different strikes forming the concave shape of a smile. Read More About Volatiliy Smile . Volume - The number of transactions that took place in a trading day. Read More About Volume and Open Interest . Write - To short an option. This is the act of creating a new options contract and selling it in the exchange using the Sell To Open order. The person who writes an option is known as the Writer. Read the full tutorial on Options Writing . WALK LIMITreg Order - WALK LIMITreg is a registered U.S trademark of optionsXpress Holdings Inc. covering securities and commodities trading and investment services and software. One of the services offered under the WALK LIMITreg mark is a type of automated limit order that walks your order from the National Best Bid or Offer (NBBO) in prescribed time and price increments up to (or down to) the asking price (bid price) in order to save you time while attempting to get the best fill prices for the orders. Important Disclaimer . Pilihan melibatkan risiko dan tidak sesuai untuk semua investor. Data and information is provided for informational purposes only, and is not intended for trading purposes. 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We Take Our Copyright VERY Seriously OptionsXpress Holdings, Inc. is not affiliated with Masters O Equity Asset Management, and does not sponsor or endorse any of the content on this website.How Do You Invest in Stock Warrants for Leveraged Profits Sample Stock Warrant Often you might come across stock warrants and you might have wondered what does it mean. Even if you are not interested in buying the warrants, it is important to know if the company that you are interested in buying the stock in also has outstanding warrants, as the warrants can have disproportionate effect on the returns you may be able to realize from the stock itself. To understand why this is the case, it is critical to understand what is a stock warrant and how it works. There are similarities between warrants and options but they also differ in some key respects Difference between Stock Warrants and Options If you have stock options awarded to you through your employer, you have the basic idea of how these options work. If you invest in publicly traded options then you have even better idea of how the options work. Warrants are similar to the options, but with one critical difference. Just like an option, a stock warrant is issued with a strike price and an expiration date. The strike price is the price at which the warrant becomes exercisable or in the money. Both the warrants and the options eventually expire, if they are not exercised by a certain date. The Key Difference Between Warrants and Options Publicly traded options are created by the exchanges and are backed by the stock that already trades in the secondary market (the stock that is already issued that most of us buy and sell as opposed to the primary market stock issue such as an IPO). When a Call Option is exercised, for example, the required amount of stock from the secondary market is purchased at the strike price. Stock warrants on the other hand are issued directly by the company and they may trade on the exchanges or over the counter. When a warrant is exercised, the stock that is purchased upon exercising the warrants needs to be issued new by the company. These are not the shares that trade on the secondary market. So you can see, exercising an option has no effect on the total number of common stock shares outstanding, whereas exercising a warrant increases the total number of common stock shares outstanding. Stock warrants can also be long term, expiring far in the future while the options are typically short term instruments, expiring within the year (LEAPS are long term options but they are typically only available for a few selected stocks). If you own common stock in a company that also has warrants outstanding, any exercise of the warrants will increase the number of outstanding shares thereby diluting the existing shareholders. This dilution is more pronounced when warrants are exercised, compared to say, the company issuing new shares on a follow on offering since any follow on offering is typically done close to the market price of the shares, while the exercise of the warrants are typically done below the market price of the shares. Example of a Warrant Consider a hypothetical warrant with a strike price of 25 and an expiration date of June 1, 2020. Lets say the shares of the company currently trade at 5share. We will take 3 dates with hypothetical stock prices and review how the warrants will behave on those dates and prices. Situation 1: Today, Stock Price 5share Since the stock price today is 5 and the warrants have a strike price of 25, exercising the warrants today does not make sense. It will force the warrant holder to purchase new stock at 25share while the stock can just be bought in the secondary market at 5share. Therefore, the warrants will not be exercised. The warrants will also have very little value because they are so far out of money. The warrants will still have some value. This value comes from the fact that the warrant does not expire for another 8 years and it is likely that the stock price might exceed 25share at some point during the next 8 years. Just like options, the value of the warrants can be calculated by using the Black Scholes method. Lets assume, for the sake of the example, that the value of the warrants is 0.25 Situation 2: June 1 2016, Stock Price 30share If the stock price has risen to 30share by June 1, 2016 the value of the warrants is at least 5. This is because the warrant holders are now able to exercise the warrants, buy the stock at 25 and sell it back in the market at 30 for a 5 profit. Knowing this the market moves to bid up the price of the warrant until the possibility of profiting by just buying the warrant and exercising it right away disappears. Note that if an investor buys the warrant on June 1 2016, and immediately flips it by exercising it and selling the resulting stock, he will not make any profit. In fact, he may end up with a loss since the price of the warrant is likely to be more than 5 (there are 4 more years remaining before the warrants expire and the probability that the stock price might move higher than 30 in that time gives the warrant additional value). However, if the investor bought the warrants 4 years ago and paid very little for it, this is a great time to sell the warrants or exercise them. In this scenario, the investor in the warrants may end up with a profit of 5 8211 0.25 4.75 or 1900. The stock only went up by 30 8211 5 25 or 500. Situation 3: June 1 2020, Stock Price 25 or less The warrants will expire worthless since there is no possibility of profiting by exercising the warrants. Note that the stock may have fallen only 17 since June 1, 2016 but the value of the warrants have declined by 100. As this example shows, the Warrants are highly leveraged and magnify the gains or losses on the stock. Therefore they should be used with care and unless you are a professional options trader and are comfortable with the risk, you should keep your exposure to the warrants to a small part of your portfolio. That being said, warrants do have a role to play in an investors portfolio. They can be a way of controlling larger amount of stock with using a less capital than if you buy the stock directly. They can also be used for hedging purposes, similar to options. And sometimes, the stock may not be undervalued but the stock warrants may be since warrants are not as popular with investors as the common stock. In those situations, it may offer the possibility of a risk free arbitrage. Here is a real life example of a stock warrant that we bought and sold over the course of 1 year. These warrants were originally issued by Real Opportunity Investments Corp as an incentive for the investors to purchase their stock. The warrants have now expired. Hello and thank you for all your replies. I have warrants for company XYZ, trading at about 11.00 each. Common stock price is about 25. Strike price is about 14. Why aren8217t more of these warrants being bought up Well-known, multi-national brand. Also, how do warrants get excercised Does brokerage company contact you Or does it go through the actual company Sorry for the questions, but warrants are really hard for me to understand. Terima kasih sebelumnya. The prices you listed sound right. The warrants are trading close to common stock price 8211 strike price (25 8211 14 11). At these prices, there is no particular advantage to buying up the warrant over the common stock, if your ultimate goal is to own the common stock. Mostly warrants are used by arbitrageurs to exploit any variances between the value and the price of the warrant that may arise frequently. Common investors do not know much about warrants. To exercise the warrants, you will have to contact your broker and instruct them that you want to exercise. They will get in touch with the company and make it happen for you. Caesare valentine says I recently purchased a little over 3k warrants of a company at .06 per share. The company common shares traded at 5. I8217ve never brought warrants before and honestly didn8217t realize that it was warrants that I was purchasing. Long story short I brought the, on my brokerage app ROBINHOOD, it now says that this stock is no longer tradable, I can8217t sell or buy. The company8217s common stock just jumped because of 2 positive phase 3 trials. I believe this stock will eventually be over 20 per common share. What do I do How do I know when this expire and will it be worth it to wait long term Please if anybody could give me some type of feedback it would be greatly appreciated. If you read the annual report of the company, there should be a discussion about the outstanding warrants. If this does not give you enough detail, you may want to go through the company8217s old filings and find one that was filed when the warrants were issued. You should be able to call your broker and tell them that you want to exercise the warrants. You will be required to put up additional capital for this, but once the exercise is complete, you can sell the stock and recoup this capital. If warrants are issued in non publicly traded companies, how are they exercised and cashed Assume I have a warrant for 100,000 shares at a 0.01 exercise price. The company is 3 years old and profitable but has no intention of being publicly traded. -Who cashes the warrant -Where does the money come from -What if the company doesn8217t have cash available to cover the warrants I imagine that the warrant holder exercises. The value is based on a valuation. Lets assumes the value per share is 1.00 so he gets 100,000 but where does this come from Does the company have to pay it or is the warrant basically worthless When you exercise a warrant, in your example, you will pay the cost of exercising the warrants, in this case 100,000 x 0.01 (exercise price) 1000 to the company. In return, the company will issue 100,000 new shares to you. Since the company is not public, you may not have a liquid market for either the company shares or the warrants. The end result is that you will be the owner of an additional 100,000 shares of the company stock at the expense of 1000. For a publicly traded company, you could SELL your warrants in the market and avoid having to exercise it. For a private company, this is not an option and your only option is to exercise the warrants with the company. Warrants generally have a value in the market depending on the value of the shares, but since you will not be able to trade in the market any way, the value of the shares is not relevant (except to know how much stock that you are getting could be worth). The company does not need to pay out any cash, just issue new paper (stock) to you. The company will in fact receive 1000 from you as you exercise the warrants. For the new stock that you receive, if you are able to find a buyer, you can sell the stock. Otherwise, to cash out the stock in a non-public company, you will just have to wait for the company to go public. If it doesn8217t, you may still enjoy other benefits of owning the stock such as, any dividends that are paid, ability to set the company direction and strategy, voting in the annual meetings, etc. If the company grows, your ownership will grow in value as well and there will be larger market for your private shares. Private companies also decide to buy back shares from time to time. Ben Tinsman says Thank you again Shailesh. I contacted Marishka, head of Shareholders of PEPSICO share division and she said she would look into it. Have you ever seen this stuff go to court and work in favor of the person of an old legal document. I ve never sued anyone or anything before. My whole life I ve been told and taught a contract is a contract is a contract. The legal verbiage on the warrant I have allows no out clauses with the human eye. However, if the market acts under a different honor of code maybe it is what it is. Of course I showed the warrant to a lawyer a few months ago and he told me they would need one of greatest explanations of all time to 8220not honor8221 the warrant unless of course the company went bankrupt or went out of business. Your explanations early regarding new corporate ownerships ability to squash warrant holders like me are merely what happens and there s nothing i can do because of the fear dilution Do you see alot of people with my issue at hand If you want to see it I can send it to you. It8217s an old one. Thank you for your time Shailesh. If I had known of your knowledge I would have spent far less time on this document. Much appreciated. Also, how do corporations reach out to people who were issued the original warrant if they are dead or if it8217s handed off to a family member The warrant says who ever the 8220bearer8221 is holds title. They never contacted me about my deadline and they won8217t be able to prove it was sent to me. Ben The warrant would have an associated prospectus that would lay out all the terms and conditions in detail. This should be available from old Securities and Exchange Commission filings. These might be archived now and I am not sure how to go about finding these. Some of the full service brokers (such as Merrill Lynch) would have a forensic department that would do investigations like this. The prospectus tends to be a large document (10s to 100s of pages). I am not sure if you are looking at the certificate or the full prospectus. If you have a certificate, you or your family would have had the prospectus at one time. The contract is a contract, it is just a matter of finding and ensuring that we are looking at the full contract statement as written in the prospectus. When Pepsico investor relations gets back to you, they will have reviewed the terms and conditions and should be able to tell you the next steps. I think you are doing the right thing by following this up to completion as the warrant terms and conditions are not standard across all issues so there is always a possibility this might still be valuable. There have been many cases in which corporations have tried to locate a large block of shares (certificates). The record of who owns the shares now (as they can pass through generations) is kept at the corporation8217s transfer agent. I would think it is the same or similar process for the warrants, although the estate issues are definitely not part of my competency. When the bearer changes, either via sale of the asset, or via inheritance, the transfer agent is supposed to be notified. You can contact me privately at skvaluestockguide Ben Tinsman says Thank you for the quick response Shailesh. Regarding the old stock warrant I sentered you info on yesterday, need I do anymore research to see if there was any money issued to warrant holders in 1983 or except that it is 100 worthless. Could we agree that my relatives should have acted on the warrant prior to 1983 when they were locked in at .50share for 7,500 shares Even then it was a large sum of money lost. Thanks again Shailesh, Ben Tinsman It would be a good idea to check with Pepsico8217s investor relations to confirm. The phone number and email are below Manager of Shareholder Relations PepsiCo Investor Relations Purchase, NY 10577 Telephone: (914) 253-3055 Email: investorpepsico As for your second question, yes, the warrants could have been converted to cash prior to 1983 for a good sum. However, mergersacquisitions have a way of blindsiding investors and they are hard to plan for. I would chalk this up to the risk inherent in the warrants due to its highly leveraged nature. Ben Tinsman says Hi Shailesh, I have no idea what I8217m talking about when it comes to old Stock Purchase Warrants. I inherited one. Regardless of whether it s worth money or not it8217s a neat document from 1929 for option to buy 7,500 shares in Stokely Foods without an expiration date. I wrote a woman in Utah to do a back ground check on things and this is how she responded to my 8220perpetual warrant8221. 8220Foundation Industrial Engineering Co, Inc. re capitalized as Stokely Foods, Inc. in 1943. Stokely Foods, Inc. merged into Stokely-Van Camp. Inc. on May 29, 1952. Stokely-Van Camp Inc. merged into Quaker Oats Co. on October 31, 1983. At this time each share was exchanged for 77.00 cash and public interest was eliminated. The shareholder would have received the funds in 1983. The certificate would have no value today8221 We never received money for the warrant by the way. Is there a possibility that she is wrong when describing the warrant as having no value. The warrant says it8217s valid anytime after said date so long that said business doesn8217t go out of business regardless of number of buyouts, merges, etc. PEPSICO has since bought out Quaker Oats. Thank you so much for your help, Ben That is some history Since the underlying shares do not exist anymore, the warrants will not have any value. Not sure how the company would have retired the warrants (in 1983), perhaps some consideration was paid. If it was, it is not likely to be much since most warrants are callable under certain conditions for nominal value (even if issued as perpetual). That being said, I hope you hold on to the document for its historical and collection value. Christopher Ryan says What happens to warrants in a takeover in Canada. Everything I have read talks of compulsory acquisition of outstanding 8220shares8221 being permitted once a bidder acquired 90 of the shares. Does the compulsory acquisition apply to warrants If not, what happens after a bidder gets to 100 and there are still warrants outstanding 8211 can the holders of warrants then exercise and keep their shares Not sure if the warrants are treated the same in Canada as in the US, but in most cases, a takeover would invalidate existing warrants via one of the following 2 ways 1. The prospectus of warrants specifies M038A as one of the invalidating events. You will have to read the prospectus carefully to figure out how warrants are to be treated when something like this happens, as this can be different for different issues. 2. The takeover premium may push the stock price above the threshold when the warrants become callable at a nominal consideration by the company. Michael Bayo says What if insiders do exercise the warrants well below the strike price of the warrant Like in situation 1 of the examples where you said 8220it does not make sense.8221 I agree with you, but I own common stock with warrants where this happening and I8217m wondering how this may affect the PPS of the common stock. Should it cause it to rise towards the strike price Any warrant exercise causes new stock to be issued, which would be dilutive to the existing stock holders. This would be a drag on the stock price. It really does not make financial sense to exercise warrants well under the strike price. If insiders are doing it, in some ways it is the same as insider buying on the stock, but without the associated stock price rise as the stock being purchased is now newly issued and not from the existing pool. The only reason I can think of is to maintain or expand their ownership stake in the company and gain voting rights (warrants do not have any voting rights). I have some shares in a company group that have warrants attached to them. In order to exercise the shares an acquisition company have said I need to pay a lump sum in order to exercise the shares and then I will receive a larger amount for my shares. Does this sound right or more of a scam and how can I tell Is it normal to have to pay money first to exercise shares and get them released in order to sell and get money back You will need to pay the exercise price for the warrants to convert them to shares. I assume the acquisition company only wants to buy the shares and not the attached warrants and this is why they are suggesting you exercise the warrants first. Sounds legitimate but make sure they are talking about exercising warrants (not shares). Matthew Cullen says What does forced redemption and cashless exercise mean Why would a company want to do either of these8230.this question stems from Hemisphere Media (HMTV and HMTVW)8230..from their most recent prospectus: Each warrant entitles the holder to purchase one-half of one share of our Class A common stock at a price of 6.00 per half share. At March 31, 2015, 14.7 million warrants were issued and outstanding, which are exercisable into 7.3 million shares of our Class A common stock. At the option of the Company, 10.0 million warrants may be called for redemption, provided that the last sale price of our Class A common stock reported has been at least 18.00 per share on each of twenty trading days within the thirty-day period ending on the third business day prior to the date on which notice of redemption is given. The warrants expire on April 4, 2018. Warrants are typically issued along with equity as a sweetener to parties who are not very comfortable with the equity alone. Essentially what the company is saying is that to assuage some of your reservations, we will throw in a kicker in the form of warrants along with the equity. However, if the equity price goes beyond a certain level and stays there, we would have delivered appropriate level of return on the equity and the warrants would no longer be necessary. At a practical level, existence of warrants serves as a dampener on the stock price (since as warrants are exercised, new stock is issued). The primary responsibility of the management is to the shareholders, and therefore once the warrants become unnecessary, the company would like to remove them from circulation. I8217m trying to understand if the expiration of a warrant is a positive thing or a negative thing for a particular company. Below are the press release and my question. Thank you in advance for your help. 07.21.2015 Press Release Liquidmetal Technologies Announces Expiration of 30 million warrants My question is can these share be reissued at a lower exercise price and if so must shareholders vote for this to happen or can management just reissue the shares, which obviously would cause more dilution due to the PPS being much lower today than when the shares were issued I havent had time yet to fully research the meaning of the press release from today, but these are my concerns. Would you please help me clarify or tell me where to look to confirm. Im seeing this from two different perspectives. 1) (Positive) Meaning these shares (30M) can no longer be exercised at the exercise price of: between 0.48 and 0.49. 2) (Negative) if these shares are able to be reissued and purchased by insiders at the current PPS of .1380 this is not a good thing. Tony, it just means that the warrants will cease to exist and therefore the potential for 30 million new shares being issued (as the warrants are exercised) goes away. This would be a positive for the share holders as the risk of dilution is no longer there. This would be negative for the warrant holders as their warrants will have no value in the future. I am attempting to understand warrants. I currently hold 115 AIG.WS warrants. The option price is 45 set to expire in approx 6 years. The warrant value has well surpassed the AIG value. For it to be worth while to exercise on the 45 option, would it not be necessary for the sum of the Warrant value, currently 27.51, plus the 45 option cost to be less than the current AIG stock value of 62.94, which it is but only by 0.43 Would there also be the benefit of a dividend on the AIG holding, should one be issued Also, in the case of a split, are the warrants unaffected by the split Thank you. Dean, the warrant prices may at times lag or lead the stock price so you will see small variances open up (0.43 in this case). If there is a long time left for expiration, in this case you have 6 years, than the variance can be large as it also reflects the probability that the stock price for AIG would be at a different level in 6 years than today (similar to your normal Black Scholes model for option pricing) Warrant holders are at a disadvantage if there are dividends paid on the AIG equity, as the exercise price is not adjusted for the dividend. In case of a split, the warrant exercise price should be adjusted to reflect the split. Lukasz Wicher says I wanted to get some info on warrants and what happens to out of money warrants in the event of a buyout or merger. Do they simply remove themselves or are the terms adjusted. Depends. If the warrants are for the acquiring company, they should not be affected. If the warrants are for the company that is being acquired, they will be nullified unless special provisions are made in the merger agreement. Hello Mr. Kumar. I never tried to understand warrants until a foreign stock I currently hold recently issued 1 warrant for every 10 shares owned. I now see the added line for these warrants in my portfolio (online), but there is no mention of the warrant8217s strike price or expiration date as you mentioned above. Is this because they were bonus warrants How would I determine the missing info above in order to better understand or plan its eventual exercise Thanks in advance The company should have filed some paperwork with the securities regulator (e.g SEC filings) describing the warrant. This should have the details. If this is hard to find, often times the companies list all the warrants and details in their Annual Reports (may not do it in quarterly or semi annual reports). I8217m not clear on the subject as I am new to investing, but I came across the option to buy TACOW for 6 or TACO for 16, the merger will complete mid june early july. What8217s the difference What will happen if I buy either one Thanks for your time. Hi Alex, I think I have addressed these particular names in some of the earlier comments. If there is a specific question let me know. If an investor has a warrant8212for example8212they received in a transaction in December 2013, would exercising today reset the purchase date to today Meaning would this reset the clock on achieving long-term tax status Or would the original December 2013 purchase date carry over Yes, exercising the warrant resets the purchase date to the date of exercise. At the same time, the cost basis is reset to equal the cost basis in the warrant the price paid to acquire stock in the exercise. On the other hand, if the warrants were sold and not exercised, they would have carried the original purchase date and cost basis. Please note that this is with the US tax laws. Other jurisdictions may treat this differently. Hello, I own a stock. An insider just exercised 3Millions warrants (at 0,60 and they would have expired in 6 months, the current shareprice is 1,50). He has not sell any share after that. What is his benefit to exercise it now if it8217s not for selling it now Hi, maybe he just wants to hold the stock as ownership in the company and wait for the stock to appreciate if he thinks the company is doing well. This is better than letting the warrants expire as then he would have no value left. Thank you for your prompt response. The warrants would have expired in 6 months, no need to exercise them now. I see two possibilities, he wants to have more vote in case of a buyout (the company is in a quiet period right now), or he wants to sell it quickly when the quiet period will be over (I am not sure if he could sell the shares at the same time he exercise the warrants). Does it make sense, should I read it negatively or positively Hard to say Hi John, the only thing you should read into this is that he wants to own the stock and that is a positive as far as signals go. Do you mean at 24share No you do not have to sell the common (LEVY). However, the stock might stall at that price for some time as people will be busy exercising the warrants (a little before 24share) which will cause new stock to be issued and come to the market (dilution). Mr. Kumar, Could you please clarify about how the 1-cent redemption works in TACOW8217s plan If the company gives notice of redemption, will the warrants become worthless immediately I8217m hoping they won8217t. The language in the prospectus sounds like warrant-holders may be given notice and a window of time in which to either exercise their warrants or sell them before they become worthless. Here is the language from page 30 of prospectus: 8220We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of 0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of our common stock equals or exceeds 24.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to proper notice of such redemption provided that on the date we give notice of redemption. 8230 Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you (i) to exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants.8221 Yes, your understanding is correct. When the notice of redemption is issued the warrants will be worthless. However, there is a 30 day period prior to this notice when the stock price needs to consistently close at 24 or above for 20 out of these 30 days. Including weekends, this implies 38-39 total calendar days. If stock price approaches 24 and appears to be heading higher (due to improved business performance), warrant holders will start redeeming their warrants. There will be tremendous liquidity for a short while and you will be able to redeem or sell your warrants. During this period of 30 trading days before the notice, the warrant price should correlate with the stock price (meaning they should be priced appropriately without discount). Thank you for answering our questions Here is mine: If Company A announces that they have accepted an offer to be acquired by (or merged into) Company B before Company A8217s common stock warrants expire in 30 days, and the announcement of the buyout causes the stock price and the warrant price to increase well above the strike price, will holders of Company A warrants typically have the ability to either sell the warrants or exercise the warrants up to, and including, the date that the Company A warrants expire (since buyout deals usually take more than 30 days, after being announced, to be completed) Expressed differently, does the news that Company A has agreed to be purchased by Company B (at a price higher than the current stock price for Company A) ever cause the price of Company A8217s warrant to decline or become unsellable or unexercisable, given that the expiration date of Company A8217s warrants will occur in 30 days, well before the completion of the buyout Again, thank you very much for answering our questions and concerns. As long as the warrants are not expired, they will remain exercisable or sellable. Unless the acquisitionmerger is at terrible terms for the Company A8217s shareholders, it is unlikely that the warrant price should decline on the announcement of the buyout. There is an exception though that depends on the terms of the warrants. There may be a clause written into the warrant offering document that makes it redeemable by the company above a certain stock price. This maybe something like 8220if the price of the common stock rises above X and stays above this level for 20 days in the previous 30 trading days, the company has the right to redeem the warrants at 0.01warrant8221. If the acquisition causes the stock price to go above X and stay there consistently, the value of the warrant may decline and the company may choose to call it in if this clause exists. This is because the warrants are normally issued as a sweetener with a stock or debt issue. The idea is to entice the investors to purchase the equity by promising a leveraged return with the warrants. If the company can get its stock price above a certain level, this enticement is no longer necessary and the company would like to retire the warrants to avoid further future equity dilution. Thank you, Mr. Kumar, for your very fast and informative reply I8217ll be studying your past and future articles, and reading your questions and answers sections further, as you are clearly very knowledgeable, considerate, and helpful to your readers. Best regards to you I do not know of a case where shares are not sellable due to a warrant attached to it. It is possible, just not something I have seen before your situation. In this case, you mention that the warrant price is 50. I am assuming this is not the 8220strike price8221 but the actual price that you would receive if you were to sell the warrants. Have you checked with your broker and the possibility of selling the shares and the associated warrants together If the broker is unable to sell the warrants (sometimes the market for the warrants is too illiquid), you may have to request him to first exercise the warrants you own, and then once this is complete you can than sell the shares (along with the new shares you receive with the warrants exercise). Exercising the warrants will require you to purchase new shares in exchange for the warrants at the specified 8220strike price8221. The cost of exercising the warrants will be the 8220strike price8221 plus transaction costs. This will add time to the process but may be necessary to complete the sale. In either case, please confirm the prices you will receive before issuing firm instructions to ensure that the entire transaction (warrants shares) is profitable for you. Please let me know if you need additional help once the costprice picture is clearer and you know what the broker is able to do. I had purchased X no of shares on Sep 07, 2014 via private placement 1.65 per unit which consist of 1 share amp 12 warrants. I received the X no of warrants with an expiration date of Sep 07, 2015 amp excercise price of 2.20 per unit. Now I would like to know if I dont want to excercise the warrants what would I loose in this scenario. Faisal, if you do not exercise the warrants, the warrants will expire and you will lose whatever the value is for the warrants on Sep 7, 2015. The value depends on the share price and if it is below 2.20share, the value of the warrants will be small and will become smaller as the date approaches. If the share price is above 2.20share, the value of the warrants will be roughly the difference between the stock price and 2.20. Generally, if the chances of the warrants to be in the money (i.e share price above the exercise price) are small, it might be worthwhile to sell the warrants in the open market. Tejas Mehta says Can the warrants be sold without being exercised (meaining traded for a stock at strike price) If I have warrants which I purchased at 2 couple of years ago with a strike price of 40, and today, the warrants are trading at 4 and the strike price of 40 has hit, can I just sell the warrants (as if I were to sell any common stock in the market) and make the profit of 2 per warrant OR is it mandatory for the warrants to be exercised and traded with a stock Also, can warrants be sold if the strike price does NOT hit Let8217s say the warrants are 3 and the strike price hasn8217t hit, but warrants are about to expire in few months. Can I just sell the warrants for 3 per piece and still make some money although the strike price of 40 hasn8217t hit Warrants can always be sold regardless of whether the strike price is hit or not. The price you receive will of course vary based on the stock price vs strike price. If you hold the warrants in a brokerage account, the process is just like selling a stock. If you do not hold it at a broker, i.e you have physical warrants, check with your broker for the process to transfer them to your account with the broker. Hi Shailesh Kumar, So, basically a warrant can be bought and sole in the market just like a share without mandatorily be exercised The only difference is that the warrant allow the holder to own the underlying share at the pre-defined exercising price but the profit generated still the same whether exercise warrant or not Thanks. Generally yes. Like any instrument, the actual price you get depends on how liquid the market for that warrant is. The commissions for selling versus exercising might also be different depending on your broker (selling is generally cheaper). Other than these transaction costs, there is no difference in whether you sell it or exercise it. james morgan says what happen to warrants if company is bought out at a high pps do you get the stike price of the warrant or closer to the pps Please refer to my answer to Lorne above. You are talking about a public company so the purchase method is equity. In this case, how the warrants are treated are based on the methods laid out in the offering document. If the offering document is silent on this, than it may be subject to the negotiated treatment between the acquirer and the acquired companies. But lets say the acquisition is not closed yet. In this case, you should be able to get the value of the warrant that is derived from the pps (assuming as you state the the pps is high and above the strike). The reason is that if you do not, you should go ahead and exercise the warrant, forcing the company to issue new stock, and then sell the stock in the market to make up the difference. Thanks a lot for the insight Shailesh8230 Now I8217m quite clear about the warrants. May I ask about premium and gearing, which I found in announcements What are those Are those showing significant information. This was somewhat helpful learned lots,but a private company being taken over by another private individual in order for the sale to go threw do you have to exercise your warrents to complete the transaction,thankyou If the take over is being done as an asset purchase, then most likely the existing warrants will be nullified. Essentially, the current business is being closed and the assets are being sold. If it is done based on the equity method, it is quite possible to negotiate the treatment of the warrants and have them carry forward. Please consult a M038A attorney for better detail and things might be a little different in Canada from US. Should add that if the warrants are in the money (i.e, the stockcompany value is worth more than the strike 8211 not sure how this is determined in the private market) and if you are a holder of the warrant, you are better off exercising them and taking the equity in the business prior to the sale. Gaming company Leisure amp Resorts World Corp. expects to raise P437.5 million in fresh funds from the issuance of preferred shares and warrants.Leisure amp Resorts, based on the registration statement approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission, will issue 250 million preferred shares for P1 apiece and 12.5 million warrants at P15 per share.The buyers of preferred shares will be entitled to a dividend rate of 8.5 percent per annum.Meanwhile, the warrants will be issued to buyers of preferred shares on the fifth year from the issuance of the preferred shares.Under the plan, an investor buying 20 preferred shares will be entitled to purchase 1 warrant share at P15 apiece. The offering period for the preferred shares will start from March 13 to 21, while the listing date is set on March 31. Ir, kindly explain this to me8230 the current price of the warrant is 0.90share. Is it advisable to by warrant at this price Thank you Allan, I assume the warrants are convertible to common shares even if they are being issued along with the preferred. What is the current price of the common shares and do you expect the common shares to do well in the next 5 years based on the business prospects Finally, I may be misunderstanding this, but are you saying that the warrants have already been issued (since they are trading at 0.90share) but the preferred shares will be offered in March I generally do not like to buy the warrants when they are issued as it indicates a negotiating weakness on the company8217s part. In a year or two, the business might be much stronger making the warrants compelling. Im confused. How do you find an exercise price and the expiration date Warrants listed on NYSE can be found at for Nasdaq and OTC, you will have to print out (download) a list of all stocks or issues trading on those exchanges and then manually filter for warrants. Typically warrant symbols end in W or WS Some sites have tried to compile a database of currently active stock warrants. These include stockwarrants and commonstockwarrants. However, I cannot vouch for their services and accuracy. Also, I have not read Wall Street Journal recently (I know, blasphemy) but I think they do have a listing of commonly traded stock warrants in there. Dennis Brower says I am being offered stock and warrants as settlement in a bankruptcy case. I am told I have to pay US tax on the stock and the warrant before the stock can be sent to me. Why pay income tax on something that may be worth 0 You should be able to take a capital loss later when the warrant (and possibly stock) turn out to be worthless. Taxation is outside my expertise but be sure to keep the paperwork to help you figure out the cost basis (the current worth of the stock and the warrants, probably through an appraisal if this is being done under a legal process). Also, if the stock and the warrants are being offered to you in lieu of your original ownership stake in an asset, you might be able to take a capital loss right away if the value of what is being offered to you is less than your initial investment. A competent tax advisor should know the exact rules. Great, intelligently written article. I knew they were like options in some way, so you explained it perfectly by making a direct comparison. What is strange is the motivation for issuing them. Seems like a weak way to raise money. Take in a small premium in exchange for lots of dilution later. At least Employee stock options motivate the employee, making the giveaway more worthwhile. On the other hand, the company raises cash early from the process of diluting at higher prices, and implicitly doing a buy back at lower prices (at expiration). But why not do that with the real thing, dealing with real money. It doesn8217t make me want to hold stock (or warrants) in a company that issues warrants. What is the management saying about their optimism Thank you Warrants do reflect the weak position company is in when they are raising money. Most of the time, they are thrown in as a sweetener to make a deal (private stock offering or a bond issue or just simple loans) go through and are almost always privately negotiated. Regular options are traded on public options exchanges whereas warrants can be very illiquid over the counter and may not be standardized. For example, when Buffett came to the aid of Goldman Sachs a few years ago, warrants were the carrot that made the deal go through. Dilution is a valid concern for the stock if there are warrants outstanding. Warrants themselves may actually make sense as an investment depending on the current stock price, business fundamentals and expiration date. Some of these warrants may have been issued so long ago that the business fundamentals may have materially changed by now so do take that into account. So I was issued x number of warrants of a gold mine as a buy out offer. The current price of the stock is 15 and change, however the warrant is exercise date is May 2017 at 29 and change. I believe the stock will never get to that price level, so basically the company didn8217t give me anything as I am sure the warrants will just expire at the due date8230. correct Brent, the warrants will still have value since the expiry date is in the future and there is some probability (however small) that the stock might get up to 29 and above before the expiry date. The value though will be very little today if the stock price is so much under the exercise price. If the stock price does not reach 29, then the warrants will expire on the due date and if you hold it until then than your value will be zero. Depending on what the warrant value is (you can try and find the ticker for the warrant to find out what they are trading at) and how many you have, it may not even be worthwhile to sell them as commissions might eat up a big part of your proceeds. So in that sense, it may be advisable to just hold on on the off chance that the stock might appreciate enough to make this worthwhile. There is still about 4 years left, so why not You are welcome Leonard
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