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Seorang pengusaha Cina-Amerika di tengah skandal keuangan kampanye Clinton diam-diam merekam sebuah video yang menceritakan semua sebagai polis asuransi - karena dia takut dibunuh. Dalam cuplikan yang diberikan secara eksklusif kepada DailyMail, Johnny Chung menuangkan rincian tentang bagaimana dia secara ilegal menyalurkan uang dari pejabat China ke tawaran pemilihan ulang Bill Clintons 1996. Pejabat AS menuduh China berniat menggunakan rudal darat-ke-udara jarak jauh di pulau buatannya di Laut Cina Selatan yang disengketakan. China hampir menyelesaikan pembangunan struktur penyimpanan beton di terumbu Subi, Mischief and Fiery Cross, yang merupakan bagian dari rantai Kepulauan Spratly, Reuters melaporkan pada hari Rabu, mengutip pejabat AS yang tidak disebutkan namanya. Sebuah kelompok pemogokan kapal induk Amerika telah dikirim ke perairan Laut Cina Selatan yang disengketakan untuk memulai apa yang Angkatan Laut AS telah dijuluki operasi rutin, namun klaim pemerintah China adalah sikap agresif. Satu hari setelah AS mengumumkan telah mengirim kelompok kapal induk USS Carl Vinson di Laut Chine Selatan yang diperebutkan pada patroli rutin (melalui pos di halaman Facebook pesawat pengangkut), China merespons dan menduga, itu tidak terpuaskan. Dalam sebuah pernyataan oleh kementerian luar negeri, Beijing mengatakan pada hari Selasa bahwa pihaknya menentang tindakan oleh negara lain dengan dalih kebebasan navigasi yang dapat mengancam dan menghancurkan kedaulatannya, sebuah referensi yang jelas untuk patroli AS di wilayah yang dianggap China sendiri. Pejabat keamanan di Chinas yang dilanda kekerasan di barat laut telah memerintahkan penduduk untuk memasang perangkat pelacak GPS di kendaraan mereka sehingga pihak berwenang dapat terus mengawasi gerakan mereka. Langkah wajib, yang mulai berlaku minggu ini dan pada akhirnya dapat mempengaruhi ratusan ribu kendaraan, diluncurkan di Bayuolin Mongol Otonomi Daerah Xinjiang, wilayah yang luas yang berbatasan dengan Asia Tengah dan melihat adanya letusan kekerasan mematikan secara reguler. Langkah tersebut dilakukan di tengah lonjakan nyata dalam pembunuhan bahwa pihak berwenang menyalahkan ekstremis dan separatis Islam, namun para ahli mengatakan juga didorong oleh gesekan etnis antara migran Han China dan anggota minoritas Uighur Muslim yang didominasi oleh siapa Xinjiang berada di rumah. Sejak parade anti-teror Kamis lalu yang melibatkan ribuan tentara bersenjata berat telah dipentaskan di tiga kota paling penting Xinjiang setelah dua serangan mematikan di mana lebih dari selusin orang dibunuh. Sebuah memo untuk penindasan Pemerintah China hanya sebentar, tapi Anda pasti membiarkan pekerjaan Anda cocok untuk Anda dalam hal mengambil setiap tindakan praktis yang mungkin untuk mengurangi ketegangan antara orang Uighur asli dan orang Cina Han, yang telah bermigrasi ke Xinjiang . Menang atau kalah, Administrasi Trump telah membuka sebuah perdebatan tentang kemungkinan perdamaian dengan negara adidaya nuklir, pemeriksaan ulang defisit perdagangan yang besar dan perlunya bangkit untuk demokrasi melawan ancaman otoriter dari apa yang disebut komunitas intelijen melawan Seorang presiden terpilih Pada akhir bulan pertama Presiden Trumps Administration kami berada dalam posisi yang lebih baik untuk mengevaluasi kebijakan dan arahan Presiden yang baru. Pemeriksaan terhadap kebijakan luar negeri dan dalam negeri, terutama dari perspektif historis dan komparatif akan memberi wawasan tentang apakah Amerika menuju malapetaka seperti yang diklaim oleh media massa atau terhadap realisme dan rasionalitas yang lebih besar. Kami akan melanjutkan dengan memeriksa apakah Trump mengejar diplomasi mengenai peperangan. Korea Utara baru saja kehilangan sekutu yang sangat besar. Pada hari Sabtu, China mengatakan bahwa pihaknya menangguhkan semua impor batubara dari Korea Utara sebagai bagian dari upayanya untuk menerapkan sanksi Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa yang bertujuan menghentikan program senjata nuklir dan rudal balistik negara tersebut. Larangan tersebut, menurut sebuah pernyataan yang diposting di situs Kementerian Perdagangan China, mulai berlaku hari ini dan akan berlangsung hingga akhir tahun. Sementara China tidak akan mengalami dampak buruk yang material, perdagangan dan bantuan China - telah lama menjadi penopang ekonomi penting bagi Korea Utara, dan keputusan tersebut menempatkan Korea Utara salah satu sumber mata uang asing yang paling penting. Waktu pukulan ekonomi ini ke Korea Utara adalah pesan yang sangat jelas mengenai administrasi Trump sekarang adalah waktu untuk mendapatkan China, Korea Utara dan Korea Selatan, dan AS ke meja perundingan untuk menghasilkan kesepakatan damai yang menjamin perdagangan, dan Kebebasan bergerak untuk Korea Utara, sebagai pertukaran untuk Korea Utara yang mengakhiri program pengembangan senjata nuklirnya selamanya. Amerika Serikat mengerahkan kapal induk USS Carl Vinson untuk berpatroli di Laut Cina Selatan yang semakin diperdebatkan pada hari Sabtu, meskipun peringatan Beijings tidak untuk menantang kedaulatannya di laut yang kaya sumber daya. Dalam sebuah pernyataan, Angkatan Laut menggambarkan peluncuran tersebut sebagai awal operasi rutin di Laut Cina Selatan. China mengklaim sebagian besar laut sebagai miliknya sendiri, meskipun klaim teritorial dan yurisdiksi yang tumpang tindih dari Filipina, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan dan Brunei. Pada hari Rabu, juru bicara Kementerian Luar Negeri China Geng Shuang mencela berita awal tentang penempatan tersebut pada sebuah konferensi pers. Sebuah memo untuk Presiden Trump dan Jenderal Mattis, tolong, apa yang Anda pikirkan dengan langkah ini. Paling tidak Anda, Jenderal, mengerti bahwa Laut Cina Selatan, dan pulau-pulau di atasnya, diberikan ke China setelah Perang Dunia 2. Apakah perjanjian ini dibuat untuk akhirnya dipatahkan, saat mengizinkannya berdiri tidak nyaman bagi pemerintah AS. Tolong jangan pergi kesana, Tuan-tuan Tampaknya latihan Freedom of Navigation yang dituduhkan ini direkayasa untuk memancing China masuk ke dalam sebuah respon militer, sebagai alasan untuk melakukan serangan militer terhadapnya. Tapi tuan-tuan, tolong tahan sebentar sekarang, militer AS tidak memiliki persenjataan uang manufaktur atau kekuatan pasukan untuk memastikan hasil positif terhadap perang konvensional melawan China. Dan jika Anda tidak mengerti ini, Anda secara kolektif membutuhkan Buddha Anda sendiri di Jalan saat ini, dalam hal bagaimana produsen senjata berpikir dan berperilaku. Kepala perusahaan-perusahaan ini tampaknya percaya bahwa sangat dapat diterima untuk mengantarkan produk mereka begitu lambat sehingga pada saat mereka menggunakan lahan, mereka sudah usang, senjata ini jarang berfungsi seperti yang diiklankan dan ketika dikirimkan, harganya sangat mahal. Perlu saya ingatkan kalian berdua tentang bencana yang merupakan F-35. Presiden Trump dan Jenderal Mattis, isu-isu ini perlu disortir dan benar sekarang. Provokasi ini terhadap China, pada saat ini, dapat mengakibatkan bencana yang langsung dan spektakuler bagi militer Amerika, sampai tantangan ini terpenuhi, jujur, dan dengan integritas moral. Merupakan negara kaya dengan anggaran militer yang luar biasa masif. Mereka tidak akan pernah bisa melakukan cukup penelitian ilmiah atau membangun cukup mesin perang canggih untuk bersaing dengan kita dalam perang konvensional. Tampaknya China mungkin bisa melakukannya. Atau setidaknya itulah yang menurut International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). Mereka adalah think tank Inggris yang sudah ada sejak 1958, dan mereka memiliki banyak anggota yang sebelumnya bekerja untuk pemerintah Inggris dan Amerika. IISS mengkhususkan diri dalam meneliti masalah geopolitik, dan setiap tahun mereka menerbitkan laporan Neraca Militer, yang menguji kemampuan militer negara-negara dunia. Isu terakhir mereka harus memberi jeda pendirian pertahanan Amerika. Jika ini menjadi NATO baru untuk Timur Tengah maka dunia benar-benar akan turun ke dalam barbarisme dalam skala yang tidak terlihat sejak Perang Dunia Kedua. Ketika Presiden AS Donald Trump menjadi tuan rumah pemimpin Israel Benjamin Netanyahu di Gedung Putih pekan ini dalam acara tersebut adalah pembentukan aliansi ala NATO untuk Timur Tengah, menurut laporan. Seolah-olah salah satu aliansi pemancing yang dipimpin oleh AS di Eropa dan Atlantik Utara tidak cukup. Sekarang dunia akan melihat tiruan NATO dilepaskan dari wilayah Timur Tengah yang telah dilanda konflik, jika diskusi yang dilaporkan terjadi. Dalam percakapan telepon dengan Presiden China Xi Jinping, Presiden AS Donald Trump telah berjanji untuk menghormati kebijakan Beijings One China, kata Gedung Putih. Kedua pemimpin tersebut saling bertukar undangan kunjungan kenegaraan untuk memperbaiki hubungan. Presiden Trump setuju, atas permintaan Presiden Xi, untuk menghormati satu kebijakan China kami, kata pernyataan Gedung Putih, menyusul percakapan panjang antara Trump dan Xi. Mereka juga memperpanjang undangan untuk bertemu di negara masing-masing. Presiden Trump dan Presiden Xi berharap dapat melakukan pembicaraan lebih lanjut dengan hasil yang sangat sukses, kata Gedung Putih. Tanpa memberikan rincian lebih lanjut, pernyataan tersebut berbicara mengenai diskusi dan negosiasi mengenai berbagai isu yang menjadi kepentingan kedua belah pihak. Panggilan tersebut didahului dengan sebuah surat dari Trump, yang berterima kasih pada Xi atas ucapan selamatnya atas Trump yang memenangkan kursi kepresidenan dan berbicara mengenai pengembangan hubungan konstruktif yang menguntungkan Amerika Serikat dan China. Orang-orang, warna ini bergerak baik penuh harapan. Dan waras, dari pihak Presiden Trump. FBI sedang menyelidiki orang berkerudung hitam di Berkeley. Inti umum resminya membuat anak-anak Amerika bodoh. Anggota Kongres ingin menghapuskan Departemen Pendidikan. Antara Filipina dan daratan Cina. Ketika Anna Riley, agen real estat di Seattle, mengadakan sebuah rumah terbuka untuk mendapatkan daftar 2,3 juta baru di kota tony Bellevue akhir bulan lalu, kumpulan calon pembeli berbeda dari berbagai macam tokoh tekun, bintang olahraga. Dan kepala eksekutif. Dua puluh kelompok pembeli mengunjungi properti di wilayah metro Seattle dan semuanya orang Cina. Bank sentral China telah memperingatkan pertukaran bitcoin dalam negeri mereka berisiko ditutup jika ditemukan melanggar peraturan mata uang negara tersebut. Peringatan tersebut datang saat regulator mencoba untuk menahan arus keluar modal menyusul kekhawatiran berlanjutnya pelemahan yuan. Presiden A.S. Donald Trump telah memecahkan masalah dengan Presiden China Xi Jinping dalam sebuah surat yang mengatakan bahwa dia berharap dapat bekerja sama dengannya untuk mengembangkan hubungan, meskipun pasangan tersebut belum berbicara langsung sejak Trump menjabat. Surat tersebut berterima kasih pada Xi atas catatan ucapan selamatnya atas pelantikan Trumps dan berharap orang-orang China mendapatkan Tahun Baru Imlek dari Ayam Rooster, kata Gedung Putih dalam sebuah pernyataan pada hari Rabu. Presiden Trump menyatakan bahwa dia berharap dapat bekerja sama dengan Presiden Xi untuk mengembangkan hubungan konstruktif yang menguntungkan Amerika Serikat dan China, katanya. China mengatakan pada hari Kamis bahwa hal itu sangat penting bagi China-A.S. Ikatan. Kami sangat menghargai ucapan selamat Presiden Trumps kepada Presiden Xi Jinping dan orang-orang China, juru bicara Kementerian Luar Negeri China Lu Kang mengatakan pada sebuah konferensi pers harian. Semua ini terlihat positif bagi saya perang dengan China adalah hal yang benar-benar terakhir orang-orang di Foggy Bottom harus merenungkan sekarang. Presiden A.S. Donald Trump telah memecahkan masalah dengan Presiden China Xi Jinping dalam sebuah surat yang mengatakan bahwa dia berharap dapat bekerja sama dengannya untuk mengembangkan hubungan, meskipun pasangan tersebut belum berbicara langsung sejak Trump menjabat. Surat tersebut berterima kasih pada Xi atas catatan ucapan selamatnya atas pelantikan Trumps dan berharap orang-orang China mendapatkan Tahun Baru Imlek dari Ayam Rooster, kata Gedung Putih dalam sebuah pernyataan pada hari Rabu. Presiden Trump menyatakan bahwa dia berharap dapat bekerja sama dengan Presiden Xi untuk mengembangkan hubungan konstruktif yang menguntungkan Amerika Serikat dan China, katanya. China mengatakan pada hari Kamis bahwa hal itu sangat penting bagi China-A.S. Ikatan. Kami sangat menghargai ucapan selamat Presiden Trumps kepada Presiden Xi Jinping dan orang-orang China, juru bicara Kementerian Luar Negeri China Lu Kang mengatakan pada sebuah konferensi pers harian. Semua ini terlihat positif bagi saya perang dengan China adalah hal yang benar-benar terakhir orang-orang di Foggy Bottom harus merenungkan sekarang. Bahan yang terbakar adalah baterai lithium-ion dan beberapa produk baterai semi-produksi, otoritas pemadam kebakaran Tianjin mengatakan bahwa pelanggaran Hak Cipta dan penggunaan barang palsu di China dapat menurunkan kredit sosial warga negara dengan konsekuensi seumur hidup karena negara tersebut bersiap untuk merombak undang-undang IP-nya dan Institusi. Skor kredit sosial yang kontroversial ini sedang dirancang oleh pemerintah dalam kemitraan dengan perusahaan internet dan peluncurannya direncanakan pada tahun 2020. Ini menggemakan Black Mirrors Dosis naif, tirani dimana warga bergradasi rendah ditolak akses terhadap layanan. Perbedaannya adalah bahwa dalam tirani fiktif, orang menilai satu sama lain, sementara sistem kredit sosial China menyusun informasi dari berbagai sumber termasuk pelanggaran lalu lintas ringan. Tidak seorang pun, atau negara, tidak peduli seberapa baru atau inventifnya mereka, memiliki hak, atau dapat dipercaya, dengan kekuatan mutlak atas orang lain. Hal ini mutlak penting bagi para pemimpin politik, di seluruh dunia, untuk memastikan keseimbangan kekuatan ada, di semua bidang kekuasaan dan politik tubuh, baik di dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri, karena tidak ada cara individu atau pemerintah manapun. Dapat menjamin perlindungan yang sama terhadap rakyat, dalam berbagai konflik dan tantangan mereka, dari yang sangat besar, sampai yang sangat kecil. Membongkar kekaisaran (pesta perang) tidak akan terjadi dalam semalam Suatu hari di Twitter seseorang men-tweet saya berita tentang serangan pesawat tak berawak terbaru di Yaman, dengan pesan mengejek: Congrats, JustinRaimondo. Saya harus tertawa, dan meratapi nasib saya: Saya sekarang bertanggung jawab atas semua hal yang dilakukan oleh administrasi Trump, terutama kegagalan mereka untuk bersikap pasifis Tentu saja, Anda tidak perlu menjadi seorang pasifis untuk menentang kampanye drone kami, di Yaman atau Di tempat lain, seperti yang saya lakukan, tapi komentar dan tanggapan saya menggarisbawahi kelemahan mendasar dalam pemikiran Trumps kritik anti-intervensionis. Beberapa minggu yang lalu, saya berada di Toronto bertemu dengan pakar industri emas. Suatu malam, saya berbicara dengan seorang pria yang telah berkecimpung dalam bisnis emas selama lebih dari 45 tahun. Selama lebih dari empat dekade, pria ini telah membeli dan menjual emas. Dia telah membeli dan menjual saham pertambangan emas. Dia telah membeli dan menjual tambang emas. Selama ini, dia juga bekerja sama dengan pemerintah China, industri China dan investor China. Dia tahu beberapa hal tentang emas, dan tentang emas Cina. Sebuah peperangan, perang tanpa tujuan dengan China untuk mempertahankan kredibilitas global Amerika Serikat sudah dekat. Hanya warga vokal yang menentang perang yang dikomunikasikan ke Kongres dan Gedung Putih dapat mencegah kehancuran diri kita. Itu terjadi pada tahun 2013 untuk mencegah Presiden Obama dari orang bodoh triliun dolar lainnya untuk melawan Suriah. Sistem masih bekerja, jika warga negara akan menggunakannya. Sekretaris Negara menunjuk Rex Tillerson bersaksi pada 11 Januari 2017, sebelum Komite Hubungan Luar Negeri Senat bahwa Amerika Serikat akan menolak akses China ke pulau-pulau di Laut Cina Selatan dimana China mengklaim kedaulatannya. (Pulau buatan ribuan mil dari daratan Amerika Serikat dan tidak relevan dengan pertahanan diri yang tak terkalahkan). Mr Tillerson menyatakan bahwa bangunan Chinas dan militerisasi pulau-pulau itu mirip dengan Russias yang mengambil Krimea dari Ukraina. Sekarang, ingatlah bahwa percakapan orang tua ini menjadi konfirmasi, Tillerson mengatakan kepada Komite Hubungan Luar Negeri Senat bahwa mereka ingin mendengar sebuah memo yang mendesak dan jujur ​​kepada Sekretaris Negara, Rex Tillerson, narasi Anda tentang Krimea sama sekali, luar biasa dan benar-benar salah Agar AS melihat perang dengan Rusia dan China, yang akan menjadi hasil bencana bagi kebijakan luar negeri AS. Pada tahun 2014, kami memiliki revolusi SorosIMFUS yang didukung yang melemparkan presiden Rusia-sentris Rusia terpilih terpilih Yanukovich di bawah bus pepatah, dan Petro Poroshenko yang diurapi untuk mengambil alih, dalam sebuah pemilihan yang lebih bengkok daripada kaki belakang anjing. Saya ingin percaya, Sir, bahwa Anda sadar bahwa Victoria Nuland membual, dalam sebuah presentasi, tentang berapa banyak uang yang telah dikeluarkan AS untuk mengacaukan Ukraina, dan Anda dapat, jika Anda belum melihatnya, melihatnya di sini, karena di sana Terlalu banyak salinan pribadi untuk Amerika dan Dunia untuk tidak melihat video ini: Victoria Nuland Mengakui: AS Telah Menginvestasikan 5 Miliar Dalam Pembangunan Institusi Ukraina dan Demokrat Ketika pemerintah Krimea menyadari bahwa tidak ada pemerintah yang sah di Kiev, karena AS Kudeta yang disponsori, mereka mengajukan petisi kepada orang-orang mereka apakah mereka ingin tinggal di Ukraina atau bergabung dengan Federasi Rusia. Secara luar biasa, orang-orang Krimea, yang merupakan bagian dari Rusia sebelum dicaplok ke Ukraina oleh Presiden Uni Soviet Ukraina Khrushchev, sangat memilih untuk mengajukan petisi kepada Federasi Rusia untuk menjadi bagian darinya, dan Federasi Rusia menerimanya. Sama sekali tidak ada aneksasi oleh Rusia tentang apa yang terjadi, dan sangat mengkhawatirkan saya bahwa persepsi Anda jauh dari kenyataan terdokumentasi mengenai masalah ini. Pernahkah ada yang kebetulan menamakan Anda sejarah Kepulauan ini di China, yang pada awalnya diberikan ke China setelah Perang Dunia 2. Tuan, maafkan saya, tapi jika saya mengerti ini, sebagai warga negara Amerika pribadi, saya sangat khawatir bahwa Anda tampaknya Untuk tidak mengerti sama sekali Dan Sekretaris Tillerson, militer AS tidak siap berperang melawan China. Andor Rusia Kami tidak punya uang, manufaktur, kekuatan pasukan, atau persenjataan untuk memastikan hasil positif dari jenis perang melawan kedua negara ini. Ketika senjata AS dikirim, mereka kadang-kadang sangat terlambat untuk menjadi usang mereka tidak bekerja seperti yang diiklankan, dan menjengkelkan over-budget. Militer China dan Rusia tidak menghabiskan apapun yang mendekati apa yang dikeluarkan pemerintah AS untuk senjata kita, namun mendapatkan lebih banyak uang untuk uang senjata kolektif mereka. Sebelum Anda mulai membuat suara yang bisa menyebabkan perang, Tuan Sekretaris, saya pikir Anda memerlukan briefing bagus dari Jenderal Mattis tentang keadaan kesiapan umum militer kita, di semua tingkat. Nasib negara ini, dan dunia ini, bergantung pada pemahaman Anda yang realistis dan jujur ​​tentang skenario yang dihasilkan oleh negara dalam negeri ini, dengan pemahaman yang jelas tentang di mana skenario ini menyimpang dari kenyataan. Juga ingatlah bahwa Anda memiliki populasi Amerika yang skeptis dan berperang perang yang mengingat, sangat jelas, kebohongan bahwa Saddam Hussein memiliki senjata pemusnah massal. Penekanan dan pelecehan berlari dengan kebohongan itu, dan terlalu banyak darah dan uang telah dikeluarkan untuk perang. Dan supaya Anda melakukannya secara langsung, saya adalah seorang aktivis pasifis Kristen, yang terus-menerus menasehati negaranya untuk mengatasi perbedaan geopolitiknya dengan cara selain perang. Saya tidak pernah menganjurkan kekerasan hanya dengan susah payah, negosiasi itikad baik. Penerbangan China menguji varian baru rudal jarak jauh dengan 10 hulu ledak dalam apa yang dikatakan pejabat pertahanan merupakan peralihan dramatis dalam postur nuklir strategis Beijings. Uji coba rudal DF-5C dilakukan awal bulan ini dengan menggunakan 10 kendaraan masuk kembali yang dapat ditargetkan secara terpisah, atau MIRVs. Uji hulu ledak inert dipantau secara ketat oleh badan intelijen A.S., kata dua pejabat yang mengetahui laporan uji coba rudal tersebut. Ketika Angkatan Laut PLA pertama kali menghindari niatnya untuk membangun kelas perusak rudal peluru lainnya (DDG) untuk mengikuti Tipe 052D, ada banyak spekulasi mengenai dimensi, perpindahan, dan peran yang dimaksudkan dari kapal tersebut. Pada bulan Maret 2014, gambar mulai beredar di internet yang dengan jelas menggambarkan tiruan uji coba dari suprastruktur kapal baru di pusat pengujian PLA Navys di Wuhan, di Cina selatan. Analis dan pemerhati militer tetap memperhatikan fasilitas Wuhan, sebagai mock-up untuk kapal induk CV-16 Chinas Liaoning, dan sekarang CV-17 berikut ini telah menyediakan alat yang berguna untuk memperkirakan ukuran dan senjata akhir-akhir ini dan Sistem pelengkap dari kapal jadi. Membandingkan Tipe 055 mock-up di Wuhan ke modul lambung yang saat ini dibangun di Jiangnan Shipyard di Shanghai, memberikan perkiraan ukuran dan perpindahan yang relatif akurat. Perdamaian, perdagangan dan persahabatan yang jujur ​​dengan semua negara, yang melibatkan persekutuan dengan siapa pun - Thomas Jefferson Sayangnya, pada saat ini juga memiliki administrasi baru untuk membayar tagihan pepatah, dan untuk memperbaiki dan memperbaiki kesalahan masa lalu. Ini akan menjadi sangat tidak bertanggung jawab dan kejam untuk sekarang meninggalkan seluruh dunia dalam asap dan berantakan, bara api dari peradaban besar yang telah ada selama ribuan tahun tanpa gangguan dan tanpa gangguan. Zona aman Suriah: sebuah bencana yang menunggu untuk terjadi Gagasan ini adalah bencana yang menunggu untuk terjadi, dan dapat mencegah terungkapnya kebijakan luar negeri Presiden Amerika Pertama, yang diduga membatalkan operasi perubahan rezim di Timur Tengah dan tempat lain. Pada tahun 2013 kesaksian diajukan ke Kongres oleh ketua ketua Gabungan Staf Martin Dempsey, kenyataan tentang apa maksudnya diuraikan: Ribuan pasukan darat AS akan dibutuhkan, bahkan jika ditempatkan di luar Suriah, untuk mendukung mereka yang secara fisik membela Zona. Zona larangan terbang terbatas yang digabungkan dengan pasukan darat AS akan menekan biaya lebih dari satu miliar dolar per bulan. Dia cukup kaya, dan cukup mandiri, dan cukup bantahan sehingga dia mungkin tidak terjebak di rawa-rawa kompromi politik. Donald Trumps pengukuhan alamat akan turun dalam sejarah sebagai salah satu yang besar. Saya mengatakan ini sebagai pria dengan 59 tahun pengalaman berbicara di depan umum dan gelar Ph.D. Dalam sejarah Amerika Mengalahkan ucapan berbeda dari alamat pengukuhan sebelumnya. Dia berbicara langsung dengan basis politiknya. Dia tidak mencoba menarik negara itu ke dalam semacam retorika politik yang kabur, pie-in-the-sky, common-ground. Dia melempar tantangan dari awal. Berdiri di depan gedung Capitol, dikelilingi oleh mantan Presiden dan politisi, dia mengatakan bahwa semua yang telah mereka lakukan di masa lalu telah menjadi cara untuk mengekstrak kekuatan dari orang-orang Amerika dan membelai sarang mereka sendiri. Ini, tentu saja, adalah persis apa yang telah mereka lakukan. Tidak ada yang pernah mengatakan hal ini sebelumnya dalam sebuah pidato pengukuhan. Selama akhir pekan China menggunakan pelantikan Trump untuk memperingatkan tentang bahaya demokrasi, menggembar-gemborkan stabilitas relatif sistem Komunis saat Presiden Xi Jinping menuju perombakan kepemimpinan senior dua kali satu dekade. China akan menginvestasikan US $ 3 miliar untuk meningkatkan fasilitas penyulingan minyak Irans, media Iran melaporkan, dengan sebagian besar investasi masuk ke kilang Abadan. Menurut Deputi Menteri Minyak Abbas Kazemi, China telah membuka pembiayaan untuk upgrade kilang tersebut. Irans infrastruktur minyak dan gas bumi telah mengalami hasil pengabaian selama bertahun-tahun karena dana perawatan yang mencukupi selama masa sanksi serta akses terhadap teknologi dan peralatan baru. Pekan lalu, Biro Statistik China melaporkan bahwa impor minyak mentah negara itu meningkat menjadi 64,4 persen dari permintaan domestik dan ini diperkirakan akan berlanjut, dengan impor meningkat sebesar 17 persen pada periode 2015-2020, dengan output domestik turun 7 persen di Periode tersebut, menurut Komisi Reformasi dan Pembangunan Nasional. China dan Iran membuat kesepakatan, untuk mendapatkan apa yang mereka butuhkan selama 16 tahun terakhir, pemerintah AS telah melakukan perang agresi untuk melakukan hal yang sama. Apa yang salah dengan gambar ini? Sampai saat ini BREXIT sedang bergerak maju. Sebuah trifecta beracun bagi pemegang obligasi. Orang-orang China melakukan perampokan pada ekonomi dunia dengan bias produksi dan produksi berproduksi rendah. Presiden Asosiasi Agen Perjalanan China di Prancis, Jean-Franois Zhou, mengatakan bahwa pencurian dan serangan kekerasan membuat Prancis menjadi salah satu tujuan terburuk bagi turis asing. Banyak turis sekarang mencari ke Rusia sebagai tujuan liburan yang jauh lebih aman. Taiwan memulai latihan persiapan pertahanan untuk menanggapi provokasi oleh China, berjanji untuk meningkatkan pelatihan 365 hari dalam setahun. TAIPEI (Berita Taiwan) Menurut sebuah dugaan e-mail oleh Hillary Clinton yang diterbitkan oleh WikiLeaks, mantan Sekretaris Negara Amerika Serikat bersedia untuk membahas editorial New York Times yang meminta Washington untuk melarang Taiwan sebagai imbalan atas China yang menghapus hutangnya. Jika Hillary adalah bagian dari kesepakatan dengan China untuk menukarkan Taiwan dengan hutang maka ini akan menjelaskan mengapa China memiliki masalah dengan Trump, kesepakatan tersebut jatuh melalui tempat taruhan Anda tentang siapa yang akan menjadi mitra utama di firma hukum Trump, Kissinger dan Ma. Kissinger telah merancang sebuah rencana untuk secara resmi mengenali Krimea sebagai bagian dari Rusia dan mengangkat sanksi administrasi pemerintahan Obama. Rencana tersebut sesuai dengan strategi keseluruhan Kissingers menyebutnya sebagai pendekatan tradisional Inggris Balance of Power, atau Divide and Rule, yang mematahkan front Eurasia (Rusia-China-Iran) yang merupakan ancaman nyata bagi apa yang Mattis mendefinisikan sebagai tatanan dunia mapan. Sementara media yang terbengkalai di AS mendorong anak laki-laki muda yang kebingungan untuk mengambil bloker pubertas dan memotong penis mereka untuk menjadi anak perempuan, China bergerak keras untuk mencegah krisis maskulinitas. Ukuran latihan yang sesungguhnya dan wilayah yang dipilih mungkin sudah ditafsirkan sebagai peringatan yang jelas bagi Barat untuk tidak meletakkan tekanan yang tidak semestinya pada pertanyaan aneksasi Crimea dan bukan untuk menguji kesabaran Rusia di wilayah Donbass secara berlebihan. Pada saat yang sama, kami diberitahu bahwa sebuah pertahanan pesisir akan dibangun di ujung terluar Rusia pada tahun 2018. Seminggu sebelum dimulainya latihan Kaukasus 2016, menteri pertahanan Rusia Shoigu menegaskan rencana pembentukan sebuah Unit pasukan khusus di wilayah Chukotka. Keputusan untuk melakukannya dibuat pada tahun 2015 dan merupakan bagian dari rencana pembentukan sistem pertahanan pesisir terpadu dari Arktik di utara sampai wilayah Premorja di selatan. Ini dimaksudkan untuk mengamankan Kurile dan Laut Bering serta menutupi rute armada di Pasifik, dan dengan demikian juga untuk meningkatkan kekuatan tempur angkatan laut strategis strategis Russias. Menteri Luar Negeri AS menunjuk Rex Tillersons dengan nada curiga dan gelisah selama persidangan persidangan konfirmasi untuk masa depan hubungan AS-China di bawah presidensi Donald Trump, menurut Profesor Dennis Etler, seorang analis politik Amerika yang memiliki minat selama berpuluh-puluh tahun dalam urusan. Paul Craig Roberts (lahir 3 April 1939) adalah seorang ekonom Amerika, jurnalis, blogger dan mantan pegawai negeri sipil. Dia mencapai puncak karir pemerintahannya saat dia menjadi Asisten Menteri Keuangan AS untuk Kebijakan Ekonomi di bawah Presiden Reagan pada tahun 1981. Dr. Roberts menjelaskan bagaimana Trump dapat memperbaiki Ekonomi. Saya tidak dapat meyakinkan Anda bahwa Trump tidak lain palsu seperti Obama. Tapi itu adalah kesalahan untuk memulai dengan asumsi ini. Mengapa menulis di muka hanya satu-satunya orang dengan keberanian untuk menempatkan hidupnya di telepon dan mengambil koruptor korup dan jahat Washington (Kevin LamarqueReuters) Presiden terpilih Donald Trumps sekretaris nominator negara, Rex Tillerson, membuat gelombang internasional pada hari Kamis oleh Menunjukkan bahwa AS harus mengirim China sebuah sinyal yang jelas bahwa, pertama, penghentian pulau-pulau, dan kedua, akses Anda ke pulau-pulau tersebut juga tidak akan diizinkan. Menyarankan China menghentikan pembangunan pulau-pulau buatannya dan meng militerisasi mereka tidak secara tajam melanggar kebijakan pemerintah Presiden Barack Obama, namun menyarankan sebuah blokade atau dengan paksa menghentikan China dari berlayar ke daratan di Laut China Selatan. Tanggapan Chinas, yang pada awalnya diredam, telah kembali kuat, dengan media China mengatakan bahwa kecuali Washington berencana untuk melakukan perang skala besar di Laut Cina Selatan, pendekatan lain untuk mencegah akses China ke pulau-pulau akan menjadi bodoh. Trump baru saja membantu Obama memperburuk hubungan dengan China. Pertama Filipina dan sekarang Vietnam mendekati tetangga mereka yang besar di China dan membuat bagus. Bagus untuk orang Cina dan Vietnam. China dan Vietnam telah berjanji untuk menyelesaikan perbedaan mereka mengenai klaim teritorial di Laut Cina Selatan dan untuk menjaga perdamaian di wilayah tersebut, kedua negara mengatakan dalam sebuah komunike bersama. 13 Januari 2017 Apakah Trump Sudah Selesai Paul Craig Roberts Tidak butuh waktu lama sebelum kita tahu tidak ada harapan perubahan dari Presiden Obama. Tapi setidaknya dia masuk ke pelantikannya dengan jumlah orang Amerika yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya di Mall yang menunjukkan dukungan mereka kepada Presiden Perubahan. Harapannya melimpah. Tapi dengan Trump, kita sudah kehilangan kepercayaan, jika belum bersama dia, setidaknya dengan pilihannya dari mereka yang membentuk pemerintahannya bahkan sebelum Trump dilantik. Trumps pilihan untuk Sekretaris Negara tidak hanya terdengar seperti neoconservatives dalam menyatakan Rusia menjadi ancaman bagi Amerika Serikat dan seluruh Eropa, namun juga terdengar seperti Hillary Clinton dalam menyatakan Laut Cina Selatan menjadi wilayah dominasi AS. Orang akan mengira bahwa chaiman dari Exxon bukanlah orang idiot, tapi saya tidak yakin lagi. Dalam pemeriksaan konfirmasinya, Rex Tillerson mengatakan bahwa akses China ke Laut China Selatan sendiri tidak akan diizinkan. Jadi, keluarlah dari popcorn, dan angkat kakimu: hiburan akan segera memulai drama perang dingin yang cepat berlalu. Ini tidak akan menjadi awal yang buruk bagi sebuah novel Tom Clancy tentang Perang Dingin, bagaimana Los Angeles Times menggambarkan urutan kejadian yang menuntun Sampai dengan pengusiran 35 diplomat Rusia (mata-mata) dan wajah terakhir antara Washington dan Moskow. Memang keseluruhan episode memiliki aura fiksi, yang bagaimanapun juga tepat, karena keseluruhan dasar drama perang dingin terbaru ini adalah penemuan murni. Dimana nurani moral liberal kiri Militer AS, CIA, dan pelacur mereka di media AS secara tidak demokratis mengejar agenda mereka sendiri yang terlepas dari kebijakan presiden terpilih. Kami bisa menepis pengakuan Trumps sebagai melemparkan tulang ke CIA sehingga mereka dapat merasa dibenarkan dan bangkit dari belakang, dan pernyataan dari Tillerson dan Mattis dapat dipecat sebagai apa yang harus dikatakan agar bisa dikonfirmasi. Tembakan besar yang menjalankan negara mencoba untuk kuat-membuat Donald membawa air mereka sehingga penyusutan dapat berlanjut. Elit yang kuat menggunakan kredibilitas agen Intelijen AS untuk mengutuk Rusia dan mempersiapkan negara untuk perang. Laporan minggu lalu 25 halaman, yang dikeluarkan oleh Direktur Intelijen Nasional James Clapper, menggambarkan sejauh mana intelijen dipelihara seputar kebijakan tersebut. Komunitas Intelijen telah dipaksa untuk mengorbankan kredibilitasnya untuk memicu ketakutan terhadap Rusia dan untuk memajukan ambisi geopolitik dari powerbrokers negara bagian dalam. Hanya beberapa hari sampai 2017 dan kita sudah bisa mengatakan dengan tingkat kepercayaan bahwa 2017 akan menjadi tahun sejarah. Selanjutnya, saya sampaikan bahwa tahun 2017 akan menjadi Tahun Trump karena kira-kira tiga hal akan terjadi: Trump benar-benar akan menyampaikan ancaman dan janjinya, atau Trump memberikan beberapa, namun jauh dari semua, ancaman dan janji-janjinya, atau akhirnya , Trump will be neutralized by the Neocon-run Congress, media, intelligence community. He might even be impeached or murdered. Of course, there is an infinity of sub-possibilities here, but for the purpose of this discussion I will call the first option Trump heavy, the second one Trump light and the third one Trump down. The governments of the United States and United Kingdom have spent decades and millions of dollars creating the political opposition fronts that constitute support for Myanmars new (and first ever) State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi. This support includes backing Suu Kyis saffron-clad street fronts who make up a nationwide network of monk alliances and associations. And it is these alliances and associations that have served at the forefront of persecution against Myanmars Rohingya minority. Also for years, this violent persecution has unfolded in what was otherwise a media blackout across North America and Europe. When violence reaches fevered pitches, American and European media organisations intentionally introduce ambiguity as to who precisely is leading anti-Rohingya violence. What is that line about never letting a good crisis go to waste. So now, the US expects its military to go in as advisors for the Myanmar military against a horrifically persecuted minority group, the Muslim Rohingya who, many times literally get burned out of their shacks. I never thought, looking at various wars blamed on religious differences, but actually, about access to resources, that I would have to say Watch out here come the Buddhists Unfortunately, Myanmar is the exception to that, and big-time. China and Russia have agreed to take further unspecified countermeasures in response to a U.S. plan to deploy an anti-missile system in South Korea, state news agency Xinhua reported on Friday. The countermeasures will be aimed at safeguarding interests of China and Russia and the strategic balance in the region, Xinhua said, citing a statement released after a China-Russia security meeting. China and Russia held a joint anti-missile drill last May after Washington and Seoul began discussions over installing the U.S. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system to counter any North Korean threats. THAAD is now due to be deployed on a South Korean golf course, unsettling Moscow and Beijing, which worry that the systems powerful radar will compromise their security and do nothing to lower tensions on the Korean peninsula. (Sigh, hair-tearing out noises): What the US government should be doing right now is working with China and Russia to get North Korea back to the negotiating table to create a peace treaty, which gives North Korea assurances on trade, in exchange for them stopping their nuclear weapons program. But of course. THAT. would be logical. And unfortunately, the US government hasnt had a really on-going relationship with logic for quite some time now. Self-declared liberal Americans consider Bush to be a warmongering disaster, yet somehow they hail Obama as some kind of progressive peace president. Eight straight years of warmongering come to an end as US President Barack Obama bows out with his farewell to the nation speech this week, as fawning American media dubbed his valediction. In reality, Obamas outgoing address should have been billed as a farewell to arms made by arguably one of the most belligerent presidents to ever have occupied the White House. Only in exceptionally delusional America could such a pernicious paradox be presented as something honorable and sentimental. If anti-Trump American forces are behind untrue allegations of this magnitude, those forces are the primary enemies of US national security and should be investigated fully and publicly. Cohen raises the following issues, which he and Batchelor discuss: Two conflicting interpretations are suggested, says Cohen. Either Trump is about to become a potentially seditious American president. Or powerful US forces are trying to destroy his presidency before it begins, perhaps even prevent him from taking office. During his confirmation hearing as Trumps SecState, Rex Tillerson said a failure to respond to China had allowed it to keep pushing the envelope in the South China Sea and added that were going to have to send China a clear signal that first the island-building stops and second your access to those islands is also not going to be allowed. With all the partisan narrative defining Trump as a tariff-setting, anti-trade, economy-buster, we thought it ironic that free-trade-wunderkind Obama just escalated trade wars by bringing his administrations 16th trade-enforcement complaint against China with WTO, urging tariffs on subsidized Chinese aluminum, after accusing them of funneling artificially cheap loans from state-run banks to producers. You might think President Obama would have had the decency to wait until Trump had assumed the office of President, and figure out how he wanted to handle it unfortunately, however, this is another classic, passiveaggressive ploy on Obamas part to ratchet up the tensions between the US and China to an even higher degree than it already is. And I have 3 words with which to characterise this action, 8 days before Trump takes the Oath of Office childish churlish and petulant. Our Armed Forces must remain the best led, best equipped, and most ready force in the world, Mattis told the Senate. We must also embrace our international alliances and security partnerships. History is clear: nations with strong allies thrive and those without them wither. My watchwords will be solvency and security in providing for the protection of our people and the survival of our freedoms, Mattis said. America has two fundamental powers. One is intimidation, Mattis told Senator Gary Peters (D-Michigan). The other power, which weve used less in the last 20 years, is the power of inspiration. The US should not be turning to military power as the answer to all of its concerns around the world, the retired Marine general added. Here are some of the key highlights so far: Russia Is Principal Threat To US Security I would be curious as to understand in what context Mattis believes Russia is our principal threat. Because in looking at Putins behaviour, I just dont see it. What I see is a master chess player, who has generally been one hundred moves ahead of his American and European counterparts.On MicroSD Problems The microSD ware for January 2010 was not an incidental post. It is actually snapshot of a much longer forensic investigation to find the ground truth behind some irregular Kingston memory cards. It all started back in December of 2009, when chumby was in the midst of production for the chumby One. A call came in from the floor noting that SMT yield had dropped dramatically on one lot, so I drove over to the building to have a look (this is the advantage of being in China during production 8212 you can fix problems like this within the hour, before they become really serious issues). After poking and prodding a bit, I realized that all the units failing had Kingston microSD cards from a particular lot code. I had the factory pull the entire lot of microSD cards from the line and rework all the units that had these cards loaded. Sure enough, after subtracting these cards from the line, yield was back to normal again. Normally, the story would end there you8217d RMA the material, get an exchange for the lot, and move on. Except there were a couple of problems. First, Kingston wouldn8217t take the cards back because we had programmed them. Second, there was a lot of them 8212 about a thousand all together, and chumby was already deeply back-ordered. Also, memory cards aren8217t cheap the spot price on this type of memory card is around 4-5, so it8217s a few thousand dollars in scrap if we can8217t get them exchanged 8230 and neither chumby nor the CM is large enough to sneeze at a few kilobucks. So I kicked into forensic mode. The first thing that raised my suspicions is the external markings on the irregular Kingston cards. On the left is a sample of the irregular card. On the right is a sample of a normal card. I8217ve put red arrows on the details that called the most attention to me at first. The most blatantly strange issue is that the card on the left has its lot code silkscreened using the same stencil as the main logo. Silkscreening a lot code on isn8217t that unusual, but typically the silk does not share the same stencil as the logo, so you8217ll see some small variance in the coloration, font, or alignment of the lot code from the rest of the text. In fact, across the entire batch of irregular cards, they shared the exact same lot code (N0214-001.A00LF) (typically the lot code will vary every couple hundred cards at least). This is in contrast to the card on the right, which is laser-marked, and has a lot code that varied with every tray of 96 units. The second strange issue, perhaps more subtle and perhaps not damning, is the irregularity in the 8220D8221 of the microSD logo. Typically, brand name vendors like Kingston would be very picky about the accuracy of their logos. The broken D is something found on SanDisk cards, but Kingston cards found in US retail almost universally use a solid D. It turns out the weirdness in the external markings is just the start of it. When we read out the electronic card ID data on the two cards (available through sys entries in linux), this is what we found: First, the date code on the irregular card is uninitialized. Dates are counted as the offset from 002000 in the CID field, so a value of 002000 means they didn8217t bother to assign a date (for what it8217s worth, in the year 2000, 2GB microSD cards also didn8217t exist). Also, the serial number is very low 8212 0x960 is decimal 2,400. Other cards in the irregular batch also had similarly very low serial numbers, in the hundreds to thousands range. The chance of me 8220just happening8221 to get the very first microSD cards out of a factory is pretty remote. The serial number of the normal card, for example, is 0x9C62CAE6, or decimal 2,623,720,166 8212 a much more feasible serial number for a popular product like a microSD card. Very low serial numbers, like very low MAC ID addresses, are a hallmark of the 8220ghost shift8221, i.e. the shift that happens very late at night when a rouge worker enters the factory and runs the production machine off the books. Significantly, ghost shifts are often run using marginal material that would normally be disposed of but were intercepted on the way to the grinder. As a result, the markings and characteristics of the material often look absolutely authentic, because the ghost material is a product of the same line as genuine material. Furthermore, the manufacturer8217s ID is 0x41 (ASCII 8216A8217), which I don8217t recognize (supposedly the SD group assigns all the MIDs but I don8217t see a public list of them anywhere). The OEMID is also 0x3432, which is suspiciously ASCII 8217428217 (one more than the hex value for the manufacturer ID). These hexascii confusions are possible signs that someone who didn8217t appreciate the meaning of these fields was running a ghost shift making these cards. Armed with this evidence, we confronted Kingston 8212 both the distributor in China as well as the US sales rep. First, we wanted to know if these were real cards, and second, if they were real cards, why were the serialization codes irregular After some time, the Kingston guys came back to us and swore these cards were authentic, not fakes, but at least they reversed their position on not offering an exchange on the cards 8212 they took back the programmed cards and exchanged them for new ones, no further questions asked. However, they never answered as to why their card ID numbers were irregular. While I know chumby is a small fry customer compared to the Nokias of the world, I think it8217s still important that they answer basic questions about their quality control process even to the small fry. I had an issue once with an old version of a Quintic part being accidentally shipped to me, and once I could prove the issue to them, I received world-class customer service from Quintic, a full explanation, and an immediate and full exchange of the parts at their cost. That was exemplary service, and I commend and strongly recommend Quintic for it. Kingston, on the other hand, did not set an example to follow. Normally, at this point, I would simply disqualify Kingston as a vendor, but I8217m more persistent than that. It8217s disconcerting that a high-profile, established brand would stand behind such irregular components. Who is to say SanDisk or Samsung wouldn8217t do the same Price erosion has been brutal on all the FLASH vendors, and as small fry I might be repeatedly taken advantage of as a sink for marginal material to improve the FLASH vendor8217s bottom lines. Given the relatively high cost of these components, I needed to develop some simple guidelines for IQC (incoming quality control) inspection to accept or reject shipments from memory vendors, so I decided to do more digging to try and find ground truth. The first thing I had to do was collect a lot of samples. The key is to attempt to collect both regular and irregular cards in the wild, so I went to the SEG Hua Qian Bei district and wandered around the gray markets there. I bought about ten memory cards total from small vendors, at prices varying from 30-50 RMB (4.40 8211 7.30), most of them priced toward 30 RMB. The process of shopping for irregular cards itself was interesting. In talking to a couple dozen vendors, you learn a few things. First, Kingston as a brand is weak in China for microSD cards. Sandisk has done a lot more marketing in the microSD space, and as a result, it8217s much easier to find Sandisk cards on the open market. The quality of the grey-market Sandisk cards are also typically more consistent. Second, the small vendors are entirely brazen about selling you well-crafted fakes. Typically, the bare cards are just sitting loose in trays in the display case once you agree on the price and commit to buying the card, the vendor will toss the loose card into a 8220real8221 Kingston retail package, and then miraculously pull out a certificate, complete with hologram, serial numbers, and a kingston URL you can visit to validate your purchase, and slap it on the back of the retail package right in front of your eyes . Hey, it8217s just like new 8230 I suppose the typical buyer in those markets is not an end user, but someone who is looking to make a quick buck reselling these cards at a hefty markup in a more reputable retail outlet. One vendor in particular interested me it was literally a mom, pop and one young child sitting in a small stall of the mobile phone market, and they were busily slapping dozens of non-Kingston marked cards into Kingston retail packaging. They had no desire to sell to me, but I was persistent this card interested me in particular because it also had the broken 8220D8221 logo but no Kingston marking. Above is a scan of the card and the package it came in (a larger image of the card can be seen below it is 8220Sample 48221). After collecting all the samples, I read out their card ID information, and then digested their packages with nitric acid. Below is the line-up of the cards I digested. Yes, my digestion technique is pretty crude. Actually, most of the damage to the card came from the cleaning process 8212 I was using a Q-tip with acetone to remove the dissolved encapsulant and I had to get a little rough, which doesn8217t do any favors for the bond wires. But8230good enough for my purposes. Click on the image above for a full-sized version. Some notes on the cards above: Sample 1: This is the original irregular card that got me started on this whole arc. It was purchased through a sanctioned Kingston distributor in China, and to the best of my knowledge, none were shipped to end customers of chumby. MID 0x000041, OEMID 0x3432, serial 0x960, name SD2GB. Sample 2: This is a normal card that I also purchased from the same sanctioned Kingston distributor in China, and is typical of those actually shipped in the first lot of chumby Ones MID 0x000002, OEMID 0x544D, serial 0x9C62CAE6, name SA02G Sample 3: This is a Kingston card purchased through a major US retail chain. Note how the MID and OEMID are identical to sample 2, but not sample 1. MID 0x000002, OEMID 0x544D, serial 0xA6EDFA97, name SD02G Sample 4: This is the aforementioned non-Kingston branded card that I spotted being slapped into Kingston-marked packaging, bought on the open market in Shenzhen. Note the low serial number. MID 0x000012, OEMID 0x3456, serial 0x253, name MS Sample 5: This is a device bought from a more established retailer in the Shenzhen market, but still questionable. I bought it because it had the XXX.A00LF marking, like my original irregular card. MID 0x000027, OEMID 0x5048, serial 0x7CA01E9C, name SD2GB Sample 6: This is a SanDisk card bought on the open market from a sketchy shop run by a sassy chain-smoking girl who wouldn8217t stop texting on her mobile. I actually acquired three total SanDisk cards from different sketchy sources but all of them checked out with the same CID info, so I only opened one of them. Interestingly, one SanDisk card turned out to be used and only quick-formatted. With the help of some recovery software. I found DLLs, WAV8217s, maps, and verisign certificates belonging to Navione8217s Careland GPS inside the drive. A project for another day will be acquiring lots of refurb microSD cards and collecting interesting data off of them. MID 0x000003, OEMID 0x5344, serial 0x114E933D, name SU02G Sample 7: This is a Samsung card that we bought from a Samsung wholesale distributor. I didn8217t scan this one before digesting it, so the image of it is missing but the card actually has no markings on the outside 8212 it8217s a total blank card with just a laser mark on the back. From appearances alone, it would look to be the sketchiest of the bunch, but in reality it8217s one of the best built. Goes to show you can8217t judge a book by its cover. MID 0x00001B, OEMID 0x534D, serial 0xB1FE8A54, name 00000That8217s a lot of data for a blog post, but I figured more details are better for sharing, since I could find no central database for this kind of information on the web. Here are the most interesting 8220high level8221 results from my survey: The 8220normal8221 Kingston cards (samples 2 and 3) were all direct Toshiba OEM cards (MID 0x000002, OEMID 0x544D (ASCII 8216TM8217, presumably for Toshiba Memory)). These cards employ Toshiba controllers and Toshiba memory chips, and seem to be of good quality, and thankfully the only ones that were sent on to chumby customers. The irregular card (sample 1) uses the same controller chip as the outright fake (sample 4) that was bought in the SZ market. Both the irregular Kingston and the fake Kingston had low serial numbers and whacky ID information. Some of these cards experience some difficulty in normal operation. I still hesitate to call Kingston8217s irregular card a fake 8212 that8217s a very strong accusation to make 8212 but its construction is similar to another card of clearly questionable quality, which leads me to question Kingston8217s judgment in picking authorized manufacturing partners. The irregular card is the only card in the group that does not use a stacked CSP construction. Instead, it uses side-by-side bonding. The only two memory chip foundries in this sample set were ToshibaSandisk and Samsung. Note that Sandisk and Toshiba co-own the fab that makes their memory chips. Samsung8217s NAND die 8212 the most expensive part of a microSD card 8212 is about 17 larger than ToshibaSandisk. This means that Samsung microSD cards should naturally carry a slightly higher price than ToshibaSandisk cards. However, Samsung does get to offset that against the ability to diversify the same die from microSD packages into street-packaged TSOP devices, and they also don8217t have a middleman like Kingston to eat away at margins.Significantly, Kingston is revealed as simply a vendor that re-marks other people8217s chips in its own packaging clarification. Every Kingston card surprisingly had a SandiskToshiba memory chip inside, and the only variance or 8220value add8221 that could be found is in the selection of the controller chip. Oddly enough, of all the vendors, Kingston quoted with the best lead times and pricing 8212 better than SanDisk or Samsung, despite the competition making all their own silicon and thereby having a lower inherent cost structure. This tells me that Kingston must be crushed when it comes to margin, which may explain why irregular cards are finding their way into their supply chain. Kingston is also probably more willing to talk to smaller accounts like me because as a channel brand they can8217t compete against OEMs like Sandisk or Samsung for the biggest contracts from the likes of Nokia or RIMM. Effectively, Kingston is just a channel trader and is probably seen by SanDiskToshiba as a demand buffer for their production output. I also wouldn8217t be surprised if SanDiskToshiba was selling Kingston 8220A-8221 grade parts, i.e. parts with slightly more defective sectors, but otherwise perfectly serviceable. As a result, Kingston plays a significant and important role in stabilizing microSD card prices and improving fab margins, but at some risk to their own brand image. Overall, the MicroSD card market is a fascinating one, a discussion perhaps worth a blog post on its own. I8217d like to point out to casual readers that the spot price of MicroSD cards is nearly identical to the spot price of the very same NAND FLASH chips used on the inside. In other words, the extra controller IC inside the microSD card is sold to you 8220for free8221. The economics that drive this are fascinating, but in a nutshell, my suspicion is that incorporating the controller into the package and having it test, manage and mark bad blocks more than offsets the cost of testing each memory chip individually. A full bad block scan can take a long time on a large FLASH IC, and chip testers cost millions of dollars. Therefore, the amortized cost per chip for test alone can be comparable to the cost of silicon itself. To ground this in solid numbers, suppose a production-grade memory tester costs one million dollars. If you take one million dollars and divide it by the number of seconds over a five year period (a typical depreciation lifespan for such equipment), the equipment 8220costs8221 0.00634 per second. Thus, a thirty second test costs you 0.00634second x 30 seconds 0.19. This is comparable to the raw die cost of the controller IC, according to my models and by making the controllers very smart (the Samsung controller is a 32-bit ARM7TDMI with 128k of code), you get to omit this expensive test step while delivering extra value to customers 8212 I love the fact that when I put on my linux kernel hacker hat, I can be completely oblivious to the existence of bad blocks and use mature filesystems like ext3 instead of JFFS2, at no extra cost to end customers like you. Isn8217t it fun to connect the dots, all the way from silicon die markings to the linux kernel to end users, and all the businesses in between In the end, I8217d have to say that both SanDisk and Samsung look like they might be superior wholesale vendors to Kingston for memory cards due to their more direct control of their respective supply chains. Unfortunately, you can8217t buy Samsung-branded microSD cards on the retail market, as far as I know 8212 Samsung only sells their cards to wholesalers who then rebrand andor resell the card, and like Kingston these non-OEM brands may blend their vendors so it8217s hard to say if you8217re getting the best card or simply a usable card. This entry was posted on Tuesday, February 16th, 2010 at 3:35 am and is filed under chumby. Hacking. Ponderings. Anda dapat mengikuti tanggapan terhadap entri ini melalui umpan RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed. 311 Responses to 8220On MicroSD Problems8221 I avoid dealing with china whenever possible. They stand against a lot of things the people in the US are passionate about, and we only use their products for the cost difference anyway. And there are absolutely no reasons to avoid US products. The whole 8216holier-than-thou8217 attitude is a bit too much. If you want to punish the manufacturers you better start in your own backyard. When we start using political prisoners as slave labor I8217ll agree with you. When we start executing prisoners to provide organs for re-sale, I8217ll agree with you. When we start censoring the Internet, I8217ll agree with you. When people like you. who dissent, start being censored and imprisoned, instead of simply being taken to task by others for your folly, then I8217ll agree that we are pretty much the same as China. To be sure, we have a political faction in power at the moment that would love to make us the same as China, but they haven8217t won yet. I have two friends who were standing among the other students at Tiananmen Square when the tanks rolled. Although they survived, they were also systematically persecuted for years thereafter. If their parents had not been well connected in a very large and powerful Chinese company, it would have gone much worse for them. My wife and I have more or less 8220adopted8221 a young Taiwanese woman, currently a university student. She is very much a part of out family, and here in the US, we are very much part of her family. I know the fear she has for the safety of her family living in Taipei if the Chinese decide to take Taiwan. Already they are strongly influencing events there. Her brother is in the Taiwanese military, and at particular risk. But most of all, she is native Taiwanese, not Chinese, and so as part of the minority, in a country long overwhelmed by foreigners, her family is at particular risk for persecution. For those who are unaware, the native Taiwanese are ethnographically Malay-Polynesian, and have weathered repeated onslaughts, persecution, and near genocide from deposed and displaced Chinese regimes, as well as being subjugated by the Dutch, the Japanese, and whoever else found Taiwan a valuable spot to occupy. Is our country perfect No, of course not. We make mistakes, and being made up of human beings, some of whom chose evil over good, bad things have been done in our name. But I will put our overall record of standing for what is good and right alongside that of any other country in the world. It is those people, like you, who wish to draw everything down to the lowest common denominator, and assert that no one has the moral standing to speak out and criticize, it is those people who are the enablers of the world8217s great evils. So smirk sanctimoniously if you wish. Mock those who speak up, deriding them as outdated anachronisms and nationalist bigots. But I will stand with them, and you can stand alongside Mao, Pol Pot, and Stalin, with your assertion that the US is just as bad. I will stand with a frail, sweet, young Taiwanese woman, and you can stand with the people bent on destroying her, her family, and her culture, a culture of whose existence you are probably unaware. Much as they decimated the Mongolian culture of my friends from Tiananmen Square, turning its remnants into a 8220state cultural treasure8221 to be used to promote tourism. Perhaps the now suppressed Taiwanese puppetry will one day have such an 8220honor8221. You may be tempted to drag out the sins of our dusty past, and to be sure, they exist. But I live in the here and now. I know and oppose the present dangers, and can only ask forgiveness for errors of an earlier time. I don8217t hear China acknowledging the sins of her past, nor do I see her government turning away from the sins of her present, including the oppression of Tibet, the threatening of Taiwan, the imprisonment and torture of Falun Gong practitioners, or the arrest of Huang Qi for the simple act of criticizing the government8217s response to the earthquake in Sichuan. Tell me, how many were arrested for criticizing the government here for the handling of the hurricane in New Orleans, even the ones making the absurd and scurrilous charges that the levees were dynamited by secret government operatives G, you are a fool. I just wish that you were a harmless fool. Instead, you are a dangerous one. Using the phrase 8220sins of the past8221 implies that you believe all is well and good in American home and foreign policy. Would you care to substantiate that stance with evidence Perhaps you should be less quick to call others a fool, until you know that you aren8217t one yourself. You fail reading comprehension, or are just lazy. Quoting from B.Mused post 8220Is our country perfect No, of course not. We make mistakes, and being made up of human beings, some of whom chose evil over good, bad things have been done in our name.8221 Clearly they recognize that we are not (present tense) perfect. Put your words into action. This is quite a bit off topic, and of poor taste. Social issues should be discussed elsewhere, as bunnie has done a lot of research and deserves your attention. If ethicalsocial issues is what you live by, then simply state that 8220I have issues with china8217s ethics, and therefore will not buy from them. You should consider those ethics as well, when deciding to purchase from business from that country.8221 Otherwise, please be kind and make a blog or website of your own. Is that worse than kids starving to death from overpopulation thinks murdering someone else8217s baby will keep it from starving That is simply a brilliant deduction. Let8217s see if we can think of some way to prevent: from using any of our food We don8217t do that in the US, though 8211 it only works in dictatorships. Enjoy your next meal. Hahahahaha And the US are completely innocent. This made my day, typical stupid American answer. On a serious note, great article. Uh well, yes. Show me anything even close to the american government coming in and forcing an abortion on an american woman in an american city. The 8220well, america isn8217t perfect8221 excuse isn8217t holding water when the crimes against the chinese people are so egregious. It8217s just shocking the world will sit idly by shrugging and saying 8220well8230nobody8217s perfect8221. Maybe this is how the holocaust happened. Please read my comment above. And what America only, non-globally diversified company, or company without branches in China should I buy from mentioned in this article Or not mentioned in this article I believe there are some (not all) that are hypocrites here, including one mentioning 10 fold amount of information which could be summed up in a few simple lines, cou,B.Mused,gh I do agree, however, that you should consider the ethics of the country in which a company resides, including researching if that company supports or rejects those ethical issues. Who knows. They may be on the frontier of pushing the a country out of the bad ethics they are surrounded by. But each person has a set of their own ethicsmorals, and thus should be researched on their own. Here is not the place to discuss those. And bombing innocent women and children in a country accused of harboring non existing WMD is full of human right, grow up. Wow, what a great piece of investigative work I really like the discussion about the 8220Ghost Shift8221 8211 so that is how all the fakes are made. Joe Zydeco says: Can8217t agree more. Insanely detailed but a real look into an industry that I almost never get to see as a programmer. Thanks for all the detective work Thank you great detective work, I have a defective 16 gig SDHC with the same funny D. 8230 Studios8217 blog has been on my regular reading list ever since the first XBox was hacked. The latest entry has just surpassed the level of ingenuity and entertainment value of his original paper on the XBox 8230 Bunnie, you are a smart guy. You need to hook up with one of the bigger MicroSD users in the manufacturing food chain and leverage some of the buying power they have and get access to the QC they get in their supply line. No doubt from there your business will grow. Hey bunnie. Interestingly, larger Kingston-branded microSD cards I8217ve purchased in Canada and the US (8GB16GB size) seem to have the lot number silkscreened on the front with the exact same ink as the label itself. Like Sample 5, everything seems screened in one pass, and no, mine don8217t have the broken 8220D8221 in MicroSD. The back does have the same lot number sticker as your Sample 3, so I suspect they8217re genuine (and I8217ve not had a lick of difficulty with them) Your theory about SandiskToshiba selling A-B parts to Kingston makes sense. Assuming my larger cards have the same stacked CSP construction (unlike your irregular unit), SandiskToshiba might complete all the packaging and send unlabelled cards to Kingston8217s fab, who then do as they please 8211 including labelling them with whatever markings they want. In your scenario, presumably the ghost shifter didn8217t bother to setup the part of printer that actually read the codes off of each device before using them to print onto the plastic package, and what you8217re seeing are the default values in the machine. I wonder if the microSD fixtures that might be used in such a silkscreener line are readily available, and their code or behaviour might be perused8230 This is a bombshell. Awaiting to see if any mainstream tech reporter picks up on what you8217ve revealed 8230 of America8217s retail markets over the murky backwaters of Chinese industry. Mungkin. Bunnie Studios via 8230 Great work I will with interest follow the ramifications from this detective work. Pos bagus I8217ve been interested in this topic ever since I was sold knock-off Sony Memory Sticks a few years ago. The varying quality you get on these flash cards really runs the gamut. I really enjoyed reading that 8211 thank you 8230 transparency of America39s retail markets over the murky backwaters of Chinese industry. Mungkin. Bunnie Studios via 8230 8230 Does the name Bunnie Huang ring a bell It might if you were around the Xbox 8220scene8221 in 2002, when people from all over the world were on Xbox hacking forums trying to figure out what made Microsoft8217s first console tick, so to speak. It was truly excitingmdashwe8217re talking Paris in the 50s exciting. Mr. Huang has since gotten a job at Chumby, putting his technical know-how to good use and helping to create the adorable little clock-widget-thing. While in China, Mr. Huang discovered a problem with a number of Kingston-branded microSD cards that were to be used in Chumby production. The problem was that they were counterfeit, or 8220irregular8221 in the measured parlance of the blog post. 8230 One other thing to consider with a 8220thirty second8221 test is if someone needs to test 1,000,000 MicroSD cards (let8217s say Nokia orders a giant batch), that8217s: 1000000 30 30,000,000 seconds, or 8333 hours, or about 347 days And that8217s assuming you8217re running the factory 247365. So the amount of overhead this could add seems prohibitively large, unless testing could be done in parallel. Very Interesting. I had some trouble with a 4Gb flash just before christmas. The external packaging look more like you sample 2. Solid D and laser etch batched code. So do the entries in sysbusmmcdevices. I put down the issues I was having to to MMC bus contention as I could only trigger them by working the wireless 8211 which looked on the device I was using the card with tho be connected via sdio 8211 and the card hard at the same time. Interestingly though changing to a Sandisk card a lot of this went away. Now there may be bugs in the linux S32C420 sdio implementation 8211 but it interesting what you say about the kingston controller in hindsight. Unfortunately I don8217t really have the time or knowledge documentaion of the sdio details to do any debugging 8211 not when I found a Kingston cards works. Fortuantely this is for a one-ff project so I don8217t have thousand of cards to deal with. Have you consider that these 8216irregular8217 cards migth not be Kingston and they bought them to get them off the market, this doesn8217t play well with the rest of the economics you8217ve found though. 8230 the transparency of our retail markets over the murky backwaters of Chinese industry. Mungkin. Bunnie Studios via boingboing 8230 I8217m sure this happens quite a lot. With obfuscation of manufacturers ordering something from very far away and many hands touching it. Add to that low wages for their workers and stuff like this is bound to happen. Thanks for the great extensive writeup. You should go into forensics Whoa, I just checked, and the 512 MB one from my phone is a Kingston with a broken D and A00LF. And that came with the phone Further checking and I notice that my (fake) Kingston 2GB cards from dealextreme actually have a solid D and multiple ink colors. Menarik. A fine piece of detective engineering, and a joy to read as well 8211 great job I get excited when ever there is a new post, you should be writing for Wired So entertaining and unlike so much of the webs rehashed tech specs. I too thank you for your awesome articles Seriously your giving William Gibson a run for his money with the ghost shift stuff. LOL love it joe peacock says: Got to your story from Slashdot.org. Thank you for your time and funds used in producing this write-up. It was done very well, and raises some very important questions. Much like wohall, I have a Kingston branded 4GB microSD card whose lot number (N0160-002.A00LF) appears to have been silkscreened onto the card casing using the same ink as the rest of the label. I also have an unbroken D on my card. Interestingly, the microSD -gt SD card adapter that came with it does have a broken D on it, though. Like your original irregular card, Sample 1, my card has odd values: name: SD4GB date: 002000 manfid: 0x000041 oemid: 0x3432 serial: 0x00000c61 scr: 0235000000000000 fwrev: 0x0 hwrev: 0x2 I wonder if your 4GB card, which is apparently from a 8216ghost shift8217 or just from a counterfait manufacturer, has the capacity that is written on it. Ever tried to put up to 4Gigs on it C8217mon buddy, here8217s hoping there8217s some sort of email notification for replies8230 How do you get this info about the card exactly I8217ve got a Linux box at home but not the technical know how to work it out. My Googling hasn8217t produced good results either. Never mind, scrolling down success We order Kingston microSD cards from a North American vendor for a WinCE product (the SDC2GB card). I have a couple of cards that don8217t work in my microSD readerwriter. They match Bunnie8217s descriptions and silk-screening8211broken D. lot code of N0181-006.A00LF. Here8217s the really crazy thing: the cards don8217t work in the microSD slot on my reader, BUT they work if I plug them into a microSD adapter, and into the SD slot (which is on the same reader). Really strange, as the adapter is purely a connectivity thing, no electronics involved. Also, the working microSDs show up as 8220Removable Disk (E)8221 in My Computer. The ones with weird markings that only show up via the SD adapter, when I plug those in to the reader, the 8220Removable Disk (E)8221 suddenly starts displaying 8220Kingston (E)8221. I8217m going to take photos of these cards and phone my vendor and link him to this blog post. Between this product and another, we bought about 3K SD cards last year, and we8217ll be using another 8K this year, so I8217m hoping we8217ll get some action. Further to my earlier post, the bootloader on our product spits out some card details, so here are the results. The two A00LF cards report Manf ID of 0x41, part of SD2GB. These are the cards that don8217t work properly. The manufacturing date and serial are sensible values8211October 2009 and ). Product revision is 2.0. OEM ID is ASCII 42 (0x3432). The regular working cards have Manf ID of 2 and part of SA02G. Product revision is 0.3, and manf. date is March 2009. OEM ID is ASCII 8220TM8221 (0x544d). I don8217t spit out CID values, but CID is made up of MID, OID, PNM, PRV, PSN, MDT and CRC, as you can see by checking Bunnie8217s results. I8217m in RampD, not at the production facility, so I don8217t have a huge number of cards around here, but I8217m going to test what I8217ve got, and then we8217ll be talking to the vendor andor Kingston. Will keep people posted if there8217s interest. I tried this with linux mint on a dell latitude E6410. I do not seem to find any of these folders. sysblockmmcblk0device or sysdevicesplatformcpuxxx-mmc.nmmchostmmc08242 Can anybody help me with this Has anyone identified low-cost adapters or carrier boards with holders for SD cards, mini-SD cards, and micro-SD cards that when plugged into desktop computers8217 mainboards will work to read out the electronic card ID data Hopefully, a free live CD Linux version like the 100MB Puppy Linux, for example, can be used with the adapters or boards to obtain the data. Two types of adverse events come to mind that should increase demand somewhat for the above types of devices are: 1) Having a list of your cards8217 ID numbers to write on police reports should make it more likely to recover them should they be stolen. In addition, should a nefarious person add a card to your collection of cards, you might have a somewhat better chance of proving that the added card does not belong to you if you have a list of your cards8217 IDs. 2) After the all-important random write speed tests have been performed and your faster cards have been identified, knowing their ID numbers makes it possible to recover them should they be accidentally mixed with slower speed cards. Reference 8211 Random write speed testing: CrystalDiskMark chucklohr808 An adapter or board with only a single SD card socket may be less expensive, but it should be able to read the data of both mini-SD and micro-SD cards that are inserted via adapters into the SD card socket. It would save a lot of time to have the card slots on the front panels of the desktop PCs, but this may increase the installed cost. Hopefully, low-cost boards or adapters can be found. The following devices might be good candidates: 40-Pin IDE Flash Drive Carrier Board with a SD card Interface 40-Pin Male IDE To SD Card Adapter It would probably take too much time to read a lot of card IDs with an old laptop that does not have a card slot, but the following type of adapter might work even if the laptop runs slowly from a SD card such that most users will not be satisfied: Secure Digital 44-Pin 2.58243 IDE To SD Card Adapter Interesting Do you have any sources for datasheets of the wear leveling chips SD controller datasheets aren8217t particularly interesting because the only interfaces they present are standard: SD on one side and NAND flash on the other. Internally, they are microcontrollers (as mentioned in the article), but the datasheets won8217t go into much detail about their programs. Bunnie, do you have any idea who made the controllers in the irregularfake cards I was hoping for some details on wear leveling algorithms. Sorry 8211 tired 8211 of course you saw that in the original comment. Terima kasih. Reflashing the flash controller would be fun :) I suspect that it8217ll be one of those several page datasheets that omits any description of the program 8211 as you allude to. 8230 as simply a vendor that re-marks other people8217s chips in its own packaging82218230 On MicroSD Problems 171 bunnie8217s blog. Yikes Filed under: EE 8212 by adafruit, posted February 16, 2010 at 9:52 pm Comments 8230 Just because you purchased from a Kingston authorized distributor doesn8217t mean they weren8217t trying to make a quick buck. It8217s quite possible that the distributor knowingly purchasedmanufactured a batch of counterfeitssub-grade and used their authorized distributor status to pass them off as genuine. This is very likely given the aggressive lead times and pricing. Incidentally, this is probably how counterfeits get into the major retail chains. A retail store buys from an authorized distributor who ships them fakes, which ends up with the consumer. 8230 interesting story about computer manufactuing and MicroSD 8230 Great work as always, Bunnie I hope that this will flush out more people with issues like yours and Turthalion8217s. The semiconductor industry is long-past due having a spotlight shone on the extent of 8220horse trading8221 that goes on. I was in China in the early part of Dec821709 and was struck by the large amount of Kingston memory products available from various shop vendors at, once you started bargaining, too good to be true prices. So I demurred on buying because it seemed fishy, even though as far as I could tell the packaging was A-1 legit. A bit later in the trip, on the electronics street in Nanjing I noticed Kingston USB Memory Sticks being packaged into bubble packs in a little shop by a teenaged girl and, presumably, her mother. As I say, you could not tell the difference from proper Kingston packaging that you find in North America, but it did leave me wondering. Very happy that you took the time to investigate and publish your findings. 8230 just read what I thought to be a most interesting article on the SD card 8230 Interesting. I sometimes wonder if the vendor can tell if the item is real or fake themselves. With the amount of information available you would of thought in this case they would. I had a very similar experience with branded polo shirts. The brand could not tell if the shirt was real or good fake. Captain Burn Out says: I ran a small IT retail business for a number of years. The rebranding that goes on within the industry is truly something to behold. I8217ve seen every brand rebadged as just about every other brand. Perhaps the funniest was Corsair chips sold as Kingston. These were all through regular wholesale channels so as bunnie says Kingston don8217t make any of their own stuff, or at least not very much. The 8220A00LF8221 part number is pretty common, it8217s just a numbering system amp not anything more than that. Only thing to add is a customer who bought a microSD card off eBay amp came to me for a replacement when it didn8217t work. This was the fakest of fakes, instead of the gold contact there was just a bit of plastic crudely glued on 8230 lol. He was greatly relieved when my supplied card registered as soon as he popped it in his phone. So many stories, maybe I should write a book rogue worker rouge worker Photographer here. I purchased an 8 Gig Lexar CF card from a major US photography equipment supplier a couple of years ago, encountered repeat read errors. After holding onto the card for almost a year, I contacted Lexar and with some resistance I was able to set up a warranty replacement. The replacement card shared all the same outside markings. It also produced the same identical error. I stopped using it and only use SanDisk without problems. I assumed it was a CameraCard interoperability problem, but after reading this I have to wonder. fiach antaw says: Any chance of higher-resolution snapshots of the microSD card die I had no idea microSDs had microprocessor logic in them, it8217d be interesting to see if the code is stored using flasheeprom (in which case it might be possible to rewrite) or a mask or OTP ROM (in which case it might be possible to read the code off of the die, which would be interesting). Unfortunately, I have no high res images of the die. Flylogic is the place you8217d need to go to get something like that, I don8217t have that capability in-house yet. Each controller IC has its own unique quirks, but based on what I saw the ROMs generally looked OTP (I agree reading them out would be interesting). However, the Toshiba controllers used fuses that you could visibly read out with the microscope (the blown fuses had discolored and developed black marks where they were fused), and the Sandisk controller had a region that looks similar to EEPROM, probably for storing the CIDCSD data. Hard to tell, most of it is covered in CMP tiling, though. Agreed it would be interesting to explore the structure of these ICs in greater detail, if I had the time. I also have a sneaking suspicion that just accessing the raw FLASH data itself could be revealing. There8217s no reason why the controllers couldn8217t also store some code on the FLASH device itself. Presumably, the bad block maps and other interesting bits and pieces are already stored on the FLASH device. The blown fuses are probably not extremely interesting. On a controller chip, they are most likely used to disable test modes or to disable the ability to write the controller8217s internal flashOTP memory. If you were to repair them (using FIB) AND you know enough about the controller, you might be able to read its internal program (OTP, ROM, or Flash). This is a much better way to go than trying to optically decode the program from its ROM, as there are multiple hurdles to that route. You are correct that the mapping of bad blocks, wear levelling data, etc. are likely stored on the NAND Flash chips themselves. I8217m familiar with USB memory sticks and assume SD cards are similar. USB sticks contain a controller that loads its microcode (firmware) from the attached flash memory chip. The microcode is located in the first few blocks on the chip. Most flash chip manufactures certify that the chips they provide do not contain any bad blocks in this area. The bad block and other details is sometime referred to as metadata and is typically stored on the flash chip (at the logical end of the memory range). Not all controller chip manufactures follow this convention. 8220Kingston wouldnt take the cards back because we had programmed them8221 Could you point me at some documentation on how you program the cards 8230 just read a fascinating story about investigating a bad batch of Kingston MicroSD cards. Some of the things I 8230 This is why apple keeps sd slots off their handheld devices..(among other reasons, such as thickness) who wants to pay to support and trouble shoot inconsistant storage problems By NOT offering memory expansion externally, the overall costs stay down and we get blessed with such things as 199 iPod touches and 499 ipads. Step back and put on your 2005 eyeballs. 499 for THAT Oh we8217ve become so jaded so fast.. Year before last a fake 16gbsdhc class 6 (was really a class 2 rebranded,) ruined my Xmas vids. Lesson, buy memory from amazon. Not eBay.. Love the post, great investigation and writeup. I8217ll need to dig out my old microSD cards now, curious now :) You wrote: 8220I love the fact that when I put on my linux kernel hacker hat, I can be completely oblivious to the existence of bad blocks and use mature filesystems like ext3 instead of JFFS2, at no extra cost to end customers like you.8221 How do you know you8217re not getting subpar controller code on those sketchy dice And the algorithms used can never be updated or fixed once the SD is made. I8217d prefer to have my flash fully exposed, thanks. That8217s an interesting link, and a good point. I do think that clever people could do a lot to optimize FLASH filesystems if it was exposed to them in some way (I ponder this possibility in the comment thread of a previous post about my SSD, where I did get a bad controller that eventually crashed and I lost all my data 8211 bunniestudiosblogp592 (see comment thread, it8217s not in the main body of the post)). However, despite my general agreement with your notion, I would have to counter with a couple of counter-points. 1) I have to ship a product today, and the fact is that JFFS2 and YAFFS pretty much suck, despite the heroic efforts of the developers behind them. This is the whole chicken-and-egg problem, as you point out: nobody sells a reasonably priced 8220raw8221 plug-in card device and therefore nobody develops for it and in the end we end up with x86-like abstractions (they do exist in droves, however, in embedded platforms). While I do take on philosophical challenges in the course of business, I don8217t take them all on at once, and as practical matter using ext3 invisible translation layer got me to market faster and better because I was able to spend more development cycles testing other features that users really care about, like battery management, instead of fighting with an unreliable filesystem that eventually leads to bricked units andor extremely long scanwait times during boot. 2) Getting a FLASH translation layer generically right is very hard. It8217s not just about the filesytem layout. It8217s also a lot about ECC, wear leveling, and matching disparate logical sizes to physical erase block sizes 8212 and the reality that as densities go up, the physics of these devices is increasingly coming into play. For example, as bit-densities go up we become increasingly dependent upon ECC and the ability to properly detect when a block is about to 8220go bad82218230simply writing to and reading back might not be good enough, there are subtleties like how long you wait between the write and read to verify the integrity of the data. This sort of requirement for intimate knowledge of the process points to an argument for a better integrated and matched controller-to-FLASH system, rather than a decoupled one. In other words, as memory starts looking more 8220analog8221 in terms of bit-errors, you want to push the translation layer into the 8220PHY8221 and keep the linux involved only with the 8220MAC8221. As a note, in rotating media there is a boatload of magic firmware in there that we don8217t see. I8217ve seen some of what goes on inside the hard drive firmware, and it is Black Magic. The servo heads actually trace a non-circular pattern as the disk goes around to compensate for minute flaws in the bearings, for example. Could a driver in linux handle that Nay. Really, hard drive companies have become more firmware companies than anything else. Platters, heads and servos are commodities, but the real magic is in the DSP algorithms used to error correct and control the servos, and to manage bad blocks. Nobody has batted an eye at the boatload of code contained inside rotating media, and ext3 is just fine for it I think that FLASH is just starting out on this path, and will eventually follow this route. To elaborate, the typical error I have seen in existing FLASH filesytem implementations is they assume certain things to be true across all FLASH devices 8212 like the size of the OOB field, the format of the ECC, or the size of an eraseblock, or the method for marking and replacing bad blocks. Unfortunately, every chip has a different way of doing these things, and even a very skilled coder will have trouble navigating and validating against the myriad of possible FLASH configurations. It8217s also a thankless task, to wit 8212 if you make a mistake, a lot of people will be very upset because most people take a reliable filesystem for granted. While you are right that a subpar controller with terrible code on them will do bad things for you, that is part of the reason I8217ve opened up the devices, to see what the pedigree of the controller is. I haven8217t gotten to the point where I can read out the code in the controller to analyze its algorithms, but I8217m looking for matched controllerFLASH manufacturers on the theory that the closer you can get to the quirks of the FLASH device the better chance you8217ll have of optimizing correctly for them. Hence, my general inclination to buy a Sandisk or Samsung card with matched controller to FLASH, versus a 8220mix-and-match8221 of controller to FLASH. To be clear, this is a primitive notion, but so far the only notion one can have without access to NDA material. As the market matures, and our understanding of the market matures, a more sophisticated method for judgment may arise. That being said, I think it is a worthy goal to try and build a really robust, cross-platform FLASH filesystem 8212 it could solve problems and bring about higher, more robust performance. I8217m just saying that this is by far too hard a task for me, and in the meantime while smarter people work on it, I8217m going to avoid using it, and inspect my memory cards very carefully and try to pick the best ones I can. And, there are still a lot of raw NAND devices out there for developers to play with who want to take on this challenge, mostly in mobile phones, routers, set top boxes, and even the classic chumby . Out of 1008217s of thousands of devices, I have never shipped an embedded (uC)linux device with a writable filesystem. I make the whole FLASH only writable as whole filesystem(s), and then use namevalue tags to generate configuration files in tmpfs on the fly. Writing to a filesystem on FLASH opens the device to the possibility of fs corruption. I romfscramfssquashfs everything including config file templates. If I need installable packages, they are written either a fixed offsets if NOR FLASH or to a FATfs on serial FLASH or SD. In normal operation, -linux- never writes to flash, ever. Config changes go through the Bootloader layer, and it just appends a few 10s of bytes to a config log area with whiteout entries. Philosophy, I guess. You should checkout UBI and UBIFS. Really takes a lot of the lessons learned from JFFS2, YAFFS, and newer NAND flashes. There is also some thought about putting btrfs on top of UBI. Really makes me want to get my hands dirty and put together a PCI card with an FPGA and NAND flash and start experimenting with a hardware accelerated UBI implementation. This is a fascinating discussion. I am a fan of access to the real flash and filesystems designed to deal with that (I8217ve been involved with YAFFS since its inception). I am distrustful of the idea that the (incredibly cheap) flash controller in my SD card will do a better job than a properly written driver and filesystem. This is particularly true because that controller is written exclusively to do a good a good job of running a FAT filesystem, mostly writing large contiguous flies as fast as possible (i.e the cameramedia player use case), because that is still 99 of the market. That means it only track 2 8216write areas8217 and it keeps extra bad blocks for the file allocation table at the front of the device. That8217s terrible for ext3, where the journal is at the end of the drive and you need more than 2 8216write areas8217 in use at once. The firmware in the controller is not at all interested in being good with ext2 or ext3 or btrfs, and Arnd Bergman has done some realy good characteristation recently of the problem: lwnSubscriberLink42858498a701f81ad3263e If we could talk to the flash directly then it wouldn8217t matter that the manufacturers only cared about FAT and cameras. Sadly that8217s not the way the market is going. SD flash is now much cheaper than solder-down 8216real8217 flash, and the solder down-stuff is getting built-in controllers too: 8216eMMC8217, so it seems that raw-flash filesystems are not the way of the future. Which is OK, but they do need to work properly, and right now many of them work very badly indeed in the sort of use cases we are interested in. Reliability is terrible, speed is poor. You do make a good point bunnie, that the disk drive people have done a great job of putting a lot of caching and firmware between you and the drive platters which does all sorts of magic and we8217re not finding that a problem, but we have a long way to go until the SD people get their act together and do such a good job that their algorithms are filesystem-neutral, and we still get reasonable lifetime out of the flash. It would be great if we could talk to the controller manufacturersfirmware writer people and get cards made that worked better with real filesystems. After all 8211 it8217s just an ARM7TDMI so writing some code for it is no big deal. YAFFS would just about fit in that 128K :-) (that probably isn8217t the best plan, but it would be really interesting to try). I have no idea how we get to talk to the right people about this 8211 the use of real filesystems on SD and eMMC is only going to grow and we need to get beyond the 8216FAT is the world8217 view many still seem to have. The controller does have some advantages over a linux driver in that it has better bandwidth to the raw flash and more info on manufacturingperformance details. But it also has the major problem that the power can be yanked at any moment, and what you should do about that depends a lot on the use-case, which is why UBI has a lot of tuneability in terms of how long you are prepared to wait before hits the real flash. Collaboration and good work in this area is no doubt hampered by a load of crappy patents that will have been filed on 8216anything sensible you can do to improve flash error rates and performance8217. That probably makes the firmware authors nervous about opening up their code. Found Objects says: Found on eBay8230 have to wonder if this isn8217t somebodies brother of the person running the ghost shifts. All Kingston, all high enough sizes to raise eyebrows. shop.ebaydealzcentralm.htmlnkw038armrs1038from038ipg25 I recollect seeing Kingston ads declaring that the company was doing so well that they gave bonus of some US 30,000 to every employee. I wonder where they stand now. Here in India they warrant their products for 5 years generally on no questions asked replacement across the counter basis. I also recollect an interview of Kawasaki China chief by, I believe BBC, where in he made a categorical statement that they are not inclined to introduce new models in China since a fake (motorcycle ) would generally be in the market in less than 6 months. I also recollect reading about seizure of a large quantity of fake Microsoft software CDs in US docks. The holograms were developed by I believe University of Shanghai. When the state itself sponsors 8211 not only condones 8211 wholesale piracy what can you expect. One of the main reasons why China has not been able to make inroads in the automotive components business involving large scale manufacturing. Practically all the auto manufacturers want their sourcing to be in India. Perhaps because there is too much at stake. To top it all the US consumers do not have the kind of nationalistic feelings like the Japanese. I have experienced this first hand. A Japanese end user preferred to pay a more for a Fuji transparency film rather than buy a Kodak one. They want their jobs to be retained in US but do not want to pay the higher cost it entails. They can8217t have both and have to learn to live with it. 8230 nizka serijska 353tevilka teh kartic. 268e vas zanima bolj natan269na preiskava pa le odklikajte na njegov blog. Ve269 na 8230 thanks very useful Is there a simple Utility which checks whether the Flash Storage is Genuine OR Not. I am aware it will not say: 8220Sorry Buddy, your Kingston 2Gb Card is Fake8221. But it can at-least say: Data Read Write Speed XXX MBsec. Reference Card Read Write Speed XXX MBsec. Your card seems to be of inferior grade. Eg: Usual Read Speed is 16-20 MBs amp Write Speed is 3-6 MBs. If you get 7-10MBsec read speed amp 1-3 MBsec Write Speed, your Card is Definitely of inferior quality ampor Fake8230. Very interesting post. The comment on the ghost shifts producing counterfeit flash cards confirmed my suspicions about the source of false capacity memory products (USB sticks, SD Cards, etc) that are sold on the internet and appear to originate from production facilities in China. The numbers of cards that are available for sale and sold indicate the ability to produce these fake products in volume and thereby access to production facilities. Kingston is a popular brand that appears on internet (Ebay and other markets) with false sizes. These fakes are also referred to as upgraded, oversized or capacity adjusted. A internet search on fake flash drives will indicate the magnitude of the problem. Ive done some preliminary investigation into how the memory cards programming were altered to report a false size and my conclusion were that the techniques used to modify the firmware on the cards varies by controller type. Also, in the case of one controller all that is required is the modification of the metadata on the drive. What I find concerning is that there are indications that some of the flash memory devices do not report memory errors to the operating system (in the case of windows a media error 30). Ive repaired some cards with the manufactures flash programming tool (restored firmware and rebuilt metadata) and multi-bit errors were not detected. Ive confirmed this by using the program H2testw to test the flash media. 8230 Read Permalink Email this Comments 8230 Nice entry: neutral investigation, technically stunning (i am not an expert). The most i liked your saying at the end 8220I love the fact that when I put on my linux kernel hacker hat, I can be completely oblivious to the existence of bad blocks and use mature filesystems like ext3 instead of JFFS2, at no extra cost to end customers like you. Isnt it fun to connect the dots, all the way from silicon die markings to the linux kernel to end users, and all the businesses in between8221 Only point for me to critique: no or weak conclusions from all that hard, good work. You are the expert 8211gt what is your conclusion Your recommendation if any What is the learning in one or two crisp statements History Today is following the trend this month, with a reassessment of Alexander8217s personality by one of our leading historians of ancient Greece, Paul Cartledgc. But we are at the same time, I hope, helping lead the trend, with a well-argued hypothesis on one of ancient history8217s thornier mysteries: the whereabouts of Alexander8217s tomb. Our contributor Andrew Chugg even ventures a step further, concluding with a plausible suggestion it can be no more than that, unless DNA analysis is done as to the whereabouts of the young conqueror8217s body itself. Were he proved right, it would offer a high-profile example of the common habit of early Christians to adopt and adapt pagan imagery for their own purposes. And it would be fascinating to see whether the discovery of this famous body transformed the modern obsessive cult of celebrity into a medieval-style cult of christian louboutin discount . This is a good step toward where we should be heading.Open source on all levels. Comfortabl y, the post is really the sweetest on this notable topic. I match in with your conclusions and can eagerly look forward to your upcoming updates. Simply just saying thanks will not simply be enough, for the phenomenal lucidity in your writing. I will directly grab your rss feed to stay abreast of any updates. De lightful work and much success in your business endeavors 8230 Here is a great article on quality of micro SD cards (in this case Kingston). On MicroSD Problems bunnie39s blog 8230 8230 Originally Posted by TurdFerguson Yea it does look a little generic, I just jumped on it when I saw the link. The price has since gone up a bit but when I get it I will post what it looks like, if it matches pic, etc Well check out this article in case: On MicroSD Problems bunnie39s blog 8230 I live in Dubai and this market is flooded with fakes for memory cards particularly microSD- from the brand to the capacity. We also have a problem of upgraded cards vs genuine 8211 I can easily relate to what you have mentioned. You notice huge price swings due to this. One question 8211 how can you differentiate between the 8216upgraded card8217 8211 in this card the memory for a 2GB card will show as 1.8-1.82Gb which is standard but you cannot open any files from the phone. Will appreciate your reply on this. Thanks Rajiv 8230 this out mico sd problems On MicroSD Problems Reply With Quote Reply to Thread laquo Previous Thread 8230 how can you differentiate between the upgraded card in this card the memory for a 2GB card will show as 1.8-1.82Gb which is standard but you cannot open any files from the phone Thank you for your post and pictures about On MicroSD Problems8230I will tell my friends to come here to learn8230good Sad that I8217m reading this post now, but it makes sense, and people should take heed. I sit here scowling at my 822016gb8221 MircoSD card that corrupts everything past 2gb8230.the ebay seller is more than willing to send me a new one when I pay to send this P.O.S. back, and ironically it costs me almost 23 of my purchase price to send it back8230.lesson learned :) I had experienced buying fake MicroSD for very cheap price. Believe me it8217s not worth it. Go for original one. Absolutely fasinating work here. AStar should hire you, perhaps one day you may like to consider migrating to Singapore and contributing your amazing talent to this small but dynamic country who is aspiring to transform itself into a world-wonder We need people like you to contribute to Singapore8217s knowlege export Simply amazing, you. Fantastic findings. Now I most go through all my memory cards and be pissed off for days about getting taken for a ride with fakes. I will want to tell my friends but they will probably care less8230 8220well, it works8230 that8217s all I care about8221 they8217ll tell me. Baiklah. thanks again First to make me laugh. LOL And how TRUE Paranoid much now Keep up the good job, very very informative post amp perfect investigation. Tepuk tangan. mike bloom says: Thank you all for the great readings, my comming into the world of micro sd cards cost me 500.00 sent to a scammer in china. I hope that this cost can lead to a great outcome. I am still searching for a supplier here in the us to ship to miami. I need to buy an average of 200 to 500 cards bymonthly. I would be very thankfull if anyone can direct me to a vendor. my mail is allnews at excite dot com Our company had a bad experience with 8220fake8221 chips. Our board used a radio-frequency chip from a reputable manufacturer, for which there was no second source. All of a sudden, our boards started failing thermal test. Whole batches of production (our volumes are not large) would fail thermal test. We narrowed the failures down to this particular chip, but we couldn8217t figure out why they were failing. After all, there was only one source, and Reputable Manufacturer must have tested these chips, right And the chips were old, nearly obsolete, low volume, and didn8217t cost that much to start with (2), so no one would have reverse-engineered them to become a second source 8212 it wouldn8217t pay. What was going on So we called a failure analysis company, and gave them a few good (old) boards and a few failing (new) boards. They noticed (we hadn8217t) that the chips on the failing boards were considerably different from the ones on the good boards. The marking was sloppier, the encapsulation mold was different, etc. Some of the bad chips even had visible bond wires () peeking out of the epoxy. They decapped the chips and found that the bad ones generally had corroded metallization on the silicon 8212 more evidence of a bad encapsulation job. But the silicon dies had the Reputable Manfacturer8217s logo on them. And the failure analysis guys told us what probably happened, although of course they couldn8217t prove it. Reputable Manufacturer had a testing and packaging line in the Far East (they all do). Someone on that line was pocketing dies (naked chips) that marginally failed test 8212 or possibly even chips that passed, while reporting a higher-than-real test failure rate to his bosses. Then he got together with his buddy who owned another packaging line, and they did a midnight run with the marginalstolen dies. And another buddy snuck them into the reputable supply chain. And we, on the far side of the world from all this, got stuck. Hernn Peralta says: Awesome information. I8217m suffering these fake microSD cards, but our problem is the high power comsumption that they have in IDLE state, from 0.200mA (not bad, almost 30 of the pieces) to 192mA. (really hot jejeje). Almost 10 drain 30mA. Cheers from Argentina and sorry for my poor english. I was fairly pleased to get this website.I wanted to thank you for this very good read. I clearly enjoying each and every small bit of it and I have you bookmarked to verify out new stuff you post. Wholesaling has become a dangerous business with sites like dhgate being chalked full of scheisters taking peoples8217 moneyand never communicating again. When web surfers start researching wholesale, they8217re usually the first resource discovered. Great read though. I purchased 3 8220SanDisk8221 32GB MicroSD cards through ebay sellers located in Hong Kong. They all appear to be counterfeit. They sort-of work (not reliably) in an adapter in my computer, but they will not work at all in my EVO phone. ebay is not a lot of help in dealing with this. I sometimes wonder if the vendor can tell if the item is real or fake themselves. I too had purchased a Kingston 32gb micro sd card from Ebay that doesn8217t work. Just got it yesterday. Almost identical markings as your irregular one. Business was in Florida I believe. I will check sys to get the details. Time to start emailing PayPal, Ebay, and the retailer to try and get my money back8230. It not nice to read about Polish people stereotipe. I know that in whole world aren nic word abou us but in Poland left nicest people 8230 Looking into this as well. Found this article that discusses some of the fakes on the SD card market. Interesting: On MicroSD Problems bunnie39s blog 8230 Would be nice to get an answer on one of the earlier questions e.g. 8220One question how can you differentiate between the upgraded card in this card the memory for a 2GB card will show as 1.8-1.82Gb which is standard but you cannot open any files from the phone.8221 Anyone has a solution for this problem. osman eralp says: I just ran across this post, and it explains a lot. I have two Chumby One units. The Kingston 2GB SD cards in both units failed within just a few weeks. Fortunately, when the first one failed, I could dump an image from the second one and put it back in the first one, with a new SD card, of course. I swore never to buy another Kingston SD card. It8217s great to see an explanation for what I experienced. 8211Osman Hey I work in a La source store in canada wich is an electronics retailer with over 700 stores in Canada, so I believe our kingston cards are legit, and if you look at the kingston 8gp micro SD class 4 package with a micro SD adapter, the adapters SD also shows these markings, and the SDs printed on the back too Nice post. Terima kasih banyak. Wow, That was a very nice post. Currently I am facing disk access problems with my Sandisk disks. Hope they are original and not refurbished. This was a simply amazing article Had my attention from start to finish You8217re also VERY considerate of consumers which definitely hits me deep Due to this, I8217m gonna go with a SanDisk over a Kingston regardless of Class speeds. Your blog is DEFINITELY one that I8217ll be checking frequently. Looking forward to reading more of your articles Great article. I found this well written and, most of all, well executed. Makes me question a Kingston card that I purchased from eBay for a steal. It worked for about 3 weeks and gave up the ghost. Not thinking that it could have been a fake or bad stock, I contacted Kingston and they were quick to send me a replacement that worked. Thanks for taking the time to do this public service. I8217ve learned a lot from this article including why Kingston cards seem to get a bad reputation on Newegg for not meeting speed class claims. I will never look at their company the same. Having said that, I just purchase a WinTec 16GB Class 10 card with Made in Korea stamped on it for only 30. I was a bit aprehensive about getting such a good deal, but this article makes me believe that this is a Samsung NAND. The card tested at 11MBs write speed so I8217m happy so far. Thanks for this post, I became aware of fake ones, but I admit I have some difficulties identifying the authentic from fake ones. Thanks a lot for this very informative post. 8230 the image above to this one (from Bunnie Huang8216s excellent article On MicroSD Problems) shows that the crack ran through the area where silicon lies. This photo, where I finished 8230 Great article but you8217re painfully bias against Kingston, it drags the tone of the post down and you pull the wrong conclusions from it all. A 8220thesis-grade8221 piece of investigative -journalism. Outstanding. I commend you, sir.
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