Trading-system-for-advanced-warfare

Trading-system-for-advanced-warfare

Ekspansi Pokemon-trading-card-game-online-expansions
Isf-et-stock-options
Options-auto-trading-service


Stock-options-education-videos Belajar-forex-for-dummies Rfq-trading-system Bagaimana-untuk-memulai-forex-trading-in-sri-lanka Menggunakan-moving-average-to-forecast Is-trading-stock-options-kena pajak

Lockheed untuk mengirimkan sistem peperangan untuk helikopter Angkatan Laut AS MH-60 Lockheed Martin telah mendapatkan kontrak pembangunan untuk menyediakan pengawasan dan pertarungan senjata elektronik yang canggih untuk armada helikopter Navyrsquos MH-60 AS melawan ancaman rudal anti kapal (ASM). Sistem ongkos kirim misi elektronik on-board yang dimaksimalkan secara otomatis (AOEW) adalah media self-contained electronic warfare (EW), yang berada di helikopter MH-60R atau MH-60S. Sistem solusi peperangan elektronik baru dirancang untuk meningkatkan kemampuan deteksi dan respons US Navyrsquos ASM. Direktur program perang elektronik Lockheed Martin Joe Ottaviano mengatakan: Setiap hari kapal-kapal di seluruh dunia menghadapi berbagai ancaman yang terus berlanjut. Dengan sistem tempur elektronik AMP ANALQ-248 yang canggih, kami akan membantu menciptakan serangan terkoordinasi terhadap ancaman ini, untuk menjaga agar warfighter kami aman dengan mengendalikan spektrum elektromagnetik dan mengganggu musuh. Oleh ketentuan kontrak, Lockheed Martin akan memasok hingga 18 unit AOEW AMP ANALQ-248 polong ke Angkatan Laut AS, jika semua opsi kontrak dilakukan. Produksi sistem akan berlangsung di Syracuse di New York, AS, dan dijadwalkan akan dimulai pada awal tahun 2019. Sistem pertarungan peperangan elektronik baru dirancang untuk meningkatkan kemampuan deteksi dan respons US navyrsquos ASM. Sebuah tim dari fasilitas perusahaan di Owego, New York akan melakukan integrasi sistem baru ini dengan helikopter MH-60, yang dikembangkan oleh produsen pesawat terbang AS Sikorsky. Solusi peperangan AOEW AMP ANALQ-248 dapat bekerja secara independen atau dengan sensor pengawasan elektronik onderdil kapal, SEWIP Block 2 ANSLQ-32 (V) 6. Sistem ini membantu mendeteksi rudal masuk dan mengevaluasi tujuannya, dengan AOEW kemudian menggunakan teknik penanggulangan frekuensi radio untuk mencegah rudal. Image: Lockheed Martinrsquos AOEW AMP ANALQ-248 akan memperbaiki cara Angkatan Laut AS mendeteksi dan merespons ancaman rudal anti-kapal. Foto: courtesy of Lockheed Martin Corporation.Space warfare Contoh peperangan di luar angkasa. Perang ruang angkasa atau pertarungan luar angkasa adalah penggunaan kapal perang dan pesawat ruang angkasa bersenjata lainnya untuk keperluan tindakan militer di sistem bintang dan galaksi. Seiring dengan perang darat dan pertempuran bintang tempur. Oleh 0 BBY space warfare adalah satu dari tiga cabang warfighting yang paling signifikan. Berkembang dari pertunangan angkatan laut dan pada gilirannya pertempuran orbital paling awal, perang antariksa menjadi urusan teknologi tinggi yang sering menentukan hasil konflik galaksi yang paling penting. Teknologi Edit Turbolasers adalah bentuk utama dari persenjataan kapal modal selama ribuan tahun. Inovasi teknologi menentukan desain kapal perang dan doktrin angkatan laut dan hasil pertempuran. Sementara ukuran dan kemampuan kapal selam bervariasi, empat teknologi utama melaju dan dikembangkan oleh peperangan luar angkasa: sistem senjata, teknologi perisai, propulsi bawah tanah, dan teknologi hyperdrive. Senjata Edit Ada dua tipe dasar dari persenjataan ruang: energi dan konvensional. Senjata energi dimulai dengan laser gelombang mikro karena pelanggaran dan biasanya bersifat sekunder akibat senjata fisik konvensional. Dari 4.000 BBY, senjata energi adalah bentuk senjata yang dominan dalam pertarungan luar angkasa, didominasi oleh turbolaser dan meriam laser. Hasil teknologi blaster yang telah matang pada saat bersamaan. 1 Di atas kapal modal, senjata energi biasanya dikelompokkan menjadi baterai berdasarkan jenis senjata dan penempatannya di atas lambung kapal. Misalnya, pada Imperial -class Star Destroyer, turbolaser berat di sisi belakang permukaan punggung lambung akan dikelompokkan menjadi satu baterai, sementara yang berada di permukaan dahan bagian kanan akan dikelompokkan ke dalam baterai kedua. Menargetkan komputer di kapal modal biasanya dibagi antara senjata masing-masing baterai, yang memungkinkan penembak api untuk memusatkan tembakan pada target tertentu. Desain lain dari senjata energi termasuk charric. Kemajuan Chiss dari laser gelombang mikro awal meriam ion. Senjata elektromagnetik digunakan untuk merusak sistem elektronik non-destruktif dan superlaser. Perkembangan Clone Wars yang merupakan desain laser yang sangat kuat yang bisa menyebabkan kerusakan skala planet. 2 Senjata konvensional adalah senjata pertama yang digunakan dalam pertempuran luar angkasa. Meskipun persenjataan ruang konvensional pertama mencakup proyektil seperti siput, teknologi semakin maju dan sampai pada peluru kendali peluru dan peluncur torpedo. Senjata konvensional bisa dipandu, seperti dalam kasus rudal, atau tidak terarah, seperti dalam kasus bom. Senjata konvensional datang untuk memasukkan bom nuklir. Bom proton Proton torpedo Dan rudal gegar otak. Teknologi perisai Perisai deflektor adalah komponen penting dalam desain kapal luar angkasa dan digunakan untuk mengurangi kerusakan akibat benturan. Mereka termasuk perisai ray. Yang dilindungi terhadap senjata energi, dan perisai partikel. Yang menolak benda fisik. Kedua jenis energi yang dikonsumsi dalam jumlah besar dan untuk periode yang lama dalam sejarah galaksi, hanya diperuntukkan bagi kapal-kapal perang terbesar dengan kemampuan pembangkit tenaga terbesar. Kapten kapal perang awal karenanya berpikir dalam hal armor untuk pertahanan. Pertahanan awal lainnya termasuk awan bermuatan partikel untuk menyebarkan senjata energi dan lambung yang diolah dengan kiirium untuk merefleksikan balok. 3 Penyemprotan proses squintpipe di 7.500 BBY menghasilkan perisai yang lebih kuat dan lebih cepat untuk diregenerasi, dan juga mengurangi ukuran efektif dari generator perisai deflektor. Sejak saat itu, perisai deflektor yang andal bisa dipasang ke kapal dari semua ukuran. 4 Pertahanan lainnya termasuk meriam pertahanan. Yang dirancang untuk menghancurkan ancaman yang masuk seperti torpedo sebelum mereka bisa menabrak kapal. Terlepas dari elemen penting perisai deflektor dalam desain kapal luar angkasa, tidak semua kapal menggabungkannya. Sebuah contoh penting dari kapal-kapal yang kekurangan perisai deflektor adalah bintang-bintang kelas TIE, khususnya starfighter TIELN, yang tidak disertakan bersamaan dengan sistem pendukung kehidupan karena doktrin Imperial mendiktekan bahwa penggunaan pilot pesawat tempur mereka adalah tanda kepengecutan. 5 Teknologi propulsi Edit drive Sublight mendorong kapal di bawah kecepatan cahaya dan paling baik diwakili oleh drive ion. Didukung oleh generator fusi. Mesin ini mengeluarkan partikel pada kecepatan yang sangat tinggi untuk memberikan kekuatan pendorong. Mesin lampu sorot menentukan kecepatan dan kemampuan manuver dan bisa terbukti menentukan: Pelaut Galactic TIELN starfighter menggunakan desain mesin ion kembar yang sangat efisien dan ruang angkasa yang dilucuti untuk meningkatkan mobilitasnya. Aliansi untuk Memulihkan Republik membantahnya dengan pencegat sayap RZ-1 A-yang lebih cepat dan lebih bermanuver. Yang oleh Kekaisaran diimbangi dengan pencegat TIEIN yang lebih cepat lagi. Teknologi hyperdrive adalah pengaruh yang sangat besar terhadap strategi dalam perang antariksa: armada yang melaju lebih cepat dari cahaya di ruang hipers harus melintasi hyperlan yang diketahui untuk menghindari bayangan massa yang berbahaya. Untuk banyak sejarah galaksi, kapal luar angkasa tidak memiliki kekuatan komputasi untuk menghitung rute yang aman antara sistem dan dibatasi untuk melompat ke dalam jaringan suaka loncatan. Dalam perang ini memungkinkan angkatan laut untuk secara efektif menancapkan kapal pada titik tertentu dengan menonaktifkan suaranya. Dengan 4100 BBY. Komputer navigasi telah maju sampai-sampai lompatan beacon tidak lagi dibutuhkan, membuat kontrol rute menjadi lebih sulit, karena memblokir satu rute hanya mendorong kapal ke salah satu dari banyak jalur alternatif. Namun, secara statistik, hanya sedikit dari rute ini yang dapat dilalui dengan cepat, dan sebuah kekuatan militer yang mengendalikan rute cepat dapat dengan cepat beralih untuk mencegat musuh dengan menggunakan yang lamban. Hyperlanes menentukan geografi strategis perang antariksa, dan armada berulang kali berjuang di atas planet yang sama pada rute hyperspace yang signifikan, seperti Chazwa. Atau planet di persimpangan hyperlane seperti YagDhul atau Brentaal IV. Militari mungkin juga menjaga hiperlan rahasia untuk mendapatkan jatuhnya pada musuh mereka: selama Perang Kloning. General Grievous memanfaatkan rute rahasia melalui Deep Core untuk langsung menyerang Coruscant. Sementara Republik Galaksi dan CIS melakukan negosiasi dengan Hutts untuk mengendalikan Rute Nexus yang menghubungkan satu sama lain wilayah inti. Aliansi Pemberontak juga menggunakan rute rahasia Claatuvac Guild yang dipasok kepada mereka oleh Chewbacca untuk menyerang dan menyerang Hizbut Tahrir. 6 7 Kelas kapal Edit Star Destroyer, frigat, korvet dan starfighters terlibat dalam pertempuran. Kapal yang dirancang untuk perang biasanya dibagi menjadi dua kelas luas: starfighters dan kapal modal. Starfighters Edit Starfighters adalah kerajinan kecil yang biasanya diujicobakan oleh satu atau dua makhluk. Operasi dan peran mereka mencakup keseluruhan doktrin dan bentuk peperangan dengan sendirinya, yang dikenal sebagai pertarungan starfighter. Jenis termasuk antariksa superioritas ruang. Pembom. Dan snubfighters. Pejuang superioritas ruang adalah kapal yang dilucuti, biasanya senjata minimal dan lapis baja, dan digunakan untuk memerangi pembom musuh tapi biasanya tidak dapat menyerang kapal modal. Bom adalah bintang-bintangberfeksi bersenjata yang lebih berat dan biasanya dilengkapi dengan bom, torpedo dan rudal sehingga mereka bisa melakukan pemboman di kapal perang musuh. Mereka biasanya kurang bermanuver daripada pejuang superioritas ruang dan biasanya meminta pendamping tempur mereka sendiri untuk menghindari tembakan ke bawah. 8 Snubfighters duduk di antara pesawat tempur superioritas luar angkasa dan pembom dalam ukuran dan persenjataan dan dirancang untuk pertempuran udara dengan pejuang lainnya dan menyerang kapal-kapal modal. Meskipun snubfighter seperti sayap pemberontak X dan sayap Y menjadi terkenal, karena mayoritas pemusnah galaksi sejarah tidak banyak digunakan dalam pertempuran di dalam ruang: para komandan menganggap lebih baik mengoperasikan snubfighter dari lapangan udara permukaan planet untuk menyerang melalui tutupan awan. Dan melancarkan serangan torpedo dan serangan terhadap kapal dan kapal perang yang menyerang. Namun, keuntungan dari snubfighters cenderung hilang dalam rentang besar antara armada yang berlawanan dan muatan mereka tidak sebesar pembom khusus. Itu hanya setelah keberhasilan N-1 starfighters melawan Federasi Perdagangan Federasi pada Pertempuran Naboo di 32 BBY. Sebuah pengalaman yang dikonfirmasi oleh peran sayap Y melawan Malevolence pada Pertempuran Nebula Kaliida selama Perang Kloning. Bahwa snubfighter itu mulai dianggap serius sebagai pembunuh kapal perang dalam ruang angkasa. 9 Starfighters mungkin atau mungkin tidak memiliki hyperdrive jika tidak, mereka sering diluncurkan dari kapal induk atau pesawat besar lainnya. Beberapa, seperti starfighters Imperial TIELN. Hanya dipersenjatai untuk tempur tempur-tempur tempur yang lebih serbaguna, seperti sayap pemberontak Q-sayap dan pemukul sayap-Y, juga mampu melakukan serangan anti-kapal dan anti-permukaan. Bom seperti pembom TIEsa dan bintang-bintang Bf ASF-01 biasanya adalah penyerang anjing yang buruk dan mengandalkan perisai atau pengawal berat untuk mendorong melalui layar tempur dan menyerang kapal perang. 10 Secara alamiah, seorang starfighter dimaksudkan untuk menjadi kecil, cepat dan lincah, dirancang untuk beroperasi baik sendiri maupun sebagai bagian dari skuadron atau sayap tempur pada berbagai profil misi, mulai dari tugas pendamping hingga misi pengintaian dan full- Penyerangan skala besar. Karena ukurannya, starfighters tidak dapat melakukan operasi mandiri untuk jangka waktu yang lama, membutuhkan basis operasi untuk menyediakan bahan bakar, perbaikan dan persediaan untuk pilot. Karena hal ini tidak dapat dilakukan dalam jumlah besar. Kapal modal Edit Berbagai klasifikasi kapal modal yang memusingkan ada sepanjang sejarah galaksi. Namun, semua sepakat bahwa sebuah kapal modal adalah sebuah kapal tempur militer yang panjangnya setidaknya seratus meter. Setelah Clone Wars, sistem klasifikasi yang paling umum adalah Anaxes War College System. Yang menggantikan sistem yang dilembagakan setelah Ruusan Reformation. Kelas terbesar yang diakui oleh sistem itu adalah kapal penjelajah. Mencerminkan pembatasan Ruusan Reformations pada kapal perang transgalaksi yang lebih besar dari enam ratus meter. Pada saat Clone Wars pecah, banyak sektor kaya telah menugaskan kapal perang yang jauh lebih besar dengan hyperdrives lokal untuk pertahanan mereka, dengan panjang beberapa kilometer dan membuat kapal penjelajah menjadi kelas yang semakin tidak berarti. 11 Di bawah Sistem Akademi Perang Anax, kapal yang berukuran lebih kecil dari seratus meter diklasifikasikan sebagai bintang kelas bintang. Atau jika mereka tidak bersenjata, angkutan luar angkasa. Mengingat apa yang telah terjadi pada kelas kapal penjelajah, para arsitek Anax memperluas sistem klasifikasi mereka untuk memperhitungkan kemungkinan kapal perang yang benar-benar raksasa. Corvette cepat, kapal perang ringan yang digunakan dalam berbagai peran, termasuk blokade running, misi anti-starfighter, atau pendamping dan dukungan untuk kapal yang lebih besar. Frigat duduk di antara dua ratus empat ratus meter dan melayani tujuan untuk menghilangkan kapal armada musuh yang lebih kecil dan sering membawa skuadron bintang tempur mereka sendiri. Kapal penjelajah berkapasitas empat ratus sampai enam ratus meter dan memiliki senjata berat dengan ukurannya dan seringkali bisa bertiup kencang dengan kapal yang jauh lebih besar. Kapal penjelajah berat berukuran enam ratus sampai seribu meter dan biasanya merupakan tulang punggung keterlibatan armada. Bintang Destroyer berada antara satu dan dua kilometer panjangnya dan biasanya merupakan kapal luar angkasa besar yang paling banyak, yang mengkhususkan diri dalam pertempuran kapal-ke-kapal yang berat. Battlecruisers panjangnya dua sampai lima kilometer dan dipersenjatai dengan ketat, dirancang untuk operasi jarak jauh dan independen yang memburu kapal-kapal modal lainnya. Akhirnya, dreadnoughts mengangkut kapal sepanjang lima kilometer dan sangat kuat sehingga ancaman penyebaran mereka bisa menenangkan banyak sektor. 12 13 Meski bukan kelas resmi, ada juga sebutan yang disebut superdreadnaught. Yang termasuk Bintang Kental dan Mata Palpatine selama Perang Galaksi Besar dan Perang Saudara Galaksi. Masing-masing, dengan implikasinya adalah bahwa kapal berukuran jauh lebih besar dan lebih kuat daripada dreadnought biasa. 14 15 Selain itu, Anaxes War College System membawa sebuah singkatan untuk digunakan selama pertunangan, yang mengelompokkan kapal perang dari kelas yang berbeda berdasarkan ukuran dan kemampuan mereka. Corvette, angkutan luar angkasa dan kapal luar angkasa yang bertindak sebagai kapal perang diarsitektur ditetapkan sebagai kapal perang. Kapal-kapal kecil, cepat, dan berbendera berat yang mengkhususkan diri dalam menghancurkan jumlah maksimum kapal musuh kecil dalam pertempuran antariksa dan mengandalkan penggusuran jauh lebih banyak daripada perisai mereka untuk menghindari kerusakan. Frigat dan kapal penjelajah yang lebih ringan - tempat kerja sebagian besar penempatan militer - diidentifikasi sebagai kapal penjelajah. Kapal-kapal besar dari garis yang kehadirannya bisa mengubah jalannya pertempuran disebut-sebut sebagai kapal perang. 16 Selain itu, beberapa kapal modal telah dikembangkan secara khusus untuk merevolusi perang ruang serta memastikan dominasi untuk jangka waktu yang lama. Sebuah contoh penting dari kapal-kapal ini adalah Eclipse-class dreadnought dan the Sovereign -class Super Star Destroyers yang dikembangkan oleh Galactic Empire. Dan lebih khusus lagi oleh Imperial Navy. 17 Sejarah Edit Pertarungan ruang pertama Edit Banyak informasi seputar perang paling awal di angkasa hilang oleh era Perang Saudara Galaksi. Tapi legenda peradaban antariksa tertua menceritakan kisah menyeramkan yang serupa dengan perang mengerikan yang dilancarkan dengan senjata tak terbayangkan. 18 Konflik awal semacam itu mencakup perang genosida antara Celestial dan Rakata. Diikuti oleh penaklukan liar dari Kekaisaran Tak Terbatas. 19 Dalam sejarah yang dicatat, kapal-kapal luar angkasa pertama kali dipersenjatai sebagai respons terhadap bahaya alam: perisai deflektor diperlukan untuk awak kapal dan penumpang yang dilindungi radiasi atau mikrometeoroids, sementara senjata laser dan rudal yang dipasang di kapal dikembangkan sebagai respons terhadap asteroid nakal atau ruang yang merusak. Makhluk. Tak pelak lagi, proliferasi senjata ini membawa perang antariksa bersamaan dengan perjalanan antariksa. Perang pertama yang terdokumentasi dengan baik adalah perang rakyat Tionese dan Hutts. Kapal perang Tionese menggunakan peluru kendali, peluncur torpedo dan laser gelombang mikro untuk pelanggaran. Perlindungan diberikan oleh rudal pertahanan titik, awan partikel bermuatan untuk meredakan senjata energi, dan pelapis lapis baja tipis dilapisi dengan paduan kiirium cermin superkonduktor untuk mencerminkan serangan laser. 21 Di era ini, kapal yang lebih besar dari kapal penjelajah ringan jarang ditemukan: unggulan Xim the Despot. Scimitar Eibon. Dianggap raksasa pada masanya, namun sejarawan militer selama Periode Kekaisaran umumnya setuju bahwa kapal ini akan dianggap sebagai kapal penjelajah berat paling baik di bawah Sistem Kemitraan Anaxes War. 22 Perang di era ini bertempur melintasi jaringan suaka loncat. Konflik yang signifikan dari era awal perang antariksa ini mencakup Sengketa Cronese. Perang Ekspansionis kerajaan Xims. Perang terakhir Xims dengan Kekaisaran Hutt. Dan Unification Wars yang mendirikan Galactic Republic. Perang kapal penjelajah Perang Tionese tidak melihat adanya pergeseran menuju kapal perang yang lebih besar: kapal-kapal semacam itu mahal untuk dibangun dan sedikit digunakan secara strategis melawan armada kerajinan yang lebih murah dan lebih gesit. Alsakans Atelier-kelas battlecruisers yang terkenal dengan perisai mereka yang dianggap tak tertembus adalah pengecualian terhadap peraturan tersebut. Selama awal Alsakan Konflik. Kapal-kapal seperti kapal penjelajah dan Koral Gilagimar ini terutama digunakan untuk pertahanan rumah sementara armada kapal penjelajah cepat meluncurkan penggerebekan dan koloni yang dilindungi di Wilayah Eksploitasi. Contoh terbaiknya adalah kampanye Dependensi Utara Admiral Hirken selama Konflik Alsakan Kelima. 24 beacon Langsung masih penting untuk perjalanan hyperspace, yang memungkinkan Biro Kapal dan Jasa menghentikan Konflik Alsakan Pertama 17.018 -16.700 BBY dengan mengancam untuk menahan data navigasi dari Coruscant dan Alsakan. 25 di 10,966 BBY. BoSS juga dapat mengakhiri Perang Sipil Pius Dea dengan menginfeksi kapal-kapal Pius Dea Setia dengan kode navikomputer nakal yang menebarkan armada mereka dan membiarkan apa yang masih harus dibanjiri dengan mudah oleh armada Jedi -Renunci yang digabungkan dalam Pertempuran Uquine. 26 Setelah Duinuogwuin Contention sebesar 15.500 BBY. Republik menghadapi beberapa lawan dengan kapal perang besar dan karenanya tidak banyak digunakan untuk kapal modal besar. Angkatan Laut Republik memilih senjata cepat yang bisa mengantar kapal dagang merchant dan kapal koloni. 27 Perang Pius Dea dari 12.000-11.000 BBY melihat penggunaan kapal katedral dan perang lapis baja besar yang diawetkan untuk pertarungan selebar. Namun penggunaan luas berikutnya dari kapal modal besar datang sekitar 10.000 BBY ketika Republik diprovokasi sebentar oleh bangkitnya Kekaisaran Kumauri. 28 29 Kapal perang besar Vall Kumauri dipersenjatai dengan meriam pengemudi massa yang mampu mempercepat asteroid ke kecepatan planet-retak (mirip dengan planekanga Hutt kuno). Republik membalas dengan armada yang identik, yang menakut-nakuti atau menghancurkan beberapa peradaban yang bermusuhan selama ekspansi Republika dan bahkan menjabat sebagai senjata teror selama Osara Mundicide dari Konflik Alsakan Kesepuluh. Kemajuan dalam perisai planet sebagian besar menghilangkan ancaman pemboman, namun inovasi paling lama yang dimiliki Kumauri Empire adalah penggunaan madilon sintetis untuk membuat hyperdrives lebih kecil dan lebih efisien yang memungkinkan lompatan lebih lama melintasi jaringan galaksi laci. 30 Storm Waymancy. Sebuah konfrontasi marah antara Republik Galaksi dan Waymancy Hollow pada tahun 7811 BBY. Memicu gelombang besar inovasi angkatan laut berikutnya. Dalam pertempuran pertama, kapal-kapal Republik dicabik-cabik oleh tembakan cepat dari laserfire: Suster Waymancy of the Machinemith telah mengembangkan proses Sif-Alulan dan menghasilkan generator listrik yang sangat efisien yang memungkinkan senjata energi jauh lebih kuat dan dengan tingkat yang jauh lebih cepat daripada apapun. Republik bisa membawa untuk menanggung. Waymancy dikalahkan setelah proses Sif-Alulan direkayasa ulang, sehingga Republik dapat menciptakan meriam gelombang dan perisai deflektornya sendiri. Proses ini selanjutnya diperbaiki oleh oleh perajin Verpine Lyns Skutroo. Yang menciptakan proses squintpipe di BBY 7700. Ini menciptakan periode singkat di mana penggila api cepat mengalahkan semua pertahanan yang ada. Hal ini menyebabkan para ahli taktik angkatan laut meremehkan kapal-kapal modal yang mendukung gerombolan kapal perang yang bisa menguasai lawan-lawannya. Karena perisai deflektor sekarang tidak ada gunanya, ini menyebabkan pencarian armor lambung yang lebih kuat, dengan pengganti kiirium. Pada tahun 7500-an BBY, penyempitan lebih lanjut dari proses squintpipe menghasilkan perisai yang lebih kuat dan lebih cepat untuk diregenerasi, dan perisai generator menjadi cukup kecil untuk dipasang pada kapal selam dari berbagai ukuran. 31 Masa keemasan kapal perang Edit Proses pemadaman halus memicu masa keemasan konstruksi kapal perang. Kapal-kapal modal terlahir kembali sebagai kapal perang utama Republik Militer. Pasukan Keamanan Planetary nya. Dan musuh-musuhnya, yang terburuk adalah Sith. Dalam Great Hyperspace War of 5000 BBY. Republik menghadapi sebuah armada kapal perang kelas berat Sith Derriphan yang dipimpin oleh Corsair Naga Sadow. Angkatan Laut Republik membalas dengan kapal-kapal modal yang lebih besar, termasuk kapal-kapal komando. Kapal perang Dan kapal penjelajah kelas Hammerhead (salah satu desain kapal perang yang paling abadi dalam sejarah galaksi, yang tetap berada dalam dinas militer dengan upgrade selama hampir 3.000 tahun). 32 Ancaman ganda Sith dan Mandalorians dalam apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Perang Sith Lama mendorong Republik untuk membangun kapal-kapal yang lebih besar dan lebih kuat, yang berpuncak pada bentrokan titanic antara kapal-kapal perang terbesar yang pernah ada di galaksi tersebut. Ini termasuk kapal komando taktis kelas bawah yang bisa dilipat 3.000 meter. Pesawat tempur Kelas Centurion kelas 1.200 meter. Dan kapal penjelajah deret kelas 600 meter. Desain kapal penjelajah ini memproyeksikan simulasi gravitasi ke dalam ruang realspace. Menciptakan bayangan massal di ruang hiperspace yang mencegah lonjakan hyperspace atau menyeret kapal kembali ke ruang realspace. Namun, inovasi ini akan segera dianggap tidak efektif oleh rangkaian sensor hyperspace yang lebih baik dan unit lapangan multiphase null. Dan tidak sampai Perang Saudara Galaksi bahwa proyektor gravitasi dengan baik menjadi senjata penentu lagi. 33 34 Perang Galaksi Besar. Perang Dingin dan Perang Galaksi melihat kapal penjelajah Valor-kelas Republik dan bahkan Bintang superkuat Coruscant yang melawan perusak kelas Terminus dan kelas bawah Harrower dari Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Kekaisaran Sith yang dipulihkan. 15 Dengan 4100 BBY. Era suar melompat sampai pada akhirnya karena komputer navigasi yang lebih efektif dan canggih dikembangkan. Waspada terhadap suara gemuruh di luar perbatasan Republik, Angkatan Laut Republik melakukan penelitian kecelakaan untuk memastikan bahwa kapal-kapal tersebut dapat melintasi galaksi dengan cepat dan aman tanpa harus bergantung pada suar. Ini adalah langkah yang tepat: selama Perang Sith Besar dan Perang Mandalorian. Angkatan Laut Republik menghancurkan banyak beacon melompat dalam upaya untuk menolak musuh-musuhnya mudah masuk ke ruang Republik. Inovasi teknologi perlahan-lahan menjadi kapal perang yang usang, namun: Konflik Alsakan yang ketujuh belas dan terakhir disebabkan oleh Alsakan mempertahankan dan memperluas armadanya meski ada kesimpulan dari Perang Galaksi. Republik menanggapi dengan membangun armada kapal kilat cepat kelas dua Invincible -class. Respon Alsakan dan Axis adalah skuadron massal dari korvet rudal sublight. Yang berhasil mempertahankan sistem mereka dari serangan Republik. Namun, Corellia bereaksi dengan armada frigat jarak jauh. Terobosan teknologi memungkinkan mereka untuk dilengkapi dengan mesin yang cepat, perisai yang kuat, dan penggoda turbin yang berat, yang memungkinkan Pangeran Laksamana Jonash e Solo untuk secara cepat melawan baik kapal perang Coruscanti dan Alsakani dan memaksa sebuah perjanjian damai untuk keduanya. Reformasi Ruusan Era Perang Besar berakhir pada 2500 BBY karena masalah ekonomi. Taktik sekali lagi datang untuk memilih armada kapal penjelajah yang lebih kecil. Terutama armada kapal berbingkai wroshyr yang terkenal yang dipimpin oleh Jedi Lord Valenthyne Farfalla di atas kapal Fairwind di New Sith Wars. Reformasi Ruusan 1000 BBY menghentikan konstruksi kapal besar: tidak hanya Angkatan Laut Republik yang dibongkar dan bertanggung jawab atas pembelaan yang diberikan kepada Pasukan Keamanan Planetary dan Pasukan Kehakiman. Tapi seukuran kapal ditutupi kapal penjelajah enam ratus meter. Kapal yang berukuran lebih besar dari enam ratus meter memiliki hyperdrives terbatas dan navicomputing mereka terbatas pada tangga lagu lokal. Selama berabad-abad setelah Ruusan, kapal-kapal modal yang lebih besar dari kapal penjelajah ringan jarang ditemukan dan dipandang boros. 37 Kapal penjelajah muncul sebagai tempat kerja para PSF dan Judicial, dan mereka berfungsi dengan baik dalam Kampanye Unifikasi setelah Perang Sith Baru. Namun, karena otoritas Republikan di Wilayah Lingkar Luar perlahan-lahan hancur dalam abad terakhir Perdamaian Besar Republik. Sektor industri yang kaya mulai membangun kapal modal baru untuk armada sektor, sementara megacorps seperti Federasi Perdagangan memanfaatkan celah dalam undang-undang untuk mengembangkan armada pertahanan dagang mereka sendiri. Perkembangan ini memuncak pada kapal penjelajah raksasa dalam skala yang tidak terlihat selama ribuan tahun, dengan planet yang kaya seperti Kuat dan Rendili berusaha menciptakan pertahanan yang tak tergoyahkan dan mengesankan tetangga mereka. Selain itu, shipwrights diberi pengecualian untuk memungkinkan mereka mengejar inovasi teknologi dan menampilkan desain prototipe. Hal ini mengakibatkan armada demonstrasi perusahaan terdiri dari variasi pada desain kapal perang, yang sering disewakan ke sektor-sektor yang mampu membelinya. Dengan BBY 30-an. Sektor kaya dipenuhi dengan kapal perang besar, dengan jumlah armada mereka membengkak oleh pinjaman dari produsen kapal terbang. Sementara itu, batas pertahanan Ruusan Reformations berarti bahwa sektor Rim yang miskin berjuang untuk melindungi dunia mereka dan mengalahkan penyelundup dan bajak laut dengan armada kapal perang bawah tanah yang kurang bertenaga. 39 Pengalaman Perang Kloning Edit Perang Kloning 22 sampai 19 BBY. Sebuah produk dari Order of the Sith Lords Grand Plan untuk menguasai galaksi, secara mendasar mengubah perilaku perang antariksa. Yang paling signifikan, hal itu mengakibatkan penyebaran tiga variasi besar kapal modal baru: the Star Destroyer. Battlecruiser. Dan Bintang Dreadnought. Bahkan sebelum Reformasi Ruusan, kapal yang panjangnya lebih besar dari dua kilometer jarang terjadi, dan kebanyakan kapal perang cenderung berada di bawah titik satu kilometer. Namun, Clone Wars melihat perkembangan pesat dan meluasnya penggunaan Star Destroyers. Sementara namanya awalnya adalah marque perusahaan Kuat Drive Yards. Itu datang untuk merujuk pada sebuah kapal yang panjangnya lebih dari satu kilometer, membawa persenjataan yang cukup kuat untuk membuang sampah ke seluruh sistem bintang. Bintang Destroyer, dicontohkan oleh Venator -. Kemenangan -. Dan akhirnya kelas Imperial. Akan menjadi tulang punggung armada pertempuran selama dan setelah Clone Wars. Orang-orang Separatis menjawab Star Destroyer adalah Providence -class carrierdestroyer. Tapi meski kelasnya terkenal oleh Jenderal Grievous Invisible Hand. Ada sedikit dari mereka. 40 Perkembangan kapal modal yang lebih besar adalah kapal perang tempur, kapal perang besar, berlapis baja berat yang dirancang untuk memburu dan menghancurkan kapal-kapal modal lainnya dalam operasi independen jarak jauh. Kapal perang pertama yang mendapatkan pengakuan formal sebagai peternak pertama adalah Procurator 2.5-kilometer KDY. Yang berfungsi sebagai template untuk serangkaian kapal perang KDY yang selalu lebih besar. Pada saat Perang Kloning, puluhan peternak kuda mempertahankan sektor Core dan Koloni, di antara penyitaan Procurators, kelas empat-meter persegi Praetor. Mayoritas kapal besar ini masuk ke layanan Republik selama Perang Kloning, yang sebagian besar berfungsi sebagai pertahanan lokal terhadap serangan Separatis. Yang lainnya dilatih, dilengkapi dengan hyperdrives berkemampuan transgalaksi dan menjadi titik awal kekuatan tugas yang dikirim melawan dunia Separatis kunci, terutama dan tragis Quaestor di Pammant. Confederacy of Independent Systems mempertahankan beberapa kapal yang bisa disebut battlecruisers, terutama subjugator -class. Paling baik diwakili oleh Malevolence. Tetapi mereka memilih armada kapal frigat dan perusak ringan yang lebih kecil. Kekaisaran Galaksi akan menugaskan beberapa pembalap yang relatif sedikit, memindahkan mereka ke pertahanan Core, dan menganggapnya kurang serbaguna daripada Star Destroyer namun tidak menanamkan teror yang sama dengan ancaman. 41 Boom bintang adalah kelas terbesar kapal modal yang pernah ada, dan kapal perang besar dirancang sedemikian kuat sehingga ancaman penempatan mereka hanya akan menenangkan banyak sektor. Kapal perang pertama yang dianggap sebagai dreadnought adalah Mandator delapan kilometer KDY. Dibangun dua puluh tahun sebelum Clone Wars. Ini memicu perlombaan di antara sektor kaya untuk kapal perang sejenis, dan selama Perang Kloning, KDY mengembangkan desain Mandator II yang telah diperbaiki. Kekaisaran Galactic terus pengembangan bintang dreadnought, yang berpuncak pada Proyek Sarlacc dan bintang kelas Pelaksana-lari dreadnought. Sebuah kapal perang sepanjang 19 kilometer yang begitu besar dan kuat sehingga hampir tak terkalahkan dalam pertarungan armada. Banyak di Angkatan Laut Imperial. Bagaimanapun, datang untuk meremehkan bintang dreadnoughts sebagai tidak efisien dibandingkan dengan armada kapal penjelajah yang lebih kecil untuk berpatroli di galaksi, dan mengejek mereka sebagai Super Star Destroyer. 42 Angkatan Laut Republik ditentang oleh Angkatan Laut Konfederasi. Yang mengkompensasi kerapuhan relatif perusak cahaya kelas Recusant -class dan frigat bintang Munificent-kelas dengan sejumlah besar kapal berlobang droid, serta kawanan bintang bintang yang sangat besar. 43 Selain pencegat tradisional seperti Belbullab-22 dan tri-fighter droid. Dan pembom seperti kelas Hyena dan Belbullab-24. Separatis juga mengoperasikan sejumlah besar snubfighters. Dalam sebuah keberangkatan dari doktrin tradisional, Angkatan Laut Konfederasi sering kali menyebarkan skuadron snubfighter seperti pembom bintang dedaunan Vulture-kelas di kedua pertempuran malam sebagai peran anti-kapal. Perkembangan teknologi snubfighter telah melampaui doktrin. Pertunjukan N-1 starfighters pada Pertempuran Naboo telah menunjukkan kepada orang-orang Separatis bahwa snubfighter berkepala hyperspace memang bisa menghancurkan kapal perang. Pengalaman tersebut dipastikan dengan hancurnya Perang Dunia Kedua Separatis Malevolence pada Pertempuran Nebula Kaliida. Membantu sebagian kecil olehnya karena dilumpuhkan oleh bintang-bintang sayap-sayap Y. Angkatan Laut Republik tidak lamban memperhatikan hal ini. Operator bintang starfighter utamanya, Venator - and Victory -class Star Destroyers. Pada awalnya dirancang dengan ajaran tradisional dalam pikiran dan untuk mengoperasikan pembom torpedo NTB-630 dalam peran kapal anti-kapital, di samping Interceptors A-6 jarak pendek untuk pendamping dan berurusan dengan bintang musuh musuh. Pada akhir Clone Wars, kapasitas pembawa sebagian besar diberikan kepada snubfighters seperti ARC-170. and designers like Vors Voorhorian and Walex Blissex spent the war years designing a new generation of snubfighters that could dogfight on equal terms with any starfighter in space. 45 The Confederacy of Independent Systems fought the Republic with a stateless strategy. making surgical strikes and terror raids designed to deny the Republic key invasion corridors, undermine support for the war, and sever key fleets supply lines. The sheer size of Republic territory meant that it was impossible for the Republic Navy to repel all the raids, and if it tried to take the offensive against the Separatists, it might leave key worlds vulnerable. 46 The Republic never found a solution to this strategy. Instead, it outgrew it, conscripting vast numbers of new crews and cloning huge numbers of new clone troopers. and by the third year of the war, had committed a substantial portion of its much larger industrial base to produce a fleet so large it could both defend its territories and take the fight to the Separatists. The Separatists Outer Rim holdings were ground down in an attritional campaign known as the Outer Rim Sieges. 47 After the Separatist Droid Army was finally deactivated. the new Galactic Empire inherited the immense Republic Military and both the Republic and the Confederacys military-industrial complexes, allowing Emperor Palpatine to consolidate control over the galaxy with a new navy larger than anything ever seen before. 48 The Galactic Civil War Edit A clash between Rebel and Imperial task forces. The Galactic Civil War of 2 BBY -19 ABY cemented the role of the Star Destroyer as the central warship of navies. Under Emperor Palpatine, the Planetary Security Forces were nationalized and merged into the Sector Groups. massive concentrations of fleet power at the sector level. Distrusting local loyalties, these fleets were rapidly filled with new ships loyal to Imperial Center (decommissioned PSF equipment and ships would later become a major source of resources for the Rebellion ) 49 50 The Imperial Navy ultimately expanded to become the largest military starfleet the galaxy had ever seen, peaking at 25,000 Star Destroyers and millions more smaller ships. 51 The Imperial Navys doctrine emphasised maximizing capital ship firepower rather than achieving starfighter superiority, and it subordinated its starfighters to this role. 52 As such, the Republic Starfighter Corps, when reorganized into the Starfighter Corps of the Galactic Empire, was reduced to being dependent on the Imperial Navy. The large carrier capacity of the Venator -class Star Destroyer was done away with in future designs in favor of smaller fighter complements. This made room for bigger, more powerful reactors, allowing them to be more heavily armored and carry stronger shields and more powerful weapons, all of which would make starfighters less effective. The new Imperial -class Star Destroyer became the backbone of the Imperial Starfleet and was heavily optimised for fleet combat, carrying only a single wing of 72 starfighters, relatively small in comparison to the Venator -class 420 fighters. 53 54 55 The Imperial Navys general strategies and functions included blockading ports in order to prevent supplies from reaching a planet to cripple its ability to fight bombarding planets in order to annihilate its infrastructure and transporting other branches of the Imperial military to their destination as well as supplying them with space and aerial support after disembarking. 17 Seeing it as a legacy of the Separatists, the Imperial Navy abandoned snubfighters in favor of more traditional starfighters: the TIE Series. exemplifying traditional starfighter doctrine with the TIELN Line Starfighter and the TIEsa Bomber. was a series of barebones fighter designs built around a ball-shaped cockpit and the revolutionary twin ion engine design. Seen as complements to Star Destroyers, they served as escorts, scouts, hit-and-fade raiders, and bombers supporting ground troops. As such, they lacked hyperdrives. deflector shields. or even life support systems, reducing their mass and giving them great speed and maneuverability, but also limiting their survivability and their range. 56 The Imperials also chose to eliminate shielding and life-support systems specifically because they viewed the use of such by their TIE pilots as cowardice. 5 In addition, as a holdover towards the Galactic Republics use of cloned soldiers and pilots during the Clone Wars and their treatment of the clones as living droids, the TIE pilots were also given a notoriously low amount of protection during battle and even during training exercises, even when Imperial officers requested that they make accommodations for the growing amount of human pilots that graduated from the Imperial Academy system, which resulted in the TIE fighter being a symbol for the Empires callous disregard of its own troops. 57 The Clone Wars had stimulated aggressive new research into interdiction field technology, and the Empire built on the Republics developments. New designs of gravity well projector were powerful enough to pull any ship out of hyperspace or to pin it in realspace. However, only large capital ship had the spaceframe and drive systems to carry the large, bulbous generators, and Immobilizer 418 cruisers became common sights in Imperial fleets. They were decisive in preventing the immediate escape of the Alliance Fleet into hyperspace at the Battle of Endor. Owing to their role, however, these cruisers were underpowered for their size, and only large battleships like the Sovereign -class and Eclipse -class dreadnoughts were big enough to carry effective interdictor systems without serious penalties in weaponry. 58 The Galactic Empire was opposed by the Alliance to Restore the Republic. which operated on an entirely different military philosophy. Since it lacked large numbers of capital ships, the Rebel Alliance made heavy use of snubfighters as part of its stateless strategy. Powerful starfighters like the T-65 X-wing conducted hit-and-hype raids against prominent Imperial targets and supply convoys, using their superior shielding, armament, and hyperdrives to inflict disproportionate damage on Imperial targets. Meanwhile, the Alliance Fleet would roam the galaxy, challenging Imperial authority merely by existing, and waiting for the chance of a decisive battle with the Galactic Empire. 59 The Galactic Empire made belated moves to develop their own snubfighters like the TIE Advanced x1 and the TIED Defender after the Rebels inflicted humiliating defeats on them with X-wings, but the most numerous new development was the TIEIN. a non-hyperspace capable traditional interceptor that though capable of outracing Rebel fighters, was not equipped with deflector shields. Only declining numbers of TIE pilots in the years after Emperor Palpatines death as the Empire lost ground to the New Republic spurred warlords such as Grand Admiral Thrawn to retrofit TIE Interceptors with shields. 60 A fourth Imperial influence on space warfare was its increasing resort to superweapons to counteract the Rebels stateless strategy. The Empires initial response was a policy of reprisal, a system of state terror that was institutionalised in the Tarkin Doctrine. 61 However, the policy of overwhelming force in an effort to deny the Rebels safe haven did more to foment resistance than eliminate it. The creation of superweapons like the Death Stars. the Eclipse -class dreadnoughts. the Galaxy Gun. and the Sun Crusher. was intended to reverse this state of affairs by introducing the possibility of a reprisal so terrifying - namely, the destruction of entire planets, or even entire star systems - that no world would risk aiding the Rebellion. 62 All these superweapons consumed enormous amounts of resources and more often than not were destroyed early in their lives by concentrated Rebel raids, most notably the Battle of Yavin and the Battle of Endor. by the very snubfighters the Empire had disdained. 63 64 The risks of using superweapons were such that, at least regarding the Death Stars, their mere usage required both an Imperial Intelligence report as well as explicit authorization from the Emperor and his office to those with oversector authority. 17 After the destruction of the Second Death Star at the Battle of Endor and the subsequent collapse of Imperial authority, the New Republic moved away from the development of battlecruisers and dreadnoughts: its strategists saw them as obsolete, narrowly-focused on fleet combat, and vulnerable to trench run disease - starfighters hugging close to their hulls and using surface trenches for cover to launch strafing runs. Ship design in the Defender and New Class Modernization Programs instead focused on smaller, more versatile, modular ships, as well as a focus on fleet carriers for large starfighter complements. However, the poor performance of the New Republic Defense Fleet against fleets of dreadnoughts in Operation Shadow Hand. and the experience of the Lusankya s duel with the Reaper during the Orinda campaign. forced a change in design philosophy. The Mon Calamari Shipyards subsequently created the 8.5-kilometer Mediator -class battle cruiser and the two massive, 17-kilometer Viscount -class Star Defenders. Bounty and Krakana . intended as the centerpiece of the New Republics Outer Rim defenses in the aftermath of the Galactic Civil War. 65 66 The Yuuzhan Vong War Edit The New Republic adopted a military system that was wholly different to that of the Galactic Empire. Unlike the Imperial Navy. which had been focused on invasion and occupation, the New Republic Defense Fleet was focused on peacekeeping, patrolling, and rapid crisis response, working with and alongside Planetary Security Forces rather than absorbing them. To this end, rather than the Imperial Navys immense number of ships and Sector Groups used to hold down an entire galaxy, the New Republic Navy was smaller and divided into four (later five) large fleets of some five hundred ships each (each roughly the size of an augmented Imperial Sector Group). 67 68 The four fleets later became permanent regional commands based at Coruscant. Bothawui. Elom. and Kashyyyk. The emphasis was on flexibility, with one battle group in each fleet serving as a mobile reserve which could be reinforced with multi-role task forces to temporarily become a powerful battle fleet. 69 This system served the Republic well after 12 ABY. blockading and neutralizing the last Imperial holdouts. However, it meant that the New Republic was woefully unprepared for a totally unexpected threat when the Yuuzhan Vong War began in 25 ABY. Extra-galactic alien invaders, the Yuuzhan Vong operated bizarre organic starships and weapons far more powerful than their New Republic equivalents. A single Yaret-Kor plasma cannon (the primary armament of most Yuuzhan Vong ships) aboard a yorik-et (the primary Yuuzhan Vong starfighter analog, nicknamed the coralskipper by New Republic pilots) was noted to have greater firepower than all four laser cannons aboard an X-wing starfighter. 70 Nearly all Yuuzhan Vong ships were more heavily armed than their galactic counterparts, though their ability to defend themselves was typically inferior. 71 Regardless, the New Republics fleet organization led to it adopting a strategy of husbanding its fleets, guarding the key hyperspace approaches to the Core and Colonies while it built up its forces in preparation for a decisive fleet battle on ground of its own choosing. The strategy was fundamentally based on a perception of what had allowed the Rebel Alliance to decisively defeat the Empire at the Battle of Endor. but it neglected other tactics that had also served the Rebellion, including commerce raiding, pinpoint strikes, and local defense. This made the New Republic appear weak in the early stages of the war, and the obsession with ceding ground in the hopes of luring the Yuuzhan Vong into a decisive engagement meant that great swathes of the galaxy and billions of people were abandoned to the invaders: The Yuuzhan Vong would capture the majority of the territory they would hold during the war in its first year. 72 73 Despite a disastrous first two years of the war which culminated in the loss of Coruscant to the Yuuzhan Vong and the near-destruction of Galactic City. the New Republic, reorganized into the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances. at last achieved technological parity with the Yuuzhan Vong. Innovations such as stutter fire laser cannons to confuse and overwhelm dovin basal defensive shields and jamming yammosk war coordinators allowed the Galactic Alliance to win more victories, culminating in the Battle of Yuuzhantar. where a massive Alliance, Imperial Remnant. Hapan. Chiss and Jedi force descended on occupied Coruscant, killed Supreme Overlord Shimrra and ended the Yuuzhan Vong War. 74 After the Vong Edit The immense taxes required for reconstruction in the aftermath of the Yuuzhan Vong War soon provoked resentment across the sectors, while others, mindful of the New Republics failure to defend them during the war, began building up their Planetary Security Forces to levels that soon caused concern on Coruscant. The Sector Defense Limits of 37 ABY put ceilings on military forces and capabilities, but provoked even more resentment, nowhere more so than on Corellia. a system with a history of prickly independence. 75 Corellian defiance of GA military limits and withholding its reconstruction contributions provoked the Second Galactic Civil War of 40 ABY. After the Galactic Alliance Defense Force continued its efforts to centralize military resources, systems with important shipyards, munitions factories and defense fleets began declaring their independence as well. Led by Corellia, Bothawui and Commenor. they formed a breakaway independent Confederation. 76 With the loss of many of the largest battleships during the Yuuzhan Vong War, neither side made particularly great use of large capital ships. Star Destroyer -sized ships like the Anakin Solo and the new Galactic -class battle carrier predominated on the Alliance side, while the Confederation made use of the somewhat smaller Strident -class Star Defender and the powerful, versatile 850-meter Bothan Assault Cruiser. The Imperial Remnant, meanwhile, began moving away from the traditional design of Star Destroyers with the Turbulent -class Pocket Star Destroyer. which was smaller and possessed a greater capacity for maneuverability while retaining an impressive armament. 77 A surprising development during the war was a resurgence in Hutt militarism in their deployment of batils . tarradas and chelandions - gunship. frigate and cruiser analogs - from Hutt Space in support of the Confederation. The Hutt warships proved capable in battle, with powerful turbolasers and missiles. They had weaker shields than might be expected of ships of their size, but surprisingly strong hull armor. 78 A technological development during the war was the long-range turbolaser. which could engage enemy craft from a distance at which the enemy could not respond. Such weapons caused heavy losses among the Galactic Alliance Fourth Fleet at the Battle of Balmorra despite the eventual GA victory. 79 As in the Yuuzhan Vong War, attempts to force a decisive battle by either side were essays in futility. An attempt by the Confederation to invade the Core was halted at Balmorra with heavy losses on both sides. The week-long battle at Kuat ended after the Galactic Alliance Fifth Fleet attacked Kashyyyk to force the Wookiees to commit their fleet to the Alliance. In the ensuing engagement, the Fifth Fleet was almost completely destroyed after it was surrounded by Confederation forces. The Galactic Alliance Second Fleet would later be completely wiped out as well by a deep-space ambush using the Centerpoint superweapon. The Battle of Fondor split the galaxy even further when a third of the Galactic Alliance fleet presented defected under Admiral Cha Niathal out of a refusal to support an orbital bombardment of civilian population centers. A confused civil war ended sometime later with the Battle of Uroro Station at Shedu Maad in the Hapes Cluster. 80 81 A Pellaeon -class Star Destroyer fighting with a Scythe -class battle cruiser . In the aftermath of the war, the Galactic Alliance increased centralized funding of the Defense Force and reduced its reliance on member worlds for defense. In return for increased taxation, restrictions on member worlds military forces were loosened. For nearly a hundred years, this bargain kept the galaxy largely peaceful. The numbered fleets gave way to larger named fleets assigned to regions of the galaxy, for example, the Galactic Alliance Colonies Fleet. Military philosophy would continue to evolve: in the years leading up to the SithImperial War. the Alliance worked to re-establish Sector Fleets to keep member worlds warships close to their homeworlds. 82 Shipbuilding philosophy developed as well. By the start of the SithImperial War in 128 ABY. which saw the resurgence of the Galactic Empire under the Fel Dynasty as the main galactic power at the expense of the Galactic Alliance, both sides had abandoned battleships almost entirely, largely owing to the enormous cost of operating them. 83 The Galactic Alliances primary warship was now the Scythe -class main battle cruiser. a compact warship only a third of the size of a Star Destroyer that was built for defeating warships in a head-on attack, making repeated attack runs on opponents with an almost-entirely forward-facing armament. Essentially a giant starfighter, its introduction in 92 ABY represented a decisive rejection of fleet carriers and all-purpose battleships in favor of smaller warships focused on specific roles. The Galactic Alliance also retained its focus on the snubfighter with the CF9 Crossfire starfighter. The Fel Empire. meanwhile, continued to prefer the ancient combination of interceptors and bombers. with the heavily-shielded Predator -class fighter and the Neutralizer -class bomber filling its starfighter forces. The Imperial Navy still favoured the Star Destroyer with the Pellaeon -class. though it did not build any larger warships beyond the prototype Imperious -class Star Destroyer. Smaller, lighter warships like the Ardent -class fast frigate were also more common in its fleets than in the Imperial Period. 84 Strategy Edit Types of strategy Edit Military goals are reached through a combination of originality and brutality. 8213Grand Admiral Thrawn 91src93 Rebellion starfighters attack Imperial forces including TIE fighters and Imperial -class Star Destroyers. The multidimensional battlefield made space warfare operations complex and difficult to master. In addition to the complexities of space combat itself, related operations like logistics and support were equally complex. Strategies in space warfare mirrored those applied on the ground, and included asymmetric, attritional, conventional and psychological strategies. Asymmetric strategies, for example, the stateless strategy. were often used by belligerents with a numerical disadvantage to their opponents, The various Sith Empires in their endless wars against the Galactic Republic. the Confederacy of Independent Systems. and the Rebel Alliance in its war against the Galactic Empire all used asymmetric strategies. Such strategies relied on decentralization and the sheer vastness of space to allow a smaller belligerent to beat a larger one. A decentralized power without a clearly-defined homeworld or territory would have to be overcome everywhere it existed before it could be defeated. The vastness of space meant that throughout history, even the largest militaries found controlling space impossible. 85 This gave an advantage to the decentralized belligerent: since the larger opponent could not defend everywhere, the smaller power could choose its battles and strike where its opponent was not. This would force the larger power into making the choice between heavily-defending a handful of key fortress worlds , thus allowing the enemy a free hand elsewhere, or dispersing their forces and so risking the loss of a key planet through defeat in detail. Economic considerations and public pressure tended to force states to adopt the fortress world strategy. 86 Attritional strategies made use of superior numbers to grind the enemy down, often with large numbers of casualties. Such a strategy was used by the Republic during the Outer Rim Sieges of the Clone Wars. since it possessed territories in its own right, the Confederacy of Independent Systems was vulnerable to being attacked conventionally, and once the Republics superior industrial base had produced enough warships to both defend their territories and take the offensive, the CIS was slowly ground down to defeat. 87 Conventional strategies were used by and against belligerents with defined homeworlds and colonies, and involved identifying and attacking significant military objectives to reduce the enemys territory and military forces. It involved organized military forces seeking to engage each other in formal battles, as opposed to, say, targeting civilian populations. After the Battle of Endor. the Galactic Empire and the New Republic typically fought each other in a conventional fashion. 88 Psychological strategies involved boosting the morale of ones own forces while degrading that of the enemys, or that of their civilians, typically through terror tactics. General Grievous saw inducing terror in civilian populations to be the very essence of war, and during the Clone Wars committed atrocities like the release of the Brainrot Plague in the Weemell sector and the orbital bombardment and utter depopulation of Humbarine. which reduced the planets crust to so much slag. 89 Terror operations could be a response to the stateless strategy, namely the use of reprisal to scare civilians into denying the enemy safe haven. However, this could do more to foment resentment and resistance than it could to combat it. The Galactic Empires creation of the Death Stars and other superweapons was intended to reverse such a state of affairs by introducing the possibility of a reprisal so terrifying - namely, the destruction of entire planets - that no world would risk aiding the Rebellion. 90 Grand Admiral Thrawn. meanwhile, was a master of a more subtle form of psychological warfare: at the Battle of Ukio in 9 ABY. he made use of cloaked Star Destroyers, slipped below the planets shields while they were down and coordinated with the rest of his fleet by the Jedi Master Joruus Cbaoth. to make it appear that he could shoot through planetary shields. which terrorized the Ukians into surrendering. Later, at Coruscant, he deployed two dozen cloaked asteroids while dry-firing his tractor beams to fake the launch of three hundred more. These asteroids blockaded the planet, and by threatening the possibility of an asteroid impact or a collision with shipping, Thrawn effectively knocked Coruscant out of the war and put it into a permanent state of siege while dedicating hardly any material to the effort. 91 Astrography and warfare Edit Astrography affected the conduct of space warfare more than any other factor. Statistically speaking, the universe is empty. But at faster-than-light speeds, it fills up very quickly. 8213Admiral Pers Pradeux 91src93 Just as roads and the shape and going of the ground determined where armies marched on the surface of planets, so too did hyperlanes and stellar phenomena like nebulae determined the movements of fleets. This defined what routes they could take, and what star systems they would have to traverse before reaching those of value. Additionally, while there might be a great many hyperspace routes to and from a target, but statistically speaking, only a few of these route could be traversed quickly, and a military force that controlled the fast routes could rapidly redeploy to intercept an adversary using the slow ones. Hyperspace routes also determined the angle at which an attacking fleet might invade a planetary system, and a defenders options for retreat: the Battle of Hoth was a costly battle for the Rebel Alliance because the Hoth system was located on the decaying Ison Corridor. which was difficult to navigate Rimward and had only two exits, making it easy for the Empire to trap the Rebels in-system, and 17 of 30 evacuating transports were lost to the Imperial blockade. 92 93 Additionally, control of a point along a hyperspace route enormously influenced military operations in space warfare. If a force controlled a system along a route, then its enemy was separated from the rest of its forces beyond that point. During their advance to the Core Worlds from 4 -6 ABY. the New Republic sought to capture several such points. Admiral Firmus Nantz and Lando Calrissians victory at the Battle of Abraxas kept Warlord Utoxx Prentioch fixed within his territories around Bomis Koori IV and separated him from Sander Delvardus Eriadu Authority. Later, Nantz capture of Moorja isolated Delvardus and Prentioch from support from the Core while Tyr Taskeen s victory at the Battle of Glova prevented Delvardus from linking up with Imperial forces in the Elrood and Minos sectors. Isolated from the rest of the galaxy. the two warlords were dealt with at the Republics leisure. 94 95 Control of junctions of hyperspace routes, like YagDhul or the Mirgoshir hyperspace crossroads. could be enormously decisive. Control of it would allow a force to continue operations along every hyperspace route emanating from it, and so they were often heavily contested. The Galactic Empire withdrew from the Moddell sector to YagDhul in the aftermath of the Battle of Endor to defend against a Rebel drive into the Core from there. After the system was captured by Firmus Nantz in 5 ABY. the entire Southern Core was effectively at his mercy: he was able to capture the strategic bacta -producing world of Thyferra. liberate Cilpar and Mrlsst. and open negotiations with Herglic Space. 96 97 The most significant hyperspace junction in the galaxy was Brentaal IV. the crossroads of the Perlemian Trade Route and the Hydian Way. which therefore controlled access from the Core Worlds to the northern and eastern quadrants. The system was captured by the Brotherhood of Darkness during the New Sith Wars. and the Sith were only stopped in their march to Coruscant by the Army of Light s desperate counterattack on their supply lines at Ruusan under Lord Hoth. It was captured by the New Republics Rogue Squadron in 4 ABY six months after Emperor Palpatine s death in a celebrated battle, and its capture effectively separated the Empire from its Outer Rim possessions on the Hydian and the Perlemian, leaving the New Republic free to contemplate the conquest of Coruscant. 98 99 The source of a fleets ships, a shipyard. was very valuable, and made an important target for an opposing force. As they required ships to defend themselves, shipwrights were also very vulnerable and the attacking fleet would often have to destroy heavy opposition before it could damage the docks. The New Republic Second Fleets campaign in the northern quadrant after 4 ABY was delayed for nearly two years after Imperial forces destroyed the secret shipyards at Hast. destroying or damaging nearly thirty New Republic capital ships and derailing the Second Fleets planned assault on Warlords Zsinj and Teradoc. 100 Planets providing strategic material for the war effort were also of paramount importance, because without adequate supplies, after a certain period, any combat starship loses the ability to engage the enemy, either through lack of fuel, lack of munitions, battle damage that cannot be repaired, or the starvation of the crew. Consequently, campaigns could often depend upon cutting the enemys supply lines, either by attacking its supply ships, or preventing the enemy from reaching their supply ships. If a planet could not be held against an attacking force, then the defender might judge it to be too valuable to be left to the enemy and destroy it. The Imperial Navy codenamed such actions Base Delta Zero , defined as the systematic complete destruction of all assets of production, including factories, arable land, mines, fisheries, and all sentient beings and droids, and was achieved through an orbital bombardment that would reduce the upper crust of a planet to slag. 101 Tactics Edit Capital ship tactics Edit The strategy adopted by a space navy defined what tactics were used in battle. Some tactics were universal: the most basic tactical principle was to maximize the damage ones fleet did to the enemy while minimizing ones own. Other tactics were more suited to certain strategies: space denial. space-sniping and hit-and-hype raiding were generally best suited for a force pursuing an asymmetric strategy, while beambaiting might be adopted by an enemy trying to combat that force. In general capital ships fought other capital ships, and starfighters fought other starfighters. Exceptions included starfighters equipped with proton torpedoes or other warheads, and capital ships, like the Lancer -class frigate. which were designed to fight starfighters. However, most capital ships were equipped with anti-starfighter cannons to aid their fighter escorts or to serve as the primary defense against fighters in the absence of an escort. A universal tactic in space battles was maneuvering warships so that they brought more weapons to bear on the enemy than vice-versa, as well as presenting a narrower profile for the enemy to shoot at. 102 Thus, battle formations typically took the form of long lines of ships, hence why capital ships could also be called ships of the line , to exchange fire with the enemy. A fundamental choice all commanders had to make was whether to engage at long- or close-range. The Galactic Empire typically preferred engagements at range, and the angled, arrowhead design of the Star Destroyer was designed to focus all its weapons forward to accommodate this. This design also made Star Destroyers ideal for launching Alpha Strikes - firing all the ships weapons at a single spot on a target simultaneously to cause maximum damage. 103 The Star Destroyers design meant that it was poorly-optimised for close-range battles, however. Close-range engagements typically resulted in broadside battles - two ships flying past each other and firing their side guns into each others flanks. Mon Calamari Star Cruisers were typically better in broadside battles than their Imperial counterparts, since though they did not have as much total firepower as Star Destroyers, they had a much better all-round firing arc. 104 Ships optimised for broadside battles might attempt to cap the enemys T. namely, engage them while they were in a line-ahead formation so that only the lead ship in the enemy formation could respond. They might even rush straight into the enemys line in the hopes of breaking it, which typically resulted in a chaotic, close-range brawl with ships engaging each other in groups of two or three at most. 105 The late stages of the Battle of Coruscant during the Clone Wars descended into a close-range brawl between Republic and Separatist ships engaging individually in broadside battles after the Open Circle Fleet arrived and trapped the Separatist invasion force in Coruscants orbit. 106 However, by 4 ABY and the Battle of Endor. brawls were sufficiently rare as to be almost unheard-of in space warfare, and it came as a great surprise to Death Squadron at Endor when Admiral Ackbar closed the Alliance Fleet to within a few hundred meters of them to avoid the superlaser of the Second Death Star. 107. The New Republic Defense Fleet later codified such tactics as the Ackbar Slash. 108 Long-range and close-range tactics might be combined: the Kenobi Offensive was such a tactic developed by High Jedi General Obi-Wan Kenobi during the Clone Wars, which involved a series of sniping attacks at range to draw a portion of a larger enemy force out of its formation. Once a defending vessel was destroyed, attacking ships could flood through the gap and attack the enemy force from within. 109 The Imperial Navy Captain Kendal Ozzel identified three principles in Imperial naval tactics, which he recorded in Innovations in Imperial Naval Tactics . The first was Surprise, which involved emerging from hyperspace right on top of the enemy. According to Ozzel, the Imperial navigators were capable of pinpoint calculations, which would eliminate the risk of overshooting the target, and thus leave the enemy unable to counter Imperial offensive moves. The second principle was Pursue, where Imperials were to chase the enemy, largely due to the Star Destroyers great sublight speed. The third was Overwhelm, which involved the entire Imperial force available being used at once, ensuring that the combined firepower would make up for loss of maneuverability. However, Han Solo implied when reviewing these innovations that they were extremely poorly thought out and hardly innovations at all by stating simply, I cant make fun of this. Its just too easy. 17 This was confirmed when one of Ozzels innovations, Surprise, resulted in the Rebel-occupied Echo Base on Hoth bunkering down and generating a deflector shield and buying time for an evacuation, thus forcing the Imperials to enter a costly ground campaign. an action that resulted in then-Admiral Ozzels death at the hands of Darth Vader. 110 Interdictors could also play a decisive tactical role in space battles. Since their interdiction fields could either prevent the enemy from escaping or pull them out of hyperspace. they could pin an enemy fleet where a commander wanted them. Imperial Immobilizer 418 cruisers prevented a Rebel retreat at Endor, and Grand Admiral Thrawn pioneered revolutionary new uses of interdictors during his final campaign. The Thrawn Pincer was used by him at the Battle of Bilbringi. and called for interdictor cruisers to create a gravity well. which denied the enemy an easy escape. Then, reinforcements could jump through hyperspace into the general area and be pulled out into realspace by the interdiction field behind the enemy with accuracy and surprise which would otherwise be very difficult to achieve. 111 Admiral Ackbar used this same tactic to help defeat the Ciutric Hegemony. 112 In addition, there was an intelligence element to space warfare, with each side in larger engagements attempting to intercept and decrypt enemy communications as part of a larger effort to predict what the enemy will do next, with the intention of either preventing them from achieving their intentions or minimizing the damage that can be caused by their plans. The Squill Sifters were a group of Galactic Republic spies. slicers and codebreakers active during the Waymancy Storm conflict, and their role in intercepting, deciphering and interpreting Waymancy communications was considered decisive in ending the conflict in a Republic victory. 113 Starfighter tactics Edit A Venator -class Star Destroyer executes a Marg Sabl maneuver during the Clone Wars . Starfighter combat had a huge variety of tactics in its own right, though broadly speaking they could be divided into two groups: those tactics designed to be used against capital ships, and those tactics used to defend capital ships. Historically, the former role had generally been taken by bombers. large, complex and heavy craft built around powerful sensor arrays, large missile payloads, and days-long mission profiles, designed to track down enemy fleets and launch surprise attacks. Naval wisdom held for centuries that this was the only scenario in which torpedo runs could penetrate defensive fighter screens and flak defenses. 114 The latter role was typically taken by interceptors. extremely light, fast and maneuverable starfighters that were minimally armed and were designed to shoot down attacking bombers, or to escort bombers to their targets and defend them from enemy interceptors. 115 In battle, fleets would typically deploy their interceptor escorts in front of them in a starfighter screen , where they could engage enemy fighter squadrons before they could close in on the larger vessel. 116 Alternatively they might move aggressively with their starfighters in a tactic like the Marg Sabl closure maneuver. Here, the superstructure of the starfighter-carrying vessel would turn to face the oncoming enemys vessels, allowing the starfighters to launch without risking attack. The starfighters would then launch attacks over each side of their ships hulls on to the flanks of the attacking squadrons, who had become pinned against the defending ships. Grand Admiral Thrawn used this tactic against an Elomin commander quite effectively at the Battle of Obroa-skai. 117 The snubfighter lay between the interceptor and the bomber in terms of armament and speed, and the Alliance Starfighter Corps pioneered their use as shipkillers during the Galactic Civil War. developing a wide variety of tactics that allowed them to destroy much larger capital ships. 118 These included the nova flare. which involved massed barrages of proton torpedoes fired from starfighters and aimed at specific points along the shields of a capital ship. 119 Another such tactic was the Tallon split. a maneuver developed by the Alliance tactician Adar Tallon. The tactic called for two starfighters to fly extremely close together as they approached a capital ship, so close that the larger ships targeting computer would detect the two fighters as one approaching ship. At very close range, the two fighters would split apart: one fighter would continue on a strafing run of the capital ship, while the second would draw fire away from the first. The attacking fighter would have about five seconds to cause damage on the capital ship before it was clearly identified as a second ship. Even so, those five seconds would allow enough time to cause serious damage to the larger vessel. 120 Garm Bel Iblis A-wing Slash involved a number of large starfighters masking the approach of smaller starfighters with missile weapons behind them, then moving out in what appeared at first glance to be a flanking attack, wrong-footing the gunners of enemy point defense weapons to allow the force approaching behind the large starfighters to slip through the enemys defenses, often allowing the smaller fighters missiles to inflict critical damage to the enemy. 121 Such tactics suited the Rebel doctrine of space denial. which used hit-and-hype raids against Imperial convoys to deny the Galactic Empire freedom of movement and forced them to commit more forces to convoy defense, thus diluting Imperial naval strength as a whole. 122 A comparable tactic was space-sniping. used by forces defending a star system against a planetary assault. The strategy consisted of hiding starfighter bases in gas giants. within asteroid fields. on planets with large oceans, or on planets with thick cloud cover within or around the planetary system to be defended. Starfighter groups would operate in tandem from these bases, attacking isolated ships during the orbit phase of a planetary invasion. 123 Starfighter tactics could also extend to smaller capital ships light corvettes or gunships attacking larger ones. Slashing the deck was a tactical maneuver used against enemy capital ships developed by the Dark Lord Kaan at the First Battle of Ruusan during the New Sith Wars. The technique involved any number of smaller ships, usually ranging from snubfighters to corvettes, that would fire all their guns while cutting in along a vector that minimized the amount of guns the enemy capital ship could bring to bear against them. When the enemy capital ship tried to change direction to bring more guns about, the smaller ships would pivot and double back for another pass along a different vector to inflict even more damage. However, the tactic focused heavily on speed and the element of surprise and was almost useless if the enemy could call upon the support of other ships. 124 Planetary assault tactics Edit Space navies were inherently hugely important in making planetary assaults. since they were the only forces that could clear the surrounding space and transport large surface armies. Inevitably, planets also deployed significant defenses, including planetary shields to resist bombardment, and planetary turbolasers. ion cannons. mines. and space defense platforms to fight back against invading fleets. 125 The Imperial strategist Michael Unther identified four phases of a planetary assault. The approach was the initial advance on the system, and included decisions like at what point to drop the fleet out of hyperspace. A distant approach would allow plenty of time for reconnaissance and might allow the attacking force to approach under stealth, but equally it raised the risk of detection. Alternatively, a close approach might surprise the enemy, but would also leave the fleet exposed with minimal intelligence. During the Battle of Hoth. Admiral Kendal Ozzel brought Death Squadron out of hyperspace too close to the Hoth system in the hope of achieving surprise, but it allowed the Rebels to detect the bursts of Cronau radiation from his ships and rapidly raise a theater shield around Echo Base. Consequently the Empire was committed to a costly ground assault. 126 The second phase, orbit. involved the placement of warships around the planet, where they might execute bombardments from an Objective Orbit, or blockade the planet to force it to surrender from a Siege Orbit. The Galactic Empire invested heavily in Dedicated Siege Platforms like the Torpedo Spheres. aimed at blasting down planetary shields with large barrages of proton torpedoes so as to avoid prolonged sieges. 127 The third phase, invasion. involved the deployment of ground troops to capture the planet. The fleet might be tasked with clearing landing zones, providing precision bombardments in support of the army, or deploying bombers as air support. The fourth phase, control. involved consolidating control of the planet after capitulation. This was typically an army operation, though the navy could be called upon if the aim was to terrify the civilian population into submission, for example, through the use of punitive orbital bombardments. 128 Notable naval commanders Edit Galactic RepublicJedi Order Edit Confederacy of Independent Systems EditAdvanced Extremely High-Frequency (AEHF) Satellite System, United States of America The Advanced Extremely High-Frequency (AEHF) system is a series of four military communication satellites planned to replace the currently in-orbit Milstar system. It will provide extremely high-frequency (EHF) range uplink crosslink capabilities and super high-frequency (SHF) range communications. AEHF is part of the Military Satellite Communications Systems Wings protected satellite communications (SATCOM) group. It is operated by the Air Force Space Command of the US Air Force. The main function of the AEHF spacecraft in geostationary orbits will be to provide secure, survivable and near-worldwide satellite communications. It will provide military communications and jointly serve armed forces of the US and international partners - including the Netherlands, UK and Canada. Satellites will be more jam-resistant, secure, survivable and protected, offering global communications for sea, ground and air force assets. The AEHF programme was started in 1999 and the development began in 2001. The first satellite, AEHF-1, was scheduled to launch in 2007. However, it was delayed due to difficulties, such as key cryptographic requirements. It was finally launched in August 2010 from the Atlas V launch vehicle. The second satellite, AEHF-2, was launched in May 2012. Two more AEHF satellites (fifth and sixth) have also been contracted. AEHF will allow a wide spectrum of missions to be carried out, such as strategic nuclear and defence operations, special operations, theatre missile defence, space operations and intelligence. Operational capabilities of the USAFs satellite system AEHF satellites are designed based on the A2100 satellite bus and are powered by hall current thruster electric propulsion. The thrusters control orbital eccentricity of the satellite during its repositioning. The satellite has a mass of 6,168kg at launch. Capabilities of AEHF have been improved over the Milstar satellite system, as well as the MILSATCOM architecture. The throughput of the AEHF will be ten times higher than that of the Milstar satellites. AEHF also has substantially increased coverage area, providing connectivity across naval, air and land mission warfare. The AEHF system consists of satellites in space, user terminals and ground mission control and associated communication network systems. The four satellites will be linked to form a constellation. They will provide continuous coverage from 65 south to 65 north latitude for 24 hours a day. The mission control segment consists of mobile and fixed control stations and is highly survivable. It handles the satellites in orbit, monitors satellite health and provides monitoring and planning of operations. The terminal segment is a network of both fixed and ground mobile, airborne, ship and submarine and other terminals of all the international partners. Only the air force terminal and space and ground segments will be acquired by SATCOM. These three segments enable communications and transfer of data at specified rates ranging from 75bps to about 8Mbps. Payloads of the Advanced Extremely High-Frequency satellites The AEHF communication satellites anti-jam payload includes onboard signal processing, radio frequency equipment, crossbanded EHF SHF communication antennas, routing and control software and hardware integral to the A2100 space vehicle. It consists of two uplink downlink antennas, two SHF downlink phased arrays, two crosslinks, one uplink EHF phased array, uplink downlink earth coverage horns and six uplink downlink gimballed dish antennas. The payload controls the SHF downlink and crosslink functions, EHF uplinks, beam forming and onboard nulling. It also controls signal processing, time and frequency for extremely high, medium and low data rates of operation. The AEHF constellation is more efficient and capable than the five current orbiting Milstar satellites. In-orbit processing and reconfigurable networks allow interoperability and dynamic command and control requirements. The satellites antenna beams are electronically steerable and mappings can be made from channel to beam to achieve the required transmission capacity. Satellites can be crosslinked for enabling communications across the globe from different ground gateways. Advantages of the tactical communication system include small and mobile terminals, dynamic routing and low detection probability. It will provide tactical military communications, including maps and real time videos of the battlefield. The satellites will also offer other critical survivable, endurable and protected communications. The system is also expected to address cyber threats. Launching the military communication satellites United Launch Alliance (ULA) successfully launched the first AEHF spacecraft from Space Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, in August 2010. The satellite was launched using the Atlas V 531 carrier under the project name USA-214 (AEHF SV-1). The satellite was deployed into the geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first two launch attempts were, however, unsuccessful due to malfunctioning of liquid apogee engine motor. The second AEHF was launched from the base aboard a ULA Atlas V Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) 531, in May 2012. An RD Amross RD-180 engine powered the Atlas Booster. Centaur upper stage was powered by a Pratt amp Whitney Rocketdyne RL10A engine. It was launched successfully at the second attempt after the first one failed because of an overtemp condition on the Centaur Interstage Adapter purge. AEHF-3 is expected to be launched in September 2013. The fourth satellite is currently under construction. Procurement of long-lead components have also been started for the fourth and fifth satellites. Contractors for the USs AEHF constellation programme Lockheed Martin Space Systems is responsible for the space and ground segments of the four AEHF satellites, including mission controls and system integration. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems is the payload supplier. The US Air Force Military Satellite Communications Systems Wing at the Space and Missile Systems Center, at Los Angeles Air Force Base in California, is the project leader. Vanguard Space Technologies has been subcontracted to fabricate and test two spacecraft bus structures of the satellites. US Defence Sector - Market Opportunity amp Entry Strategy, Analyses and Forecasts to 2015 Detailed analysis and forecasts of the US defence market are available from our business information platform Strategic Defence Intelligence. For more information click here or contact us: EMEA: 44 20 7936 6783 Americas: 1 415 439 4914 Asia Pacific: 61 2 9947 9709 or via email.
Online-trading-demat-account-sbi
Grafik real-time-graphics-binary-options